Lecture – 18 Audio Power Amplifier and Norton's Amplifier

So in the last class we discussed about different instrumentation amplifier strategies Continuing our discussion about amplifiers, in today’s class we will discuss something about some other special purpose amplifiers like audio power amplifier and another general purpose amplifier called Norton’s amplifier These are the two topics that are going to be discussed today So let us see the strategy adopted in all these amplifiers We will see some kind of similarity between this and whatever we have done so far This is supposed to be a voltage amplifier And obviously the input stage is again the good old differential stage and since it is going to be designed for a specific gain namely the feedback amplifier It is true that this is a differential amplifier input stage with negative feedback We have to only identify the various blocks which we have earlier recognized in various amplifiers Let us now identify the differential amplifier input stage This operates with single supply and self biased So single supply self biased audio power amplifier is what we are going to discuss now This is the active input stage, you can see the buffer stage here, these two will be acting as the buffer and the primary pair is here and this particular thing is nothing but the active load and you can see the diode here getting reflected So this is similar to the input stage we have earlier discussed except for a small difference here Earlier we have been discussing about differential amplifiers like this There will be a current source here I0 The idea is when you apply a voltage Vi this will carry I0 by 2 plus gm times Vi this will be I0 by 2 minus gmVi This aspect we had already discussed Obviously if we want this gm to be independent of the active device then we can put in series with these physical resistances called emitter degeneration resistance That means it becomes a feedback structure RE

So what happens is, this gm now gets transformed to Vi by REs plus RE 1 by gm so it gets modified as this Therefore we can design in such a manner that this becomes negligibly small So we are able to produce from a differential input voltage a differential current output with the common mode current equal to I0 So here it is I0 by 2 plus Vi by RE and I0 by 2 minus Vi by RE so this is nothing but a transconductor stage whose conductance value is going to be pretty stable and is going to be equal to 1 by RE So you can say this is transconductor amplifier The differential input voltage and differential output current is obtained by feedback here Now it is important that these REs must be the same in order to produce a common mode DC current So how do you do it in an IC? This can be done easily instead of relying upon matching of resistors relying upon matching of currents this way The same thing can be affected by removing this arrangement This can be now removed and we will replace this region by a resistance which is 2RE, RE is removed and then we put here this current which is I0 by 2 and this current here also equal to I0 by 2 Earlier this thing should have been 2RE so Vi by 2RE plus 2 into 1 by gm You simply replace this by 2RE Or actually speaking it is a single resistance because there is nothing like two resistances separately here Now this is Vi by Rx So this is again a differential arrangement where whatever differential voltages applied here corresponding to that only the signal current will be coming So you have common mode voltage here and there will be no signal current here So this is the strategy adopted You have equal current sources and now this can be used for negative feedback mode of operation etc This is nothing but a differential amplifier which is perfectly symmetric, imagine this is 25k, 25k with diode to the ground then there is 25k and something else like that So this is the place where the negative feedback is effective to the input stage If you are applying an input at one point and to the other point you can give the feedback so the actual input to the amplifier is the current input minus the fed back voltage Therefore the current input minus the fed back voltage can be effective

That is how you can adopt a strategy like this using emitter degeneration resistance It is no different from the differential amplifier except that a physical resistance occurs coupling the two emitters Therefore there is negative DC feedback also from this So operating point of the whole structure is going to be determined by negative DC feedback here Assuming that these two voltages are the same so the differential input voltage is 0 then these two potentials are going to be the same and therefore there should be not be any input voltage Therefore these two currents will be the same These two voltages are same and there is no current in this so these two currents are the same If these two currents are the same what will be this current? It is V 1 diode 2 diode 3 diode so V minus 3Vgamma by 50k is the current here It is V minus 3Vgamma neglecting the dropping, assuming that the beta of the transistors are high, V minus 3Vgamma by 50k is the current Therefore what is the current in this? The current in this is the same So what will the voltage V0? It is going to be 2Vgamma plus the drop in this which is nothing but V minus 3Vgamma by 50k into 25k which is nothing but V by 2 plus 2Vgamma minus 3 by 2Vgamma almost negligibly small, 0.5Vgamma So, essentially this is a strategy of biasing the output at almost half the supply voltage Irrespective of supply voltage the bias point is going to be at half the supply voltage so that the output swing is the maximum possible This is the audio output stage here So it should operate for the maximum possible output swing So you are now capable of getting the maximum possible output swing by locating yourself at half way between these two as far as the operating point is concerned And as far as the negative feedback for the signal is concerned once again we will adopt the same strategy we adopted earlier That is, for signal operation we can consider that the midpoint of this can be grounded That means the feedback factor is 500 ohms and 25k which is going to give a gain because beta of 1 by 50 or a voltage gain of 50 assuming that the open loop gain is very high Now, for the entire state as you know the component value, assuming beta is equal to 200 evaluate the open loop gain as well as loop gain of the structure and show that the gain is very nearly equal to 50 Once again you can find out the input impedance etc from the same strategy It is going to be effectively, what is the input impedance? It is the effective emitter resistance here Essentially emitter resistance is made up of only 1k and beta beta so it is beta power

2 and of course 150k will be shunting that, the V1 V2 here So it is this 150k and this 150k Now, as far as the output is concerned, once again we have the same push pull stage The intermediate is again the same common emitter stage So you have a differential input stage, intermediate common emitter stage and an output stage which is biased to class ab mode of operation So the topology is similar to that of the operational amplifier topology but it is used for a specific feedback application So you have a compensating capacitor here once again between the output and input of the intermediate stage for compensating frequency instabilities Then here this is another strategy which is commonly adopted, this is the NPN stage and we should have a PNP here which is a bad PNP that is available So, in order to make it good you are now adopting the Darlington pair that is possible connecting PNP to NPN Effectively the gain of this is controlled by the NPN beta the current gain rather than the PNP So this is commonly adopted in most of the output stages pairing a bad PNP with a good NPN so as to make the current drive capability of this as well as that almost identical So we have the provision for some amount of short circuit protection there for current sensing because this has to operate for higher power here so this can tolerate higher current leakage This is typically one of the most useful audio power amplifiers using single supply and also you can see here, the voltage level required to drive this input is going to be very small And the voltage level can go both positive and negative because it is going to be very small The voltage drive can go slightly negative also in spite of using single supply This is a very nice advantage associated with this single supply stage where the operation is such that we can go both positive as well as negative slightly by about almost 1 diode drop negative and that much is sufficient in order to give large output swing This is LM380 commercial audio power amplifier which is available Here in order to make it appear symmetric for the AC purpose you are grounding the midpoint of this 25k AC wise So if you ground here AC wise this is going to be symmetric as far as AC operation is concerned Therefore the bypass point is brought out here so the capacitor is connected externally Now let us discuss about a very interesting general purpose amplifier called Norton’s amplifier or Current Differencing Amplifier CDA The amplifiers we earlier dealt with were primarily dealing with voltage difference V1 V2 being the two voltages applied to the two terminals then V1 minus V2 was intended

to be amplified, that is the difference amplifier we had discussed and almost in every stage we thought of we had used that concept Here it is the dual of this, why use V1 minus V2 as the difference input signal instead we will use the dual which is I1 minus I2 or I minus I plus or I plus minus I minus the current differencing The difference between two currents I1 and I2 Ia and Ib is the one which is amplified and fed as input to transistor in case which is automatically amplified by beta times gain beta times may be another transistor stage etc and appears as an output voltage So this is called Norton’s amplifier or Current Differencing Amplifier CDA and this particular thing is manufactured by National Semiconductors LM3900 and Motorola also manufactures this particular Norton’s amplifier current differencing amplifier But anyway the strategy employed is totally different Again it is the current mirror input stage which is responsible for achieving this kind of current difference as coming as input We have a current mirror at this point which is going to get I plus as its input current, this is the diode and therefore the current here is going to be always equal to, because of this diode since it is sensing I plus this current will be always I plus and since the other terminal gets automatically current of I minus the input current into this direction is going to be I minus I plus or current drawn out from this is I plus, I minus So this is the essential feature of the current differencing Obviously the voltage between these two points is very nearly 0 because this is a diode and this is another diode so the voltage is going to be maintained very nearly 0 Whereas in the earlier situation the current input to this stage was 0 When we had V1 minus V2 as the input signal it was drawing a very little input current Here when we are pumping two currents I plus and I minus, it is taking across it a very small voltage difference So this current difference is going to be beta times multiplied here and further amplified by further transistor amplifiers and appears at the output, this is the output stage here making it appear as an output voltage These are the operating currents of these stages This is the output stage operating current and this is the intermediate stage operating current So this also has a current differencing input stage, intermediate stage and an output stage So you can see the three stages again appearing in this operational amplifier The advantage of this over 741 is this, both these, the Motorola and National Semiconductor

op amps have this advantage because it is the current gain you are ultimately looking for, this performance of this open loop gain etc is going to be independent of power supply And the power supply can range from pretty low values may be 5 to 6V to 20 to 24V range For the entire range you can use this without its parameter changing much and it uses single supply Therefore this is the cheapest amplifier available for most of the single power supply applications It has become quite popular The only thing is, you have to look at it slightly differently when compared to what you were doing earlier, what is this difference? How were we looking at an op amp? The op amp was used in a negative feedback situation and when it is used in a negative feedback situation if the op amp gain the open loop gain is very high, then we said the input voltage V1 minus V2 becomes equal to 0, it becomes a nullater, nuller, 0, the input voltage becomes 0 Now, in this particular case the dual of that should happen What should happen? The input current difference should become equal to 0 In a negative feedback situation the two input current should become equal to one another If it is used in a negative feedback situation in the voltage differencing amplifier the two voltages would have become equal if the open loop gain goes towards infinity Here if the open loop gain goes towards infinity the two currents will become equal And also, you know that at what DC potential this is going to be Strategically you can find out that this DC potential is going to be always one diode drop above the ground potential at the input So it is very easy for normal design of this circuit in a negative feedback interval Now what V0 becomes equal to? The current here is going to be Vcc by R1 it is Vcc minus V gamma by R1 whatever it is, so Vcc by R1 and this current should be same as that and that into R2 is the output voltage This is one way of biasing it DC wise So you can make the bias point at any point you want And this to be the quiescent point, if you want it to be half you can accordingly select this Now, apply an AC signal and capacitively couple it at this point so that you can inject whatever current you want into it Then summation of all those currents will flow through this and appear as signal current at the output You can extract it again by decoupling it by means of a capacitor So the strategy adopted is exactly similar to the voltage amplifier except in making it operate at a quiescent point which of interest to you depending upon the signal swing you

would like to have at the output You can use it in almost all the applications where in you can use the conventional general purpose operational voltage amplifier The symbol for the Norton’s amplifier is like this, this is indicating that it is a current source; this is the current source kind of a thing It is the current difference that is fed as the input and the current difference between these two input pairs The other amplifier which we already touched upon is making use of the principle we enunciated in the introductory lecture on translinear principle That is, you can take a differential input current as the input and keep on amplifying it by using what is called Gilberts gain cell And these cells can be put one over the other The advantage of this strategy is once again, you can keep on amplifying the signal in terms of current alone having retaining the signal swing very small It will be only of the order of difference in two diode drops Maintaining the signal swing very small you can keep on amplifying the current difference and when you reach the required power level of current you can pump it on to the load that you decide upon This is another strategy The advantage of this is, it is useful for wide band applications because you are dealing only with current swing here and voltage swing is maintained very low that means capacitors need not be charged So, in wide band amplifier application where you want the gain of the amplifier to be stabilized without negative feedback, in all these cases you saw that voltage gain becomes stabilized only with negative feedback Whereas there in the current amplifiers using Gilberts gain cell you saw that the current gain is stabilized already in the open loop only in terms of ratio of the operating currents Therefore that is another strategy adopted in amplifier design You can design such amplifiers as wide band current amplifiers We have so far discussed input current difference as the input to a Gilberts gain cell If you want voltage difference to be converted into current difference you can adopt the same transconductor using emitter degeneration That will convert a differential voltage into differential current and there after you can keep on amplifying it So, transconductor is first used converted into differential current and then the Gilberts gain cell is used which is successfully operating at higher and higher currents And then when you require the highest current difference then again that is made to go through two resistors and converted into voltage These are the varieties of amplifiers available in the market It is not exhaustive but it is only representative of the different types that can be made possible In the next class we will discuss something about the other active elements necessary for filters, integrators, differentiators etc It is not the operational amplifiers but basic active elements themselves can be straight away used, how we can make them become relatively independent of earlier parameters which are sensitive to temperature etc and how we can use those active parameters themselves in

a variety of application will be discussed next

Hướng Dẫn Chế Nguồn Đa Năng Từ Nguồn ATX Cũ | DIY | How To Make Power Supply

Hiiii! TV Spray bomb hello everyone Today spray bombs tv everyone would share a video Teach people how versatile power supply with old PC source then the power supply of the old pc We will function as power supply phone charger battery charger nè nè Charging the battery … and it is very useful in Supplied to us and styles this is the source of old computers This approach is intended for you Generally you do not know anything about electronics Knew nothing about the type of IC in here such as capacitor generally you do not know anything We also have additional metered vol vol gauges we can measure both vol and am One more We have another one is the pressure reducing circuit for this pressure reducing circuit we can adjust 0 to 40v Here when we bought ice cream for his people gave the knob like this always What this circuit it is something the potentiometer to adjust our We need more is a booster circuit This booster circuit is its capacity 150w It will be adjusted from 12V to 40v Generally this To increase the vol of your computer resources because the only source computer 12v Is maximum, so we need to push it to higher vol But so what this part pushed up high vol but can not fall below 12v

generally from 12v or more when connected to the computer resources we have But what separate this section, we can drop to the lowest level 1v So we will need a booster circuit and reduced pressure Maybe we’ll use a USB female head used to mount the phone charger 1 switch few jacks or switches are also Could use some light bulbs LED signaling we also can use this next vol for cheaper Can use this type, this type in this market it is only 35,000 a severance This type is more expensive than I forget the price, then apparently it reach tens of thousands hundred something If you want, then use this kind are kind but There is another type of alarm am Use If we can use this additional USB head instead of this one, it would be nicer. USB OTG is wire rope Due to this it is broken first, so I took out micro usb always use if no USB OTG you can take advantage of the USB ports from the few old phone charger leverage the use of some old phone charger Is his first move this one very last few First I’ll work with local sources This old power supply I derive from work people away because of poor export it is not enough for the computer anymore so I brought back and recycled but here it took the jack and his first will open this one out now I’ll hygiene it Once cleaned and will continue with this cord tangle Ok after the toilet, I was like this After cleaning ok now we need to cut wires

even his fans will use this later Now I will explain vol of each wire on the source of this hours to know how many vol wire is very simple We carefully observe martial outside of this source then on martial each source computer When they also pasted a label then on the label that will record details vol number of each color wire look this here the manufacturer has stated very clearly DC output number here It was 5 Is the red wire ok to 3.3 volt wire orange 3,3volt orange wire. Followed by gold wire will have 12volt gray gray halter … I do not use This wire is not important their little while I’ll cut it out Then came the blue wire wire color Blue Blue and Yin is right for electric -12V -12V followed by the purple wire We will have 3.3V 3.3 V It’s like the orange wire Ashoka wire rope orange purple varieties also 3.3V + 5vdc will probably forgo the purple wire will use the orange wire Red and gold wire black wire Another one is the green wire ok So now I will measure volts Oh I forgot to tell you when we click we’ll use the power cord blue and black wire will connect two wires us together when put together will launch source money will be turned off measuring orange cord before nè Then the orange wire is 3,5v hours will measure the yellow wire

Gold wire is 12v Gold wire is 12v followed by red wire red wire is 5v ok so we just use wire yellow, red, orange, black ok now I will use this circuit the test it out! What this circuit Minimum input power voltage is 10 volts and raising the 12volt Where its power will themselves correction here Now what this potentiometer we can adjust to 35volt Input voltage output voltage nè This is the adjustment potentiometers Now I’ll attach this wealth ago The voltage on the 12volt gold wire It will be Print this site + out- ok now that the output voltage is 31volt and nè and now I will try to adjust potentiometers watch it! turn it in the clockwise direction, the volt rise, twist counterclockwise volt meter will fall down ok now I will go through the dictionary from the booster circuit voltage reduction circuit nhé

This input voltage side output voltage The output voltage will have a shadow signaling leds LEDs will light up when the output voltage Soccer What this circuit does not burn but they have asked the suppliers they tell me Carefully dentist if we reverse pole mounted circuit will lead to fire if we do not correct the circuit wiring will damage If that use DC power we correct level best to pole to avoid damage Thus the current source of the low pressure circuit is 11v To adjust we just potentiometer knob on the circuit is being 31volt it is equal to the output of the circuit volt booster then Because in why I use the pressure reducing circuit? because the booster circuit this side of Volts dropped out of it only by the voltage on severance and it can not be reduced more than the volt input so I had to use a pressure reducing circuit again to adjust This is the decompression circuit the number of volts the number of its volt output can be reduced to lower its input and it may be reduced to reach 1Volt now we’ll try to Metered electricity Metered electricity This one supplier one guide himself as powering it The main source is 12V wire is inside this small news and white wires will be the measuring wire line and wire to black wire will attach to the sound of the power line to be measured I do not use this big red belt use the housing sales manufacturers suppliers one instruction to do so

ok now I will try nha What power off Voltage Give it is 12V 12V to feed This clock also on how accurate the test after their little while This seat to adjust the clock if the display is incorrect ok now tied test the alarm LEDs 3.5volt This led ball feet long would be no power vacuum would be short-legged + Power – Lightweight case you do not have material we would use martial martial always old computer source always nhé tied with the circuit here is always well ok now I will measure the power circuit to do martial for it That the area of ​​the circuit ok now doing martial for any of our source

Using glue is extremely simple finish First I will handle the

This source locally treated before

cut down some wires are not used Ok now pause

Bang Bang Kid movies I have

Guide Dimension Without revealing too much too I do not have his post knob is He passed through a little orchid New smaller Just a few minutes lid before Upon completion it is like this

after finishing tied fans

Will it less glue fixed again Pumpkin sister

Dong Nai Lottery

Ok, after finishing all their wiring and add fan

Ventilation on the side ok now I’ll paste this into the front flap This piece is too thin so it himself intended to snails but bad it had to glue over severance only snails cap on severance Simply like this Booster circuit

yellow wire from the main source 12volt Through booster circuit from booster circuit through decompression circuit then electromagnetic decompression circuit I will Launched two side jacks Here are two audio jacks and power seem electricity (+ and -) As for the clock Clock Clock Called voltmeters Simply like this. Its power supply wire This includes three small wire and wire rope white black red wire black and red wire rope that I get 12V from gold wire of the main sources of this black black wire wiring red wire rope connecting numerous other gold wire is white we play live in the power of football to the wire circuit voltage drop didenj positive (+) Input wire + play here Also the red wire red wire to black wire to the red wire not used this should have tipped with resins and Only black cord alone is spending her here for this party ie the first head power (-) side of the circuit output voltage drop followed by the USB port The USB port This port, I get 5V power source from the bottom of the league last red 1 red wire with a black cord. Red Wire Black Wire wiring splice red black, just like that This was what I used DC jack from our main source wine from 12volt wire standard 12V standard 12V Always 12 V add 1 led his shadow signaling here Electricity use of 3.5 V I used the orange wire from the main sources I used orange and black wires from the main source always In our main source Game 1 wireless switch green and 1 black wire the switch will touch two wires together will launch the main source and all will operate the remaining paste martial box again Then clean his then repaint it nice Ok Now before but clean paint spreadable

Ok I need to test this new everything toilet paint Ok after completing the power supply paint of us would like Very clean and beautiful This is a class I have painted before Pasting a Logo look it nice little vents behind this I will try first by charging

I’ll try a little while charging nhé battery current is 8V

16volt severance adjustment range charging ok after charging more than 5 minutes now I will check the jar nhé measured 8V back there again now will measure nè after charging more than 5 minutes, it was 11,7v then. Quite effective We have become a versatile source. TV Spray bomb wish you success If you see a video or do not forget to click like and share for many people watch it! TV Spray bomb appointment to see you in the next!

Convierte tu batería NiCd a ion de litio paso a paso PARTE 1

Greetings, my YouTube friends, in this video I will repair and improve This battery. It’s from a Black & Decker brand drill by Samsung The first step is to know the characteristics of the old battery and also the one I want to build This battery is Nickel / Cadmium These batteries are not bad Their useful life is quite long, they have about 3000 charge and discharge cycles These batteries have a very strong memory effect If we charge these batteries when they still have power left, they will never fully charge This does not happen with lithium batteries, although all batteries have a memory effect The electrochemical pair of Ni-Cd batteries It is made up of nickel and cadmium, hence its name The electrolyte contains sodium hydroxide, which is very corrosive what’s inside the battery is poison that’s why I’m going to transform it into a lithium battery The energy that a battery can store in the form of chemical reagents is calculated:

Just a single one of these little batteries When you connect batteries in series The voltages of both batteries add up (3.7 + 3.7 = 7.4 Volts), but the capacity is the same (3.6 A / h) but if you connect the batteries in parallel, but as the 3 groups are connected in series, the capacity is maintained (11.1V and 7.2 A / h) The real battery voltage when fully charged is 4.2V (4.2 + 4.2 + 4.2 = 12.6V) the capacity is maintained (7.2 A / h) 79.92 W / h (new battery) and 20.4 W / h (old battery). the difference is abysmal It is called BMS circuit (Battery Management System) BMS module is very easy to connect

With a Torx tool, I unscrew the four bolts of the battery´s top Provide enough space to fit the 6 18650 batteries there is enough space There are the connection terminals. I´m going to cut the wires

so I will not have problems when I put the 6 18650 batteries inside the case I have already modified the case. Keep in mind that you don’t just have to put the batteries inside Also the battery holders and the BMS module must be inserted inside the housing or a polyurethane adhesive continuing with the Ni / Cd to lithium ion conversion process The BMS module is of paramount importance in any lithium battery I am going to explain what the BMS is, why lithium batteries need it and not others, and how to choose the most suitable one for our battery and most importantly: How it connects BMS is an acronym in English, which means “Battery Management System”

The most common batteries; Pb / acid, Ni / Cd, Ni / MH, do not usually have this circuit because they withstand overcharges well, for example car batteries when fully charged And in alkaline batteries (Ni / Cd and Ni / MH) something similar happens And in the case of alkaline batteries, they withstand deep discharges well, which is not the case with Pb / acid batteries In addition, Ni / cd batteries had to be fully discharged to avoid memory effect problems But these batteries do not tolerate overcharging or deep discharge. They can also be dangerous being able to explode or catch fire when the battery is fully charged the BMS stops charging When the battery is deeply discharged, the BMS interrupts the circuit when the recommended minimum voltage level is reached A very important function of the BMS This is very important in batteries made up of several cells, as is the case 6 18650 batteries Now I am going to choose the most suitable for this project in this case, 12 V The BMS for a power tool must be able to withstand the passage of very high currents

support those current levels without problems, reaching peaks of 60A the BMS connections are as follows: P+ and P- The connections marked as B+ and B- are the connections through which the battery is charged with all cells connected in series those connections are to individually load each cell or group of them here we have it P+ and P- B+ and B- and finally, B1 and B2 here we can see the 3 groups of batteries connected in series

And the negative terminal of the battery, connects to the B- terminal of the BMS terminal B1 of the BMS connects at the junction of group 1 and group 2 BMS module is very easy to connect The BMS could have been made by me, but it’s not worth it cheapest the box full of battery supports, cost me 2€ little bit money Now I have to wait for the batteries and nickel to be sent to me so that I can solder them and start the assembly Thanks for watching !!!!

Non-Sinusoidal Oscillators and VCO (FM & FSK Generators)

today our thirty fifth lecture is on non sinusoidal oscillators we had earlier in the thirty fourth lecture discussed about the schmitt trigger circuit and we had seen how this schmitt trigger or regenerative comparator can be used for a variety of application as a mixed mode circuit pulse width modulation that is the basic schmitt trigger is having regenerative positive feedback we saw this is represented as an inverting type of schmitt trigger with the hysteresis inside so actual hysteresis of this is going to be looking like this this is v naught this is vi and the amount of hysteresis can be controlled by r1 by r1 plus r2 which we will call as beta so this when it is this can be only at plus vs or minus vs not any intermediate point whatever be the input so this particular this is going to be plus or minus beta v uh vs plus or minus beta vs so this was the schmitt trigger that was used as inverting another one topology which is called non inverting schmitt trigger that is the input and the ground for example they get interchanged this earlier input is grounded now so the feedback returns is regenerative action only the input now is fed here output is taken here so this is what the inverting uh the non inverting schmitt trigger represented by this kind of symbol without this inversion ok and this characteristic is uh the something like this this is v naught and this is vi so how these uh schmitt triggers can be used for fm generation is another basic principle that we have this comparator regenerative comparator one feeds here a triangular wave form and this here a reference wave form then you get here ok based on what the v reference is a parallel or a rectangular wave rectangular wave has a duty cycle which can be uh made to be proportional to the uh reference so the duty cycle generator or fm or fsk generator has this kind of characteristic it is half into one minus vr into one minus beta by vp vp is the peek of the square wave input so this is beta r1 by r1 plus r2 so using this one can uh design a class d power amplifier dc to dc converter etc based on this then it can also be used for fm generation ok uh when uh this uh uh vr is varied according to uh audio signal that is fm if it is uh

digital data ones and zeros dc un changes from one value to another then it is the fsk generation it can be used for that now astable and multi vibrator function generation so this is another important use of the schmitt trigger so we are now taking this uh inverting type of schmitt trigger here let beta equal to r1 by r1 plus r2 that is the amount of voltage fed back and this is either at plus vs or minus vs so this is changing state at this point when vi corresponds to this plus or minus beta vs so what happens let us assume that initially at plus vs so initially at plus vs so the capacitor is going to start charging from zero so it is going towards plus vs if this connection is made so the input now sees a voltage which is exponentially increasing because of the charging of the capacitor with the time constant equal to r into c so this exponentially increasing voltage is trying to reach plus vs but as soon as it becomes equal to beta vs same as this beta vs change of state has to occur from plus to minus so now the capacitor is seeing minus vs and it is discharging at the transient time constant rc so it will be discharging towards minus vs as soon as it reaches minus beta vs this is at plus beta vs again it changes back to plus vs so this will keep on happening as this toggles from plus vs to minus vs this will toggle from beta vs to minus beta vs so the capacitor will be charging and discharging continuously so it is going to acquire this beta vs again so these two time durations are the same because the capacitor is going to be uh having a voltage of beta vs to minus beta vs that is twice beta vs in a time let us call this half time period because these two times are same this is the time period so this is half time period so charging and discharging take the same amount of time because they are the same time constant rc and acquiring the same voltage of two beta vs within that time t by two so you can consider this portion for example a capacitor is trying to charge up to plus beta vs it would have gone on like this so the voltage applied is minus beta vs plus vs which is vs into one plus beta that is the voltage applied and t by two it is acquiring a voltage of two beta vs so this equation is the charging of capacitor when a voltage is applied across it this is the total voltage applied this is voltage it acquires within that time t by two so this case t equal to uh two rc log one plus beta by one minus beta and f is nothing by one over t so this is a uh function generator or astable multi vibrator which gives a uh uh exponential increase and exponential decrease in waveform if the time interval is very short this can be considered linear and it is a triangular waveform here you get a square waveform with frequency equal

to one by t both of the same frequency so this is simulated for r1 equal to r2 beta equal to half so beta equal to half in this case so uh two rc log one plus beta one plus r by one minus r is log three so that is the time period so t t equal to two into r is one k c is one microfarad log three this comes out to be roughly equal to t uh two rc log three right which is equal to two point two milliseconds one over t is four hundred and fifty four hertz so the simulation exactly tallies with the expected results so this is beta vs so in this case beta is half and vs is uh ten volts even though vs is ten volts the op amp used is tl zero tl zero eight two ok so uh when supply two volts supply is used it is going only up to about eight volts ok minus eight volts so that is why the square wave amplitude is limited by the uh ability of the op amp to give the highest output as eight and minus eight when ten volt supply is used and correspondingly this voltage is eight by two which is four volts so the amplitude gets fixed the frequency gets fixed and please note that the frequency is independent of the uh amplitude uh of uh supply voltage magnitude of supply voltage vs so that is the advantage of the simple circuit this has no need for the sophisticated amplitude stabilization schemes that become necessary in the case of sinusoidal oscillators so very simple thing what is now done is in simulation two right the uh this voltage is shifted to a reference value this particular thing is sort of uh grounded so grounded the plus supply only minus supply is there so this is single supply utility of the same circuit so this is made zero this is minus twenty and the v reference is minus ten so beta is still half alright it is again plotted you can see here the same frequency and the same swing ok for the uh square wave as well as the uh exponential wave occurs ok so the value of this remains the same that is two rc log three so frequency is same as before what has now happened is there is an offset ok around which these things are toggling that means minus ten volts is the offset around which this is toggling as because of four plus four ok minus ten minus ten minus four ok so uh the this the uh minus ten uh plus eight ok minus ten minus eight this will be minus ten plus four minus ten minus four so the frequency remains the same so even with single supply we can get the same kind of uh waveform get for uh the square wave and the exponential wave and ap a direct

application of this is an on off temperature controller so again this schmitt trigger is right there r1 and r2 to control the hysteresis beta that controls the extent of hysteresis around vr into one minus beta so let us consider this that uh this is a heater coil which is switched on or off depending upon whether the temperature had reached what is the called the set point temperature this particular point is called set point temperature it is going to be in terms of the voltage at this point uh so this diode is a temperature sensor which we had explained earlier in the old applications so it is forward biased ok so minus vs is supplied to r through it so it is forward biased this voltage is typically there minus point seven volts so as the temperature increases the characteristic we have told that delta vbe or delta v diode by delta t is negative and it is almost uh constant at minus two point five millivolts by degrees centigrade that is till diode forward drop temperature coefficient so this voltage v gamma actually are the continual pitch of the diode this keeps decreasing for the same uh current ok the forward voltage decreases at this rate two point five millivolts per degrees centigrade so it is a negative temperature controller that means v gamma becomes less in magnitude so since we are biasing it in this manner the voltage v gamma magnitude when it is reducing it is becoming less negative that is it is going towards positive so when the temperature is at room temperature it is the highest magnitude ok and as temperature increases it becomes less and less in magnitude ok so the voltage ok is uh let us say uh becoming less negative as temperature increases ok now that characteristic is obtained ok uh for this astable multi vibrator action the kind of hysteresis it has because they are using negative voltages and negative reference just like the example that we had shown earlier in this case so it is all in one content negative voltages ok for both x axis and y axis so we use a mosfet as a switch here right so actually the uh thing is located somewhere here initially ok so that it is on it heats up the coil and this voltage is going to become uh less negative in magnitude so it is moving in this direction so at some point it is going to change state ok and it is coming over to this so that means it is going to be switched off it becomes less than voltage here it is greater than voltage so this is an on off control which is adopting the same principle of charging the capacitor however this is nothing but the thermal time constant for

it to reach the set uh above the set point temperature ok and then it is switched off so it starts cooling and then the uh it is coming towards ok uh a value which is ok below the uh set point temperature right if this is the room temperature this is the set point temperature right so it is coming below the set point temperature like that it will go on so this is nothing but an astable multi vibrator designed to incorporate it to a temperature controller so these are the deviations around the set point so we have this deviating by delta t on either side of set point temperature so this is delta t on this side and delta t on this side that is determined by the hysteresis so this is the hysteresis bringing about uh fluctuation around the set point so depending upon the accuracy with which we want this to be set right this particular uh delta t can be varied and delta t is directly proportional to beta ok so now monostable multi vibrator action if we just connect a diode across the capacitor then what happens is this particular structure has now one stable state that is why it is called monostable stable state what is it let us assume that it is plus vs so when plus vs is here this capacitor tries to charge up to plus vs with rc time constant but as soon as it reaches v gamma this diode conducts and never allows it to charge above v gamma so at that point of time this is plus into plus vs and this particular thing is at plus beta vs so the voltage affectively across the uh uh op amp or the comparator is positive here more positive here so this state is a stable state we have assumed it to be at plus vs because it is at a large positive voltage so now what is done is that a trigger pulse comes momentarily it comes and makes this voltage immediately go to a negative value more negative than this so the moment that goes to a negative value or a value less than v gamma this immediately goes turns to minus vs so this is the trigger point so the capacitor now is seeing a voltage which is minus beta times vs so it will uh charge with the time constant rc up to minus vs but as soon as it reaches this voltage reaches minus beta vs it will come back to the stable state of plus vs so it has changed the state to minus vs at this point and after a time duration t let us call it the delay it has come back to plus vs again it will go on like this remaining until the trigger pulse is applied so let us say it is applied arbitrarily at this point then it will again generate a pulse width of t and then come back to plus vs so this can be used as a timer application where any process actually starts at this point and ends at ok after time t so one such timer i see which is very popular is lm triple five costs about point four eight but that contains two comparators here just using one comparator one can also build this uh sort of timer so this particular thing is again this time duration t can be evaluated this way the voltage applied is let us say this is v gamma and this is going on up to

minus vs so effective voltage is vs plus v gamma one minus e to power minus t by rc that is the time the voltage across by the uh across the capacitor at that time is ok uh this uh twice that is beta times vs ok plus v gamma that is the voltage acquired by the capacitor so t is equal to t is equal to rc log one by roughly one plus one minus beta we can ignore v gamma compared to beta vs that is what is simulated beta is again kept as half and t uh is nothing but rc log two so that comes out to be point six nine three milliseconds so this has been tried with uh the trigger pulse coming at a rate of hundred hertz so this is the point where the trigger pulse has appeared so it has gone from v gamma to minus beta vs and that is t again after uh this it has to discharge and it will keep on going up to this but at this point the diode comes into picture and holds the voltage at v gamma across the capacitor so the next trigger pulse has to come only after this has reached this this state that is the limitation of the frequency of triggering ok so the time t is equal to rc log two is exactly fixed so industrial timers make use of this principle for uh actually generating a fixed time duration function generator so we have here the inverting uh non inverting type of uh non inverting type of uh schmitt trigger we had seen the inverting type of schmitt trigger being used for function generation suppose we replace it with the uh non inverting type of schmitt trigger with a which we had discussed earlier in the last class with an integrator which is again near ideal we had used earlier rnc which is a rough approximation to an integration operation so we are using this as an ideal integrator now op amp so what happens to this astable multi vibrator let us see so once again output of this can be either at plus vs or minus vs so it is pumping in a current of vs by r into this and this voltage across this is going to change linearly so this voltage is going to be zero here and therefore it is minus vs by rc into t ok so that means for plus vs we have a linearly de decreasing voltage here and as soon as this voltage reaches a value such that for plus vs here this should become equal to zero that means it should take on uh minus vs ok so the voltage at this point is continuously changing then it is plus vs here it is vs into r1 ok plus v naught prime into r2 by r1 plus r2 that is the voltage at that point that when it becomes equal to zero this changes state from plus to minus so what is that voltage v naught prime can

be from this equal to minus vs into r1 by r2 so as soon as it reaches minus vs into r1 by r2 this changes state from plus to minus so this will now change slope from minus vs by rc into t to plus vs by rc into t so this will linearly increase this way so as soon as it reaches plus vs into r1 by r2 again this minus will change over to plus this way it will go on this time duration is t by two this also is t by two so within a time t by two it is changing at a rate of vs by rc into t by two it is acquiring a voltage of twice vs into r1 by r2 so again the time period t is independent of vs because vs vs get cancelled and t becomes equal to four uh four r1 by r2 ok into rc so here we get a triangular wave output here you get a square wave output of this frequency f equal to one by t so this is what is derived here you can see that this is changing from minus r1 by r2 into vs to plus r1 by r2 into vs at a rate vs by rc again discharge is at the same rate but negative vs by rc so frequency is r2 by four rc into r1 so this is what is shown here in simulation r equal to r1 equal to one k r2 equal to two k the reason why we have chosen r2 to be now different is because in the case of this kind of variation r1 by r2 if it is less than only this scheme will work if r1 by r2 is greater than one the voltage here has to go above the maximum limit possible for the schmitt trigger output ok which is not going to make it toggle at all so r1 by r2 in this case has to be less than one in order to make it toggle and continue with this kind of generation ok so this is something that has to be remembered so we made r2 safely equal to two point two k so this particular thing has now resulted in this is uh uh vs uh into r1 r1 is one k uh by two point two time the maximum which is eight volts ok and uh this is minus eight by two point two this is plus eight and this is minus eight so the time period is one point eight two uh milliseconds f naught is five hundred and fifty hertz now let us say we have put here an asymmetrical voltage that this is v asymmetry what does it change in terms of symmetry earlier the current of charging and current of discharging of the capacitor c was the same in magnitude it was changing direction from vs by r to minus ss by r the moment you put a va here this is changing between plus or minus vs because it is the schmitt trigger output so the current here while charging is vs minus va by r this is charging that means the voltage uh at that

point here is changing as vs minus va by rc into t so it is negative so it is minus so this is the slope vs minus va by rc and in the other direction this is minus vs this is va so the total current in this direction is vs plus va by r so that means actually it is increased ok comp that means it will take a less time to come to this which is because its slope is higher vs plus va by rc into t plus so if there is an asymmetric causing voltage here which is positive then this slope is lower than this slope so we get a saw tooth at this point of course this will become a rectangular wave so this will be at plus vs all the time and at minus vs for less time so rectangular wave here and a saw tooth here is what you get because of asymmetry taken an asymmetry voltage of five volts or actually i think so for ten volt supply we have taken an asymmetry of five volts so i have shown you the result of asymmetry so we have seen here vs minus va by rc into t1 is the same voltage from here to here the voltage changes remaining the same as before two r1 by r2 into vs so t1 changes however because the rate of charging and discharging are different now so t1 and t2 are different t1 plus t2 is now t so t1 is this and t2 is this from these equations and t1 plus t2 is this so we a saw tooth generation here so asymmetry is five volts as i told you the charging is occurring at uh uh faster uh rate so it takes less time discharging occurs at a slower rate takes more time and uh uh this is the saw tooth with va changing over to minus five you have now charging taking more time discharge takes less time and the saw tooth is of this type so by nearly changing the asymmetry voltage va one can actually get the uh different types of saw tooth waveforms from this function generator so this function generator essentially can be used for triangular waveform at this point and square waveform at this point and this triangular waveform is converted ok using a diode function generator which we had discussed earlier it can convert a triangle to a sine wave triangular to sine wave converter we have discussed complete design on this in the earlier lectures so here you get a sine wave of the same frequency f equal to one over t so these are the important functions necessary for testing ok in a test lab this is a test oscillator ok which is uh one of the cheapest oscillators available in laboratories today all over the world so ics are available which use these principles ok i will come to that later at the end so now we will convert this into uh ok function

generator with offset if you now put instead of bringing about asymmetry we are putting an offset voltage here v offset so this ground is lifted and offset voltage is put here then what happens is as far as the triangular waveform is concerned it remains the same as before the charging and discharging remain the same ok because this is grounded now so with this offset here what can only happen is this output waveform of the triangle is offset by certain amount ok so that is uh what is being shown here now so with an offset ok this triangular waveform which was uh swinging around zero has got shifted to a positive voltage ok so because of an offset of one voltage introduced there ok so this offset can create uh problem sometimes because if it is too much this particular thing will be getting distorted because it cannot go above eight volts here so the offset should be set that the triangular waveform is produced only within this swing that is possible for the schmitt trigger output now this function generator can be simply converted to a vco which is an important block again in communication systems vco is nothing by fm generator or fsk generator so this particular uh schmitt trigger is followed by now not an ordinary integrator but an integrator preceded by a multiplier this kind of conversion we had done also in the case of voltage control filter converting a double integrator loop into a voltage control filter or oscillator was done by replacing the integrator by a multiplier followed by an integrator so this multiplier followed by an integrator is uh going to make us a current here which was earlier simply vi by r or plus minus this vi was only changing between plus or minus vs it is either plus vs or minus vs so what happens here when you multiply with vc this will become plus minus vs divided by ten which is the reference voltage for the multiplier into vc so the current in this which was earlier vs by r in this direction or this direction is now going to change to vs by ten r ok into vc plus or minus ok so this is going to change in the same direction but you can think of this modifying the original r as ten r by vc that means all those uh frequency and time period get modified simply by this factor that is earlier we had this as r2 by r1 into four rc here as f so now this r is going to be replaced by r into ten by vc which results in vc by forty rc into r2 by r1 so it becomes a linear vco and if you now find out the sensitivity of the vco which is defined as delta f by delta vc this becomes simply since it is linear becomes constant equal to r2 by forty rc into r1 or it can be also written as f divided by vc hertz per volt this is an important parameter associated with a linear eco if it is non linear you have to find out at the constant of frequency of oscillation the slope so vco is an important building block in a phase locked loop which we will discuss which we have already discussed earlier this is

strictly speaking not really a phase it is a frequency locked loop we will henceforth call this phase locked loop we have discussed it as something that we had used in the filter for self tuning of the filter for locking onto for example pi by two phase shaped here this block vco is an important building block in a feedback system that is called frequency locked loop so the vc voltage control filter vcf is replaced by vco there becomes an independent system generating a frequency of oscillation depending upon the control voltage function generator is an oscillator which produces square wave triangular wave rectangular wave with specific duty cycle and saw ok also it can produce a uh saw tooth ok it can also output sine wave by converting the triangular wave to sine wave using diode function generator the vco circuit that was discussed earlier ok which is uh available as an ic xr two two two zero six or lm five six six but this function generator is very popular as test oscillator chip which is used in all laboratory function generators ok for test purposes now fsk generation how to do fsk generation so we can actually use this vco and modulate it that modulation simply means that uh we are now connecting at this point vc uh to the uh positive voltages one indicating one digital one and the other indicating zero digital zero then it becomes a fsk generator so this is high this is low both have to be positive right so this gives high frequency this gives low frequency this is what is used in modems ok for uh modulating the frequency next instead of the square wave applied as vc one applies a dc with a sine wave superimposed so that it gets now modulated continuously the frequency is slowly becoming highest and slowly becoming lowest like that it goes on this is nothing but fm generation right so at this point ok at this particular voltage it is to carrier frequency ok and it more than the carrier frequency it is less than the carrier frequency here so that is depicted for the triangle also that way for the sine wave also it same uh kind of characteristics exist and therefore you can take the output of the sine wave output and it will be fm generation here these are the characteristic features of this uh ic xr two two zero six and uh it is continued here you can see the sensitivity sweep range two thousand to one so five six six is the tiic which is capable of being used as a uh vco now the limitations due to the op amp rise uh or the comparator rise time and fall time uh will not permit it to be used uh for very high frequencies it will be uh more so with uh op amps being used as comparator here the limitation is due to slew rate right so if uh slew rate is known right you know that see uh from plus

vs to minus vs the op amp is going to rise at slew rate ok and therefore the voltage twice vs divided by roe if roe is the slew rate or the op amp that is the time taken for as rise time in the case of op amp which is going to make it too slow right so if it is uh for example one volt per mic uh microsecond ok uh and uh vs is let us say uh ten volts so this will be twenty divided by one ok so uh that is the rise time ok twenty volts per microsec uh that is uh twenty microseconds it is going to take which is uh going to result in the rise time being too large in the case of actual comparators the rise time is going to be pretty small and therefore it can be used for very high frequencies ok so the accuracy of the frequency is better with comparators ok so it can uh typically be used up to megahertz very easily with full output swing possible whereas this is limited to few kilohertz ok as uh plus minus ten volts amplitude because of this fundamental limitation so we have seen how uh op amps should not be used as comparators comparators are used in mostly open loop or positive feedback and they do not have any frequency compensating capacitor put the ones used in popular general purpose op amps with frequency compensation that fundamentally limits the frequency of operation it makes it very slow so uh comparator uh like three eleven etc are fast comparators there are no uh capacitors added there is no need for them because it is never used in negative feedback thank you very much

IE#44: How USB car charger works?

hello girls welcome to insula phonics so in today’s episode let’s take a look at how a car charger works now this was a very popular item back in the days when cars only have 12 volts accessory circuits and phones are usually Nokia that cannot be charged using USB charger but things are changing nowadays almost all brand new cars come with a built in USB charger but still people are using these kind of external charges for a lot of other purpose now chances are you still have one of these in your car but you don’t know how this thing works don’t worry in this video I will show you how exactly this thing works and I will grow a schematics of a tower completely reverse engineer this thing so speaking of which this particular challenge as you can see it’s made by a company called Jabra and they actually make a lot of Bluetooth audio accessories for now they don’t make a lot of these charges at all but they do have a very similar and I think it probably a very updated model of this USB charger by the way this particular model is discontinued and it is esz zero zero two and it is capable of up to 750 milliamp output current which clearly mentions that this thing is really old nowadays almost all smartphones users at least one amps of current for its proper operation for this proper charge and this can operate this entire thing can operate on both 12 volts and 24 volts DC and here that’s pretty much it it’s made by Jabra and to open it it’s really simple you just have to underscore unscrew this top portion right here and underneath here you will find a fuse that is a good thing and and the spring and there is a spring underneath on which the fuse is sitting so that is what creates this smooth kind of action with that that action is possible because of the fuse and let’s see what right thing this fuse has if I can focus on it it is it is 2 amps 250 volts use or two amps fuse for device is pretty fine no problem and to take it this thing further apart you have to take this metal ring that is just used to hold the entire thing where there is no screws or anything as you can see it’s it is already starting to come apart but using just some little folds you can take the entire thing off and inside it you can see pretty much very clearly that it has a very minimalistic components and as you can see this this is a spring and to which the fuse is connected and by the way these are not any way connected to get together oops there it goes and these two metal things are used for the negative contacts and this is also what keeps that this entire thing inside your child because it has this springy action it actually friction locks to the 12 volt socket so it does not fall apart very easily so it’s it’s have a multiple uses and also lets keep its you can see that only one of the two metal plates are actually connected to the ground the rest is just for the holding this thing down now let’s actually take the circular part okay that’s really simple because you know it’s just after all entire mobile USB charges like this one including this one is a buck converter you know there are you can actually make one by yourself with very low components but it the efficiency will be a matter because you know when you are actually making one you have to do a lot of calculations to get the maximum output from it maximum efficiency from it if you only care about the output and just ignore the efficiency you can make one release Li but let’s talk about this one and this one uses very common I see the mc34063 a this IC is actually really common for buck converters and because this IC is a multi-purpose as estrogen it’s not just a buck I see this is actually this IC can be used for buck and boost operation or even can be used for buck boost operation so it is a

multi it’s a versatile I see that peak and in here it is used it is wired as in a buck configuration but it can easily be rig rewired to form a boost converters which is you know really matter of only rearranging some of the components the entire other things will work and you cannot actually find the output voltage that’s only sure that’s going to be here so let’s take a look D at the bottom side there is no assembly components involved you can see the IC mc34063 a has two capacitors this one is probably across the positive terminal and okay let me actually reverse engineer this thing and I’ll be back once I reverse engineer this entire thing so okay guys I know how completely reverse engineered this Jabra USB charger and this is the result as you can see from the Psalter that it uses very simple components and it is really it was really easy to reverse engineer and all this does is really simple before moving on to the operation let me show you the data sheet which are on the flash off let me turn to show the IC here itself this is the IC that they’re using this is the 1.5 amps step up down inverting the switching regulator and this is the 4 0 6 3 I see that we are having right here and these are the features of this IC I’m not going to show you the entire thing if you want to read it you can pause this thing and this is the pin out for this okay and let me tell you that after downloading this datasheet I found that this circle right here is the is an exact replica of what you can find right here this is this check down configuration winding as per the datasheet and this is what exactly this circuit really is in fact all matters is just some component values are different that is the only thing that is changed here so let me tell you how this thing works even before that let me tell you how a buck converter in common works so let’s say you want to reduce the input voltage here in my case let me zoom down a little bit in my case let me show you that let me say you need to convert your steady 12 volts missing one yeah your steady 12 volts like that that’s the 12 volt you can now directly plug these 12 volts in to your form because your phone needs a much lower touch which is 5 volts for its operation and there are a couple of ways you can actually reduce the input voltage a simple method is by using a resistor dropper in series just like connecting a 12-volt battery to a resistor and then connect your phone to the other side low-voltage but the problem here is that you are wasting a lot of energy across the resistor as heat you know resistor can get really hot and you’re actually wasting a lot of energy and this thing is not a safe at all you are not you cannot guarantee that this thing works this is a really simplistic way it this can be achieved instead what we are actually doing is we are actually chopping down the steady DC volts that is right here we are actually chopping it down by chopping I mean we are actually pulse with more relating the steady state DC and because of that means take another and you can see the I was trying to throw this thing let me tell you that this this was the 12 volts state okay now let me tell you that this is for a one-minute of time okay so we are giving 12 volts at for a one minute time and it stays for 12 minutes so like one minute and now what I’m going to do is I’m going to chop this 12 volts at 50% duty cycle that means a 12 volt is divided into a lot of different pieces like this it resembles a square wave and this was also for one minute now even though the voltage of each individual square wave is 12 volts the entire

device was owned for half of the time let’s say you know this you can actually see that this is on this is off this is on this is off what that means is a device is on for say 30 seconds and device is off for the rest of 30 seconds so that is how this thing works because in a one minute operation time in the normal one weight operation time you are getting the full 12 volts continuously for one made but in this case we are getting the 12 volts only for 30 seconds not continuously but intermittently and for the remaining 30 seconds your device is off you know and because of that your device the power consumption the average power that your device receives will be low so by adjusting the duty cycle by duty cycle it means the own time the this is the own time we will say it’s as T on and this is the off time T off so the duty cycle means adjusting the duty cycle means adjusting the own time so higher duty cycle means a high on time and lower off time and a loaded signal means a high off time and lower so by adjusting the duty cycle you can get the record power you want so that is the easiest way to reduce the output voltage so by using some sort of mechanism to achieve this PWM chopping you can then control the amount of voltage that you can get at the output by suitably adjusting the power I mean the duty cycle so once that is achieved you need a set of other components you cannot just directly feed it square wave like this one to whatever load you are attaching you need some other components and that is where this extra components come to play and in this case this is the entirely you know simplest this is the simplest of all circle diagram for a buck converter in fact this entire circuit is only this thing and the entire operation happening here can be divided into three this here is happening at this point over here and this over here is what remain what is remaining over here so what happens is that this I see this MC 3 4 0 as switching thing that actually converts this stable 12 volts into a lot of you know square wave all just like that so that is the purpose of this M for MC 3 4 0 is e and that is why I am drawn it like that so it own and it makes this on and on and off kind of action so what happens is that that whole world gets on what it is Carly and because the inductor and capacitor is what smooths the square wave and forms a somewhat yeah if I draw it will be like kind of like that so it smoothes out it’s like you know filtering capacitor at the end of a rectifier so this diode is here is a freewheeling diode that is used to prevent the back EMF you know when the switch is open the in charge that is tolling the inductor will be huge and it needs somewhere to go otherwise it will damage the entire I see so once the switch is off the entire charge that is told in this inductor will flow through this diode so that it can operate in a stable manner and when the switch is closed the power can directly go from this side to through the inductor through the diode to the output so that is the basic operation and this is exactly happening at this point the input here let me show you that the input here is going through our point 1 ohms resistor that is that one over there so it it is used as I think that is used using as endure limiting resistor and then it comes to this hundred micro farad filtering capacitors capacitor and then it goes through a point three ohms resistor to the IC and these are pin number one seven and eight and the pin number one and the number

one is a collector they endure is an internal transistor inside let me show you that over here real quick so this is how the entire thing works here you know the pin number one is connected to this transistor which is then switched to the ground so your VCC is going through here going through here which is can turn on and off using this transistor and that’s how everything works so after that there is the four hundred and seventy Pico farad capacitor which is used to adjust the frequency of operation for this internal also later over here you can see the oscillator is connected to these friends in this capacitor and after that the output from this is going straight output is coming from pin 2 and goes straight to the circuit that we just see over here and this diode here is a 1 + 5 8 1 9 which is a fast recovery time Schottky diode one AM capacity and that diode is this one over here the inductor is predict standard value it is a 220 micro farad as per the datasheet and that is over here this one this output capacitor is that one over here this diode is just for the protection you know an additional protection for the output device and pin number 5 is actually a reference value because that adjust the switching frequency if you look closely turn off the light you can see they’re actually using two resistors oops is it let me find it real quick I know this video is getting really boring but still I love detecting anyways okay okay I got it there it is you can see these two resistors over here the R 2 and R 1 that is the resistors these two resistors are that one and those two are that and that’s pretty much it you can actually see that is used to that is used as the comparative comparing points so that it can adjust the switching frequency based on the voltage that is receiving at this point so yeah basically that’s it okay so now you know how we call charger works if you have any doubts and regarding anything that I said here I know I made a few mistakes by it because this is micro Henry no micro farad and there are some minor mistakes that I made so again if you have any doubts regarding any of this thing that I said that I mentioned like how this thing works or anything if you have any doubts please ask me in the comments below or I can you can mail me and right now since we are since I show you how it works I’m going to test it for you and since I don’t have a car battery you know the accessory socket I’m going to use what I’m have here in my lab it’s a 12-volt such whole world 1.5 1.5 amps for something I don’t know and I used mune to use a converter like that to attach it for it so hope T so let’s test this under load and see how this thing performs and I’m hoping that the green is the positive the green goes in inside that now there is no fuse connected in series with this thing so if anything blows up it blows up you can see that happening live if anything happens so I’m going to attach that today maybe I can connect that later for now and go to need the USB tester about four bits you can watch the video like it clicking the link that will come now at the top I so now I have turned on the power I’m going to attach the white to the ground and there it goes it booted and you can see the voltage is 5.38 now let’s test it by using a USB tester I’m going to attach that to here and it is now set to one amps of current and going to turn this thing on without shorting

anything is possible yep even though it is rated for 750 milliamps it is drawing 1 amps but you know a little bit of voltage drop is there it’s 4.5 volts it’s acceptable but thing is that it can handle one amps let me check in inductor real quick yep the ice is getting hot I think it is not going to solve all that let me see if we can survive the two M’s I’m going to switch it to two air modes and nope there goes just on two amps it doesn’t even stand a chance can barely see if I turn the light off we can barely see that the voltage is dropping to around three volts if I can show you that again no it even booted but I see it 1 amps of current the ice is getting really hot it’s oh it is really hot I cannot touch that but anyways the fact is that it works everything works fine so yeah if you have any doubts regarding anything that I said here just ask me in the comments below so that’s it that’s it that’s about how your car charger works thanks for watching see you in another video

Automatic sliding gate

This project contains complete design procurement and making of electronic circuit and all additional components for opening sliding gate automatically Components needed for this project are electric motor gears which are further divided to motor reduction and rack and pinion housing and lastly electronic circuit The first two components are selected by calculating some of the most basic physical quantities that describe the movement of sliding gate force and opening velocity With these two we’ll be able to determine needed torque and motor rps and also needed reduction ratio and gear diameter Force can be acquired experimentally In this LEGO example we tie up a rope at the end of the sliding gate and gradually place weights on the other side of the rope until the gate starts to move All that’s left is to measure the mass of the weight this is included in the following formula For LEGO example it takes a force of 0,04 N to move the gate This experiment should be carried in worst conditions when the friction is maximum That implies dry weather and weared out and poorly lubricated casters That way we ensure that the force in practical application never supersedes the calculated force by which we choose electric motor Opening velocity is also determined experimentally by pushing sliding gate at the desired velocity and measuring the time it takes to travel certain path afterwards this measured parameters are included in the following formula For LEGO example desired velocity is around 0,083 meters per second Now that we have determined force and velocity we can obtain all other necessary parameters by which we choose our motor and gears For motor there are two important parameters which are torque that depends on the force and rotacional speed that depends on velocity Taking a closer look we see that gear diameter and reduction ratio appear in both formulas which makes them interdependent in other words when we pick a motor with a certain torque and rotational speed we inadvertently affect the reduction ratio and gear diameter needed to achieve desired opening speed The gear diameter in question concerns the gear that drives the rack and thus the gate and is mounted on the output shaft of the motor reduction Finding motor parameters is pretty straightforward every motor has its most important parameters written on its housing and for more detailed description information are widely available on manufacturer’s website Table shows one of such detailed descriptions important parameters are pointed out in red Motors quite often have a built-in reduction that reduces rotational speed for a particular application As we can see in the table there is a specified reduction ratio which means this motor has a built-in reduction that reduces motor rotational speed by 30 For our LEGO example with calculated force and velocity we pick a motor with following parameters we’ve also specified reduction ratio for the motor We incorporate this values in two previously discussed formulas We get a result for gear diametar and we have to select the closest standard gear diameter in relation to the calculated result Its pretty clear that 30 mm is closest to our result With gear diametar being 30 mm the gate velocity won’t be as precise as calculated but that’s okay Now we can calculate the needed torque for opening LEGO gate we see that motor torque is greater than torque needed so condition is satisfied It’s advisable to have the motor torque at least three times greater then the torque needed to open the gates so to ensure high safety factor and long lifespan of the motor We see that this condition is satisfied as well so we can safely use selected electric motor for moving our LEGO gates It’s worth mentioning that choosing a bigger gear diameter will result in a higher opening speed but also higher demanded torque so thread lightly One of the reasonable questions would be what type of motor should I use and the answer to that is long complex and dull Every motor has its pros and cons and to me personally most importantly price If you have old motors laying around in your garage you should definitely try to use them, but keep in mind there will be some drawbacks that should be dealt with along the way Universal motors most common in household applications have one pretty considerable disadvantage and that is high rotation speed around 10000 revolutions per minute which demands a high reduction ratio why is that bad? Well reduction is quite expensive and consumes a portion of power generated by motor so the motor has to be somewhat stronger Induction motors in households most often occur in washing machines but are to weak to put up a fight Power of the motor has to be at least 300 W depending on the gate weight Next best place to find induction motors that are strong enough for the job can be found in water pumps Motors that are running water pumps are usually above 500 W which is more than enough for moving the gates These motors are quiet, cheap don’t generate sparks

have long lifespan, lower speed rotation and high power to weight ratio Only drawback is that they’re harder to control rotational speed cannot be changed with voltage but with frequency and for that you’d need a frequency converter that’s more expensive than reduction and motor combined so without it the gate cannot gradually slowdown or speed up Since the gate don’t move all that fast by shutting down the motor a little bit earlier while closing them should work just fine for them not to collide with anything For my example I was lucky enough to find an old induction motor used specifically for moving sliding gates so it came along with the speed reduction and a housing for the latter New motor like this one costs around 200 dollars but this used one I paid only 15 Motor reduction has a worm drive which is great for this purpose because it only allows rotation from one side side from the motor itself trying to rotate a gear by hand will fail in other words sliding gates cannot be opened or closed by hand Reduction ratio for worm drive is 1:30 which means that for every rotation of the gear on the output shaft motor will rotate 30 times Rack and pinion ensure translation of rotational motion into linear For my gates 4.5 meters long five racks, each 1 meter in length, should suffice They are made of ABS plastic and are intended for gates not heavier than 800 kg While installing them a care must be taken that the height of the racks with respect to the ground is always constant while moving the gates also the depth of the racks has to be constant in respect to the pillar If any of these conditions were not to be met rack wouldn’t fit perfectly on the pinion or would even lose grip while opening and closing gates which is unacceptable Housing ensures that all parts are fastened protected from external influences and precisely placed in relation to each other Inside the housing is a motor reduction and above it motor and electronic hardware are fixed All of this is covered with plastic cover to ensure protection against rain, snow and animals Electronic circuit consists of several components easily available at affordable prices on E-bay The necessary components are two solid state relays with which we control the motor Two pieces are needed because the motor must be able to rotate in both directions Relay allows us to control powerful electric AC or DC appliances with very low voltage and current value This type of relay is activated at only 3 V with AC or DC regardless and is characterized by higher current load and longer, safer and quieter operation compared to most common electromagnetic relays next a time-delayed relay which controls the signal lamp The light bulb is powered from the main grid It’s an electromagnetic relay who intermittently and independently turns the bulb on and off as long as a signal is present at its input This ensures that the signal lamp flashes without having to program such behavior in the code It is powered with 7.5 V adapter via transistor and Arduino next IR sensor in order to ensure the safety of passers and animals during the cycle of opening and closing the sliding gate it’s necessary to use an infrared sensor that will detect any obstruction during motor operation and turn it off immediately The purchased IR sensor works under a voltage of 12 to 24 V so it’ll be powered by an 18 volt adapter with a minimum current of 500 mA The IR sensor is controlled via Arduino thru transistor One component of the IR sensor is the transmitter

and it emits infrared radiation while the other one is receiver and it receives it When someone passes between the sensors the transmitted ray does not reach the receiver and the receiver automatically sends a signal to the Arduino that it’s not receiving anything, in other words an obstruction has occurred When installing the sensor we have to make sure that the transmitter and receiver are aligned next transistors for IR sensor and time-delayed relay We use NPN transistors BD437 and S8050 with the characteristic values seen from the datasheets The most important are Vebo, Vceo and Ic values Vebo is voltage with which we put the transistor in the conduction state when we apply it to the base pin when the voltage is removed from the base of the transistor the transistor will stop conducting Vceo is voltage that the transistor can withstand during operation and is applied to collector pin emitter pin is connected to the ground naturally Ic is current that the transistor can withstand during operation Vebo voltage is provided by the Arduino and Vceo voltage is provided by 18 V adapter for IR sensor and 7.5 V adapter for relay It’s very important that the transistors are connected in series AFTER the consumers because otherwise they’re function would be meaningless next Remote control with which we operate the sliding gate from a distance Receivers are powered by a 7.5 V adapter Remote controls have four buttons of which only two will be used A and C Five pieces were ordered on ebay but unfortunately each reciever is compatible only with a single remote meaning it’s necessary to connect all five receivers in parallel so we could ensure that each remote control works Next limit switch notifies Arduino when sliding gate is fully opened or fully closed It connects to a 7.5 V adapter and when the limit switch is closed gate is fully opened or closing and the input pin on the Arduino is HIGH When the limit switch is opened gate is fully closed or opening and the input on the Arduino is LOW Arduino We should not spend too many words on the Arduino because a book can be written the most important thing is that we will use it to manage all other previously mentioned components It is powered by a 7.5 volt adapter and has four inputs and five outputs defined First of all It’s necessary to solder the pins to the used inputs and outputs of the Arduino so that there are no weak intermittent contacts The current load of the Arduino is limited to about 200 mA and since many outputs and inputs are used It’s necessary to limit the amount of current to each of them using a resistor to reduce the heating and current load of the Arduino lastly but not leastly, safety components resistors prevent floating signal on Arduino pins and thus false triggering Fuses prevent too much current to flow thru circuit thus preventing damage to motor and other electronic equipment and lastly varistors ensure steady voltage from the main power grid In order to explain to the Arduino what how and when we want something to work we do it in it’s language within the software created exclusively for Arduino programming and available on the official Arduino website for free This programming language is very easy to use and understand and it takes a little time and a bit of good will to be able to program far more complex tasks than the one that will be presented here In the first eight lines of code pins 2, 4, 7, 8, 12, 13, A0 and A2 are declared constant integers and are assigned with names that represent the component that each of the pins control Within the Void setup code through which the Arduino passes only once during power-up each pin is defined whether it is an input or output The motor_opening and motor_closing pins control solid state relays that turn on the motor and depending from which pin the signal is sent from its rotation is in CW or CCW direction so these two pins are outputs because they send a signal Pin light also sends a signal to the relay which then intermittently turns on the light bulb so it is defined as output The turn_on_IR_sensor pin sends a signal to a transistor that connects an IR sensor with a 12 V adapter The limit_switch pin receives a signal from the switch when the door is fully opened or closed so it is defined as input When the signal is 0 V the door is completely closed and when it’s 5 V, fully opened The IR_sensor_signal pin is the input it receives a signal from the IR sensor when there is an obstruction for example someone passed in front of the door It is very important to set the obstruction to be identified by the absence of a signal respectively when there is no obstruction the signal is constantly present on the pin because in case the IR sensor fails the Arduino must interpret the absence of a signal as an obstruction and shut down the motor regardless of whether it’s an obstruction or a faulty IR sensor This prevents unwanted injuries in the event of an IR sensor failure during operation Pins button_A and button_C are signals that Arduino receives from the receiver who in turn receives signals from the remote control Within the void loop code

through which the Arduino passes over and over again hence the term loop, are conditions that, if satisfied trigger a portion of the program code Inside the first portion of the code called START the Arduino is ordered to do nothing as long as the signal on the button_A pin is LOW otherwise, if the signal is HIGH which means that the A button on the remote control was pressed the Arduino should switch to a portion of code called OPENING_DOOR In the Opening_door code the Arduino sends signals to the relay to turn on the light bulb to the transistor to turn on the IR sensor and to the relay to turn on the motor in the opening door direction Afterwards the Arduino passes on to the next portion of the code called IF_statements_for_opening in which three IF conditions are defined The first condition IF means that if the signal is LOW on the input pin IR_sensor there is an obstruction in front of the door and the motor has to be stopped after removing the obstruction program waits for three seconds and returns to the part of the code Opening_doors where the motor starts again The second condition IF is in case the C button is pressed on the remote control Arduino turns off the motor, lamp and IR sensor and keeps them off until the button is pressed again when everything turns back on again through the opening_doors code In other words button C pauses the Arduino code That’s convenient when, for example we don’t want the door to close automatically because we have to wait another vehicle that also needs to enter the yard The third condition IF is when the limit switch closes which means that the door is fully opened closed switch sends a signal to the Arduino who turns off the motor, waits for 5 seconds and goes to the Closing_door part of the code If none of the IF conditions are satisfied the Arduino returns to the beginning of the IF_statements_for_opening code and goes through it over and over again until one of the conditions is met In the Closing_door code everything is the same as in the opening_door except the motor rotates in the opposite direction In IF_statements_for_closing code are just as in IF_statements_for_opening code three IF conditions with the same purpose the only difference is when the third condition is met when the limit switch opens which means that the door is fully closed the program is sent to the beginning of the code, START Pressing the A button restarts the entire door opening and closing process It is important to note that with the motor and lamp the IR sensor is also turned off to save energy while the Arduino is in stand by mode The figure shows the wiring schematics Resistors that connect the Arduino pins directly to ground ensure that the signal does not float leading to a false trigger Resistors that connect the Arduino to the bases of the two transistors ensure that the Arduino pins do not burn out when the transistors are turned on Other resistors mainly serve to lower the voltages of 7.5 V and 18 V to an Arduino’s acceptable 5 volts at the inputs Pressing button A on the remote control starts the opening process first the lamp lights up then the IR sensor and finally if there’s no obstruction in front of the IR sensor the motor in the direction of the gate opening If an obstruction is found between the IR sensor during operation the motor shuts down immediately and the program waits until the obstruction is removed When the gate reaches the end it will strike the limit switch with its movement and turn it on thus letting the Arduino know that the motor has to be switched off After five seconds the motor restarts in the opposite closing direction In case the C button on the remote control is pressed at any time the program will pause and wait until it’s pressed again After that the program continues where it left off As the gate approach the end of the closure it will strike the limit switch again and turn it off letting the Arduino know that the motor lamp and IR sensor must be switched off After executing the program the Arduino remains in stand by mode where it waits for the A button to be pressed again To ensure a good connection between the Arduino and other electronic components we need to solder them to the PCB board One of the goal is to ensure that the PCB board can be easily detached from the rest of the equipment in case of any repairs or subsequent Arduino programming To accomplish that we use copper pins that will later be connected via Dupont connectors to other components that are not on the board such as receivers, relays and others The transistors are also attached to the board via Dupont connectors in case of their failure and easy replacement

Home Automation: Change direction of rotation of DC motor using 2 relays and Arduino – Robojax

Hallo, willkommen zu einem weiteren Video-Tutorial von Robojax. Ich heiße Ahmad Shamshiri aus Kanada in diesem Video sind wir Ich werde lernen, wie wir das ändern können Drehrichtung eines Gleichstrommotors mit zwei Relais, unabhängige Relais Modul ein Modul mit zwei Relais. Und zeig dir wie wir kann die Nennleistung von a berechnen Relais 15 Ampere 125 und 10 Ampere 250 Richtig, Sie können den Code dafür erhalten, indem Sie Klicken Sie auf den Link unter dem Video in die Beschreibung, zu der Sie gelangen www.robojax.com/learn/arduino Fangen wir damit an Wir werden zwei Codebeispiele haben. Der erste ist einfach und der zweite Code ist fortgeschritten Dies kann für Low-Level-Trigger oder High-Level-Trigger-Relais verwendet werden Lass es mich dir erklären. Für den Gleichstrommotor ist dies ein Gleichstrommotor und er hat spezifische Polarität zum Beispiel, wenn ich dies anschließe Macht mach dir keine Sorgen um den Draht und an An diesem Ort sehen Sie, dass es jetzt ist gegen den Uhrzeigersinn drehen, wenn ich es stoppe Sie werden sehen können, dass dies ist Wenn Sie sich jetzt in diese Richtung drehen, sehen Sie Ich habe dies mit dem schwarzen Draht verbunden, wenn Ich schalte diesen Draht um, das wirst du bemerken die Drehrichtung des Motors hat sich geändert, wie Sie sehen können jetzt dreht es sich in diese Richtung im Uhrzeigersinn Ich habe dies auf niedrige Geschwindigkeit eingestellt, damit Sie können sieh es dir an. was es bedeutet ist, dass du kannst Drehrichtung von ihr ändern Motor durch Umschalten der Polarität und ich bin Ich werde Ihnen zeigen, wie Sie zwei Relais verwenden um die Drehrichtung von zu ändern Motor mit Arduino sehr einfach Relaismodul erklärt Lassen Sie mich nun das Relaismodul erklären, das ich bin Ich werde erklären, dass es als nächstes zwei Module gibt Für das Relais haben wir also VCC an fünf Volt angeschlossen werden und dies Masse wird mit Masse von verbunden Arduino und das ist IN welcher Wille Signal von Arduino empfangen und wir haben hatte eine LED, wenn wir Strom an diesen haben Pin Diese LED leuchtet auf und sagt es uns dass es Strom gibt, wenn das Signal empfangen und Erleichterung erregt, um das zu machen Verbindung Diese grüne LED leuchtet auf und sagt es uns dass es ein Signal empfangen hat, tun wir nicht Sorgen Sie sich um die Rennstrecke Das Relais habe ich separates Video Erklären des Antriebs des Relais mit Transistoren eine andere Komponente der Verbindung wird unter dem Video auf dieser Seite für sein Das Relais, das wir drei Klemmen haben, ist eine genannt gemeinsame COM ist es die Mitte und dann Auf der rechten Seite ist dies als NC gekennzeichnet normalerweise geschlossen und das war gekennzeichnet als normal offen NEIN und was ich bin werde es dir später zeigen. und wir benutzen zwei davon und wenn Sie diesen Typ verwenden des Relaismoduls, das zwei Relais hat, die Sie brauche dafür keine separaten fünf Volt fünf Volt dafür, weil eins fünf Volt wäre es genug für beide und zwei und dieses Modul ist bei eBay erhältlich Aliexpress oder Amazon sowie dieser hier könnten Sie es ohne diesen Stift bekommen spielt keine Rolle, aber für diesen haben wir Boden und VCC VCC ist auf dieser Seite Sie wird hier fünf Volt Masse hier verbinden und dieser heißt IN1 und IN2 so das ist, als ob dies wirklich einer ist zwei und Eingang 1 Eingang 2 eins hier IN1, IN2 hier in der Mitte und für die zwei Terminals für jede Verzögerung, die wir haben Drei Terminals hier ist ein Drei-Terminal dafür und die drei terminal ist für das genau das gleiche und die Schönheit von Dies ist ein separates Video, das erklärt dies, dass es Optokoppler hat, was bedeutet Stromkreis wird vollständig von isoliert die andere Seite und es wird optisch sein gekoppelt geht das Signal Optokoppler hoch auf der anderen Seite ist es also viel sicherer Wie es funktioniert Wir haben eine Batterie, die positiv geht durch einen Schalter zu einem Terminal und dem negativ geht an den anderen so das Schalter kann entweder auf der Linie zwischen sein das Positive und das Terminal oder wir können Habe es am Negativ dieses Terminals spielt keine Rolle und wann wir das verbinden positiv zum Beispiel zum positiven beschriftete Klemme des Motors weil Der Motor hat ein bestimmtes Etikett, wenn Sie verbinden das Positive mit dem positiv und negativ zu negativ

es wird eine bestimmte Richtung für drehen Beispiel gegen den Uhrzeigersinn oder gegen den Uhrzeigersinn und wenn Sie möchten die Drehung ändern, die Sie können verbinde dieses positive was war verbunden, bevor sie jetzt verbunden sind hier und das Negativ, mit dem Sie es verbinden das Positive jetzt wird die Rotation ändern, bevor es sich drehte Jetzt dreht es sich gegen den Uhrzeigersinn im Uhrzeigersinn durch Ändern der Polarität von Die Leistung zum Motor können wir ändern Richtung und wir können keinen Motor anschließen gerichtet auf wir wissen, damit wir senden können anderes Signal, weil wir ein brauchen Treiber, aber weil wir Relais verwenden, werden wir setzen Anstelle des Fahrers werden wir ein Relais setzen hier zwischen dem Arduino und dem Motor und wir werden in der Lage sein, das zu kontrollieren Drehrichtung der Motoren. Hier ist, wie Verbunden das Relais werden wir verbinden Relais eins und wirklich zwei auf diese Weise dass dies normalerweise gemeinsam geschlossen ist und Normalerweise offen sind dies die drei Stifte Dies ist eine Spule, die entweder ausgeschaltet ist oder wird an sein und hier habe ich verbunden normalerweise geschlossen von Relais eins bis normalerweise geschlossen von Relais zwei zum Leistung oder positive Leitung. und normalerweise offen von Relais zwei ist angeschlossen an normalerweise offen von Relais eins und es ist mit der Erde verbunden. Für Ihren Motor eine der Stifte werden mit gemeinsamen verbunden von Relais 2 und dem anderen Pin wird an das gemeinsame Relais eins angeschlossen und hier in diesem Fall ist Relais zwei aus und wirklich ist man auf so diese spule ist an und es wurde erregt und dies Kontakt ist niedrig dies ist aus und die Kontakt ist nicht niedrig, es ist oben und das bewirkt, dass sich der Motor nach rechts dreht Der Strom kommt von hier nicht gehe weil durch, weil das ist offen gibt es keine verbindung dazu nicht normalerweise geschlossener Stift, damit der Strom kommt hier durch diese zwei Stifte, die sind geschlossen und geht zum positiven und von Auf dieser Seite geht das Negative durch Boden und Motor berühren dreht sich nach rechts oder im Uhrzeigersinn und hier, wenn Sie die drehen möchten Motor nicht in diese Richtung sondern in Diese Richtung ist jetzt Relais 2 an und Relais eins ist ausgeschaltet, wenn das Relais eins Ist aus der Strom wird hier vorbei kommen durch normalerweise in der Nähe dieses Stifts und das Positive anstatt sich zu verbinden Die Oberseite ist jetzt mit dem Boden verbunden Also haben wir die Polarität der geändert Motor und als Ergebnis das positive wer kann diesen Weg nicht gehen, weil es offen ist wird durch diesen Kontakt kommen geht an der negative Anschluss und verlässt die Positiv geht von hier zu Boden und diesmal dreht sich der Motor auf die andere Richtung, weil dieser Draht ist jetzt mit dem Boden verbunden Verkabelung erklärt Lassen Sie mich die Verkabelung für das Relais erklären Ich habe dieses Relais eins und Relais 2 beschriftet und ich habe sie zusammengeklebt, damit sie nicht zu viel bewegen. dies normalerweise geschlossen Pin ist von Relais 2 an angeschlossen Relais 1, also sind sie verbunden und dies geht zur Batterie dieses Kabel und dann Normalerweise war dieses Relais offen verbunden, um damit normal zu öffnen brauner Draht und von hier habe ich gesetzt ein anderer Draht von normalerweise offen welcher Geht zur Batterie also für die Batterie I zwei Drähte haben spielt keine Rolle, welche ist was, es sei denn, Ihr Motor ist sehr kritisch sonst einfach positiv setzen oder negativ und dann wirst du es herausfinden was wir angeschlossen genommen haben, dreht sich der Motor in die gewünschte Richtung und hier ist die Mitte davon verbunden zu einem Draht der Motoren und der Mitte Terminal, das üblich war mit dem anderen Kabel des Motors verbunden Zwei Drähte vom Boden von Arduino habe ich legte einen Draht in diese Seite, die hat blaue Farbe also das ist mein Negativ oder Masse und von fünf Volt habe ich genommen diese Orange zur Seite, die so ist Diese Leitung wird alle fünf Volt und sein Diese Linie wird Boden haben, wenn ich es brauche und hier für Relais 1 den Eingang wird an Pin 2 angeschlossen und dann für Der zweite wird der Eingang sein an Pin 3 angeschlossen und diese beiden gehalten Stifte, blau von Relais eins, sind angeschlossen an Pin 2 und grün von Relais 2 ist an Pin 3 angeschlossen und endlich habe ich verband dieses rot die linke Seite von VCC mit rotem Draht und VCC davon mit rot

Draht habe ich mit dem Steckbrett verbunden zu dieser gelesenen Seite und der braunen dazu Seite, die negativ ist Verkabelung für Dual-Relay-Modul erklärt Hier für dieses Duell habe ich wirklich eins gesetzt Draht von diesem mit diesen gelben Drähten zu dem anderen von normalerweise nahe an der andere normalerweise geschlossen Also diese drei Stifte dafür und 3 Stifte dafür also der erste pin zum ersten Stift und dort noch ein Draht von der gleicher Pin also das hier gehe zur Batterie und hier von der Normalerweise öffnen Sie NEIN davon zum Normalen offen NEIN davon habe ich einen orangefarbenen Draht gelegt und dann von diesem Stift einen Draht zum Batterie, also habe ich zwei Drähte für die Batterie beide eine von der linken Seite eins von der rechten Seite dieses gemeinsamen jetzt Die beiden mittleren Drähte bleiben übrig, damit ich kann verbinde meinen Motor hier und hier sind diese Die beiden Drähte meines Motors sind eins an die Mitte dieses Relais angeschlossen und der andere ist mit der Mitte verbunden Pin davon auf den gemeinsamen Pin das ist Masse Dies ist mit der Erde verbunden von Arduino mit gelbem Draht und dem Letzteres ist VCC, dies wurde verbunden bis 5 Volt Arduino IN1 ist für Relais 1 und IN2 sind für Relais 2 und hier IN1 grün verbunden zu sein an Pin zwei ist blau an Pin 3 angeschlossen Grundcode erklärt Lassen Sie mich nun den Code erklären, den wir sind Definieren von zwei Stiften für die Relais. Relais1 Relais2, damit Sie jedes andere verwenden können Pin, der in Ihrem Arduino verfügbar ist was auch immer Arduino Uno, Mega, Nano oder Micro Was auch immer Sie gerade einen digitalen Stift gesetzt haben Hier ist das verfügbar, also habe ich Pin 2 verwendet und 3 mit meinem Arduino und in der setup () wird ausgeführt, sobald wir müssen Definieren Sie zwei Pins als Ausgang und wir verwenden PinMode (Relais1, das ist, als ob ich tippe zwei so dass diese Variable anstelle von verwendet wird 2. als Ausgang definiert dies Pin 2 als Ausgabe und dann definiert dies Pin 3 – also ist Relais2 Pin 3 als eine Ausgabe danach müssen wir die behalten Motor aus, um es aus zu halten, schreiben Sie neu digitalWrite (Relais1 Dies ist ein Pin Nummer und dann setzen wir hier HIGH oder LOW wenn wir beide HIGH oder beide setzen sie NIEDRIG, dass das Relais ausgeschaltet ist und das Motor wird nicht so funktionieren und weil ich bin mit in diesem Fall Low Trigger habe ich gesetzt beide HIGH, also wird das Relais sein aus und dann definieren wir die Seriennummer Monitor mit 9600 Baud Sie, wenn Sie öffnen Ihren seriellen Monitor durch Klicken auf a Extras-> serieller Monitor oder Sie können drücken Strg + Umschalt + m oder drücken Sie dieses Symbol, um die Der serielle Monitor öffnet nun den Wert dass Sie dies unten rechts sehen können Seite und Idee ist 9600 Baud und es muss Passen Sie diesen Wert an, sonst werden Sie nicht in der Lage sein, den Wert des Textes und zu lesen dann nach dem drucken wir diesen text Ln meine neue Zeile, also druckt diese und andere Texte in einer anderen neuen Zeile und wir Geben Sie dem Benutzer zwei Sekunden Zeit, um dies zu lesen Text und das Setup wird beendet, so wird dies Führen Sie den Code einmal und innerhalb der Schleife aus läuft jetzt ununterbrochen mal sehen wie Wir können den Motor in einem steuern Gegen den Uhrzeigersinn oder gegen den Uhrzeigersinn verwenden wir digitalWrite (Relais1 die Pin-Nummer als LOW und digitalWrite (Relais2 HIGH als Ich habe es im Diagramm erklärt, also haben wir eins eingestellt Relais HIGH und das andere LOW und das macht den Motor zu in eine Richtung drehen nennen wir es CCW, weil es egal ist, ob Sie Ändern Sie die Drähte des Motors Motor wird in die andere Richtung drehen, damit dies wird in eine Richtung drehen und wir Drucken Sie diesen Text aus und wir behalten ihn für drei Sekunden in diese Richtung drehen Danach wollen wir den Motor abstellen dann verwenden wir den gleichen Code außer wirklich eins wirklich – beide sind so hoch Dadurch bleibt das Relais oder der Motor erhalten Aus drucken wir diesen Text gestoppt und dann Wir halten das Modell für zwei angehalten Sekunden Ich halte es für zwei Sekunden weil eine Sekunde oder eine halbe Sekunde wird Nehmen Sie den Motor, um von selbst zu stoppen, also zwei Sekunden, aber Sie können den Wert ändern was auch immer du willst und diesmal raus wir wollen die richtung ändern und wenn Sie achten darauf, dass dies niedrig hoch war und zwei jetzt mache ich hoch niedrig Jetzt dreht sich der Motor im anderen Richtung für Relais 1, Relais 2 – und wir Drucken Sie den Text aus und wir haben ihn für drei aufbewahrt zweitens und dann stoppen wir wieder die Motoren

für zwei Sekunden und dann drehen wir dies Linie, damit wir wissen, dass die Schleife für a gemacht wird reale Anwendung, die Sie nur brauchen Verwenden Sie dies oder dieses für den Motor so Sie können die Texte nicht verwenden oder verwenden oder nicht, aber die Zeit liegt bei Ihnen oder möglicherweise kontinuierlich basierend auf einem Auslöser oder ein Wert, den die Motordrehung hat Veränderung Erweiterter Code erklärt und hier ist erweiterter Code für Steuerung der Motorrichtung waren zu Geben Sie die Differenz zwischen diesem Code weiter und vorheriger Code ist, dass Sie einstellen können leicht die Höhe des Auslösers der Relaismodul, wenn Ihr Relais hoch ist Trigger oder niedriger Trigger wird es sehr funktionieren leicht ist dieser Abschnitt der gleiche und Hier haben wir konstante ganze Zahlen, die wir nennen es Trigger Typ gleich niedrig, mehr Relais ist niedrig, so dass Sie Sie können LOW eingeben, wenn Ihre hoch ist Geben Sie HIGH mit Großbuchstaben und diesen ein zwei Variablen werden intern nicht verwendet Sorgen Sie sich darüber, Sie werden sehen, wie ich benutze Sie. innerhalb des setup () war das genau das gleiche wie zuvor prüfen wir ob (triggerType Dies ist 2 Gleichheitszeichen, für die dies ist Vergleichen Sie diesen Wert mit LOW, wenn dies der Fall ist ist niedrig, dann sagen wir, RelaisON bedeutet niedrig und realyOFF bedeutet HIGH, also haben wir es verwendet Anstelle von hoch und niedrig werden wir dies verwenden Einer der Code und hier wird unser realyON niedrig sein und wirklich AUS wird hoch sein und dann sagten wir, dass Relais1 mit digitalWrite realy1 als RelaisOFF und Relais2 Relais AUS auch den AUS-Mittelwert HOCH in diesem Fall setzen wir das Relais1 mit digitalWrite Relais1 AUS und Relais2 auch RelaisOFF dies Relais AUS bedeutet in diesem Fall HOCH und wenn Der Read-a-Trigger-Typ ist hoch nicht LOW wird ausgeführt und wir setzen Dieses Mal war RelayON als hoch bekannt und RelayOFF ist niedrig und genauso Wir verwenden genau das gleiche wie zuvor Schalten Sie beide Relais aus und dann wir Initialisieren Sie den seriellen Monitor und drucken Sie den Text und warten Sie zwei Sekunden Innerhalb der Schleife habe ich eine Funktion erstellt genannt motorCCW () dies macht die Motor im Uhrzeigersinn drehen und für was auch immer Zeit, die Sie wollen, auch wenn Sie den Motor drehen wollen Entfernen Sie dies kontinuierlich, sonst dies wird es für drei Sekunden halten und dann Wir haben Motorstopp für jede Zeit Sie wollen Ich wollte vier, drei, zwei Sekunden, also du wird sehen, dass dies den Motor stoppt und dann mehr von CW das ist was CCW und Motor CW Dies macht den Motor zu im Uhrzeigersinn drehen und dann für drei Sekunden und wir stoppen es und wieder drucken wir diesen Text und die Schleife wird jetzt weitergehen Die motorCCW und motorCW waren hier motorCCW verwenden digitalWrite und wir verwenden Relais1 als RelaisON Dies ist, als ob ich hier Pin tippe 2 und hier tippe ich 3 hier tippe ich hoch oder niedrig je nach a Art der Relais, so dass man hoch ist, ist man Reihe und dies war Ursache bis Ursache der Motor in diese Richtung drehen wir Drucken Sie den Text aus und für CW befindet sich das RelaisOFF oben und RelaisON in der 2. Zeile beide Kinder beide Relais oder oft drucken wir MotorStop, das ist der Text, damit es sehr sauber wird und einfach hier zu bedienen und zu steuern Relais Demonstration Hier ist eine Demonstration des Motors Kontrolle, wie Sie sehen können, sehen wir auf der Bildschirm gegen den Uhrzeigersinn und es ist jetzt im Uhrzeigersinn drehen, wie Sie dies sehen können Relais I, wenn es aus beiden ist sind jetzt aus, das ist an und der andere war aus, so dass sich die Richtung ändern wird als Sie können sehen, dass sich der Motor dreht perfekt und CCW und CW habe ich reduziert die Spannung so macht es weniger Rauschen und Ich habe nur 1,5 Volt angelegt Arbeit mit 12 Volt lassen Sie mich die erhöhen Stromspannung Demonstration eines Dual-Relay-Moduls und hier ist die Demonstration von Dual Relais, wie Sie diesen seriellen Monitor sehen können ist auch offen und zeigt Ihnen den Wert an hat aufgehört sich zu drehen, wie Sie sehen können

es in eine Richtung nur eine zu tun Relais ist eingeschaltet, ist gerade eingeschaltet und das andere man ist aus, also ist es mit in einem Dauer, wenn es gestoppt wird Diese beiden Relais sind ausgeschaltet und Sie brauche kein Steckbrett für die Verkabelung für Dies Lassen Sie mich jetzt die Spannung auf 12 erhöhen Volt 12 Volt derzeit habe ich 1 Punkt 6 Volt und dies ist die Demonstration des Vorab-Codes, bei dem Sie keinen Unterschied feststellen werden Betriebsbedingungen Ich möchte mich bei den folgenden Patreon-Unterstützern vom 18. August 2019 bedanken Sie Danke fürs Zuschauen. dies für wie Verwenden Sie zum Relais, um die Richtung zu steuern des Gleichstrommotors. wenn du etwas gelernt hast und fand es nützlich, bitte Daumen hoch 👍 als dies wird meinem Video in einem Suchalgorithmus helfen von YouTube, wenn Sie einen Kommentar haben a Frage hat einen Kommentarbereich unten gepostet Ich versuche zu antworten und zu antworten und wenn Sie habe meinen Kanal bitte nicht abonniert Jetzt können sie Updates von mir bekommen kommende Videos Untertitel vom 03. März 2020 eingegeben. Bitte teile dieses Video und abonniere es. Das ist das Mindeste, was du für mich tun kannst Ich habe stundenlang an diesen und anderen Projekten gearbeitet. Sie klicken einfach auf die Schaltfläche Abonnieren und das ist das beste danke, kann man sagen

Solenoid Driver Circuit – Short Version

hey guys this is a circuit I’ve already gone through once in a kind of an extended way this is a shortcut version for those who are just interested in how the circuit works and don’t really want to see me fannying around trying to explain it at a snail’s pace and going through my own learning process as well if you do want to see the full video and it kind of shows my thought processes and all the debugging of this circuit when it didn’t work properly and all of that good stuff I’ll put a link in the description and I’ll make sure that you know the other video is easy to find the first thing is what the hell am i doing so I’ve got this little solenoid basically I have a need for my aquarium to want to turn the co2 I’m experimenting with co2 on my aquarium I need to turn it on and off at night or I want to rather so that at night it’s not pumping co2 and then in the day it is this little solenoid valve can do exactly that it’s I got it on Amazon for a couple of pounds really cheapy little thing it works great so I was going to use that now the the trick is that this thing you can’t just drive it directly from a micro controller like an Arduino which is what I want to use because this thing you know it requires a decent amount of current to run so I’ve actually measured this one as you can see I’ve measured it it’s resistance of 20 ohms and when I run out of 5 volts we look oh I did a bit of the Ohm’s law calculations up here so current is volts over resistance so 5 volts over 20 more point to 5 amps 250 milliamps and I’ve measured this and it does indeed give me around to have you know it draws about 250 milliamps that’s way too much for a microcontroller so what we need is a circuit that allows us to draw to drive this this solenoid and switch it on and off using a micro controller now that could be achieved pretty simply with just a transistor and I’ll explain that in a moment you can you can just use a transistor to switch this switch the 250 milliamps will switch the 5 volts across this solenoid and that would work fine but doing a bit of research I found an actually a better circuit online again I’ll put the link to that after the article I read in the description this video it’s a it’s a great read and has it goes into a lot more depth and around the circuit and comes up with a few other variants with additional features this is kind of the most basic one though the advantage is that we massively reduced power consumption so what I want to do is talk you through that that circuit and explain how it works and then show you show you the version I’ve breadboard it up so first things first how the hell does this circuit reduce the power consumption of one of these things now as I said it it’s 20 ohms used 250 milliamps however with a solenoid or a relay or anything with a coil in a moving part what you’ll find is that the voltage required all the current I guess the power required to flip the switch or move the solenoid is much higher than that required to then hold it once it’s you know once it’s been activated I refer to these it’s kind of the activation versus the hold power there’s probably proper terms for it but you get the idea now the idea is that that you what we’d want to do is put together a circuit that will pull back the solenoid so activate it and then drop the amount of current that’s flowing – just enough to hold the switch open until we want to shut it again I mean in theory is actually massively reduce power consumption I’ve actually tested this and you can see that on my full video this solenoid will switch at about 3 and a half volts but I’m going to use 5 because you know the rest of my circuit works on five and this thing’s five to five it’s actually a six volt rated one so that should then flip very reliably at five volts and 200 milliamps but then what I’ve done is I’ve used my variable power supply to drop the voltage once I’ve switched it to see where you know how much how much voltage and how much current is required to hold the thing open once it’s been activated that actually dropped that all the way down to the lowest you know setting my variable power supply would go to which

is 1.2 volts or so and it still remained open so this thing will hold open probably around a volt or so which is great so what we want to do is build a circuit that will apply for 5 volts or 250 milliamps for you know as long as it takes to hold the two opens the solenoid and then once that’s done drop the voltage across this solenoid to only a volt and make some power savings as a result and this would definitely be useful if you’re powering this thing off of a battery you drastically improve your power consumption so let’s have a look at the circuit quickly I’ll just get this thing on the way so I have obscure part of the circuit for now just because I want to take it in bite-sized chunks so here we’ve got 5 volt rail we’ve got our solenoid here there’s a proper symbol for a solenoid I’m sure but it’s basically an inductor and with an iron core and I’ve marked that as 20 ohms we’ve got a resistor here and a diode here so first things first the diode isn’t really relevant to the function of this circuit this is called a flyback protection diode or I mean their various names for it it’s basically a magic diode do briefing that allows a flyback path for back EMF voltages voltage spikes that are generated by any inductor when you’ve got an inductor that has a voltage across it when you drop that voltage through some magical principle that I don’t fully understand to be honest the these generate high voltages so if you’ve ever like wired up a relay so that the coil is through its which you can make it buzz and it will generate massive voltages across the coil that uses this back EMF principle or mechanism but basically if we snap the power off on this you get a big voltage spike like you know ten times the input voltage or more so through to be honest I’m not entirely sure how but this diode will allow this inductor to feed off itself or something to mitigate that spike otherwise you get 500 s right like 300 volts or so many or five hundreds across you know in this circuit which is going to be bad for the downstream components certainly not great for your microcontroller and you know the transistors and what have you that have got no further on so this is a standard feature of a system with a that uses an inductor so it’s just it’s just shoved in there but it doesn’t affect the overall principle by which this circuit operates but it is important you do need it so the rest of the circuit then or all the rest that’s visible amount is essentially just a potential divider I’ve already put the value on here but basically we need we want to calculate the value of this this resistor now the way we do that is that this is 20 ohms we know that we know that our target voltage across here is 1 volt so through that we can calculate what the what the value of this resistor should be because what we want to do is this this potential divider will become active once the switch is thrown or once the solenoid is thrown and so the this is the bit that defines our the current that will be flowing when for our hold-hold patent offered for holding the solenoid open so we do want one bolt here as we’ve already identified so in order to achieve one wall here and four volts here it’s the principle by which potential dividers work this is effectively one fifth of the voltage and forfeits here so consequently the resistance here needs to be one fifth and this needs to be four fifths of the total so that works out if this is twenty ohms then this needs to be eighty so this is four times larger resistance than this that will give us a total of a hundred ohms across here with one volt across these two and four volts across here now what that what that does or the way that that reduces power consumption it’s not so much that this thing is only operating in a vault now it’s the the reduced power consumption comes from the fact that you’ve got now between five volts and ground you’ve now got a hundred ohms rather than just twenty if we had ground here only twenty ohms and as we saw you get 250 milliamps draw now we’ve changed this equation so we’ve now got 100 ohms

so it’s actually five volts divided by a hundred ohms which is nour point naught 5 which is 50 milliamps that’s a five fold reduction in power consumption just by putting in this resistor in here now that’s great and all but that you know if we just plug this in now nothing would happen because it’s only enough this only generates enough power across the solenoid to hold it open how the hell do we actually switch it open in the first place so let me just pull my magic revealing sheet back all right so what we’ve got here ignore the bottom half of this for a moment but with what I’ve uncovered here is a capacitor so this needs to be a pretty beefy capacitor this one I had a 2200 microfarad if you’ve got a bigger one like four thousand microfarads or so four thousand seven hundred was what the original design that I copied came from so I suggested but this is all I had and it seems to work fine this is quite a small solenoid but it does need to be beefy and the reason is that what happens is when this circuit activates so you know when we basically put zero volts here or rather five volts across here the that sort of the capacitor is empty that I’ll start at the start and so current will flow through our solenoid and start filling this capacitor and you know to the electron pixies running around in here this is essentially a short circuit this this capacitor because you know they can flow as fast as they want into filling this filling this capacitor which means that we get effectively five volts across here because current that won’t flow through this resistor or mostly won’t flow through this resistor because it will take the path of least resistance which is the capacitor while it charges so in the micro seconds a few microseconds or whatever while this is charging you’re getting full 5 volts and therefore a full 250 milliamps across the solenoid which is enough to throw it which is great so that switches the solenoid very soon after that though this capacitor is full it’s fully charged and so no more current will flow through it or negligible current flows through it and so the current has to flow via this resistor which takes us you know effectively takes drops the voltage across here back down to our 1 volt target for the hold and it will do that gracefully so then we’ve now got our we’ve now activated our potential divider we’ve got our reduced current consumption and we’ve got our low voltage or hold voltage across the solenoid so the reason this needs to be pretty big is that it needs to take long enough to charge that this solenoid has time to switch which might be you know a few microseconds or so half a second or whatever I’d probably rather have a slightly bigger one than to two hundred but it seems to work fine so then this piece down here is a simple switch that allows us to control this circuit above with an Arduino or your microcurrent micro controller of choice this is just a digital pin on your Arduino digital right high or low this feeds through a resistor into the base of a transistor this is just an NPN I used a 2 2 2 2 a or whatever it is jellybean NPN transistor and that will allow us that allows our Arduino to switch the relatively high current for certainly for an Arduino the relatively high current that’s required for driving this circuit excuse me so the 1k resistor somebody smiled at me will probably tell me you know give me a proper explanation as to why you need this but basically I believe it’s to reduce power consumption again the Arduino you know this is very sensitive it only needs a tiny well I don’t need any current here it just uses the voltage really to detect when to turn on our on and off this 1k resistor basically just reduces the current flow from the Arduino when you’ve got this high to ground through the transistor don’t know if it’ll do any harm to the transistor but if you don’t use it but it’s a good practice because it reduces power consumption and it should protect your Arduino as well from too much draw

so yeah set this high and the transistor will turn on current will flow you solenoid switches on and then reverse to its hold voltage just to hold current just to stay open so yeah it’s pretty pretty nice little circuit to be honest I was quite pleased with it and it seems to work fine so in the spirit of that I’ve actually breadboard this up and I’ll quickly talk you through it and show you in action so let me just switch the meter on so I’ve got this running at 5 volts and this multimeter is just on the 200 million range showing the the power consumption of the circuit nothing’s active at the moment so the power consumption is very very small so the these are just the leads to the solenoid this is this is set up this circuit is set up basically exactly the same as the one I’ve got on the on the diagram or showed you on the diagram here’s a little back EMF protection diode across the leads of the solenoid a little jumper here then we’ve got our 2 2200 microfarad capacitor and 80 ohm resistor pair this is actually not an ATM resistor this is a 120 ohm resistor I experimented with higher and higher resistances here until the until the circuit would no longer hold the solenoid opened reliably and then I just dropped it down a bit and I found that kind of the optimal value was about 120 and which means that the hole voltage this solenoid is less than a volt well I think it’s like Noor point 7 summing volts a minimum hold voltage so you can experiment with your own solenoid and just just tweak the value of this just the idea is you want to get this value as high as possible so the overall resistance it’s as high as possible but if you make this too high then the voltage across here or current across here won’t be enough to hold it so you kinda have to experiment with that but I went 120 ohms then I got my transistor dead simple between the resistor capacitor pair and ground and we’ve got a base here connected to our 1k resistor I’ve got another one in here 1k because the way I’m switching this is not with an Arduino but with a wire that I’m going to move between ground and 5 volts and this because I’m doing that this just acts as a pulldown resistor and just make sure that this when I’m not prevailing plugged in is always it definitely it’s not floating it’s satyr zero volts the other thing that you might notice was I’ve got another I’ve got another capacitor in here that’s just across the power lines the reason for that is that I found that this when this switches it needs to draw quite a lot of current suddenly and very quickly and my power supply I wasn’t able to respond to that change in power demands so this capacitor in here basically just provides that extra juice you know on demand so I highly recommend you put one in your circuit you if your power supply got them in built then you might not need that but it stumped me for a while and you can see me debugging that in my in the longer video if you’re interested that took me a while to figure out so let’s let’s quickly test that but you can keep an eye on the meter down here and you can see the the power consumption change it’s in the milliamps range so let’s just power this on hopefully it’ll work I just have some doggie breadboard connections there so now you should be able to hear it plunk there we go and power consumption spikes and then drops down to 44 milliamps roughly which is obviously a massive improvement over 250 milliamps and we’ve got a nice little circuit that we can drive from a microcontroller you do need to take care you can’t switch it too often if you try and hammer it it won’t work because the capacitor needs a chance to drain our after you disconnect the power you don’t want every two seconds or so cool so let’s just quickly draw in that extra crest on the power supply and then we’re done so that goes in here basically I think it’s probably sensible to use

the same value or larger capacitor here that you did here needs to be half decent in order to supply enough current yeah that’s it guys hopefully that was a bit bit of a quicker run-through bite size Edition for those who don’t want to listen to all my farting around trying to figure out why this circuit doesn’t work and so forth hope you enjoyed it

Skyrim Animation Tutorial Part 3

all right great silver okay there’s a couple things that I forgot to mention and you know what I just forgot what I forgot to mention what is it that I forgot to mention um well I forgot to mention what I forgot to mention so I guess I’ll just continue until I think of it first thing you got to do like I mentioned before get a lower frame by one now here you’ll see what I’m talking about about a loop animation alright last frame is equal the first frame you can see why when it walks then obviously at the end you want it to smoothly transition to the first frame so the best way to do that is using set key you know you have the last frame equal the first frame then you get a smooth transition that little pause at the end won’t be in the game I honestly don’t know how it knows to remove that but it just does that little pause because the last you know the first frame of the last form are equal it doesn’t happen in game it forgets that last frame or it forgets the first frame who knows all right so here’s the fun part hands gosh I hate animating hands you know that’s why I just kind of like like for closed hands on weapons and stuff I just make it once and then I save it and then I just load that animation into every other animation I make for combat it’s really important to do that for hands normally in most animations the hands are going to be in the same position the whole time so you you know save different versions of your hands so this is going to be like a robot hand because I want this to be like a robot walk so that said I’m going to select select all the finger bones here oh and also before you select a bone and unselected bone if you hover over it it’ll little tooltip and pop up to tell you what it is so you’re trying to select like multiple bones like I got this bone select I want select at rest of the fingers right I’m holding control before you hold ctrl to select the next bone hover over it to make sure you got the right one all right control there this hover over it finger control now of course you can just go into the object menu and select it that way but to me that’s a little less convenient sometimes sometimes it’s just better to to be straight obviously didn’t have to be perfect just good enough good enough to see some Robot action it’s all twisted around I remember as I explained in the last part if you edit bones without setting key and it adjust that position for all frames in the animation which is exactly what I want to do I want their hands to be in robot form through the whole thing right together here I’m a bit of a perfectionist I mean well I guess not necessarily in this case but uh not only a semi perfectionist right now when I do my animations I’m I like to be the things to be pretty perfect I’m pretty picky there was even one frame where things clip into each other it’s gotta be fixed even if I can’t see it in-game I know it’s there and it’ll bug the out of me I am such an anti clip Asst know if that’s a word well it is now I’m an anti clip Estate’s I clipped that I cannot ride horses I know it sounds weird but I cannot ride horses because of the weapons the sheath weapons clipping I never ride horses ever unless I’m a mage and I don’t use any weapons all the time so where does that sound so that’s how it’s I clipped I am what do you think pretty real body

it looks good there’s a robot hand oh this is gonna be great this bores the hell out of you then I guess just skip ahead you get the idea of what I’m doing I’m just going to do it and ramble while I do it so if you don’t wanna hear me ramble please just get it if you sit here and listen to me ramble and then you complain in the comments that I rambled I mean that’s where is the sense of that that was your choice to listen to it I still haven’t remembered what I forgot to remember if that makes any sense trying to think of it now what was it I was outside smoking and I thought of something that I forgot I do you know one thing that I want to show you guys and that is how to blend like a position into an animation in other words when you draw your weapon you’ll notice like in the vanilla animation you’ll notice when you equip your weapon or sheath it the equipment emission after the weapons equipped the character automatically you know reverts right into the vanilla idle stance and then on the sheath animation it starts with the idle States it’s actually part of the animation just momentarily you’re in the idle stance and then the sheath is weapon and then he goes to standing and then it’s the opposite for the equipped animation you know he’s standing and he equips his weapon in the knee immediately goes into the vanilla idle stance now obviously if you make a new idle stance if you want all your animations to blend good with that idle stance you’re going to pretty much have to redo every combat animation for that for that idle stance I guess some animators are not really that picky about it I’m pretty damn picky about it I don’t like to see them jitters where the animation tries to attempts to go back to that vanilla idle stance just momentarily so I pretty much we do there we go there’s a robot hand not quite almost bring this finger in closer but anyway I’ll show you how to do that it’s real easy all you do is uh once you once you get your idle stance done then you save it and what I always do anytime I have an animation like that where I’m going to want other animations to kind of blend with it I always save a version of it that’s fully keyed and then I save another version of it that only has one key the very first key and I’ll show you and I’ll better show you that after after I do this robot animation all right so we got our hands boom I’m gonna go ahead and save it at this point oh you know what go ahead and select these hands I didn’t get all the 18 bones in the hand thirty-six right key delete all the motor keys just in case that animation around wanted to stay in robot position boom yes okay another thing we’re going to have to do let’s see here what are we gonna have to delete arms spine also so select spine to your spine oh wait you know what puns like the hand spine just and the arms clavical oh I don’t need that let’s go

with upper arm forearm actually clavicle I passed it where to go there we go eleven see 1 2 3 4 5 yep I got it 11 objects 4 in each arm and 3 for the spine dope sheet dope sheet is your friend you will be in and out of the dope sheet a lot to leave all keys except for the first one all right now spine and arm should be stiff it almost looks like a robot walk already but that’s not good enough I’m talking about a domo arigato freaking robot walk all right so let’s see here um this is gonna be great all right so let’s see where’s the left foot on the ground right there let’s see right there ok now for this one now we’re going to go into set key mode set key mode does find our spine spine zero you know I don’t even need the other spines I want it to be as robotic as possible so I’m only going to edit spine oops let’s go key all right now let’s move the arms around key key oh man I’m just laughing just thinking about the NPCs walking around like this it’s going funny stuff key key all right oh yeah always make sure the first key is equal to the last key okay now let’s get the spine again right there where is the right foot down key you know what this used to be up to you on that last key at first key key copy those keys to the front remember first keys always equal to the last key so we got here so far oh that’s great all right I see where was that spine key at that we just put for the right foot 24 all right 24 is a frame will recommend that looks good right there you know

what I’ve got an idea too we’re gonna do a little robot swing with that arm you’ll see what I’m talking about in a minute remember always key before you move on the next bone you’ll get used to it key okay now let’s go ahead and get the spine and upper arm and forearm try to follow why I’m doing this I’m going to do a little swing thing with the forearm so I want that key want the body to stay there I’ll show you what I mean yeah hmm might be too much yeah that’s way too much hold on a second that is too fast too fast so let’s go spine upper arm for Cyr this back here no it doesn’t that’s not gonna work all right let’s go back to the original plan there’s not enough to work with to make that so I could do that alright so the left arm is a little off here oh wait forget I select the wrong one it’s like the Paulding pauldrons right next to the upper arm so be careful not to select that when you’re trying to get the upper arm okay I just did like a robot walk myself just to see what it should look like and I think the spine should actually be let me go ahead and delete this this one all

right so it’s going to dip down for the first one but for this one it’s going to yeah to make you up all right cool that’s better that’s there we believe that at the forearm here now let’s see how it works it doesn’t look quite robotic enough though you know what so I’ll wait whoops okay so what I need to do is I need to select what I’m going to do is I’m going to make this look more robotic by doubling up the keys by extending the amount of time that they’re in each position from forum and groan form and select all these why what is this key here what is this then used to go oh oh I see that’s the spine all right you know what that’s good enough it’s good enough for the purposes of the tutorial is good enough I don’t want to waste too much time doing this I still got some real animations to make alright so after you get your animation done to the point where you want it all right select the whole skeleton and what I do is I key it manually what you can do if you want is go to animation save animation after you select all the bones alright you click segment actually I don’t even think you need to do that you just save it just like this without segment and it’s going to save all frames of all bones I’m pretty sure because I’ve done it like that before and it seems to work that way but if you want to just to make sure go segment get the frames 34 frames right and so you go 0 to 34 save the animation oh yeah keep her frame that’s the secret yeah okay so that’s why you want to hit segment that’s right if you’re doing it to key it hit segment do put the frames in keep her frame and it’s going to key all the bones in the animation I personally do it manually unless it’s a really long animation like in the hundreds of frames but like in a case like this I just do it manually period and comma is forward and back I use those keys all the time Kay is key so select all bones k key ceiling light light up like that right that means a key next frame period k ki period k period k well key that’s why I do manually because honestly the way I just did it with an animation like like short like this it’s quicker that way than going and saving and then loading the animation it’s not worth it just keep manually and if you want to make sure you got all frames if you do it that way you do a quick like like that you know there’s always a chance you can skip a frame on accident or something then you just hold down period to move the animation forward and you’ll notice because the the light up there you know the bones are kind of lit up surrounded by those brackets when they’re keyed you’ll see them blink on and off if you missed a frame here and there if you do that all right so you

got your animation set go to habit content tools export what you want if you use the the max file from full resources for modders from X PMS I not sure what it has here ready normally this is empty this window right here and what you’re going to have to do is are gonna have to go to animation we want to drag create skeletons and they do need to be in this order create skeletons create animations spline compression approve types rights platform is to be in this order create skeletons create animation spline compression those three are in here spline profession or is it down here are in animation tab over here available filters alright and then for print types of right to platform click on core growing type sprites a platform alright in the settings create skeleton you need a rigging file the full resources for modders also comes with ringing file here’s the thing about habit content tools it’s very picky about where you have the files particularly you want the files to be a very short file path so very close to 3ds max scenes my rigging file is in 3ds max scenes this is in your user My Documents 3ds max scenes my rigging file is in 3ds max scenes rigging and boom there this extra 32 maximum skeleton rigby – alright so if you’re using SPMS that’s what you want get the full resources from monitors everything is there for you sorry for all this tutorial you should be good to go so you select that oh yeah check this make sure this is checked from file click use file order select the rigging file and then you that’s what you do for create skeletons create animations does you don’t do anything for it just leave the way it is it’s blank impression put the quality all the way down or I’m sorry all the way high to lift Kroon types alright you want all seen data you want to uncheck all animation data and you want to check skeletons bone attachments identify binding indices mesh bindings rag doll and mappers and environmental data and then all resource data so take a look at this for a second that notice of the boxes you want checked for prune types right to platform here’s another thing about avid content tools being picky my files will not export if it’s a long path name so see this I was really short up here file name it’s just a backslash boom that’s because it’s that is set to be inside 3ds max scenes this is the shortest path so this is where I save it if I save it anywhere else they go to desktop save see how it’s got all these periods it’s a really long file path I go to run configuration and it won’t it won’t export could not create file and I can do this all day I could pick folders from anywhere it doesn’t matter if it’s not that specific folder for me it will not work it has to be user My Documents 3ds max scenes and then you name the animation so this is the empty-handed walk Mt walk forward now watch now it’ll export but there’s errors all these errors up here invalid skew scale invalid skew scale this is where Reece Treach I’m sorry reset stretch and resets scale come in so select the whole skeleton animation bone tools oh you know what before you do this I always save it before I do it because reset stretch and reset scale can things up if you don’t do it right or if we accidentally click it more than once or whatever the case I’ve seen it Jack animations up so you want to save it first let’s go robot walk boom saved right now if it screws up just load it no big deal all my 3ds max is freezing I remember now I remember now what I forgot to remember all right this is what I was going to say some of you are probably wondering why I do 3ds Max and windowed mode the reason for that is say I want to test out an animation and I go into Skyrim I like to play Skyrim in full screen and even when I’m just testing animations I like to see it in full screen I don’t have the best setup for windowed mode my windowed mode looks like crap and I like to keep my settings the way they are i play in full screen period so I’m not going to full-screen sky I’m going to come out I go back into 3ds max a lot of times my 3ds max is pretty much frozen out crashed whatever so I’m doing in windowed mode it seems to do that much less very well no it

does do that much less I shouldn’t say seems to it it absolutely does do that much less like it’s very rare that it does that before when I was doing 3ds max and full screen it crashed or froze up every time every single time I wanted to Skyrim and came back and a lot of times you don’t I didn’t know if you have to go on a scanner mag just go into like Windows Explorer or Internet Explorer and do some things for a while come back to 3ds max and it’s frozen up so I do it in windowed mode and that barely ever happens if I ever go into Skyrim to test out an animation if I’m doing whatever and I’m going to be coming back to 3ds max what I do is I save my project and then I click new to clear it no matter if I could just save this I’m going go ahead and do it clear it so it’s only the grid and then I go do whatever I want to do come back to 3ds Max and 99 times out of 100 it’s not frozen up it’s perfect load your file again fine it robot-walk so that’s what I was gonna say that’s what I forgot to remember forgot to remember to forget to remember all right select all bones bone tools reset stretch reset scale nice and slowly don’t rush through it and click all crazy-like and stuff because we hit multiple times you can check this animation all up but sometimes you have to hit it multiple times so alright and keep in mind also your habit content tools the settings save to that particular animation so that said you want to set everything up set the file name up and all that jazz before you reset stretch reset scale and then save your project alright hit close not cancel it close save your project and then anytime you love this project all these settings are all automatically going to be the file name and everything file name is saved to the animation file so if you ever need to tweak this animation and then export it again all you’re going to do is go into 3ds max tweak it going to have it content tools run configuration boom sometimes it won’t export right off the bat here’s my scenes folder I have a shortcut to it this is where I export my animations see that one that I exported earlier I did export sometimes it doesn’t though if I keep my scenes folder open when I’m exporting and if you don’t see the file that you’re wanting to export appear then all you got to do is go to write platform go to the file thing just click save again and it kind of rear edge’ stirs it and then hit run configuration and it should export and they do when you export it does overwrite any file with the same name so I could export it right now and it’ll it’ll export to this file it’ll overwrite it okay so let’s run configuration we did reset stretch recess scale beautiful no errors well I get these two errors if anyone knows what these means or if they affect anything or if I there’s anything I can do to get rid of them because I would love to have a clean export with no orange letters that would be beautiful I have no idea what to do about the skeleton NPC root has multiple routes make sure you found in bone camera third I don’t know what to do about that doesn’t seem to affect anything but if anyone knows how to get rid of those errors please let me know alright so we got our robot walk now I’m going to show you how to rotate animations because we want we don’t just want walk forward we won’t walk forward left one forward right walk left walk right walk backward and walk backward left backward right so that said you go to NPC calm you don’t need to turn the bone off for this for rotation well not for rotation on the z-axis anyway go to the rotation go to window they’re offset world go to Z 45 degrees right okay now with some animations like combat animations and such you want the head to face forward even though your move forward left you still want to keep your eye on the combat right so in that case you would go to the head bone rotation window go to that same setting but go – 45 right and it’ll turn the head where you need it to be but for this one we don’t want that this is just walking in a combat animation or Nothing want people to look where they’re walking well look where their robot walking whatever all right so now we got to walk forward this bone down here this an object a nm object B whatever that little stand for your character where it’s left and right that’s perpendicular to where the cameras going to be so right where my camera is right now in the animation file that’s where the cameras going to be in game you know in relation to the direction of the characters facing so I hope you understand what I mean by that so the

fact that my character is turn to the left forward left that means that you know this is going to be a forward left walking animation I hope that makes sense all right so now for the export just adjust the export name walk-forward left boom keep your scenes folder open I got both of those all right now undo straighten it out so minus 45 I’m just going to do forward left and forward right but you get the idea you do the same thing for walk backward anytime you make a walk backward animation all you got to do to make the walk backward right walk backward left is rotate the NPC comm bone and then export it with the backward left backward right name or rotate the head unless for some reason you want a very unique animation for each direction like I have my strafe animations for going left and right but the main reason for that is if you’re using a shield you know as I was saying in a previous part I ran earlier in this video the shield animation only reads the arms for the shield blocking animation so if the body turns completely to the left and right when you run on sideways and you have the block runner perk which means you block at full speed then when you run left and right a shield is going to go left and right it’s not going to be in front of you that’s why I make the strafing animations and that’s why in the vanilla game if you run the left the shields all you know definitely not in front of you definitely not ready to block anything if you have the block runner perk and you run it left but if you run right it’s a little bit in front of you but that’s because the vanilla animation has the body tilted to the side for their for their idle if that makes any sense so anyway run forward right or walk forward right all right so we got those I’m gonna show you one more quick thing real quick you get the idea for animations all the steps that I put in this tutorial bid should be fine if you are still having problems please try to figure them out for yourself watch the tutorial bit again the relevant sections of it if you’re still having problems and you just cannot figure out for yourself go don’t hesitate to whisper me but I want video proof that you tried to figure it out for yourself I’m talking 100 hours minimum now I’m just kidding now just a message me if you’re having a hard time all right so let’s take our exported animations they’re already ready they’re ready to go in game other than animations oh wait actually these animations the MT walking animations are specific to gender so let me go ahead and copy them and I’m going to oh my gosh come on don’t make it move faster oh my gosh I hate this if anyone knows how to do this faster please let me know you know when you’re trying to drag something up a file a file folder or whatever come on almost there almost there oh my god oh my god oh my god hi this is gonna go into mail folder watch me exit let go of it and I start over what happen these three in the all righty so before I go in game and show you the robot animation which I’m sure probably isn’t gonna look exactly I planned on it I could have taken more time and made it look perfect and everything if I was to release like a robot walk mod I would definitely you know I would probably look up some videos and pictures of people walking like robots and get it down just right you know before I released it or whatever this is just for the purposes of the tutorial so please don’t even waste your time posting comments saying like oh it’s not how people do robot walk off with the answer who cares man it’s just damn tutorial I’m just showing you how to do this stuff all right um that said no I don’t want to save it I’m going to show you one more thing before I end this tutorial and that is how to blend a drawing animation or really any of any animation this goes for any animation we’ll go to well hm do a wheel draw all right I’m sure some of you know this animation all right now this was before I knew how to put the

weapons in the animation so that’s why there’s no weapons in there but anyway let’s say because this is the old Idol of immersive animations actually was an animation tweaks and fixes what I called it originally right that’s that that Idol so let’s say I want to adjust this to go into my new Idol for my mod Tomic Harrison I’m coming out with so what I would do so I kind of get to the point where it looks like he’s probably got the weapons in his hands yeah it grabs it right there boom pulls the weapons out fire up right around there all right so frame 30 select all bones dopesheet this is already on 30 so keep that in mind this yellow line is telling you what frame you’re on it kind of gives you a guideline too and like if you’re trying to delete everything after frame 30 put this line on frame 30 and then you got something to guide you through it and all these keys these are just keys from animations that I loaded into this one that were much longer than this animation and as I said before you don’t really need a little delete on you can if you want you don’t need to all right so I’m going to delete all these keys past frame 30 my thing is lagging real bad what the hell is going on here all keys bad frame 30 delete oh no it’s doing this number I don’t know why it does this if anyone knows how to get around this please let me know sometimes it does this I go to delete keys and won’t let me I might just have to do it manually pain in the butt yeah you click yes and it still doesn’t delete the keys in that case and you click no well obviously doesn’t do anything I don’t know I don’t know why that happens some animations it just says that things all buggy right now what’s going on oh come on delete oh whatever I’m gonna overwrite that key anyway that last one okay so I want to move this key this first key try to follow what I’m doing here what I want to do is I want to load one key of my position of my idol and I’m going to put that key at the end of the animation right so that way after he draws the body goes right into the Idol at the end the new Idol that said when I load that animation it’s going to load that key into the beginning of this animation by default so I need to move this first key out of the way just anywhere so that way it doesn’t overwrite that key another thing that’s going to happen is it’s going to overwrite the next key in the line also so I also need to move that key out so here’s my first two keys right now since it’s going to automatically overwrite the next key it’s going to overwrite this one now so I need to put you know what this animation is kind of jacked up ignore the structure here I’m going to put a key here just a bunkie just so to give it something go over right all right so I’m going to go load animation I’ve already got a one key idle animation saved here it is idle one key right right is saved it looks like it didn’t really overwrite that next one whatever okay now we don’t want at the beginning we wanted at the end so bring it down to the end and then this first one now go back to the beginning second one now let’s see if it’s right get rid of that one there you go alright so now we start standing oh thank you really that one’s here sorry okay start from standing Oh grab the weapons and right into the new da McKee recital perfect right one thing to keep in mind with equipping animations it does read the spine movement when you’re moving because obviously when you’re moving you know it’s not going to read the animation the legs from the animation legs are going to be read from the movement animation but it will read the spine that said default vanilla has the spine turn to the right you know because

your body’s tilted to the right so I mind Emma cares animations as you can see in the idle this straight forward is squared off if I was to make this animation squared off on the spine the whole way then while moving and equipping it would make the spine actually go to the left and look really awkward so during the equipping animation you need to have the spine just defaults leave it alone otherwise it’s going to look awkward while you move into the behavior clause well that’s how you do that that applies also you can do the same thing with unequip animations but in that case you obviously want the idle to be in the beginning and so you pretty much just use that strategy you can apply that to all equipment unequip animations you’ll figure it out alright so I guess that’s it I can’t really think of anything else I guess if I think of anything else all I’ll put it in the video one thing to note about attacking animations animations that actually have a tax you know like sword swings etc let’s say you do one HM the tag forward sprint one-handed melee forward sprinting attack right the critical charge I know I’m sorry that’s the regular one this is the critical charge tech power Forge but anyway let’s say you want to do as a matter of fact I’ll show you just give you a little taste of my upcoming mod here it’s on to Karis where is it sprint power tech I call this one sprint power tech new arm because my arm was all deformed in my first one so I’m in a new one with a fixed arm so this is my sprinting power tag in my die macarius mod okay now what I was going to tell you is that you know this is a heavily heavily modified version of the default sprinting power tech of vanilla so it looks completely different I mean almost looks like I made it from scratch but it’s heavily modified version of the default there’s no reason to make an animation from scratch you’ve got a baseline pretty much any animation out there just think of whatever animation trying to make think of whatever animation that’s in vanilla Skyrim that’s closest to it and then just modify that animation so you know quickest pass between two points is a straight line right so you want to get as close to a straight line as possible no point in starting scratch from scratch all in all it is as a matter of drastically changing certain bones positions then just delete all the keys of that bone those bones and then you know but I’m sure some of the bones and said animation will prove pretty much me around the area you want them so there’s no reason to start from scratch now in this animation I had them jump much higher and I’m going to lift his legs up more much different from the vanilla as you can see I’m sure all of you are familiar with the the vanilla animation plays much faster than a game obviously it’s about that speed and game all right so what I was going to say is when you get the original animation imported before you start making adjustments you want to mark certain points of the animation like for instance when the weapon swing makes contact like right there I mean that’s obviously not what the vanilla animation looked like but there was a point in the vanilla animation when you can pretty much you can pretty much tell that that’s where the weapons going to make contact when the weapons out in front of them right because that’s about where the swing sound is going to be now that is not handled by the animation the swing sounds for combat that’s handled by something else so you want to note what frame that swing sound is going to be on that where that contact is and when you modify the animation make sure you keep that contact point like 21 that’s my contact point and the vanilla animation for the sprinting power tag for one-handed contact point is 21 needs to be the same so that way the swinging animation swing-u sound sorry you know right in the red bring the right time so when you do the animation you know let’s say I put this contact point you know much farther in the animation like around here then I’d get the swinging sound probably one eating around here like it would be much too soon so you’re going to note where the swinging is and that’s another thing that I forgotten I believe this is it I believe this will conclude the video annotations all right you want to highlight NPC route which is down there on that little character stand so just select all bones down there okay NPC route press the plus good it you can

do this on your file that you’re making ready you’re ready file you can do this on your ready file this way in all animations you got to transform line but normally this little block here will not be here I know I’m sorry let me expand this this block will not be here soon I get these annotations foot spring left footed spirit left that’s where he lands now on these sprinting attacks most of the sprint foot sounds are built into him but the normal sprint just the sprinting they’re not you actually have to put foot inspring left foot sprint right the reason I have two for the left is because this is where you jumps and this is where Lance and both of them are with the left foot there’s different annotations for for weapon equip you want to put begin weapon draw in the beginning of the animation and then at the point where he actually grabs the weapon is weapon draw for sheathing at the beginning is begin weapon sheath now that’s sheath with an e at the end sh e a th e the action of sheathing the item sheath would not have any with the action ebony like breath and breathe so matter of fact maybe it’s pronounced Eve I don’t know anyway so begin weapon sheath weapon chief however we note something there is a problem if you’re doing like equip animations I’m sorry sheathing animations for like weapons on back like one hand weapons on back there’s an issue where it kind of like it gets all weird the weapon gets all weird in-game the reason it does that is because it’s following the begin weapon sheath function which pretty much is the whole package of the animation the sound effect and everything rolled into one so if you have begin weapon sheath and it’s going to play this evening sound effect and also with swords and daggers I’m sorry just with swords it’s going to do this thing where it tries to line up with the sheath while you’re sheathing it so it looks all weird in-game so to get around that like if you because of your sheathing on back you don’t want that obviously because the sheath is in a much different position so it look all weird so you want to remove begin weapon sheath and just put the sound effect in manually put sound play period go ahead and show you the sound play period and then I believe it’s like weapon blade one hand sheath SD I’m pretty sure that’s what it is but you can go into the CK going to the weapons going to any sword and you can see what go into art and sound and you can see what sounded plays upon sheathing and different things it does you can play any sound that’s got any sound this guy arm has by doing this sound play and you just get the name of the sound and sound play period fall and it’ll play that sound on the frame that you have it on so in this case it’s going to play sound play weapon wage one hand chief SD on frame what is that fifteen looks like fifteen yeah so that’s annotations different annotations do different things there’s a foot left foot right that’s regular footsteps but for normal running animations and walk animations you don’t have to put those from my experience they have footprints built into them the sprinting though you do you do have to put foot spring left foot sprint right let’s see here so you get the equipment begin weapon drill and weapon drop any annotations you want to if you’re not sure what annotations should be in an animation what you do you get this file called convert you i just go to google search search for convert you I convert you I right here okay and let’s get let’s go to default vanilla animation let’s go with one hm equip in the in folder copy I’ve got some other stuff in there too don’t worry about that convert you I run hkx to XML see this is stuff to you can do you know all the conversion stuff with this file to just figure out you know just figure out how to use it it’s not hard I know how to use it I could show you but it’s so easy and self-explanatory there’s no point hkx to XML convert alright so it converted everything that is hkx in the in folder to xml version into the output it’s still hkx but it’s readable now get notepad plus plus download that google search it download notepad plus plus plus and then when you right-click on the hkx file and it would notepad plus plus and this little whole bunch of

bullcrap will come up that you have no idea what it means don’t worry I don’t know what most of it means either but you do have different bones now it doesn’t say the bone name it just says track name in the default animations but these do represent different bones but the one with the annotations that is your MPC rubric so this up here is your MPC group the first bone annotations for annotations begin weapon draw put scuff right weapon draw foot scuff left so there you go those are annotations you can see what annotations are in each animation so if you’re trying to get a certain function to to work and it’s not working on your animation you probably got it annotated run or not annotated at all so you need to go and look at the default version of the animation in XML and see what the annotations are so that’s pretty much it you got annotations got animations you got every other Asians I can think of I don’t know I guess if there’s anything I missed then leave it in the comments section and I’ll try to touch base on that if I’m familiar with it all right I’m going to close this out with a little video the walking animation the robot walk and I’ll show you my new my sprinting well my new Die Macarius animations in general forgive it video quality I know my computer renders crappy videos what can I say at least you can still see the animations you can see the point you get the message so I assure you I do not play with a crappy Skyrim my sky arm looks fine but when I render it into a vid it looks like crap alright well that’s it see