DISCOVERY Mark Evans A Plane Is Born E04

my first job is to build that rudder this needs finishing off was a thing called composite technology to make it very solid and structurally sound bowling are brilliant in she comes thank you very much I am welcome to a plane is gone I’ve been waiting for my new chick book for ages more of that later I want to show you first my brother which a lot more work still let’s finish it off but let me show you it goes up here very exciting because that’s the first bit of the plane I’m actually built look this is the left wing must be the left wing is Liam it’s the left wing and this is where all the gubbins is going to go inside and that’s what I’m going to be doing today is fabricating a wing only problem is I have no idea how to do it it’s time for the manual a wing is made up of a spa here that goes all the way through the wing right to the other end and then a right angles to it are these things which are called ribs they support the skin that’s the top skin the leading edges down there and then the bottom skin underneath in this hole here will fit an aileron which will go up and down like that along here in this holes will be a flap which will slide in and out like that and then the very end of the spa here this long bit is what should actually go through the fuselage and attach the wings the planks remember these are detachable wings which is very important that the first job is to put in some more of these plates you can see through there a metal plate that goes through the bottom skin and sticks out here and this is actually going to have fixings in here to attach a hinge that will operate or attach hold on the flap and I’ve got to put three more of those in other ribs along the wing I need to mix up some flocks now to be able to put that plate in and actually fix it in rigidly so I need a little bit of my resin mix just a tiny amount there we go and then some of this phlox cotton that makes a real paste when it’s mixed up with the resin and the hardener then give it a good stir then it should end up looking a bit like very gooey in the paper place which you shouldn’t know anything about because you shouldn’t be wallpaper in the house which is $30 very boring you should be building these like airplanes all right look we using is this bi-directional fiber glass and it changes shape really easily so what I’ve done is to put five glass onto a sheet of plastic then dab on the resin we just kind of stippling action like that now these bits of fiberglass are going to basically hold in that flap plate the mounting bracket plate into the wing so just fixes and glues it and makes it very rigid and very firm but the same technique using this video off I’m going to have to do along a lot of the ribs to actually strengthen the whole structure of the wing so it’s a painstaking job right that’s the cloth pretty much soaked and it’s good names when it is wet it sticks to that plastic underneath and here’s the real trick because then you can actually lift that layer of plastic and then cut out the plastic trimming up the edges of the big pot as you go so that I’ve got a piece or beer

soaked in resin with a backing of plastic sort of patch if you like and then whole thing will lift out let them take it and put it in the wing you’re like fantastic putting this stuff on the reason they’re using this bit cloth which stretches in every direction possible is because it’s got lots of corners and curves to go around but having said that trying to get it to take up the shape and not have any air bubbles in it it’s very tricky because when the inspector comes and checks it out but it has got air bubbles in it will fail there we go that’s that one trimmed up I’ve got another two layers to put on there and I’ve got two more of these mounting plates to put in that’s going to take me a while then I’ve got to be drilling holes and sorting out a whole load of fixtures and fittings for this wing so join me in part two for that but first another trip to Gloucester Airport for the next in the sequence of my flying lessons welcome back to Gloucester Airport you can tell that learning to fly is now getting a bit more technical because I’ve had to find a desk a notepad I’m about third of the way through my textbook and I’ve had to get all these other bits and pieces including a clipboard very important so the brain is having to take over very hardly a car what we doing today my mark today we’re gonna look at climbing so the only exercise is to climb the aircraft at 75 knots in a constant direction from one level to another we’re going to enter using power attitude trim and look at before you go be customer and especially in the area that you’re going to climb into any aircraft that may be sitting above us people look at going curing the burn especially in the Dalek you know which returning attitude we’re gonna raise the nose to the climatic you’d and if you remember from our initial departures that’s putting them the nose on the horizon as the client attitude and then if we’ve got any trim forces or any aerodynamic forces on the on the control column we’re gonna trim those out so we’re flying the aircraft hands off if we wanted to during the climb the first thing is power good attitude up to climbing [ __ ] so we’re climbing at 75 knots we just need to run through the checks so we can do a double check and throw a double direction are we going in a constant direction attitude is the attitude correct and remember attitude controls airspeed balance look at the ball are we in balance keep the ball in the middle during the climb we’ve got the aircraft cowlings obstructing our view so every phone if we can lower the nose look out and back to the client and then engines we’re going to just check the t’s and peas during an extensive climb we just monitor the temperatures because it’s gonna get one okay I’d like to do is continue the prize of 2500 feet and a belief check double checks as you go direction it’s okay attitude find those on horizon balance falls in the middle look out engines please please it’s okay so that covers the climbing section of the exercise any questions on that no it seems to make sense but all these mnemonics I’m seeing gonna have a whole sentence together there’s a few more I’ll because of your freedom what a view that is amazing so what’s next right as we said earlier what comes up must go down so we need to look at defending the only exercise is to learn to glide the aircraft at 75 knots in a constant direction to a selected altitude all right basically hold the nose up till the Antonov starts decreasing – approaching 75 so about 80 knots you just start relaxing that back pressure and get the aircraft clipped

nicely at 75 knots all your way around it the direction is way off I have set the picture drivers bucket hitch and that’s too much okay the visual pilots will use the picture what we’re trying to do is to glide the aircraft we’re not using the engine at all and the warrior has a glide ratio of about 12 to 1 so for every foot descending rule have traveled across the ground 12 feet so it gives you some idea of the range if we have for it to have an engine failure bit but we’ll practice this a bit later on in the course I just find the whole concept of gliding a plane that’s that’s actually got an engine that you’re supposed to use a bit odd because I see gliders as things of huge great long wings that like birds not some little stubby thing right now about 70 knots get all together you can also get a got a pedal you fly there you fly it there I had to start raising that I was gently flying the aircraft a little bit lower then hold it back hold it off there and they start reducing that power down so I reduce that power the juice that path and they keep clear back you pull it back over there generally I thought you did really well towards the end you’re getting tired that’s for sure about five minutes before we came in to land yeah I was getting this kind of glazed look every time I was looking at the instruments and it’s like oh you know I’m losing it completely now we need to talk about the rudder do we have – could I just could I just leave now actually what rudder exactly no no I put right right there I thought now I’ll scrub that out I’ll put no rudder no feet on the rudder no feet on the river no rudder so you really need to work that rudder remember it’s important it’s a primary control and it’s no difference or actually for try and fly the aircraft good absolutely nothing on the control column there you know it’s equally as as important to get those Ritter I mean at the moment you’re in the Douglas bar to school to flying so need to work on that right up so generally very good and on to the next thing but a lot more work to do pedals I must remember the pedals welcome back to a plane is born I’m in my workshop and I’m building my own light aeroplane and it’s very light at the moment because there’s virtually nothing in it I’m building the wings at the moment and I’m about to start putting together the mechanism that operates the ailerons I can actually turn the thing when it’s in the air now for those of you familiar with plane building and I don’t suppose there are many of you you’ll know exactly what all this lot is laid out on my bench this here is a lateral push rod all this slot this gubbins will make a bell crank housing and this little bit here is a link rod are you with me so far I hope so the instructions of course are all in the manual on page 88 figure 11 bracket assembly looking at T dot e dot as installed brackets stupider first step put these two plates together with a bolt that we call the stop so that goes in there through one side washer on spacer on the other plate another washer and then this very special nut which is called a stiff nut and actually locks in place if you like and my glamorous assistant peach will show you on a bigger nut how one side that she screws onto the bolt is circular but the other side is squashed it’s an oval shape and that actually means that when it goes on to the bolt it has to deform that oval into a circle which locks it onto the bowl she’s very clever and then it’s just a matter of tightening it up sorted this little beastie is the bell crank itself and what the bell crank does is allow all the controls to change direction because one push rod will come in here attached to this end there’s a bearing that will sit in the middle and then when that pushes the whole thing can turn and it will push the other link rod out the other way the important thing is to get the bearing in the right orientation to the bell crank and you need to really study these diagrams carefully to be able to do that this end here is slightly longer so that goes like that flip it up so that we’re looking at this picture and that goes in there we just check that’s right that’s right and the way it’s all

held together is by six small rivets which are these little chappies and they just push through from this side and then where they come through on the far side of the bearing they need bashing the hell out of sorry peening to make them fit and make it nice and tight now it needs to be attached to the bracket so let me just check the right way around it’s like that so another bolt goes through and us wash it in a spacer it’s slot the bearing over the bolt like that and actually swing all this now to be able to get four more little washers on the end of there through the other side and tighten it up again not completely tight there you go the bell crank swings it’s beautiful before I can put this whole assembly actually into the wing it’s easier to put on these little push rod ends that will attach to the push rods and allow the whole mechanism to work I need a bolt and a washer okay through there now these push rod ends are exactly like the push rod ends that you have on a car on the steering rack so if you’re more familiar with cars which you probably are you’ll know all about them and that pops on there with another stiffness on it now a very important thing about building aircraft parts is that the bolt must come through from the top when it’s in the planes in normal orientation because if you’re flying along and for some reason then that comes off at least the bolts by gravity will still hold in the right place imagine if it was up the other way and the nut came off your bolts will drop out as well and then you’d have no controls at all and you’d have very Billy end up back on the ground so that’s all fine just a matter of tightening it up that’s sorted and one more to go what I’m doing now is attaching an insert is the end of the lateral push rod that will then allow me to screw the push rod on to bellcrank on guard yes my little push rod is ready to go into the wing to assemble all this stuff the owner also Pete makes in the show the hole with our special camera because here coming out my lateral push rod right through all these holes through the ribs here he comes down in that you seen it no lovely look at that in that goes like that right now my shot is my show leave thank you very much I’ve got quite a lot of work to do to now put all this lot together in the wing but a good chance while I’m getting ready for you to have another look at a home-built aeroplane it’s a Pietenpol air camper yes you heard me right an air camper it was built by Nigel Marshall and Rob Cooper from plans in their lunch hours airplanes of Pietenpol air camper it’s a 1929 design and it’s the plans bill the plans bill apparently is literally what it says you get a plan and then you have to provide all the material skill tools and get it inspect it as you do that’s fundamentally a plan still airplane engine the power plant is a continental c9z the airframe is constructed of Sitka spruce which were boarding from estates covered in polyester fabric basically wood fabric of the airplane took ideas to build it was built during our lunch hours basically on the air by these five years of our cows Wednesday we stopped till about 7:00 and they went down a pub to talk about it it’s a really enjoyable process building the aeroplane because it’s a kind of constant mental challenge you’re a bit lost when you finish there I think but first time I went up in it when a two and a half thousand feet we’ve got tufsa clad and you’re looking at the thing and thinking did I build these wings right I hope it’s all glued up and it’s a real sort of feeling of achievement when you’ve done registration GPS is the first four letters of the designers name the aircraft was designed by burner people back in the 20s late twenties and we were fortunate enough to get g-p-s registration there inspector fine

elderly gentleman who spent all his life grand airplane fortunately wooden ones he said to us if you’re gonna make an airplane make as much of it as you can don’t just go rushing out with your checkbook buy this that and the other this is why we made all the undercarriage the engine mounts the propeller you name part of the airplane and we’ve made it my first bit of advice would be never mind how many seats or what it is but go ahead and actually build in that’s the first stumbling block deciding good but once you’ve committed to build then look around to see what you want to build yeah I agree I think it’s the thing you can think about forever should I build it shouldn’t I do it and and really there’s nothing stopping you it’s not as difficult as everybody makes out Happy Campers to be sure now I’ve got to fix all this stuff into my wing to operate my ailerons and the first job is to actually put the bell crank in place on the spa and there are four studs they’re already in it when it arrives from the factory to attach it to so this is very straightforward well the really weird things about building all this is that every part you build you’re thinking I better get this right because when I’m 3000 foot in the air my life could depend on it so I can then attach my lateral push rod and screw it into the push rod and down here it’s all coming together very nicely then an aileron do you like it I hope so I’ve got to fix some hinges on whoa like that to fix it to the wing so there’s a hinge that’s going to go in place it’s the moment of truth I’ve fixed the a neuron to the wing with the other side of the hinges connected it all up and I’m going to test it so here goes fantastic see you next time when I’ll be finishing the wing off and getting it inspected okay cut do you think we got away with that