Extreme Heat Vulnerability: How we can Protect and Empower Communities

Hello everyone, welcome to the ERI, or the fall Environmental Resilience Series, jointly presented by IUs integrated program on the environment, and the Environmental Resilience Institute Before we start, I’d like to make the following statement Indiana University wishes to acknowledge and honor the Miami, Delaware, Pottawatomie and Shawnee people on whose ancestral homelands and resources Indiana University was built So both IPE and ERI are founded on the understanding that interdisciplinary learning and research are essential to teach today’s scholars, and to solve today’s problems IPE is dedicated to bringing together all the environmental and sustainability scholarship across the various schools and departments on the Bloomington campus IPE is made up of over 120 faculty and nearly 1000 students studying the environment from all angles, the sciences, arts and humanities across more than 25 degree programs ERI was founded in 2017 as part of the IU Prepared for Environmental Change Grand Challenge Its mission is to enhance resilience to environmental change in Indiana and beyond by accurately predicting impacts, and effectively partnering with communities to implement feasible, equitable, and research informed solutions So first I’d like to thank Sarah Mincey from IPE, and Marianna Canes from the O’Neill School, who helped organize a seminar speaker series We’ve had a wide variety of speakers over the course of the semester, and we have more to come And our speakers are sharing their experiences, research, and insights with us In particular, our speakers will focus on topics relevant to the issues, systemic racial inequality, environmental injustice And the need for a just transition to a future that’s healthy, and safe for all people, not just those you have been privileged by centuries of inequitable systems in societies You’ll be able to find more information about each talk on the ERI and IPE websites, and you can also sign up for regular newsletters So we encourage you to sign up for our newsletters, so that you can get reminders about these upcoming events So please be sure to keep your audio muted And whenever you have questions as you think of them, type them in the chat box, and we’ll monitor the chat box throughout the talk And there will be an opportunity at the end for questions to be answered, and those will be directed to the speaker from our moderator, Heather Reynolds, who is now gonna introduce our speaker today >> Hi, everybody It’s great to be here with you today I am delighted to introduce Dana Habib She is an assistant professor currently in the Department of Informatics here at IUs Luddy School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering, otherwise known as SICE Dana was trained as an architect and urban designer I love that She has master’s degrees in City and Regional Planning, and in architecture, as well as a PhD in City and Regional Planning These all come from the Georgia Institute of Technology And her research explores climate responsive design interventions can help to mitigate climate change, and improve the health of individuals and communities And we have been really fortunate to have her as a member of the Prepared for Environmental Change Grand Challenge working group in urban green infrastructure Where she has been mapping local climate zones to better understand people’s heat exposure in Bloomington and Indianapolis, as well as mapping green stormwater infrastructure, and developing an edible tree map for Bloomington So with that, I’d like to turn it over to Dana >> Thank you, Heather, so much for that introduction, and welcome everyone Thank you for being here today I’m gonna go ahead and share my screen with you all Great, can everyone see that? Wonderful, so thank you all for being here today Today I’m gonna be talking about extreme heat vulnerability, and what we can do to protect and empower communities In this talk, I’m gonna go over three main topics I’m gonna first talk about work that we’ve done with heatwave trends Then I’m gonna talk about different types of mitigation strategies that we can use

at the local level And then I’m gonna talk about some more recent work that I’m doing with sensing technology I’d like to start with the discussion on extreme heat and public health We see that in the United States, more people die to extreme heat than any other form of natural disasters On average, we can see upwards of 1300 people who will die to extreme heat per year in the United States on average And we can look at historical heatwaves, such as the European heatwave of 2003, and the Russian heatwave of 2010to see some of these examples of extreme heatwaves Where in each of these events, over tens of thousands of individuals lost their lives during these individual events These two heatwaves rank among two of the deadliest natural disasters in the past century And it really illustrates the importance of extreme heat to public health We see that cities are more vulnerable to extreme heat because of what is known as the urban heat island effect And the urban heat island effect occurs when we see temperatures in cities are higher than in their surrounding rural area This temperature differential is due to basically how we are designing cities We are displacing the natural vegetation in cities, and replacing them with impervious surfaces, such as roads, parking lots, and buildings And all that impervious surface goes to raise temperatures in urban environments But one thing that we don’t just see a distinction between urban and rural and temperatures, but we actually see that temperatures vary dramatically within a city, and that we see a lot of different microclimates And as Heather brought up some of the work that we’re doing with the urban green infrastructure is mapping local climate zones What urban climatologist have found is that there are different types of microclimate zones that really impact temperatures And so we can expect that temperatures are higher in downtown areas, and they would be in a more residential area And so for example, we can see this variation This is some work that I did last year, looking at temperatures on campus And we can say a day of September that between Luddy parking lot on an unused campus and Dunn Woods, we see an 8.5 degrees difference in these two areas, which are pretty close together So not only do we see that cities are consistently higher than their rural areas, but we also see that temperatures and cities are actually increasing at a faster rate in rural areas And some of the work that we’ve done has found that urban temperatures are rising at double the rate [INAUDIBLE] Cities are even more vulnerable to extreme heat because of this increase in trends And then cities are more vulnerable because of what we’re seeing with climate change In the past five years, we have the hottest years on record with 2016 still the hottest year from start to end And as you all know This has been definitely a trying year for climate change where we really have it on the forefront of our mind So I’d like to transition into some of the work that we did with heat wave trends And so with looking at extreme heat in cities, I really want to investigate how are heat waves changing specifically in cities? And so to do this work, I looked at the five largest US cities across the United States and I tracked heat wave changes over 50 years When tracking these heat wave changes, I defined extreme heat events based on Gaffen and Ross definition that a heat extreme heat event is any day in which the apparent temperature exceeds the 85th percentile, the long term temperature average, of a particular location The phrase particular location is really important here because we are using the local climate trends for each MSA to base on these EHEs And that’s really important when looking at health effects in determining what is an EHE We used apparent temperature, was combination of temperature and humidity because we know that humidity really impacts our body’s ability to cool itself and is a better measure, apparent temperature is a better measure of heat stress We used the National Climate Data Center Heat Stress Index for the temperature And we specifically were looking at daily minimum apparent temperatures, minimum referring to high nighttime temperatures And we define heat waves as any two consecutive events, EHEs that lasted two days We’re really interested in looking at specific heat wave characteristics And so, what we would see is that we expect that heat waves that lasted longer would have a stronger impact to health effects because it doesn’t allow for people adequate recovery periods Also we see that heat waves that occur early in the year also impacts public health and mortality effects, because it doesn’t give a person’s body’s ability to acclimatize to these higher temperatures So we actually see a huge impact to mortality at the beginning of heat wave seasons So we wanted to track how heat waves were changing with regard to temperatures

And we’re also defining them with minimum temperatures, these high nighttime temperatures Because minimum temperatures have been shown to be a better association with negative health effects due to extreme heat And this is also important for cities because we see that minimum temperatures are amplified in cities because of the urban heat island effect So what we find from this analysis that we see that all four heat wave characteristics, a frequency duration season intensity are increasing across the United States over the five decades We see that heat wave frequency, for example, is increasing by 20% each decade on average across large cities in the US We didn’t just look at this on average across the US We actually looked at the individual trends for each of the cities And one thing that we did was we grouped our cities into what we called vulnerable cities And a vulnerable city was any city that had a heat wave characteristic that was increasing at a faster rate than the average United States And you had to have an increasing rate above the US standards in at least two heat wave categories So these are a list of our vulnerable cities that we identified And so we can see that the cities are pretty distributed throughout the United States Really showing that no matter where large cities are located, cities really need to be planning for extreme heat Also one thing that we noticed is that cities on this map and especially when we did this analysis that weren’t considered hot cities were popping up as vulnerable cities, like San Francisco and Portland Los Angeles, which this year is had record heat waves which were unprecedented And so even during the study we’re already picking up these vulnerable cities San Francisco was ranked as a vulnerable city with regard to three heat wave characteristics, timing, frequency and duration And San Francisco had the fastest growing heat wave season of all cities in our study So for example, heat waves in San Francisco were starting in 1960 by the middle of July And by the end of our study, we’re seeing them start by the beginning of June, the end of May, a month and a half increase in heat wave season And so this work that I did looking at heat wave trends, I worked with the EPA to actually recreate this methodology, and extend it to present day, and to keep this work being updated to turn this into a Climate Change Indicator And so we worked on the data I’m gonna be presenting data are specifically ones who were extended out to 2018 And we didn’t just do minimum temperatures, but we added maximum temperatures to look at the different definitions of heat waves And we did a subset of the analysis as well to look at 1988 to 2018 Because in a future work that we’re working on now is that we wanna look at urban growth, and understand the correlation between urban growth and urban heat islands with regard to the change in heat wave trends Some cities change in the analysis due to data availability Let’s see, this our data that we had before And that we see when we add our next decade, approximately the next decade, we can see this continued increase in our trends with the biggest difference within heat wave frequency and heat wave season That’s what season we see, on average a 16 day increase on average across all cities in our study for heat wave season And so we see how what’s considered hot in our urban areas, the time of day is really starting to change This is a map showing this different cities in the study that we’re looking at with the graduate symbol representing decadal change rate for each of the heat wave characteristics, the frequency and season And so we also looked at this with regard to minimum and maximum So here’s a slide where we put the two next to each other So we see the minimum in blue, the maximum in red And we can see there’s not as clear of a pattern as we saw with minimum with regard to maximum But when looking at specifically the frequency and season, we see a much clearer relationship between minimum And we’re looking at the last two decades and especially that we’re really seeing that minimum temperatures may be starting to outpace maximum temperatures or heat waves when defined as maximum temperatures And so this is important for two reasons is that we see this difference one thing that we want to tease out as I noticed is this difference between minimum maximum and how we’re defining temperatures Whether we see that this difference might be caused by urban heat islands So we see the synergistic effect between urban heat islands and heat waves And that this is increasing the vulnerability of cities to heat waves and to climate change One other thing is to note is that there’s no consistent heat wave definition One of the studies that did a large

literature review on different heat wave definitions and metrics used in research has shown that studies use different threshold values, different temperature metrics, different meteorological variables And so there’s no consistent heat wave definition at any level And so as we can see, depending on how we define find a heat wave whether by minimum or maximum, we can actually see different trends And some research is also showing that depending on how you define them, you see different impacts to mortality as well And so one thing that I noticed when doing the literature review for this paper that we’re writing is that we see that of the 16 heat indices exam and only two of them use minimum temperatures And so minimum temperatures is being overlooked as An important metric to be used Minimum temperatures are important for defining extreme heat events because they’ve been shown to be a better association with negative health effects When looking and examining the heat wave of 2003 in Europe, researchers found that minimum temperature is one of the biggest drivers for extreme heat related mortality in Paris during that 2003 heat wave Also researchers looking at the difference between Europe had a heat wave in 2003, and then another large heat wave in 2006 Comparing these two heat wave events and comparing the mortality between them as well as meteorological conditions A lot less people died in that 2006 heat wave, even though maximum temperatures were very similar and sustained in the same way People argued that this could be because the community was better prepared, because Europe definitely was not prepared in 2003, and so they were better prepared But also a big difference meteorologically was that the minimum temperature was different, and one of the main climate differences between these two heat waves And so this is a discussion we want to bring up, is the importance of knowing how to define our extreme heat events And also to try to make a standard that can be used for people consistently across the United States And so the EPA has taken this heat wave trends and they have released it with the US Global Change Research Program And now it is one of 16 climate change indicators used for the United States And so you can see it down here in the bottom And so this is important because we want our cities to be able to plan for Climate change in cities Not all cities have the resources to do climate projections or trends analysis, or to run big modeling programs But what the EPA is doing is releasing the methodology, the process of releasing the methodology and the access to publicly available data And so now 189 cities across the United States have access to this data as well as methodology so that they can plan for climate change trends in their specific city And so that’s one thing that I think is really important for us when thinking about how we can prepare is to understand our risk to climate change and to extreme heat And the climate change indicator is one way that cities can start doing that And so what else can we do to plan for [INAUDIBLE] events and heat waves And so what we’re seeing that cities can do is that they can prepare emergency response plans And so they can look at staffing and make sure that we have appropriate staffing during what really is the heat wave season And look at infrastructure resilience and public education And include infrastructure for extreme heat such as cooling centers, especially for vulnerable populations But cities can also manage their ambient heat So one of the research studies that we did, we examine all climate action plans for the largest 50 cities And when we did this review, we noticed that nine in ten US cities were pursuing policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions But only one in eight were pursuing policies designed to manage ambient heat And this is an opportunity for cities And so what it means to manage ambient heat is to manage the urban heat island effect And we have specific strategies that we can use We can do albedo strategies And albedo strategies are where we are changing the reflectivity of surfaces [INAUDIBLE] example of their cool roof programs Or also the work being done in Los Angeles right now with their cool streets where they’re really looking at the practicality of actually changing streets, and the albedo of streets, and the cost and the benefit to that Albedo strategies are really useful especially for places that don’t have a lot of rainfall like Los Angeles We can look at waste heat strategies and specifically bring an energy efficiency We see a lot of waste heat from all the machines that are being used in our urban environment, a huge part from transportation sector But also from everyone using all their air conditioning and

as our main adaptation device during these extreme heat But we can also look at vegetative strategies And so vegetative strategies have shown to be one of the most effective strategies at reducing the urban heat island effect in places with sufficient rainfall And they’ve been shown to reduce urban heat island effect by as much as 50% And so we vegetative strategies can include Green roofs and we can look at Chicago’s aggressive, green roof policies that’s linked to their FAR policies And we can also look through urban forestation and programs that big cities like New York and Los Angeles are doing to plant millions of trees within their urban environment As well as all the great work that’s being done the state agencies to actually support their urban forests by tracking them and managing them and, maintenancing them And so all of this is great work that can go to making us more resilient to extreme heat And so we see this is example of Paris I was in Paris last year when they had their big heat wave at the end of June and it was an experience to be there I was there actually giving a talk similar to this on extreme heat And Paris since it was so impacted by the heat waves and the European heat waves 2003 and 2006 are really pushing really great policies to try to adapt and mitigate heat And so Paris is bringing in huge, mature trees into their urban environments in a way that they’ve never done before And actually it’s interesting for me as an architect and urban designer to see that they’re putting them in front of The Opera and the Hotel Deauville, of these iconic buildings that were designed to be open and have a beautiful vistas So it’s really interesting to see Paris begin to remake itself more as a green city But they’re also, having access, it’s important that the public has access to green spaces to cool But also to spraying and misting systems to cool people in these environments But also just the presence of water actually cools the near surface air temperatures because of the process of evaporation And so with the different strategies, I was really interested to look at the role that urban agriculture can play in lowering temperatures And so this was some work that I did was I looked at the role that urban agriculture can play as a heat mitigation strategy Specifically looking in the city of Atlanta And so for this work, I looked at both the MSA level for Atlanta and then the city level I included land cover data and I use temperature data, satellite data that was specifically nighttime data It was really important that I use nighttime data because number one, as we talked about the minimum temperatures have the stronger effect to heat mortality But because I was interested in urban agriculture, I was apotheosizing that agriculture would have a greater potential than other green infrastructure strategies such as tree canopy at actually lowering nighttime temperatures And so I really want to look at that as well as look at the timing of how well do these green infrastructures perform during times of extreme heat For the city level I brought in urban form variables, and so like Heather brought up earlier, we’re working on doing local climate zone mapping for Bloomington, Indianapolis right now And this is one of the reasons why, is so we can see and have a better understanding of how temperatures are changing And so this was some of the local climate zone work and the urban form parameters I put into the analysis at the city level At the MSA level, I found that agricultural lands actually outperform forested lands in reducing nighttime temperatures And so there are different reasons why we would expect this And one of the main reasons is that trees Actually contract temperatures at night because of their wonderful canopy that we use and rely on the daytime that cools in the day So in no way is this work trying to say that trees are not good for for helping us with extreme heat and heat waves, because they are But it’s a larger discussion to understand that maybe we have different strategies that we should look at when we’re designing these type of green infrastructure strategies Also, we found that if we increase 10 acres of agriculture within a one kilometer grid cell, that we saw that we could reduce approximately 10% of Atlanta’s urban heat island And so this is going to this understanding that we can start seeing some impact at this local level Looking at it at the urban scale, I was really interested to see, number one, if we saw an interaction effect between where we placed agriculture So for example, if we place agriculture in a dense downtown area, do we see that it decreases temperatures more than if we place it in a residential area? And what I found in my initial analysis was that I didn’t see an interaction

effect, that the temperatures decreased, but there was no significant difference in the way they decreased unless I looked at the difference whether a heat wave was occurring And if a heat wave was occurring, we actually saw a difference in the reduction in temperature, and greater temperature reductions in urban areas And so heat wave was acting as an effect modifier, and I think this is a really important thing to bring up Because when we’re designing for communities and green infrastructure, we need to make sure we understand how these strategies work during times of extreme heat, and because these are the times when we need them the most I was really interested to see if we see the same amount of decrease in temperatures from agriculture during heat waves And what I saw was that urban agriculture decreased temperatures less during heat wave as compared during non-heat wave, but retaining approximately 25% of its cooling potential So it decreased temperatures less, but it still cooled temperatures Whereas forests actually started having a slightly positive effect on trees at night And so this is, again, important with regarding this understanding of timing and the importance of heat waves I was also interested to see how big of a land do we need So we’re gonna put urban agriculture in to reduce temperatures Where do we actually, can we just put a small parcel, is that enough? Or do we need to see a sizable area? And so the work was teasing out that What we were seeing was approximately 7.5 acres were needed We start seeing this almost threshold effect happening around the 7.5, where we see decreases of temperatures happening at this one kilometer grid cell And so this goes to this understanding that for policies, and this is one thing I want to bring up with how do we make our communities resilient and prepare for extreme heat, is that we really need to design targeted policies, and so targeted policies to actually address these conditions So one thing is that we see with agriculture, one of the biggest cooling benefits is that it’s often irrigated And that is that presence of water that helps But it also has to do with different parameters to model resistance that impacts our cooling potential And so it’s really important that during heat waves, that we’re actively managing our green infrastructure, and specifically our urban agriculture And this is a hard question during extreme heat, because usually this is hand in hand with droughts And so communities are going to have to make these tough decisions of how do we decide to use our water And water is a scarce commodity, and so I don’t have a clear answer there But this is one of those discussions I want to help contribute to, that if we do want our green infrastructure to help cool us during these times, there needs to be some active management for them Also, the location of agriculture matters So urban, we should keep urban agriculture urban And so we see a bigger effect during heat waves if we put agriculture into downtown areas, as compared to residential areas And those were the two, actually, the local climate zones we compared those two And so this might be going in the face of some policies in some cities who are really pushing to support urban agriculture But Philadelphia zoning ordinance, for example, doesn’t allow commercial agriculture, or market or community supported farms, in the downtown area And so there might be good reasons for that But again, this might be losing the opportunity for agriculture to be able to cool these places And then, size matters And so like we saw that 7.5 acres are needed to start seeing a decrease in temperatures at this one kilometer scale, but the largest farms in the US are around 5 to 6 acres And there’s not a ton of them that are that large And so we really need to be thinking about how we can leverage public land And so Park Pride in Atlanta is a good example of how they’re leveraging park space in order to turn that into agriculture space, or Philadelphia has an interesting vacant toolkit So this brings me to another study that we did, which was a climate modeling that we’re looking at specifically And so what we were interested in seeing is can we say, if we project client data out to 2050, then can our climate responsive designs cool temperatures up to [INAUDIBLE]? And so what we did was we were really interested to see, for example, with these climate adaptation strategies, was that say, for example, if you paint all the roofs in a city white, how would that impact climate? Or if you put trees in all the variable space, how would that impact climate? And so we looked at this at three different cities We looked at Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Phoenix

We looked at their population change and used that for projections up to 2050 We did the climate modeling through WRF, so we used the regional climate model of WRF to do our climate models We actually also looked at land cover and looked at how land cover has been changing, and projecting that out to 2050 as well, as an input into our model And so we developed these different climate scenarios And the climate scenarios were pretty much based on a greening scenario, an albedo scenario, and then a combination of the two And for the greening and the albedo scenario, we designed the policies so that they would target either public land or private land Cuz we were really looking at policies that would be implemented and enacted for parcel level development, and so policies that cities could use through zoning ordinances or different policy approaches And so we put this into a health effects model called BenMAP to also model the effect of the prediction of mortality that would result from different climate factors And so we see from the analysis that this is showing a difference between business as usual conditions, and so these are grouped by the different policies and the different cities And so we can see that these are decreasing in different ways in the different cities, but for the most part, decreasing And then we can look at this with regard to mortality, and this is looking at the differences in death And we can look at, how many lives can we save with these type of climate adaptation policies? And so with the policies, what we found was that places like Phoenix, it was the albedo strategies that worked better in Phoenix than say, the vegetative or the combined And that makes sense because Phoenix is a very dry and arid place, and so the albedo enhancement policies are gonna be Better suited for a place like that Whereas in Atlanta we see that, the combination of the two of the greening, and the albedo have the biggest impact And that with the all click, when bringing everything together in Atlanta, we could almost reverse the impact, from climate change And we could save a large, almost 80 to 85% of lives that, would have been lost And so, this really gets that understanding or location So when designing policies, we need to really understand, which policies work for our region or location But one thing that we also did in this study, which I want to discuss here was that, we looked at the distribution of environmental health benefits, from these different climate adaptations scenarios And we looked at this, with regard to the distribution, with regard to the age of the residents and the cities The medium income and then the race, and we want to see if, we saw differences between these variables That, if we put these climate adaptation scenarios and very poor areas, do we save more lives? And if we put them in areas that are wealthier, or if we put them in places that are more predominantly white, versus areas are not white, and so we actually see that, we can save more lives If we target our policies, to areas especially for Atlanta, Atlanta was the clear one here Where we actually see that, we can save more lives if we target our strategies, in areas of low income as well as in, with regard to race And this is, I think on everyone’s mind right now is, I feel we’re having this larger discussion of, looking at systemic racism in our communities, in our cities And I want to bring up this wonderful New York times article that, I’m sure most of you, had seen that release in August of this year That really was, illustrating the great series of works that, have been released recently on tying redlining historical, redlining of communities of the past To the fact that, we’re still seeing the effects of that systemic racism, and that within these red light communities, we see less green infrastructure And we also see that, these are areas that have the highest temperature So I want to play another image that, comes from the New York Times article Atlanta here, and so we see areas that were aided areas as bluer than areas that, were degraded If we try much harder And so, I think that this again, brings up this importance with regard to policy And that, not only should we be targeting policies, with regard to how can things reduce temperatures the most, or how large should green infrastructure be But also, where we can actually save lives the most, and where our most vulnerable populations are located in our communities And I think that’s an important discussion, for cities and communities, to be able to protect them in the most vulnerable

And so, what we see with vulnerable populations is that, we see that age has a huge impact to vulnerability, to extreme heat The very old, very young are very vulnerable to extreme heat We’re actually seeing more focus on extreme athletes, and how they’re becoming more vulnerable to heat, by performing their high performance, in these extreme heat conditions And that, we’re even seeing this down to high school football players in college football, an increase of deaths from heat strokes, to these athletes To the point that, it got brought up for Congress, something to be discussed, and dealt with And so for communities, when preparing for extreme heat, we should know, where our vulnerable populations are So, we should be looking at this, with regard to age and income But also isolation, isolation is a huge variable with regard to vulnerability, to extreme heat, especially the elderly living alone Access to air conditioning is really important, because we see that, air conditioning is our main source adaptation during these times of extreme heat, as well as income Which those two can go hand in hand, pre existing health conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease And respiratory diseases, all show that increases a person’s risk to extreme heat events And so, these are vulnerable population characteristics that, community should understand and really be targeted in their communities, as well as understanding exposures So not only who’s more vulnerable, but who’s being exposed to higher temperatures Very similar, to what the New York time article is showing, the researchers looking at redlining, and the correlation of temperatures and infrastructure But areas with high impervious surfaces, and lack of green space, housing conditions, and lack of transportation, these are all things that can increase our exposures to extreme heat I love this quote by a researcher Arnab Chakraborty Says, we need to better understand where the most vulnerable people are, in order to get to them quickly, and to reduce their vulnerability over time through planning And so I suppose, the immediate reaction that we need to be thinking about, extreme heat, as well as how can we increase the resilience over time? I wanna bring up some work that I did on sea level rise, in the Georgia coast, with specifically talking about a vulnerable population So we looked at the impact of sea level rise, with regard to physical geographies, and social geographies, and on the Georgia coast But with social geographies really, we’re looking at social vulnerable, and social vulnerable populations And we work directly with the Gullah Geechee, and the Gullah Geechee is one of the most intact African cultures that, we have in the United States With direct ties to West Africa, and their community lives, and is distributed from the Carolinas down to Georgia, and North Florida And these communities are often located on islands, on the Georgia coast for example, we were working with ones off of Sapelo Island, communities of Sapelo Island And with sea level rise, we’re gonna see a huge impact to these communities, because of them having to retreat on land And if they are retreating on land, what is going to happen to this very important, and very rich culture that might be lost? And so when we’re thinking about vulnerable population, I want us to think about, the demographics and exposures But also the importance for heritage, and culture that could be displaced, and last due to these changing climate So I’m gonna wrap up by talking about, some work that I’m doing in smart cities, and environmental sensing And so, when I talk about environmental sensing, and smart cities always bring up the question of why sensors? Why do we need sensors, to really look at extreme heat? And so, one reason as we had talked about, in the lectures, we see that temperatures vary dramatically within a city, due to urban heat on effect But most cities are only quantified, by one meteorological station for their location, for their region Which is normally located in airport, and one meteorological station just is not sufficient, to be able to depict the temperature variation in an urban area And so, researchers use satellite data a lot, which is very useful and, but satellite data also has this limitation, due to a spatial scale as well as to temporal resolutions And so that is one reason, as well as the fact that, satellite data is capturing surface temperature, and not capturing near surface air temperature And as the near surface air temperature, specifically two meters, which is the direct that’s the best, to associate with negative health effects So for us to really tie this to health effects, we really need that two meter, and that distributed into the environment So this is why, we’re seeing this push towards low cost ubiquitous sensing and our Urban environments is for these different ways as a way to improve

our understanding of exposures to high temperatures As well as to better quantify these different climate responsive designs And so Chicago array, we’ve seen sensor networks pop up in different areas in the United States And Chicago array I think is the most prominent one where we’re seeing around 40 to 80, or 100 sensors, I think now at this point, but plans of installing up to 500 So the most I think, well established one, sensor network or they’re using where they’re calling these modules are capturing way more than just temperature data But a series of environmental data as well as sound and video data And this person is some of the work that I’m doing here on Bloomington IU campus is where I’m putting sensors onto IU campus to start monitoring how temperatures are changing in the urban environment And I’ve also put sensors into different locations of urban agriculture in Bloomington to look at temperature and relative humidity But also to monitor solar moistures and to really start trying to investigate the impact of solar moistures on temperatures as well in looking at agriculture And so these are some of our sensor systems that we have deployed on campus and in Bloomington And so a simple visualization that I can show is that when looking at just three of these sensors and looking at them, let’s say in a parking lot and a forest area, and in a community garden We see that the orange is the parking lot and as the hottest one that we see in day and night And so we can see that the temperatures increase here in the daytime, and it come down at night And so we’re seeing these diurnal temperature trends here with this graph But we can see that the temperatures in the parking lots are the hottest And then actually the coolest in the daytime by a significant amount are those located specifically, this is a done with sensors, it was located on woods And that the community garden is in the middle But we see this flip-flop here which is what my research previously were showing, that it’s actually, agriculture actually cools temperatures better at night than forest And so we see this flip-flop between forest and agriculture So it’s nice to be able to really tease out these impacts of temperature and not just at one point but really thinking about the diurnal temperatures and changes in an urban environment And the importance that minimum temperatures plays for our communities And so what this is I’ve got ongoing a new project And so this work is being funded by the National Science Foundations to cry program And so where I am putting both these institute sensors like I explained earlier as well on body sensors to look at heat exposure And so with the on-body sensors for monitoring individual’s heat exposure, we want to monitor individual’s heat exposures And we’re really looking at this for validating wearable sensors, we’re really interested to see can sensors, if we wear them our bodies really be able to capture heat exposure Because that would be fabulous if we could get that data And we’re starting to see a lot of research that is starting to use that because these are really important for putting on vulnerable populations, and seeing their exposures throughout the day And then we’ll be moving into really thinking about personal heat response, which is really thinking about how our body responds to heat, that actually how exposure And so we ended up having four different sensors that we use And we put them all over our body based on the literature to see how they perform in different environments, specifically looking at it on woods and lotty parking lot, and see how well they perform And what we found from this research is that the sensors actually are not performing very well That they’re actually over heating, especially in areas of high impervious service, as well as indirect sunlight And so this is really a push that this is an important technology that we could really use this for vulnerable populations and for communities Urban communities with changing climate, and this could be an important area for intervention in order to capture heat exposure And so with my sensor network, I’ve been working on a series of different projects, and really thinking of how can we use sensor networks to help stakeholders and communities We can definitely use sensor networks to improve our methodology, to understand urban climatology better, and heat wave trends, which is very important But we can also look at it through looking at and quantifying green infrastructure performance or in times of extreme heat, maybe tying that into smart irrigation and water harvesting So that we are harvesting, protecting our green infrastructure We could use it for building energy and the role of looking at building energy modeling, as well as the potential for emergency response

And so that’s one of the things that we’re wanting to be working on in the near future is how can we really depict how temperatures are changing our urban environments And how can we give this information to people in their built environment so that people have a better understanding of their hyper local heat exposure when they’re moving through an urban environment And then another project that we’re working on now is actually looking at building energy with regard to green infrastructure And trying to see specifically on campus if we see that buildings use less energy if their surrounding with different types of green infrastructure And so that’s work that we’re just really starting to really delve into And the role of sensor deployments could really enhance this work to really understanding the correlation of the near surface air temperature outside of buildings And then one that I’m very interested is really this emergency response And how can we tailor emergency response to vulnerable population mapping with sensor networks So that as the researcher said in Chicago, how can we get people in emergency response to people when they need it at that time So that wraps me up for my talking as we really want to talk through how we can empower and protect our communities And so I went through talking about heat wave trends, and it’s important for communities to be able to really assess their heat wave trends and their vulnerability to extreme heat Looking at different climate adaptation strategies and the role of that And that when we’re designing policies that we should be designing targeted policies to make sure that we’re getting the best bang for our buck But also that we’re actually putting policies in places where vulnerable population and disadvantaged communities And those who are most vulnerable in our communities are located And then the discussion on sensing technology, and how sensing technology can help us to better be prepared So thank you very much >> [APPLAUSE] Thank you Adam, I don’t know, are we supposed to unmute everybody or do you want me to- >> No, you’ll ask the questions >> Okay, [COUGH] great Well, Dana, thank you I’m clapping vigorously on behalf of the whole crowd, I’m sure, because that was fantastic >> Let me mention real quick that if folks have questions that they haven’t asked yet, they can type them into the chat now >> Thanks, Adam And yes, Dana, that was a fantastic talk A [COUGH] really wide ranging but cohesive talk that really gives us an excellent view of so many of the different complexities, policy issues involved in thinking about how to keep our cities cool So, [COUGH] that was really enjoyable We do have a first question that came in early on in the talk, when you were talking about, [COUGH] excuse me, your comparison of cities with respect to their vulnerability, so the vulnerable cities analysis And the question is have you compared vulnerable versus non vulnerable cities from the vulnerability analysis to see if there are any trends with local zoning ordinances or other policies that contributed to whether a city was vulnerable or not? Or do you think that cities being vulnerable or not is totally a consequence of geography and natural features? >> So that’s a great question So I didn’t talk about this enough, but that’s where our future work for this study is gonna go is really look at the difference between minimum and maximum temperatures And I worked with on the urban climate lab back at Georgia [INAUDIBLE] have done trends analysis for urban heat island trends And so we really want to correlate how quickly cities are increasing their urban heat islands, with heat wave trends And if we see that places that have large growing urban heat islands are correlating in places with increasing heatwave trends, then we’re wanting to try to start teasing that out with regard to development policies And with regard to lack of green infrastructure and increasing re-purpose surface and increase the population growth and sprawling of communities because we see a direct relationship between sprawl in urban heating as well So that’s a great discussion, that’s where we really kind of want to tease that out more to see, you know how our cities becoming more resilient because they have better strategies for design and development >> [COUGH] Thank you Okay, another question, how do you determine heat wave season for a particular location >> So we don’t define the heat wave season so we let the data tell it to us

So we define it when the heat wave starts and where the heat wave ends, and so then we look at the start of the first heat wave, and then we calculate the time to the last heat wave And then we look at how heat waves are increasing earlier in the year as well as how they’re lasting longer in the year and that’s that, we’re looking at So we don’t say heat wave season is may 1 Instead we’re saying no, the heat wave season is actually expanding and changing and this area is based on the fact of it’s not just when the first extreme heat event is but when the first heat wave is >> Okay, thank you Another question on COVID and heat waves [COUGH] you mentioned that those most vulnerable to heat waves are the elderly, the isolated etc This is similar to who is most vulnerable to COVID What can we learn through this pandemic on helping those vulnerable to heat? >> That’s why Such a great question I actually spoke with media outlet about this summer There’s a lot of correlations between extreme heat, extreme heat mortality, extreme heat vulnerability and COVID And so looking at pre existing conditions the elderly or to make people more vulnerable and so things that we can expect things that become problematic during times of extreme heat is the fact that if we have power outages, and people need to get to cooling centers, just like we see with what’s happening with the hurricanes, how we shelter in place together can become more problematic People can’t just go as easily to the library and cold themselves down because it’s a hot day because the library’s closed and not allowing people in And so these normal public infrastructure that are cooling centers for people Especially people that don’t have air conditioning, become really important But also one thing that I thought was really interesting between the link between COVID and extreme heat is his understanding of how people started really reaching out to their elders during times of COVID Let me go shopping for you do need something? And what we see is that this type of check in is really very effective for the elderly and for saving lives, and so the two historical heat waves that people talk about in the US are the heat waves in 1995 and 99 And these heat waves are very similar characteristic Semiological characteristics But in 99, they saved a lot more lives And one reason is, again the communities more prepared and one way they’re more prepared was because they did knocking on door campaigns of going to check and elderly who were isolated I think that was something really beautiful to see in COVID communities Not someone asking for help, but instead asking people how can I help you? I think this is the mentality that we need to maintain a support of how we can continue this type of check in support for most vulnerable during these times where going outside is the exposure Great question, I feel like I could talk about that all day [LAUGH] >> Another question that came in another interesting characteristic, looking across cities is that some like San Francisco, don’t have a robust network of centralized air conditioning due historically not needing this, while others like Austin already have more widespread access to residential air conditioning Do you think that there will be positive feedback in those cities without current air conditioning networks as they’re installed this will accelerate their heat wave extremes faster than other cities with this already built in >> So we definitely see this problem with housing condition And so when we’re thinking about housing condition, we can think about insulation you can people who live in and trailer homes are going to be way more vulnerable as well So housing conditions really important That area around the housing is really important for increased exposure, but access to air conditioning is extremely important And so what we’re seeing, it’s not just access So access is really important for places like San Francisco and Paris So you go to Paris and those buildings did not have AC And so it is very difficult to be inside of a building in Paris during a heat wave is very dangerous And so that’s a really important question of how do we transition these communities that because for the most part, San Francisco, people that live in San Francisco was like, I’m not going to pay all that money for an AC when I only need it like a week of the summer And so there is this built in vulnerability that they’re not prepared for this And so hopefully this leads to that discussion these housing conditions do need to be upgraded and we do need to access air conditioning And it is this wonderful question as that again just like watering agriculture,

there is always a double edged sword here that use an air conditioner is gonna be using more energy that’s going to be increasing waste heat that’s going to be increasing climate change So there’s not just a simple solution here But we can think about energy efficiency, we can think about where that energy is being sourced We can think about the fact that as well not just access but the ability to pay for AC and for air conditioning, a lot of low income communities go without AC because they can’t afford those high bills So that’s an important aspect of what as well or if their conditioning breaks in the middle of the summer, being able to just have that money to fix it And I was literally writing an NSF grant this summer, all about this work, and my air conditioning broke And it took so long to fix it in the middle of the heatwave, and we couldn’t go anywhere because of COVID And I was sitting there writing about vulnerable populations It was like my method, I felt was my method way of actually Writing a grant But it really illustrates to me at that moment as well But it’s expensive to even fix our air conditioning unit So there is this importance that we think about with housing, housing stocks, the healthiness of our housing stocks, but as well as income and the ability to be able to afford and have access to air conditioning Do we see a measurable heat island effect at a town as small as Bloomington? >> Yes, we would see one I haven’t actually calculated it here in Bloomington that should be something I do the next little bit because I do get asked that a lot But we are already seeing that these differences in microclimates, but what we might not be seeing is that they’re not gonna be as intense as we see if we were studying this in Indianapolis or in Chicago We might not see this increase in the trends that we’re seeing as clearly as we see in these larger cities But we still see this distinction between this urban in the world here And so that’s a great question of knowing at what level do we see that impact But the work that we were showing before the trends was really looking at large cities and saying no matter where they’re located, they should, and I think that can, we could do another analysis looking at smaller cities as well We’ll look at their trends across United States to see yes, these cities have made that argument that these cities are as vulnerable as well And I think that would be an interesting thing to dissect >> Okay, and this is gonna be your last question because I actually have to go to another Zoom at 1 o’clock The question is for cities with heat monitoring networks, what’s the recommended geographic distribution? How far apart should sensors be? So that’s a good question That’s something we’re trying to figure out right now So right now the density that we have in our network on campus is I can’t remember what it is off the top of my head It’s definitely less than a kilometer, a sensor and it’s at least double that And that was around the recommendation I still think that is something we’re trying to figure out as we were gonna be testing how we can effectively map temperatures in urban environments by using these sensors And so, one of those questions are gonna be how closely do they need to be located to each other to be able to get these valid temperature readings, as well as what’s the density of them? So that work is starting to come out And I think that’s a interesting one to, a great question to ask of what’s not just how far but what’s the density of the sensors as well? That’s something that we’re currently investigating >> All right, well, thank you on behalf of, you know what I’m trying to say I thank you the whole crowd, this was a fantastic seminar and really enjoyed it >> Thank you [INAUDIBLE] >> Thank you, Dana >> You’re welcome