Bogs are way cool because…

so my name is Nicole I actually studied at the University of Alberta and I studied ecology in a large part of what I studied was wetlands and boreal forests and a small part of that which I really love art blogs so today we’re going to talk about a bunch of different things first of all we’re going to talk about what a white line is and what a blog is and why it’s a really cool type of wetland we’re going to talk about the different plants that find their way into the bog and why they’re really amazing we’re going to talk about the ecological role of bogs and why they are important to people so can anybody tell me what a wetland is does anybody have any guesses whatsoever yeah that is excellent does anybody have any other guesses that’s part of it so part of being a wetland is of course being wet and land it’s very challenging to define so the way some scientists define it is that as an area with water previck present at the root level or the surface level with unique soil different from the surrounding area and it has plants that are adapted to being wet so basically this means that wetlands are a distinctly different area than the area around it so it’s not like a ditch that gets flooded sometimes it’s more like a march or a lake where it’s significantly different than the dry stuff around nita the soils are really different their characteristic of being wet and they often have different chemistry associated with them the wetland doesn’t need to be wet year round but it usually has some seasonal flooding or it can you wet your route and you’re not going to find plants that are derived acted in these areas so you won’t find plants that don’t like wet roots you want find things like cactuses or succulents here so white lines are important because they support a variety of ecosystem functions they’re really productive which means they give off a lot of oxygen they have a lot biomass inside of them in general they have a good turnover of decomposition and nutrients except for Boggs which we’ll talk about later and they provide homes for many organisms especially invertebrates and birds they can also be a home for different types of reese’s there are giant filters for the surrounding ecosystem so imagine if you’re to take some muddy water and put it through a big giant carbon filter out the bottom it comes really clear does anybody have a Brita filter at home yes so it works kind of like that so all of the muddy water let’s trap all of the soil from the from the landscape around the wetland will go into the wetland it will filter through there and then the clean water goes into the groundwater so it’s very important that way they’re very important to protect so they’re in a variety of areas they’re very transitional they’re very special so there’s something that we want to keep very very pristine and because they’re so hard to define instead of calling them true ecosystems will often call them eco tones which are essentially a transition zones so you can find wetland worldwide you can find them all across the world we actually have twenty five percent of the world’s wetlands within Canada which amounts to about the land mass the size of Quebec it’s pretty significant so Canada itself is a very important home for wetlands I think of what else they cover about fifteen percent of Canada’s landmass and ninety percent of the wetlands you can kind of see there’s a sigh agonal here so it forms there because of glaciation to meet during the Ice Age it also forms there because the type of bedrock sits underneath and the vegetation they can find currently so more than alberta just north of where I drove here you can do that’s very important wetland habitat as you go to more dark colors it just means that there’s more wet line per square kilometre and close to home you can find quite a down in the lower mainland so specifically around Abbotsford Bank where we have a lot of wetlands here we do have to Boggs we have a lot of marshy system outside right beside the ocean and we have floodplains down in Abbotsford so specifically you can find box in northern cold temperate climates so Russia Canada the UK Finland Scandinavia sort stuff so now that we’re into wetlands there’s a variety of different types of wetlands does anybody have any ideas of what a different wide line could be give any names of wetlands that you know a swamp yes there’s one in the title of this presentation a bomb does anyone have any other ideas have

you been to the Everglades before yeah so that’s a that’s a different type of wetland on this one is pretty cool you can find this in places like Thailand this is as this is called a mangrove and it’s a mangrove swamp which is a white line right beside the ocean mangroves are really amazing trees and that they have roots that can actually take oxygen from the atmosphere instead of in the swampy water beside them which is really cool this one is called a riparian ecosystems so when I used to go to Drumheller which is a prairie a very dry ecosystem there is a river that flows through it and decide that river there are a lot of plants that are adapted to water so you’ll get areas that look like this where it’s basically flat and they get a whole bunch of trees right beside the water so that it’s a wetland even though it doesn’t look very wet I mean if there’s water up that reads all the time this one up here is a marsh so those are common in the prairies they can be common around different bodies of waters like Lakes this one is a swap so you get those in the boreal forest as well as the cordillera around ontario and this is a fen which is similar to a bog but fans are call I buy a lot of grassy species instead of mossy species we’ll talk about that in a bit so today we are specifically going to be talking about thoughts which of these big spongy I’m using types of wetlands so does anybody has anybody been to a bog before yes can you give me some adjectives that describe what a bog looks like yes boggy perfect what about some other ones yeah slimy sometimes what about when you walk on it what does it feel like yeah yeah you sink into it so it’s really spongy so a bog is a wetland it has low info inflows and outflows which basically means it’s not fed by a stream and it doesn’t have moving water it’s fed a lot by groundwater and rain water depending on the type of blog it can have either it has both but really the water can flow net told very little it supports acid loving plants like sphagnum mosses so this is pretty important but this type of mop the speculum moss is essentially the architect of the bog ecosystem so after we if you guys can happen take a look at it it has a low decomposition rate and I’ve accumulates Pete so decomposition is the rate in which plants are broken down back into the nutrients that say that they started out has because there’s a lot of water and there’s a lot of acidity it means that the bacteria that would normally be breaking down vegetation can’t do that so you accumulate Pete which is vegetation that doesn’t decompose so things like peat moss are Pete it’s just a build up of different mosses it can be other plants like trees and grasses this is a very basic not to scale drawing a bob the birther a little bit big so essentially you’ve got to face in and then the basin adds all of this non decomposed vegetative matter on top you get the mosses which in turn add more acidity and to Pete and stops from decomposing you get acid loving plants that live on the top like blacks forces and occasionally you’ll have some open water that’s around the outside of it the very typical quality type of system the way that Boggs form is really interesting so essentially a Bobby’s two basic features it needs to have a positive water balance which means it collects water more quickly than it evaporates water you also need to have accumulation greater than decomposition so essentially you are depositing vegetative matter before it decomposes that these two things make a bog stable and resistant to change so they have a high water holding capacity because of the properties of the veg the vegetation that lives there they have a high water table they have a low pH and they have a low ability to buffer ph in open water system there’s a lot of calcium that is dissolved so if you think about the ocean or lakes if things go in there that are fairly acidic or fairly basic the chemicals within the water can actually buffer that system so they don’t become overly acidic or basic bonds don’t have that nutrients dissolved in their water so they just become more and more acidic as time goes on so I’ve got a video here about how bogs form we’ll see if it works may not it’s not going to work I’ll open it in a new window so just bear with me and if anybody has any questions feel free to ask me any time so this is from a system in Ireland so essentially Ireland was in

the same situation is Canada but 12,000 years ago there wasn’t a stage and the whole land mass was covered in ice and snow so as the ice is melting it would take away chunks of land and melt and eventually fill up these deposits so these are becomes shallow water ecosystems and vegetation grows up around the outsides of it and it slowly falls down into this water system because there’s a high water tables of decomposition rate can you kind of low and if there’s no stream coming in or out of it they’re not getting new fresh one so this vegetation along the outside is going to fall into the pit and as that builds up over time you get a deposit of peeps so it keeps growing and this will become less and less shallow over time very slowly so this happens over thousands of years usually this process takes about five thousand years to get to the point where you no longer have a basin with water you have a basin full of Pete at this stage it starts to be colonized by plants like grasses and it turns into what’s called a fen which is similar to a bog but it has more grassi’s a seems rather than mosses then mosses will start to colonize the Sven they’ll take over making it more and more acidic over time which slowly transforms it into a bog as it becomes boggy er plants will start to colonize the top of the bog and then those plants in turn will die they won’t decompose and they start building a hum ‘ok covered in heat so you see these are black spruce which are one of the few trees that are actually able to survive blog there’s also would be some little small plants in here so this is what is called a raised bog I feel like that is a pretty good name for it they’re not always this exaggerated they can you fairly flat but the system is very similar just get back over here so did anybody have any questions about how this particular type of bog forms great so that is a raise bog which is this guy right here and like wetlands there are a whole bunch of different types of box to did anyway you know that does anybody know a different type of bog or another word that a bog could be called so there are a whole bunch of different words around the world of that described box so peatland is one Meyer muskeg there’s a whole bunch of them a lot of them refer to just a general bog term and then we have six different terms that reflect different types of box so the first one is a floating Bob and kind of in that video when you saw all of the plants colonize on top of the water it’s similar to what’s happening here so vegetation is dumped into the water it starts floating it doesn’t decompose other vegetation starts living on top of it and eventually the sphagnum mosses which are these red and green guys down here they start to live on top of that match and as time goes on it keeps getting bigger and bigger and bigger this is a very young blog you could stay so eventually it will start to colonize a larger part of this body of water as long as there’s no big inflows and outsoles into the pond it can also just kind of float around and be its own tiny little blog for a while after it’s a floating bog it will turn into something called a quaking dog this is called a quaking bug because when you step on it it quakes under your feet it often feels like a bowl of jell-o which is kind of cool so when you walk on it you feel like you’re going to fall through you’ll have this vegetation on the top and underneath you’ll either have pretty loosely packed Pete or you might even have water underneath of this so it’s like a secret Lake all this vegetation this is also a fairly young bog as time goes on it’s likely that the plants will start to colonize wet spots and make it into a more solid ball so then we get into the four types of mature bogs so this one is called a string blog and this eight it has strings so there are open water areas these light areas and then you get these at dark mossy areas as well so this goes this way if there are striations so if a glacier pulled across some big boulders and made little divots you’ll get something that looks similar to this which is pretty interesting you got to use in places like Denmark and Sweden the next type of bob is pulsa fog which is one of my favorite tips and dogs we want them you get these in areas of permafrost so you’ve got them in places like Russia and the Northwest Territories they are in areas where the frost level is very close to the surface so when you have that big raise bog inside the peat is actually frozen so it gives the whole bog up into these

plateaus it’s very cool and you can actually think about there being a giant ice cube inside each one of these little Hills the other comment I feels new is a blanket bog these are very common in the UK and they actually grow on the surfaces of a bunch of different hills and this happens when there’s vegetation or things that stop water from flowing down the hill so it stays very wet and eventually the mosses and grasses will start to colonize that area so if you imagine all of these hillsides they have a layer of peeps that’s usually about three meters deep which is twice my height so all of these hills have eventually been colonized by all these different bosses when they become really quite a spectacular sight for Boggs then the last one is the one that we saw in the video it’s a raised bog so this is bouncing bob has anybody been there before excellent it’s very close it’s on camosun and 19th so if you ever want to check out a bomb it’s really cool have you been there this is called Devil’s Hole which is a nap Welling of water that occurs in camosun Bob so even though it doesn’t look big and he’ll be like the other raised bog this is still a raised bog based on the way that it formed and eventually this will probably be crowded out by the sphagnum mosses but it will probably take a few thousand years before that happens so raise bog it’s important to think that it doesn’t always have to be a pillow it can be something similar to a doughnut or it can have a store cold water on the outside so it’s loosely a pillow so plants in a bog they have to face some very interesting challenges the three big ones are that their roots are always wet they have to deal with very acidic water and they have to deal with decreased nutrient availability because the water is so acidic and there’s no decomposition of the vegetation so there’s no cycling of nutrients can you think of any other challenges that a plant in a blog might face so the big open area that grows in the middle of a forest usually or on the side of a mountain it’s a pretty extreme place to be what types of things do you think you have to deal out there avalanche you could maybe deal with an outline she’ll be scary but what do you think animals animals yes you can get animals in there anything else so all plants need the Sun but when you’re in a big big area and your roots are really wet and the Sun is baking your leaves sometimes it can be a very very hard place to live so some plans actually have adaptations to stop evaporation from happening even though many plants would want their roots to be drier and have evaporation keep going if the Sun is so hot that makes it go too quickly for them so there are some plants down here they actually have fuzzy leaves and that’s the selfie evaporation from happening against any areas sounds counterintuitive so these are some clients that you’ll find in a bog does anybody recognize any of these what is it this one so this is a pitcher plant doesn’t even know what a pitcher plant is do you know what is this yeah took her neighbors plant so it essentially makes these traps for insects and small vertebrates so things like frogs and mice to fall into and it digests them so that’s how it gets its nutrient does anybody know what any of these ones are this one you might eat at Thanksgiving or Christmas cranberries yes this is a trailing cranberry this one is a blueberry this is Labrador tea which actually has been used historically to treat a lot of ailments so it’s an edible print this is Bob Laurel which looks very similar to the Labrador tea but it’s actually a little bit toxic and this is a black spruce there are lots of other plants that makes their living in a bog these are just some interesting ones that I like I’m going to talk about two of my favorite but before I do that these four plants are actually related to each other they’re all part of the same family has anyone seen rhododendrons outside before so they have that same sort of leaf where they’re fuzzy on the bottom these are the ones that are very well adapted to living in a bog they like this in a condition they don’t mind though don’t mind the extra Sun that they like living on top of this magnum which is pretty cool so of course Stegman is the most important plant that lives in a bog because it is the architect of the ball so segment is a type of moss which means it’s a non vascular bryophyte its

absorbent it’s acid tolerant and there are lots of different species of sphagnum that are adapted to different situations in a box so in a bog you might get some little rolling undulations of hills you’ll have different mosses that live on the top or on the side of them so they contribute to the acidity of the bog bog can be in low as low in acidity as three a pH of three that’s really similar to lemon juice so it would be a hard place to live for most plants because it’s so low in nutrients mosses like segments have adapted their their nutrient pumps so that they will eject a hydrogen atom to take in a different nutrient Adam and a lot of organisms have this nutrient pump system when losses do it especially well and can do it in acidic conditions and just keep pumping out hydrogen ions as you get more hydrogen ions into the water around them that makes it higher in acidity which is a lower on the pH scale and the biogeochemistry of a bog is really unique to the ecosystem and the Stegman’s really contribute to that balance and if the balance is disturbed you might not have a bob there anymore some other cool things about sphagnum is either the main contributor to the peach that is in the ecosystem so they build up on top of each other making a giant sponge which is very interesting there’s little steglitz are hollow so they can actually hold water in them like a sponge which means that the water table in the bog is going to be very high even if it’s a fairly dry around them they absorb and exchange things through all of their surfaces they’re not vascular which means they don’t have a 2 system within their bodies to transport water and nutrients around so everything has to be absorbed by every single little leaflet so they have a very high surface area to volume ratio so these funds are quite small they have very very low nutrients that they get so their rate of growth would you think it’s fast or slow slow it’s very slow so in the bog they build up at about one millimeter a year if you look at your pinky finger that would be about 10 years of growth this way and about 50 years of growth this way that’s that’s pretty slow right take 50 years to grow at all to take a long time so in about a thousand years a blog can develop about this much biomass so it takes a very long time to build up a bog which is why it’s which is why they’re a very fragile ecosystem there’s different species of sting knows they grow at different rates but generally that’s a pretty good rate and all of the plants there’s no soil in a bog everything lives on top of the mosses so that’s also a very interesting thing that plans how to cope with the other species I want to talk about our son Jews and their relatives these are called the dresser agenor up there are carnivorous general plants which means they feed on different types of animals usually insects but they can feed on things like frogs and mice too they use their tentacles to secrete and attract it they can also move their tentacles so this is assigned to you it’s very similar to the same size as the spag nemausus can you even tell what that is has very big wings pardon yeah it’s a butterfly so what happens are these little droplets are very sweet and they attract insects towards these little red tentacles as the thing comes closer they get stuck on the sticky secretions and the tentacles start to close around them as that happens the plant will secrete digestive enzymes kind of like a spider does and it will slowly start to decompose this inverter branch and it will start to absorb the enzymes and the nutrient solution that comes out of it out of these little dots beside the tent is called so this is how it combats the low nutrients in the bog is it gets them from elsewhere there are a lot of plants who do this there are some plants in the tropics that grow on other trees and solely get their nutrients from the leaves that fall on top of them so this is a pretty interesting strategy now there is a problem with this strategy of eating can anybody think how a plant like this might reproduce so this is a flowering plant give you a hint how do flowering plants reproduce yeah can’t go ahead they have seeds and what do they need to help them make seeds yeah they need pollinators what kind of insects are pollinators butterflies and bees right how do you think that this planet

might overcome that challenge yeah yeah they could use water as a poner yes so that is a possibility you have any other ideas yeah so all together those are all right so this is actually the flowering stem so the flower would probably be about there on the roof of this twisted scale so what that means is there’s two different levels that they’re attracting pollinators at the flower looks like a flower it attracts its pollinators and hopefully those pollen ages aren’t attracted to the sugary SAP below so they’ll kind of stay on the starkest of all the sun-news pollinating the sundaes and being happy butterflies and bees and going about their business the poor insects that are attracted to this sort of smell will come down here and actually be food for the plant there are some carnivorous plants that reproduce at a different time than one they theme there are some that can self pollinate and some that pollinate in the water this particular one just has it has a very far apart from each other so I’ve got another video this one is this plant eating a flying ant so I will get that so the one in this video is actually a cake sundae which is related it’s in the same general but this is more common in different areas so you can see that these leaves it’s similar to what they show before but they are longer this is a flying ant that unfortunately got trapped so this is um in a time elapsed fashion which means it’s going a little bit faster than it normally would but the tentacles can actually move fairly quickly see that they’re all kind of pointing towards this one and as that happens it starts to secrete digestive enzymes and there’s little Glen’s in here that will absorb all of those nutrients from that insect it’s pretty cool so it works in a similar way to being a spy traffic if you’ve ever seen one of those before this is a cake sundae so it’s related to the ground lease under which we have here it just has an elongated leaf yeah so the other thing is that these parts of the plant are actually the leaves of the plant so there are also lots of animals in the bog there’s that butterfly that we saw earlier so these are all different types of animals that you can find in burns bog which is just out by Delta so you get things like sandhill cranes which are a fairly rare bird it’s a very good greeting spot for them down in the sanctuary there you get things like deer mice dragonflies butterflies all the Eagles crows black-tailed deer there are also bears down the Ingram’s bog so it’s a pretty valuable place you get things like frogs sometimes you can get painted turtles there’s some really interesting animals that live there so Fox are important to people for a variety of reasons the simplest of which which I think everybody can appreciate is that bonds are beautiful they’re a great place to be around and parkland is always something that’s valuable but it’s hard to attach an actual monetary value to that other than just a general benefit of getting outside there are some other a little bit more tangible things that box can do for us so I they are economically important historically important and ecologically important economically Boggs use these things for us these are three that I that come up particularly often in the UK peach is often dug up from inside that raised part of the bog and is used as a fuel for fireplaces in heating homes it’s also used in gardening to help stretch out the soil and make it more observant for water and it’s also used in scotch production which I find particularly interesting so the way Scotch is made is a barley is essentially turned into a usable grain for yeast which means they convert the starches into sugar and by doing that they have to germinate the bar leave so they start from groin to stop it from growing they actually burn peach to heat up the barley enough that it stops growing and when they use the peat based on the different vegetation that was in the areas of the bogs that they’ve dug up to fire the peat or to fire the Scotch whisky you get different flavors in the Scotch which is pretty cool so if you are in areas that are medowie the scotches that are from there are often kind of flowery tasting and a little bit graphi if you get them from the islands where there’s a lot of seaweed in the peat can be salty and almost medicinally this is a floor where they would be as smoking the barley afterwards to stop it from growing so besides scotch they’re

also interesting for a variety of reasons there are historical record so do you remember one of the characteristics about boggs that keeps them around for so long what is cool about their decomposition it’s low so that means you essentially have a record of the last 10,000 years in a very easy format to check out they form since the last ice age and they don’t decompose and they are often in a basin which means they’re a controlled environment so you can drill a correr into the peach and pull out this tube of Pete look at all the different soil and the deposits that are in there and get a really good picture of what is in that area you can do chemical analysis you can do morphological analysis because things like trees don’t decompose you can even look at their leaves you can look at their bark and you can also see a record of the geology in the area so climate geologic changes like like glaciers you can see where they work so this is some students taking a big core out so essentially a core tool is a big giant straw and it goes meters and meters depending on how deep you think the peat is so it could be three meters so double my height it could be seven meters so quadruple my height when they drive this thing all the way down until you hit bedrock or you can’t go any further and as you pull it up you’ll get soil that looks like this it doesn’t look very exciting from this distance but when you get up closer you can actually see all the little leaflets you can sometimes see decomposed soil and sometimes you can even see things like lake phones the low decomposition rate in the bog besides holding all the information about the biology in an area it can also show us artifacts and a historical record of humans which is pretty interesting so these are some artifacts that are found in a blog you can actually find a lot most bogs have something in them that’s pretty interesting these two are from camosun boxes this is an inkwell does anybody currently use an inkwell does anybody know what an inkwell is yes what is an inkwell yes so when you had fountain pens you have to do dip your pen in to the ink in order to write so this was found in the bottom of Kamose and by which means it’s been around for quite some time this is a hockey puck that is from the 50s and people used to skate on the little devils hole that was in camosun fog and play hockey and someone unfortunately lost their pups this is a giant viking ship that was buried in a bog in height yeah in Denmark so it is a huge one and it has 15 pairs of ores which is pretty incredible so sometimes things fall into blocks accidentally like these sometimes things are buried in them on purpose historically there might have been reasons why you would bring it there you might have known that it wouldn’t decompose could advance us in sort of a ritual a ritualized burial we also get interesting things that are fairly modern so this one is from burns bog they didn’t discover these railway ties until there was a fire in the block then they uncovered a whole bunch of different artifacts including this this is a Viking cauldron that is made out of silver and was purposely broken into different pieces and very good different parts of one Bob so it’s pretty interesting does anybody know of any other things that you can find in the bog yes you shut it up I feel like every part it you can find bones mommy mommy is yes you can find all sorts of stuff so you can find bodies you can find garbage which is less exciting but it’s still a record to the past but one thing that I think is particularly interesting are the bog bodies so this one unfortunate person was named bread Franz I believe you can tell why his neighbor bread so there are interesting characteristics within the bog that can preserve people this is one of the best are the most well-known bog body in the world this is tolland man so they’ve been able to figure out a lot of others life unfortunately a lot of the bodies that are found in bogs are suspected to be victims of foul play but often you will find people in there that might have just come to their demise naturally or unexpectedly in those floating quaking box so in the bog there are some interesting compounds that help preserve the body so the acidity for one it preserves you kind of like a pickle kind of a gross analogy but it effectively does it the acidity and the tannins within that and the moss so when you brew a cup of really strong tea it’s very bitter and very dark those types of things help color the skin it’s also the amount

of water so there’s no bacteria in there that are going to decompose this body so with all of those factors combined you get very well preserved bodies you know because of the method of preservation when you bring them up to the surface if they weren’t properly preserved or not taking good care of they start to decompose again so there’s something you have to preserve quite well and there have been hundreds of these fans there’s just a few that most people know about but in many box you’ll find one or two and because the peat industry is fairly large in the UK and Scandinavia and you find a lot from there and regardless of how they met their demise they’re still a very useful window into the past into fashions into culture you can often find things like money in them and books and different types of things on their person so they can be a very useful window to the past and lastly I wanted to talk about the ecology of bogs and why they are currently important to us so one of the biggest effects is climate change bogs are really important because Pete is slow accumulating plants are mostly made out of carbon and heat can be meters thick and we know how long it takes them to accumulate this so what that means is that bazar huge carbon sinks does anybody know what a carbon sink is yes exactly its doors carbon so essentially a carbon sink is anything that takes carbon out of the atmosphere and stores it in a form that doesn’t release it again so things like carbon sinks could be deposits of oil down beneath the rock taking me all the biomass that’s in the ocean it doesn’t often get decomposed as quickly but peach is a really big one so as we use and burn Pete and dig up wetlands we are exposing this to the atmosphere which means we’re exposing it to decom mission which is releasing more carbon into the atmosphere and because we don’t have that sink anymore the balance really gets thrown off and it disrupts the balance of our carbon output for conservation this means that restoring peatlands is very slow it’s hard to imagine trying to restore something that’s going to take a thousand years to build up only later so this is one reason that bugs are cool both the temperature wise and wake you up I thought that this picture was really useful to show how deep peeped can be so this is a blanket bog on a hillside and you can dig through it this whole layer here this is a vertical layer of peach so you can see that it’s meters and meters thick and as you open it you’re exposing it to the atmosphere these ones are going to be used for a fuel um do you have any guesses if Pete is a fossil fuel or a renewable fuel yeah it’s a fossil fuel so it’s not what we would conventionally think of as a fossil fuel it’s not something that came from the prehistoric past but because it takes so long to build up the amount that we need to use it it’s not truly a renewable resource it’s better than some fuels that we use but still it’s not necessarily the most effective thing that we could be using so with that you can help fogs by visiting a bog and just enjoying them and keeping them safe you can join a restoration group boss can be particularly sensitive to invasive species like so all and Blackberry so if you help pull those sorts of plants that you can help piece of oz alive you can diversify the peat that you use in your everyday life so when you’re gardening if you use different fibers you can help you realize I could diversify the different whiskies you drink and encouraging preservation of peat lands and other wetlands to people so there are a lot of organizations that help keep wetlands around and and they’re really fantastic to work with so in summary bogs are way cool because their unique type of wetland their home to a lot of different amazing plants they perform important ecological roles and they’re very valuable to humans and basically they are just a very cool place it’s a slow computer um so when they’re just super cool you can get outside and visit a bog camosun bog that’s the closest one to where we are right now it’s on camosun and 19 it’s really cool burns bog is in Delta it’s a big beautiful wellin that they’re doing a lot of restoration and right now it’s often referred to as the lungs of the Lower Mainland dots unlimited does a lot and they have a lot of different maps on their website of wetlands area area so if you want to visit things like marshes and swamps instead of Bob’s you can do that you true Vancouver often Dustin outings there’s some great ways to get involved and thanks for listening does anybody have any questions yeah limited have stocks so they are they are a conservation group that uses ducks to help them concern places so by studying

the biology of ducks you can understand the biology of the places that they live it’s a good way to help get people excited about it okay so because this is the last way cool of this year every year we get people to vote online for your favourite way cool as we’ve had 12 this year so if you go onto our website you can vote for your favorite one there’s also links to all of our youtube videos you can review them if you haven’t come from very many of them you’re also welcome to come back down here I’ve got something called a mini Bob and you can go through it and you can see what types of plants live in a bob and thanks very much for listening and I hope you enjoy yesterday