DroneCamp 2020: Hardware: Multirotor Drones, Fixed Wings, and Sensors

Sean Hogan: So welcome to the hardware, the multi-rotor drones and fixed wings and sensor session If you’re just tuning in now my name is Sean Hogan. I’ll be moderating this to a certain degree along with a number of excellent experts in the field that have combined a ton of experience with all of this equipment For an intro to this session what we’re going to be doing is we’re going to look at a combination of what our project goals are and what type of data you might need for those projects A lot of people, again they’ll think about what the the drone is, and in in my case possibly the biggest sk that I get where I get phone calls or emails is ‘what equipment should I get for the given mission?’ And this is a very depends question on your budget, your how much time you have to spend, a number of options, your available options for what is going to be the best bang for the buck for the given question that you want to ask with that drone or what kind of application you want to use the drone for So always ask yourself is there someone who can collect this faster better and cheaper than than I can given the given your time and budget and so forth The outline of this session is that we’re going to start, for the first roughly 40 minutes, we’re going to be going through like I said speed talks of different elements or different components and our combined experience with these components and how they apply to various interests or mission objectives. And then for the last 10 minutes we’re going to have breakout rooms where people can go and ask questions and we can dive in a little bit deeper into the different categories of equipment, including sensors, the fixed wing drones, quadcopters, accessories, and peripheral equipment, which is is considerable, and also the the kind of heavier lifting type equipment, such as a Matrix 600 and hyperspectral imagers Other hardware sessions that will be occurring on Tuesday and Thursday include GPS unit high precision mapping and VTOL setups for for larger fixed wing operations So as far as hardware goes, there’s all kinds of types of equipment around that are out there We’re usually focusing on right off the shelf type of equipment because this is not an engineering event, it’s a application focused type of training. And so again we’re focusing on off-the-shelf equipment And with that in mind, we tend to favor DJI equipment just because it’s the largest consumer or prosumer grade builder of drones out there, as well as other types of camera components that are commonly used and integrate well with these types of equipment These are most commonly used for mapping and they’re also the ones that we’re most familiar with and likely are going to be the most easily accessible by the most people I’ll kick it off with the first couple lowest grade, I’d say low grade, but this equipment You couldn’t have imagined being able to do what you can now with drones only 10 years ago Technologically it wasn’t even possible So I say this is these are maybe not the highest level drones but they’re they’re still very high tech, Including the 3DR Solo, which is not manufactured anymore but it was one of the early drones that came out that could accept autonomous flight missions and collect good mapping data as well, as a DJI Phantom 3. Both these drones, they’re they’re a little antiquated now but they still cost around 500 to 800 dollars. They each have about 20 minutes of flight time One thing that still breathes life into the 3DR Solos is the fact that they’re approved for federal use in a lot of cases, whereas DJI products are not And there there’s a variety of reasons for this, including security concerns for spying using a firmware that can essentially

hack the images that the drone are collecting along with the telemetry data I do find though that the DJI tends to be a little bit more reliable, particularly the 3DR gimbals. They break super easily and the OEM GPS antenna is almost garbage. It loses signal very easily and we’ve had one drone completely fly away because of this And it’s funny, back then this was about a $300 drone and we had a $3000 camera attached to it and it just flew off another horizon and we never saw it again So things like that can happen. One of the problems with these is the 3DR doesn’t write telemetry data to the EXIF files of its photos, which really makes processing a hassle And I included at the bottom a link that… you’ll have access to this this presentation but there’s a link for our tech notes on how to get that telemetry data and put it into stitching software. Next, Chippie Chippie Kislik: Great thanks Sean So I’m going to talk about the Phantom 4 Pro so the Phantom 4 Pro is a great entry-level drone for people in science and education and industry. I used the Phantom 4 Pro for my research last summer, as you can see in the photos below. It’s really stable, it’s really reliable After this drone was discontinued DJI emphasized the Mavic series, which we’ll talk about in a second, as well as the V 2.0 which is about 60% quieter than the original and has an updated transmission system, which allows for better live stream display and wireless connection to the DJI goggles So both Phantom 4 Pros have the same camera, 20 megapixel photos and 4k video, about seven kilometer range, and 30 minute battery life, although it might be closer to 20-25 minutes And they have some intelligent flight modes like active track, as you can see at the bottom in the slide. They’re really fun to play with and V 2.0 is about sixteen hundred dollars I’ve seen a few people get creative and attach a small multi-spectral camera onto them So their payload is better than most Mavics since they’re a bit bigger I loved my Phantom and would recommend it to first-time drone owners Next slide Pat Iampietro: So yeah the DJI Phantom 4 RTK drone is the same drone that Chippie just talked about but is equipped with RTK, or real-time kinematic GPS or GNSS that affords it a much much higher accuracy, high precision positioning, for all of the photos that you record with the drone. So that you can actually forego a lot of the ground control positioning targets that you would normally have to do with a regular GPS drone And you can still achieve a couple centimeter accuracy even without the positioning of multiple ground control position targets in your study site Next slide Greg Crutsinger: Yeah so the P4, this is Greg, the P4 multi-spec came out recently and that’s a fully integrated, six band camera So they they basically adapted the P4 to have narrow bands for vegetation mapping There are two megapixel sensors on there So you have your RGB for an RGB composite but there’s also a two megapixel RGB camera on there as well. You have red edge and near infrared and with that you can get your different vegetation indices There’s a little bit of confusion, it is a base price of $6500 for just the unit the drone and two batteries And then it’s $95- $100 if you want to include the base station on there as well. So you can get precision time series data. That’s mostly for test plots or research trials or something where you’re doing a real precise change in vegetation Currently it’s fully integrated with the ground station pro for mapping, and so you need to use that as the mission planner However, in the recent firmware update they have opened up the SDK for third-party apps

So I think we’ll continue to to see innovation in the mission planning and being able to use DroneDeploy or Pix4D or some other third-party apps that are out there Let’s see am I splitting this with German? Is he on here as well? Sean Hogan: Yes now he is German Zuniga-Ramirez: I could continue in that Yeah sure so also a good thing about this drone is that you actually get feedback, live feedback You can get live NDVI and other indices such as NDRE So you’re getting some feedback that your data is being collected In my experience with other sensors, sometimes you don’t get any feedback and at the end of the mission you find out that you didn’t collect any data It also has an onboard irradiance sensor for calibration And this information can be, these images can be processed in Pix4D, DroneDeploy, and other software And yeah I guess that’s it Greg Crutsinger: I think the one caveat here is that because it’s so new, from a research perspective, it’s a bit of a black box in terms of how they’re doing the calibration and their radiance corrections So it’s to be determined and there’s a lot more to study compared to some of the other sensors out there Sean Hogan: And just for a plug, this is Sean, Greg Crutsinger has a scholar farms virtual training available that he puts out that might include information about sensors like this as well Next slide Chippie Kislik: All right so DJI Mavics. These are probably the most portable and maybe the best entry-level drone series we’re going to talk about today So if you’re new to drones, check these Mavics out There are several different Mavic drones like the Pro, the Mini, the Air And I’ll tell you about the Mavic Air 2, which just came out last month, and the Mavic 2 which includes the pro and the zoom versions Let’s start with the Mavic Air 2. I don’t know if you guys can see this little one right here, it’s pretty small So the photos and info that you see on the slide are all about this drone It’s really small as you just saw, pocket sized, weighs about 1.2 pounds, and has really good battery life. It also has an amazing camera, 48 megapixel photos and 4k video, and it includes a couple fun features like 8k hyperlapse, which allows you to take four different types of time-lapse videos, and some intelligent flight modes, like active track 3.0. And this drone is only $800 So really affordable and high quality for a beginner drone And now on to the Mavic 2, which comes in two different flavors: the Pro and the Zoom. They’re a little bit bigger than the Mavic Air 2 but they only weigh about 2 pounds, so still very portable The Mavic 2 Pro has an amazing 20 megapixel hasselblad camera that shines in low light environment and makes colors pop And the Mavic 2 Zoom has a 12 megapixel zoom camera. It has a really cool dolly zoom feature that mimics the vertigo effect, so really great for cinematic-looking videos. The Mavic 2 pro is about $1600 and the Mavic 2 zoom is about $1350. The pro will give you the best quality and control of your image but if you don’t want to get too close to your subject, for example wildlife, the zoom might be a good option. So if you’re new to drones or if you already have one and one another Mavics are amazing. They may not be large enough to carry additional sensors like multi-spectral or thermal cameras, but they’re small enough to throw into your backpack and capture some high quality images and videos next slide Sean Hogan: Just one follow-up on the Mavic Airs. The original Mavic Air has a strange lens on it that is problematic for processing and stitching software. You have to fly with an extra amount of overlap with that the original Mavic air. Moving on to the DJI Inspire & Inspire 2. Both of these, they’re very reliable drones We have two of them in our unit, the Inspire 1 at least And what they’re great at is really high winds. They’re very quick drones and because the the armatures on them raise up, it essentially pendulums the body. So it’s pretty difficult to have them knocked over by a hard gust on a turn of an autonomous flight mission, which can happen with some some platforms These are really great for videography because the the camera on the bottom it doesn’t have the legs in the way. And you can also set them up with two controllers. So one controller controls the camera and the gimbal, and the other controller controls the the drone itself So excellent for videography They’ve come down quite a bit in price as far as the Inspire 1 goes

where they used to be about two thousand dollars. Now you can get one for about thirteen hundred dollars The Inspire 2 though can cost considerably more, around five to six thousand dollars depending on what kind of camera configuration you have set up on it The Inspire 1 has about an 18 minute flight time and that’s best case scenario That’s if all of all the stars are aligned and you have a a very small camera on there. And by stars align I mean it’s not windy, you’re not at high altitude,your battery has to be in fantastic condition Usually I get more around 15 minutes of flight time The Inspire 2 however can fly for more, something closer to 25 minutes with a standard setup When I when I give you these time amounts, something to consider though is that you always need to come in before you run it completely out of battery so it doesn’t just fall out of the air Matrice 100 these. These are also very reliable platforms and really have been one of the workhorses for our unit They accept two batteries if you have them configured as such. They’re extremely customizable, like and erector set, and are fairly stable in flight They start off around three thousand dollars without a camera Again there’s an erector set virtually where you can put all kinds of different gadgetry on there But you can count on a package with a basic RGB camera of costing around five thousand dollars after you get a sufficient number of batteries, get a case, get the extra battery housing, and some other kind of attachments. So it adds up fairly quick If you throw on a Micasense red edge camera then your drone is around ten thousand dollars This platform will give you anywhere from about 18 to 30 minutes of flight time And this depends on what kind of camera setup and how much weight you’re hanging off of your drone. If you just have an RGB camera, like an X3, with good batteries they’ll do 30 minutes If you have… the more weight though, everything’s a trade off. The more weight you have on it, the less flight time you have. The higher in altitude you go, the less flight time Becca Fenwick: The next step up is the DJI Matrice 200 and 210 And they are, in a similar way, they are the workhorses. We have a couple of these that we work with all the time and they’re fantastic They can carry a heavier payload. So I fly it with two cameras, an RGB camera and the six band multi-spec, the ultim So they’re really great, they collect fantastic data, and they’re really a really stable platform And these ones will set you back depending on how you configure them The drone itself is around seven thousand to ten thousand dollars And then if you put an RTK on there as well, which is super helpful, especially if you’re flying in areas where it’s really difficult to put the ground control points out, you’re looking at about $20,000 for the drone and the RTK setup and then an additional $10,000 depending on your cameras Pat Iampietro: Nothing really more to add other than, yes they are much more expensive than the consumer grade DJI offerings, but also much more capable Easily they can tolerate a lot wider range of environmental conditions and carry much more customizable payloads in terms of the sensor packages that they can carry, in terms of cameras, and multiple cameras even, and also the RTK capability Next slide German Zuniga-Ramirez: Now is the Matrice 600 Pro This drone was released in 2017 There’s also an earlier version, not the pro version, which is the Matrice 600, which was released in 2016 There are a few structural differences between the two versions, but I think the major difference is the flight control system In this slide I will be only discussing the the specs of the Pro version. The drone no-load weight with batteries is 9.96 kilograms and it requires six batteries The maximum takeoff weight is 15.5 kilograms, which means it can lift up to 6 kilograms This drone can be used for heavy sensors and cameras

Support for gimbals and camera configurations, I provide a link below where you can find the list of all the supported gimbals The flight time really depends on your configuration. The graph here shows the the flight time versus payload. As you can see there are two versions of batteries With the TB485 version, the green line, the flight time without any payload is about 38 minutes, which is useless for our research. And with maximum payload we get about 18 minutes So these numbers are are based off of flying and a non-wind environment, so the actual numbers are less In our lab for our configuration, with the LiDAR on the top right and the hyperspectral system on the bottom right, we get about 15 minutes. And the retail price for this drone is $5,699 And that’s it. Next slide Sean Hogan: All right So go ahead kick it off Pat if you’d like Pat Iampietro: Okay the senseFly eBee is a long standing, fixed wing solution that’s been around for quite some time They have RTK, GPS capable versions that are now actually common. They originally were one of the only fixed-wing solutions that had RTK GPS capability. And we’ll have a session on Thursday talking about fixed wing solutions and why you would go to a fixed wing versus a rotocopter sort of aircraft Basically the idea is that you can stay in the air longer with a fixed wing aircraft than you can per battery than you can with a rotocopter. So you can cover more area and and map more of your study site with a fixed wing than you can with a helicopter version aircraft. But the senseFly eBee is a polyfoam air fuselage sort of aircraft. It’s very lightweight The only downsides to an aircraft like this are that it takes a little more area to take off and land than a rotocopter that can actually hover and take off vertically Sean Hogan: You covered most of that quite well. We have two eBee’s in our unit. It’s probably my favorite drone to fly, assuming I can find a good launch and more importantly landing zone Because that’s the the challenge with this, with any kind of fixed wing, unless it’s a VTOL They’re extremely reliable once they’re in the air. You can just launch them and sit back for an hour and let them come back and then collect the data. It’s fantastic and requires a lot less anxiety than flying quadcopters in a lot of cases I’ve also flown a Precision Hawk before, is a another competitor of of this. It seemed like it was… my impression from the one time I’ve flown it, was it was technologically very advanced too except for it was maybe too technologically advanced. It became problematic The nice thing about this platform it’s I don’t call it basic, not basic at all, but it seems like a simple setup with just a wing fin But the software itself is what makes it really really impressive because you can set up a very detailed and accurate elevational dependent flight plans that that are again very reliable and without too much stress once you know what you’re doing Pat Iampietro: Pretty pretty turn key. As opposed to many of the rotocopter versions where you often fly them by hand, the eBee and other fixed wing aircraft are almost always flown completely autonomously You launch it and it goes and you don’t actually spend a lot of time on the sticks actually flying them yourself. They fly robotically Sean Hogan: In fact never, pretty much Sensefly recommends you never even use your your controller if you even have one

Pat Iampietro: They hide it in the package, in the box It’s underneath where you can’t even find it unless you go searching for it Sean Hogan: One last thing these are not cheap though They come with a price tag They start off around $12,500, but when you add on RTK, the RTK base station, the cameras, I think our our eBee X setup ran about thirty thousand dollars and our eBee plus was about seventeen thousand dollars. So again they’re not very cheap Great next slide So I’ll speed talk this one These are common cameras for DJI platforms. The 3X is actually my preference for most mapping operations The reason is because it’s just reliable It’s only 12 megapixels. I say only but that’s good enough in in most cases. It’s on the the Inspire 1, The Matrice 100, and the Matrice 600. Not on the newer generation of the Matrice 200s or the Inspire 2. It does get 4k video if you’re into that And the camera is around 460 dollars. The X5 is the fancier camera that comes for the first generation of these above class of platforms. But you have to calibrate the lens. It’s got a replaceable mirrorless lens on it, and every time you calibrate it you may or may not get a good focus and then your data will be kind of, I wouldn’t say worthless, but not very good. The 7X is a mirrorless 24 megapixel camera that is set up for the newer generation of Inspire 2s and the Matrice 200s. The imagery on this is outstanding. It has great great 6k video capabilities, but you still have to do the calibration process Anything you have to add there Pat? Pat Iampietro: Oh sorry, no you you covered it pretty well there Sean. Thank you Sean Hogan: And the prices are all listed on there between 460 and 3,500 dollars Greg you want to kick this one off? Greg Crutsinger: Sure, yeah so moving more into the multi-spectral side of things, we’ll talk a little bit about the Parrot sequoia and the Sequoia Plus, which is the updated version This is actually one of the older multi-spectral cameras on the market. It was released in 2016 by Parrot, which is a French company a Paris based company. It’s a small gopro size multi-spectral camera and it has four bands on it that are fairly low resolution at 1.2 megapixels. So that’s red, green, it does not have a blue band, red edge, and near infrared There is also a 16 megapixel RGB camera but due to really bad rolling shutter issues on that camera, the data are almost unusable. You’re better off mapping with a P4 or a Mavic even with its faster rolling shutter. It comes with the camera, which weighs about 100 grams and then a radiance sensor slash GPS for triggering. So the camera just needs power and it can trigger independently of the drone There is both on or board storage on the camera as well as you can use an SD card You can integrate the camera yourself This has been a major pain point with this sensor though It’s pretty power hungry so you do need some power integration as well as some vibration dampening et cetera It’s much easier to buy something that’s fully integrated, or there are pre-built integration kits for like the Phantom 4 or the Phantom 3, which is an older drone But it’s really better I would say for the M100 series where you can get direct power out as well as the eBee where you can directly integrate it in Parrot did sell the Bluegrass drone which was a copter that was fully integrated It’s had its own issues As well as the Disco Pro Ag which is a modified version of of the consumer Disco. Again has had some issues But the attractiveness has been that it retails for about $3500, so it’s a cheaper version. But it is an older sensor and I haven’t heard any rumors besides the Sequoia Plus, which was upgraded, about a Sequoia II for example. So it has been tested I think the benefits are it’s small and it’s light. The downside

is that it’s an older sensor and that for academic use or research use there may be other options on the market. But for for quick mapping and and getting some vegetation layers it’s certainly been a usable sensor Sean Hogan: I don’t have too much to add I have had pretty good success with it I just wish it had a blue band instead of the almost worthless RGB camera. But I agree but otherwise yeah decent sensor. Drew Drew Baustian: Yeah hey everybody this is Drew with Micasense So I’m going to talk about the three sensor systems from Micasense. The RedEdge-MX, the dual camera system, and then the Altum Before I get into that, just a quick overview of who’s using our cameras in the market. So we typically have people in the research space, commercial research and academic. Also in the conservation space, so people who are looking to do conservation work And then it seems like a very a smaller group that seems to be growing is production agriculture. So those are kind of our three customer categories that we typically see: research, conservation, and production agriculture So this first camera is the RedEdge-MX This is the fourth rendition of this product that we’ve released. So probably a lot of you have used the RedEdge three or maybe the RedEdgeM historically. So this is basically the RedEdge-M with a facelift We changed the plastic housing for aluminum and then we came up with a more advanced light sensor called the DLS2 that you see pictured there I think what sets Micasense apart on our sensors is the narrow spectral bands first of all. So we typically have a bit narrower spectral bands where you can focus on specific points of reflectance a bit better And also the radiometric calibration element of the data. So the light sensor I’d argue, I’m biased, it’s the most advanced light sensor out on the market for a drone based multi-spectral camera And then also with all of our cameras whether it’s the the Dual, the RedEdge-MX or the Altum, they come with a calibrated reflectance panel So what you do is you lay that panel down on the ground, as you see in that that grayscale picture and you hold the drone on top of it. You can see the shadow of the M200 that I’m holding there, and you take a picture of that panel. You can use that calibration image in Agisoft or Pix4D or a few others. I think actually Subactive is is now compatible with our data too, and you use that for calibrating And then the light sensor during the flight is capturing downwind lighting data for every image that’s captured and writing that into the metadata. So those two components are used to get highly accurate radiometric maps. So on the the far, the right side, I just have a couple of snippets of red edge data The top one is an RGB composite So because we do have the blue spectral band in the red edge, we can we can combine the blue, green, and red spectral bands of that camera to create an RGB composite And then there’s also the near-infrared at 840 and the red edge at 717 that allows you to to create some interesting custom composites. I think the one in the lower right-hand corner is is near-infrared, red edge, and red as a composite. Sometimes those those combinations, or near infrared, red edge, and green, they can they can help delineate plant species from each other that might be a little harder harder to discern in just a normal RGB image Next slide So this is our dual camera system. This is the newest product line that we released. And as you can see we’re just taking a RedEdge-MX camera and we’re pairing it with another camera that’s looks identical to the RedEdge-MX because the hardware is actually identical with the exception of the filters. So what we did was we took the five spectral bands of the RedEdge-MX, at you can see in that image, 475, 560, 668, 717, and 840, and and we added another five bands that complement those those original five We’re not getting any overlap. But another thing that we took into consideration is how do those bands align with Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 data? Because over the years we’ve gotten a lot of requests from people who are looking at satellite data already. They’re wanting a drone based sensor that can be correlated with the satellite data. So that was one of the missions that we were wanting to accomplish when we went out and and released this dual camera system Over on the lower right hand side I’ve just got a

side-by-side comparison of this of a CIR composite from the the dual camera system next to Sentinel 2 of the exact same area I think on the exact same day. So it’s kind of interesting just to see how they do correlate, but of course you’re getting much higher spatial resolution from the dual camera than you would from the Sentinel 2 I think one thing, maybe a couple things notable on the spectral bands we added for this, is is the coastal blue at 444. That’s something that a lot of people have asked us for over the years so we’re excited to add that. A lot of people think that has interesting applications when it comes to water, water applications, water mapping. Unfortunately it’s a little early to tell how effective it is because we just launched the camera in in December I think probably by next year we’ll have a lot of good data to share on the effectiveness of that So let’s go to the next slide And then the third the third camera is the Altum. So we released this in late 2018. This is capturing the same five spectral bands as the RedEdge at blue, green, red, red edge, and near infrared But we have higher resolution images in this camera. So I should have mentioned this before but the RedEdge can capture about eight centimeters per pixel at at 120 meters AGL. So if you’re flying your drone at 120 meters, it’s going to be about eight centimeters per pixel. Whereas the Altum, if you’re flying that same AGL, you’re going to get about five centimeters per pixel. So the higher resolution imagers are going to allow you to capture higher spatial resolution data Another thing that’s interesting about the Altum is it has a thermal imager in there from FLIR. So the thermal imager is, when you run this through Agisoft, it’s going to align that thermal data with the multi-spectral. So it’s it’s really easy to switch back and forth look at the multi-spectral and look at the thermal Actually the image on the lower right is the the RGB composite, and then we added a thermal element kind of lightly to it So you can kind of see the the coloring of the thermal outlining, warmer cooler areas on top of the RGB composite. And then on the right hand side is just some really early emergent corn And the lower right is the RGB composite, the upper right is again a custom composite And it’s just kind of cool to see how those little plants pop And if so if you’re doing plant counting, something like that, it can be pretty effective at doing that You’re not only getting the plant counting, you’re also getting kind of a health status on the individual plants. So the the left was flown, in case you’re interested, left was flowing at about 100 meters AGL. The right was flowing much lower I think I was about at 20 or 30 meters AGL So that’s just a real quick summary of of the Micasense product line Sean Hogan: Great thank you, thank you so much We’re running slightly behind schedule, about three minutes, so I’m going to zoom through this with Becca’s help Touch on the thermal cameras that are available for DJI, the Xt and the XT2. Becca would you like to kick it off? Becca Fenwick: Yeah sure so we’ve been flying these on the M100 for our research and they get great data. The challenge with them is actually stitching the imagery One of the big problems we have is having the photos take often enough to give a good stitch product. But on the individual photos they’re great The image you can see below is of one of our research areas, which is a restored wetland. It’s in the process of being restored And you actually get this really great thermal signature from the areas that are under active restoration versus the areas that are just your standard sort of meadow grasses. And you can control the watering regimes that way as well with the temperature differences from from those treatments The main thing that I throw in about thermal images is that it’s unlike any other camera in that it’s very difficult to get good data because of weather conditions. If you go out and there’s even spotty clouds, your your day will be ruined. Because if a single cloud passes over the thermal dynamical change and then your data will not usable then through the stitching process Becca Fenwick: Yeah we also see that if there is like a temperature gradient throughout your flight. So if the area is warming up as the sun’s getting higher in the sky or things like that, if you’re up for 25 minutes you can actually have an

ambient temperature difference across your survey area So we really do try to do these flights as close to solar noon as possible to minimize that effect, but you still do see it Sean Hogan: Yes definitely The good thing though is that prices of these components have come down significantly Our XT that we purchased about three or four years ago at that time was around ten thousand dollars is now three thousand nine hundred. And the XT2, which reportedly has a better sensor, it’s around six and a half On the the SODA, 3D SODA, what do you think? Becca Fenwick: I love them. So I fly an eBee X and the SODA 3D is my favorite camera for getting the three-dimensional RGB surveys That’s the second image, so the slightly lower one of the camera on the slide And the camera itself is on a gimbal. So it takes the images, sort of pointing to the right, to the center, and to the left as it’s flying along which gives a really great structure for motion result. And the images in the bottom you can see is the sequence of those three images And so it’s pointing to the right, it’s down, and to the left. And it gives really fantastic data Sean Hogan: And we’ll be covering photogrammetry in DroneCamp too and then in later sessions. So if that doesn’t make sense to you yet it will, I believe, by the time we’re done I think in short though these both, the SODA and the SODA 3D, which is on a one axis gimbal that swivels, both of them create really, really nice photos and are fantastic for mapping Becca Fenwick: Yeah and then when you combine that with the eBeeX which covers, as long as you have some place to land as Sean mentioned earlier, they just cover a vast acreage. And so you can get really great mapping products in a relatively short period of time Sean Hogan: Yep German, you’re last on the slides I believe German Zuniga-Ramirez: Right all right, yes So this is the Pika L hyperspectral camera which ranges for from 400 to 1000 nanometers with a spectral resolution of 2.1 nanometers. We have 281 bands, channels In the bottom right image you can see a sample image from one of our almond experiments. And you can see the spectral response of that selected pixel There are multiple options for lenses You can change the lens. We have 70, 50, 23, 17, 12, and 8 millimeters. It just depends on your application The maximum frame rate is 249 frames per second And other components that make up the system are GPS and IMU, a downwelling radiant sensor, which is a spectrometer, and a flight computer which integrates all of these components. This is a expensive system The system price is about $33,000 not including the drone and the gimbal to mount the camera And since this is a heavy sensor, it can be mounted to the Matrice 600 pro drone which I talked about earlier. And in a breakout room I’ll briefly explain mission planning and data collection. And I can answer additional questions about this camera Sean Hogan: Great all right. I want to throw in a plug for accessorizing and considering that it’s not just the drone, there’s a lot of other elements. We’ll have a breakout session for that as well And regarding these breakout rooms, like I said we’re a couple minutes behind schedule here, but if you go to the chat window, you should see the various breakout room links and we will be meeting up there. I’ll be in the eBee and fixed-wing room