Kenyon Unique: Sarah Murnen

so it’s great to see everybody here I’m very happy to be here to talk about the research that I’ve done a lot of it with Kenyan students and when I cite the student up here I’ll make it clear that it’s a student with a star by their name so first some acknowledgments I want to thank Linda’s small act who I have done a lot of 24 of the manuscripts up out there that have my name on also have her name on them and she’s been a great colleague that’s almost half of the stuff that i published and I’ve also been lucky to do research with Michael Levine I’m very sorry that they’re no longer in the department but happy for them in their retirement i’m also very grateful to have an endowed chair which allows for a little extra time to do research and a little extra funding but we do have great funding to do research at kenyon one of the reasons i was attracted to a place like canyon was the ability to be able to balance teaching with research so we have great support including a yearly funding as well as internal grants that we can find for 10 in summer science program has sponsored some of the research that you’ll you’ll hear about tonight so I think all of them so my research recently the most recent thing that we published has to do with characters and children’s popular culture so I don’t know if you’re familiar with these characters but this one is a monster high doll and this is a ring the Joker from Batman there have been other Joker’s that don’t look quite this aggressive but I think you can see that they are presented in very gender stereotype ways the monster high doll is you know somewhat sexually objectified in fact the pole that she comes on looks suspiciously like a stripper pole and her spine is permanently curved which is a sign of sexual availability and I think you can see that the male character looks quite angry and aggressive so what we did in this study was we looked at a variety of characters in shoulders popular culture we looked at 443 depictions and included and all the action figures included Halloween costumes the most popular ones that we found in internet searches and it also included Valentine’s thanks to sabina hawks irene lopez and tomahawks daughter who couldn’t believe the you know she was eight at the time I couldn’t tell sexually objectified the Valentine’s were so including those in our study and this is a little bit of the day that we found so what you see here are the percentage of characters who had different kinds of characteristics with the green medium of female characters and the purple to male one basic distinction between the characters was between what the clothing they were wearing so almost all of the female characters were wearing decorative clothing which is clothing that’s just designed to look at the person it doesn’t help you do anything so you know you might consider like the the ball gown that a Disney princess would wear whereas for the male characters almost all of them have functional clothing which would be like a uniform or something that allows them to engage in motion or actually do something what we also saw in these depictions that was quite troubling was female characters there are a lot of sexually objectifying characteristics that were true of these characters and children’s popular culture so revealing clothing was quite common like a low-cut dress or very short skirt the curved spine that I talked about which is a cue about sexual availability and the head cancer to the side makes somebody look not very serious that is a lot of work in advertising has looked at these kinds of depictions and in the male characters what we saw was a much more active presentation so the body in motion well we also saw what we called hyper masculinity cues of aggression it was very common to see a weapon presence over half the depictions a weapon was present and also the handsome fist so why is this an important issue well first of all some of those characteristics are not negative in and of themselves some if you think of feminine stereotype characteristics like being emotional or being nurturing that’s not a bad thing we want some people to be emotional nurturing if you think of some male stereotype characteristics like assertiveness the body in motion that’s not a bad thing but when they’re polarized when they’re only true for content or not the other what it doesn’t do it doesn’t challenge our power structure and male characteristics are associated with power whereas female characteristics are not but further what was troubling is that the extreme gender roles that that

are evident in children’s popular culture so among the females we saw what we call hyper femininity and that is the idea that women are supposed to be sex objects and we know that in actual people who have hyper feminine attitudes that is all is related to treating oneself of a sex object and that’s not healthy I’ll talk a little bit more about that later hyper masculinity was very evident the male characters and in people hyper masculinity relates to aggression in one study that that I did kennen students we put together all the data on this issue and then who adhere to very hyper masculine attitudes that aggression is a way to solve problems that you should sexually objectify women it’s related to self-report of sexual aggression and just to give you some statistics about sort of the extremes of these gender roles more than 1.5 million people had invasive cosmetic surgery in 2014 and do you want to guess what percentage for women anyone eighty-seven percent of those surgeries are women and of the more than 1.5 million people in prison in 2014 do you want to guess the percentage among men ninety-three percent per min so you can sort of see that extreme gender roles you know our perhaps related to that and it’s problematic but a little bit out of cultural influence so these products you know they’re going to directly cause people to go out and do things but what we do know from cognitive social learning theory is that children do learn gender stereotype behaviors are observing in the culture and having their own gendered behavior rewarded there’s lots of rewards for different types of gender behavior well we also know from a theory called cultivation theory that themes that get repeated in the culture like through television come to be seen as normal so if you see these extreme gender roles you might think this is just the way things always have been and always should be there have been specific experiments with toys children playing with toys and seeing the effect on behavior these are short-term kinds of studies but sometimes you know Barbie has been the subject of research because of her very unrealistic body proportions and in some studies it is associated lower body seen but not always in that later some people thought well maybe the effects are already there you know time they studied these girls but actually barbie is not the worst anymore i mean the monster high doll and others like that the Bratz dolls you know probably worse in some ways in terms of the way they’re depicted females but another study a recent one found that playing with Barbie whether she was career Barbie or you know model Barbie it didn’t matter playing with her versus the group that played with mrs. Potato Head they imagined a lower number of careers as possible for girls yeah this is the tale ahead and the who thought of a potato head begin with affects people’s career choices so another study looked at boys and girls exposed to superheroes on television and found that both boys and girls were more likely to engage in aggressive play more effects on the boys than the girls but so as just a little bit about our most recent study in a little contest and I want to talk a little bit more about other research that we’ve done because a lot of us focused more on females and particularly with this issue of sexual objectification just an example of sexual objectification this is an ad that came out lil early 2000s is an ad for shoes you might not guess that and when I was trying to recall this ad I did a google search for ad with a woman in the trunk of the car this is not the first one that comes up but sexual just a definition of sexual identification basically women’s primary value on their sexual appeal to men and defining that appeal based on very narrow standards of attractiveness you’re probably aware that there’s a fairy there’s a thin ideal that women are supposed to be unrealistic weekend and that ideal hasn’t always been in our culture recent research has looked at the possibility of an increased sexualization of women in the culture this is one study that was done they examine Rolling Stone magazine covers over 40 years and found that while only forty-four percent of move over sexualized in the 60s that it increased eighty-three percent and that many women were hyper sexualized multiple sexualizing cues probably you could guess that their multiple ones there she’s laying now she’s nearly naked etc but what has been more of a concern recently is the possibility that business affecting girls so this was a 2011 ad not a depiction in french issue

of vogue that garnished a lot of media attention and there were a lot of things happening around that time period and so the American Psychological Association had a task force report on the sexualization of girls and our first study at least the person when I was involved in maybe when they had one before that but not aware of what on this topic was cited in the report and at that time we had become concerned about the sexual identification of women in the culture Jennifer Lopez Britney Spears etc were showing up in pictures with you know midriff tops it looks tame compared to how it looks today but it looks kind of shocking in the late 90s and so we did the study with grade school girls and boys and so the grade school girls saw pictures of famous women in these sexually objectified poses that passed an ethics they were horrible and we asked them what they thought of these pictures and what we found was that even in grade school girls had a very consistent response as if they had a schema about this they understood that women were sex objects and they had to respond to it and we found that the girls who rejected the pictures had the highest body esteem of any group how the boys in contrast didn’t seem to have a schema they might respond to one of the pictures with I you know I don’t like it short sir but here’s the thing about that at that time we couldn’t find famous pictures of men with their shirts off in the media didn’t exist I think today we would definitely find that and we might find different responses of boys because certainly there’s been increased objectification but that was our first study on this topic with Andy mills and when is he good we’re still and the task force called for more research and so we did start wearing this around 2010 so one of our first studies continuing in the steam looked at the possibility of sexualized clothing for girls and these are underwear that are designed for girls nine to twelve at Victoria’s Secret put out and they are somewhat sexualized now they’re called bright young things line of underwear and so in the first study what we did was we looked at clothing that was available for preteens on the websites of a bunch of different stores and i should say Samantha Gooden looked at a lot of this and Alyssa Vandenberg over 6000 clothing items and we came up with a definition of ization any clothing because it didn’t exist and it was clothing that is designed to emphasize a sexualized body part so you know maybe a dress that’s cut to make it look like the girl has pressed or it reveals a sexualized body part really short skirt or midriff showing something like that or it has its clothing that’s associated with sexiness so it’s made out of slinky material it kind of looks like lingerie so what we did was looked at the clothing and categorized it as either childlike or definitely sexualizing there was nothing childlike about it or ambiguously sexualizing which is mostly what we thought so this is reversely ambiguously sexualizing and then the d/s is that definitely sexualizing the good news is most of the clothing was childlike but in some stores it was not and Queen stores our stores that are designed particularly for that age group and maybe they have an older equivalent so the worst store that we saw was abercrombie kids wear over seventy percent of the clothing items had sexualizing characteristics so that was some evidence that this was occurring in another study that we did we looked at girls magazines to see if we could chart that increase of sexualization across time in depictions of girls just like we had been seen with women so just to show you some depictions from Seventeen magazine that was one of the magazine’s we chose and you can probably guess the more recent version and seventeen was chosen because that’s a really popular magazine it’s been around for a long time since nineteen forty four it’s been the subject of a lot of research last time I checked it had over 2 million you know subscriptions which is high for one and so that was one that we chose and this comparison is I’m trying not to wear my glasses 1971 well we went from 1970 12 2011 but then we also looked at girl’s life not a very popular magazine but it was designed to try to be something different than a fashion magazine when it first came out in 1994 they were going to be celebrity focused or appearance focus but look at the difference across time to see that’s the very first issue that came out this is the later issue which has a celebrity on the cover nap you know probably they needed to do this for their circulation so you know when I talk about these

things this is a whole cultural issue it’s not just girls like magazine but it is interesting that to survive probably they had to increase their sexualisation well here’s what the actual data show so what we did was we got a little more specific in our coding of sexualization by the time we did this and we counted the number of sexualizing cues so those are things like let’s see clothing made of slinky fabric being tight low cut and interfering wearing high heels animal print fabric and some other things but this is the average number of characteristics / depiction in the magazines across time and what you can see is a definite increase 17 had more than girls life which is for older girls so that makes sense so what we found across the time for 17 that had almost tripled but in girls like because of that very low number at the beginning it increased like x 15 x so barely one character is one foreign girls life at the beginning up to two point one one by the end now also something interesting about the data there were not a lot of depictions of minority girls and any of these magazines across time but we hypothesized that they would shown with more sexualizing characteristics and that was found to be true slightly more true on average 1.91 compared to 1.61 so what are the consequences of this well showing these sexualize depictions and just this general focus on appearance in general encourages self objectification so there’s a theory called objectification theory that’s been tested a great deal that suggests that the ubiquitous objectification of women leads women to engage in self objectification where they’re monitoring their body always thinking about it and it leads to body shame because the standards are unrealistic it influences cognitive functioning when people are spending that effort thinking about their body and in turn is associated with eating or eating disorders and depression but further in terms of sexualization the sexual role sexualized role is somewhat incompatible with other roles we know from stereotype research that there are stereotypes of the non-traditional woman today who is a career woman the traditional woman who is you know homemaker and then the sexy woman and there’s the biggest difference between the sexy woman in the non-traditional we can’t quite seem to fit those together very well at least in the research have some dependence of parts a little dated in a study that we did with the scale that measures self sexualisation we found at college women including any women who engage in self sexualization who engage in a lot of these behaviors to appear sexy are more likely to think that women should have limited roles in society to have benevolent sexist beliefs so we think it’s a limiting role for women we also know for research with adult women that when you show one group of people a woman who’s a sex object role she sexualized in some way compared to another group that Cesar in some other way maybe in her athletic you or in professional clothing that the woman who are sexualized are seen as less competent immoral whoops I forgot to put the reference there but there’s lots of research there so let’s think about girls with the sexualisation effect girl so can you imagine this girl to be competent and intelligent yep how about when she looks this way so we did a study where we got this depiction off the internet and exchange the head for the clothes put a girl in this kind of position and we asked head and college students in different groups to evaluate this 5th grade girl who we also gave a little description of her you know so there was something they could hopefully think they were made to get on at least so either she was average and accomplishment or high an accomplishment she was either sexualized or she was not and he’s at this a little bit of a day to hear that you can see that when she’s dressed in a childlike clothing that she’s perceived as the more intelligent than the sexualized holy particularly if she’s average and accomplishment and then she’s also judged to be less moral if she stresses she’s in fifth grade and what was interesting is we told the participants our hypotheses at the end of the study and we asked them to comment on it and a number of them were really conscious of the fact that they were stereotyping so this is kind of a blatant stereotype I’ll just give you a couple of comments she would have seemed intelligent if she were not wearing such a skimpy and inappropriate outfit she’s inappropriately dressed 5th grade girls don’t need purses seems like a caricature of a brat style overall first impression isn’t strong you know we also always ask any students to guess our hypotheses and some of them guess quite well and there were some very funny thing like people knew exactly what we

were doing and we sometimes rule out those data say we think you that you know they’re trying to give us something you want but so this is an issue that you know imagine that girls who and I don’t blame girls for being interested in this kind of clothing by the way or you know I mean I think we think it’s harmless especially what you found what the girls clothing is that sometimes these sexualizing characteristics are miss our mixed with childlike things like a polka dot print you know what’s the harm in that but you know it’s possible that it is leading girls to be perceived in a particular way but it’s very popular so what about change what about resistance and change on this issue well yes people should be taught to critique this critique culture to resist sexualized culture there’s a lot of media literacy programs that teach this that’s definitely a good thing to do we can promote alternative self definitions in one of the meta analyses that we’ve done it was found that across 26 studies that feminist identity is linked with better body image it’s not a huge effect but it’s there and partly perhaps because feminist identity is also linked with less internalization of these media ideals so feminist women have learned to critique these ideals and perhaps not use them to judge themselves so we definitely need more critique remoting mind-body connection you know if people are taught to use their you know recognize what their body can do rather than what it looks like that is helpful a good thing Meredith teaches no good as a that’s a good thing but individual can’t change or these kinds of changes are not enough I would argue that they’re just dealing with some of the symptoms and one of the reasons we wanted to do the study with the boys characters is to see how these things relate together because you know part of the female sexual objectification role is related to what’s happening with boys so I want to backtrack and talk a little bit about why there is female sexual objectification to begin with of course there are various theories on it but I’m talking about my favorites here today and it does have a beautiful support so first of all we have we still have a patriarchal culture where men have more control over resources and one theory about how we got there is social with social role theory of by Alice akley and her colleagues one of whom is a former Kenyan seeing Amanda Diekman who’s Daniel here up there in a minute and according to this theory you know we start out we definitely there are biological differences women are able to bear children and feed them from their bodies and men have greater upper body strength and that became important important in agricultural and then industrialized societies that let people into certain roles with men’s roles being more outside the home more in control of resources leading to patriarchy and then what they are you recording this theory is when people get placed into roles they then develop personality characteristics that help them succeed in those roles so you know when men are placed on nurturing roles they can nurture just as well as women when women are placed in work roles they can behave similarly to men so the role is what determines the behavior there’s lots of other social processes that happen to help reinforce these stereotypes some of which I’m talking about today and then another thing about roles between men and women sexism is a different form of prejudice compared to other forms of prejudice because the people who are you know sort of competing in some ways or our targets of stereotypes lots of come together so we have heterosexual interdependence that a lot of men and women are going to want to come together for you know obviously for two to enjoy one another’s company so male dominance needs to coexist with heterosexual inert interdependence so we have some strange ideas about gender so while we have some negative stereotypes about women we also really like women more than we like men so we have this idea that women are warm and wonderful maybe they’re not going to be leaders same way men are but so we’ve got some both negative and positive stereotypes about men as well so we have kind of conflicted ideas about gender roles but it helps maintain it helps maintain some of this sexism so what we have is a gender sexual script we have ways that men and women come together that are not equal we still have a sexual double standard that men are sexual actors and women are sexual objects and we have this idea that men want sex and you know we’ll use resources to get it and we would want relationships and they their power perhaps is to use their own bodies to put themselves in the sex object role well I had a student who was very interested in this gender sexual script and wasn’t evident in what children are being exposed to in the culture and so there had been a study that came out that looked at this on crime time television if anybody remembers what

that is and physically but they looked at number of instances of various elements of this gendered sexual scripts on prime-time television and she said well I’m going to see you know what I see if I watched children’s television and so these are on programs for I mean preteen may be teenagers iCarly Drake and Josh some of you guys might mallu shows so she looked at the number of elements of the script per hour and again I’m only showing you some of the data so her data children’s TV use is Alexander Kirsch and then compared it to adult dramas and adults it sitcoms from the other study that I stood aside which is Kim at all and this sexist masculinity was the most common Q in any show what it means is that men are all about sex that they are often objectifying women talking about sex talking about women’s bodies well I’m children’s television there’s no sex taking place but what she found was that all the interactions between the males and females on the show we’re very sexualized very flirtatious no instances where boys and girls were friends you know doing something like an adventure together or anything like that so very sexualized interactions somewhat similar to adult television even though no sex is actually taking place that’s a male courtship strategy which is you know men sort of showing off resources or showing off that they’re a good singer on some of those shows i guess and female courtship is women sexually objectifying themselves girls in this case treating themselves as sex objects good girl is part of the script where women are supposed to set the limits on men’s sexual activity so thankfully that’s you know we’re not seeing a lot of that on children’s television but the point is that while there’s something going on with the meal the female sex on the parole there’s also something going on with this email sex act the role that’s important and hasn’t really been given the same type of research attention so in other research we talked about the fact that there are body I deals out there that are very gendered and part of this gendered sexual script that are made to seem you know like there that that’s what you’ll if you look like this body you will be successful in in the heterosexual world and so Brian gone and I have written about body ideals for both women and men and how they you know are very consistent with this idea while there’s been an increased thinness and sexualization of women across time there’s also been an increased muscularity o of the images of men if you look at a GI Joe from the 1970s he looks totally different than the GI Joe today that has very unrealistic musculature so these body ideals I think tell us something about the gender pressures in our culture but Rio Seabrooke and I also note that the appearance demands are still greater for women it’s still more important than women’s gender role to focus on appearance but it’s certainly an issue for men getting back to the children’s characters you can sort of see the eroticized body ideals hear that you know Batman very muscular there and the language is very different in that we see these fuking fairy fairies now interestingly if you haven’t seen boys halloween costumes lately they now come with a muscular version of many of the costumes so there’ll be like regular spider-man and muscular spider-man mean that’s in the East exists so there’s a lot of pressure on voice of concerning their bodies and we think this pressure has something to do with an emphasis on hyper masculinity all there’s this increased sexualization of women so something hope Boyd and I are doing she’s one of the office of that study outside at the beginning is we’re looking at the data from the children’s characters in a little more detail to see do we see these unrealistic body ideals you saw the the way that they’re portrayed and sent stereotyped ways well so we took the female characters and we contrasted with in care noticeably thin characters I me they’re all thin really or at least average in body type but really thin which is 71 percent of them 95 of the characters depiction and compared to Phnom Penh and what you see is the thin characters in pink have more sexualizing characteristics associated with them so they’re more likely to revealing clothing the curved spine posture the head can to be wearing high heels and then for the male characters we looked at the number that were noticeably muscular and that’s a little over half fifty two percent are noticeably muscular and we found that the more muscular characters are associated with some of the more I masculine cues like hands and fists angry facial expression so we think that these are rata size body ideals are associated with sort of hyper femininity and hyper masculinity how for a little data on kenyan students in this study we ask Kenya students a lot of things but

to also indicate how important was it these are all the heterosexual participants in this part only how important was it for your partner to have the ideal body type you know this has been ideal for women this must be very ideal for men and so for the canyon men we found that the men who thought it was more important for their woman partner to have this ideal they were more likely to prefer a hook-up culture to relationships and that’s a correlation value they were more likely to have a sexualized peer group which is a group that talks a lot about sex and who they’ve had sex with and compares to know suggest people you know suggest possible partners to each other they were also more likely to watch a reality television and watch sports on television now these are not causal relationships their correlations but what it suggests to us is that you know there is a culture out there that’s encouraging us to you know evaluate other people based on appearance now for the women results are not quite as strong than women but what we found was that women who thought it was more important for their man partner to have an ideal body we’re also more likely to refer the hook-up culture smaller correlations but those of you with stats they’re significant because it’s a pretty large sample size to have the sexualized peer group and to believe that relationships are adversarial this one was strange to us so what the scale measures is that you think that men we are sort of out to get one another in a relationship and we couldn’t quite understand that’s not a huge correlation but it was the strongest one for the women and what we came up with is that maybe women who are who believe that and are in that kind of culture you are being judged by their bodies and so they think it’s fair play to judge men by their bodies I don’t know some good news about the data though what you find in many studies is that most people are much nicer when they evaluate a partner’s than the way they evaluate their own body so like the ideal for Batman had for women was very similar to women’s actual body size whereas the ideal women have for themselves as much thinner same was true for the men that the ideal body they have for themselves as much more muscular but the one that women have for men is similar to men’s actual body so why are they all doing this to each other but so another part that I want to address is so i feel like the female sexual objectification is partly related to what’s going on with the male role we shouldn’t you know ignore what’s happening with men but why increased sexual objectification well some people have argued that it’s because we live in a half changed world that the second wave of the women’s movement didn’t lead to an increase of women in the workforce and a lot of changing roles format for women but not so much for men so there have been some changes in men’s roles but perhaps not enough one of my former students and their the Diekman for her honors project insight looked at non-sexist books versus sexist books and these are award-winning books and what she found was that you could distinguish the books on the basis of only what the female characters were doing that the female characters and non-sexist folks we’re taking on you know more stereotypic masculine roles of action and adventure and so on but you couldn’t distinguish what the boys were doing before amanda was a double major in English insight so she thought of a creative way with those together some people have talked about why that it might be a backlash against women’s of accomplishments that we are now you know trying to push these very extreme gender roles as a way to try to return things or to what society thinks is normal certainly it could have something to do with what people call the porta fication of culture the easy availability of pornography on the Internet has meant that it’s kind of made its way the mainstream culture that you know we probably wouldn’t have song underwear for preteens advertised by victoria’s secret if you know it didn’t exist somewhere before that and people have now seen it also just the general commercialization of culture that there’s a lot of pressure you know to buy products and you know if advertising can make people feel insecure they might buy a product so there certainly is this increased commercialization of culture and some people feel like we are more vulnerable to this than ever before because in our industrialized society we’re less likely to need to use our bodies for our jobs for our work and that could make us vulnerable to body dissatisfaction that we aren’t you know using our body the physical ways and there are lots of products available for people to try to manipulate their bodies so America mercial ization of culture could be part of this too not American commercialization of culture so what to do with all of this sorry it’s changed online so where I’m trying to talk about the systemically now that we need to look at all these roles and we need to look at what’s going on in society and what I think we need to do is challenge what Sandra van called the

three lenses of gender in a book that she wrote and she says that there are three particular ways that we look at gender that are problematic one is we engage in this gender polarization where we cast everything male and female is opposite even the term the opposite sex is an example of that and we have a no cognitive tendency to do that anytime we have two of something we have more than two genders but people tend to think we have two and and Katherine is opposite so we can be taught to recognize gender gender similarity there is far more similarity than there is difference Janet I did a huge meta-analysis of all the meta analyses of gender difference and most of the gender differences are either quite smaller not significant so there’s a lot more similarity than most people realize and a lot of those even that aren’t small buried by historical time period by the context in which you test people and sander bem later and her thinking came to think that we really need to proliferate these gender and sexuality categories so that people will stop you know using just this gender binary challenge the gender sexual script that I talked about another part way that we look at gender though is to assume that what is male is better that’s a no centrism and do any more critique of the male role a lot of this content analysis research that I talked about has looked at girls and women for good reason people are concerned about the way women are shown via but there’s a lot of critique of the male role that needs to happen also because I think they together and we need more critique of situations that encourage hyper-masculinity also biological essentialism we need to avoid simplistic biological explanations for gender behavior it’s a lot more complex than that but it’s really easy for us to latch on the biological explanations and you know there are huge best-selling books out there about these suppose that huge differences in behavior that just don’t exist and based on a lot of bad science there’s good critique out there too so basically we want more of this okay we want people to be free to take on other roles now people are starting to complain though about the way that children are being stereotyped in the culture and we have seen some changes as the results of all this end with a couple of perhaps positive changes target may there try to make their toy aisles more gender-neutral without the labels after a mother complained about a girl’s building set that was very stereotypically feminine so I don’t know if you are aware that when the Star Wars action figures came out from the new movie they did not have depictions of this you know very important female character I haven’t seen a movie but but people complained and now there is you know this action figured they shouldn’t have had to complain but i also want to mention my current research students are here i saw some of them we’re doing it research but it’s not up here and i have references but are there any questions those sexualized features yeah well in the previous study well that would not publish it so we hope that you know we hope the reviewers like what we were doing but in the other study we we talked about some characteristics being traditionally feminine that don’t really have anything to do with sexual objectification like a friendly smile on a doll’s face versus hyper feminine and we had a good argument for that and then we had traditionally masculine like the body in motion is not necessarily aggressive so that was a more true than we had hyper-masculine so we’re kind of focusing in now and those hyper feminine and hyper masculine that we want to contrast those with but we did look at like for the female characters that within versus not then we also looked at could you could they compare in any other way like on the masculine characteristics and they don’t the only ones where they differ are these sex object characteristics so it does seem to be that that’s the image that’s supposed to be coming for it I guess certainly through most of the 20th century raised by staring at idle when we saw them the benefit and what comes to mind is an example we would be horrified if you saw an image of the man jus has some sort of image of how we could should consider asian oh we don’t see be harfe I’d that I’ve noticed there’s not a woman shaman power on TV I

still watch without that she did not be considered women so we’re not horrified by that but we would never show where are we well I don’t you know don’t care what’s important where’s is established I do some people care what she’s wearing but I think that you know that sexualized image is it’s it’s it’s sold the people as a forum it sold the young women as a form of power there’s not a lot of evidence that it really is though I mean they might feel individually that they look great and they should be proud of their body I mean I don’t blame them from you know wanting to feel that way but for women is a group it’s probably not helpful it probably does lower their status it does probably duss to perceive them as less competent when they are sexualizing and that’s what the research seemed to seem to suggest so I don’t know maybe there’s a time where we will get used to it though and it won’t lead us to think somebody is not competent but what seems to happen is it is we just see the form of these subtypes of people in terms of our stereotyping of women and also meant that we don’t really challenged the stereotype as a whole yeah but I think that’s different because you don’t tell I think the reason sexism is more challenging in some ways on that issue is that it gets arata sized like it’s made to seem like it’s really that this is the way to be you know because of his heterosexual interdependence so if women are in a lower status position I mean one thing they do have is their sex appeal so and there’s there are positive things associated a lot of positive things associated with that but not competence so it’s kind of a trade-off it’s and we get a study and I didn’t cite here is a long time ago Melanie macchina and I where we had a woman give a speech and she portrayed herself as either a sex object or not not extremely found this but you know she talked about like like like him to flirt with men and you know no pictures of her just giving the speech and what we found was that are the men who heard the woman who was the sex object did not think she was competent which they agreed with her more than the men who heard the same speech given by the nazis i think so that’s what women often have to do is sort of trade off you know being light versus being respected so it’s hard for those things to get the right now warriors right then we have to have this powerful yeah and there’s cultural variation in the emphasis on the muscular body which Linda prolly knows more about than I do but that study that you guys did of men’s male role norms did that also have to do with their bodies it was a different like they don’t cross cultural study and they’re definitely variability and what we consider important in the mail roll across cultures and I’m sure has something to do with the size of the military and how much we need military strength and I know what Eileen’s herb Reagan has written about that too um obviously Parvati was on the cover of Time magazine yes I’ll show the new image as a Barbie though they have come out with some wider body types recently I’m curious I need is there it’s the media doing a better job of covering this issue or is that coverage still problematic I mean what target maybe yeah and I do think social media I mean is having an influence like people spread these ideas around young people are spreading these ideas around I think it’s great and i also think like with the you know with with various sexual minority groups fighting for rights and representation that that’s having a positive effect on gender stereotypes I hope can you tell me what you mean or an idea

maybe and maybe that is changing like I don’t know what effect it’s having to see all these you know female physicians on television with cleavage I don’t know maybe that will turn it would be really interesting to do a study to compare like older adults who aren’t college students how they would stereotype sexualized versus not sexualize women compared to people your age I think that would be a good study for somebody to do well I I think it’s a good idea not to focus on what clothes you’re wearing so much but I hear that people find ways to do that anyway right what do you think well I think it’s mean you could talk about behavior at the individual level I can understand why people want to wear this kind of clothing etc but what I’m concerned with this water why are we encouraging this at the cultural level like I don’t want to blame individual people you know I want people to have informed consent though the thing about girls is young girls like they don’t have the cognitive capacity to make decisions about this the same way that young women do so I think pushing this on them early in a culture where there is you know child sexual abuse is not a good idea you know I just I don’t understand the point of that no yes definitely and I they’re doing more about this in some other countries like the United Kingdom and Australia but they certainly are doing research like this as well and see the same issue well I think this hyper masculinity like what kind of situations encourage that hi you know why do we have so many toys with gone it’s like why you know what’s that about and I think you know that’s definitely something do is have their kids play with weapon I don’t know how much of its conscious well actually there is a film that I show sometimes that looks at what’s called the codes of genders by the media Education Foundation and it talks about really stereotype the stereotypes in advertising that you know actually a lot of the research that I showed here came from that original research by a sociologist and Erving Goffman in the 1970s but it does show some people who you know owned companies being really conscious of the way that they’re depicting women and thinking that this is the right role for women to be sex objects only so I don’t know some people are probably pretty conscious others probably not and again I don’t blame people for being interested in it and those monster high dolls that are very sexualized there are some ways in which i think they’re better than some of the other dolls because they’re kind of sassy they’re not passive i’m not sure they’re better I mean I’d like to have see more research on what kids actually do with these things because you know they can do a lot of different things with them but I don’t know so that’s kind of interesting about them they’re not passive for sure but I don’t know who had their hand up yeah

well I mean what we do know is that gender roles are much stricter for boys than they are for girls and there are lots of girls who you know report playing with male stereotype toys and not receiving flat for it or not you know and having more flexible gender roles roles related to sexuality I think it’s is probably more difficult for gay men I don’t know what do you what do you think yes you know I was thinking about the characters because when i taught gender and popular culture last semester and i see some of the students from that class you know there aren’t any characters and children’s popular culture that i know of that are like you know where everybody knows that they’re gay but people think that maybe Daphne on scooby-doo was and she got a makeover it became much more sexualized and it made people mad and did they go back to changing her back the way she was I don’t remember but you know I don’t know I don’t know what kind of representations are out there for people who don’t feel like they like what’s out there we the representations for girls are getting I mean these are still there’s some action figures that just came out for girls that DC Comics I don’t know if these are better they’re a little bit sexualized their body proportions I think are a little better i think the class thought these are better talked about lessons I don’t know what yeah pretty pubescent girls have like any other yeah no and I just became aware actually so in my psyche of women class they did an analysis of toys recently in a woman in the class talked about how when the Brad Styles came out she’s latina they were delighted that these were they weren’t blonde you know obviously white dolls like Barbies and and but they were more sexual she herself was not a lot of play with them but yeah so you know then they get attacked you know in this task force report the brat styles in particular so yeah there are there probably is definitely racism involved in there and classism and you know the best dolls that we looked at and were the American Girl dolls when they first came out they were designed to put a girl into history they were designed by a history teacher now the company is along with his long as somebody else that was purchased by something else but but those are so expensive you know so exactly a class element there too and they can’t belong in your vendor / 4 Bridge Lake is everyone comfortable it will do that it’s bittersweet because it has a girl I was called a tomboy and he had the time I would have thought of myself like yeah because I’m more aware identified it was pretty much any and pray that I’ve never questioned look at them but I just I know there’s a lot

more accessibility yeah flexible general boys being higher than that amount okay I feel like it’s very hard to hold on to your or if you like I don’t know if you’re ever read a lot everything I repo I would suggest that very it’s very interesting game good place one more question thank you