CompTIA A+ BIOS review questions Part 2

hey this is uh we’re ready to remove the week well you look at that we talked a little bit about this and I would like someone to tell me what is the strange incorrect in correcting me for this it’s a strange and it’s incorrect name for that and you hear it you can’t read a book on wonder horse without seeing that term applied seamers it’s enjoy why is it incorrect okay we talking about yesterday in the early days of IBM when they were developing the first IBM XT and I just just to give you a perspective I remember our front office getting an XP computer it was the IBM XP PC it was five thousand dollars and it ran so slow you would all laugh it had floppy disks no hard drive vibrating and it had green screen what do you like one or five thousand dollars are you excited all right in those days what they did was the engineers from IBM who are developing it in the Fort Lauderdale area had chosen a specific type of memory chip and the substrate now there is the material that they make that memory chip there were many types of her team on ships there were n mas tips there were there was also a type of substrate called CMOS and they simply had chosen that type of memory or that is somehow in the press in the giving out information about the PC and explaining it the word CMOS stuck so so it’s very easy to read all right it is memory yes yeah it is the one we configure our bias our firmware we say those settings any memory that can get lost so we attach a lithium cell to that small amount of memory it’s not very large and that lithium cell keeps that contents of that memory stable so even though one wouldn’t even power the contents of our configurations are safe every time you boot up we don’t have to go back and configure our finest again yes have you ever had one of those pcs where the coolest Himself has gone bad and every time you boot up it says the date is wrong 1995 you know we’re in the Pacific time and almost okay deserving and what I’m saying yeah okay so that’s what that is about so the CMOS is a really important for this but I want you to understand it is the memory it’s a small amount of memory used by our firmware to save the settings that you set up everything has firmware a couple things I want you to walk away I want us just to go back real quick and just get these big ideas these are the CompTIA concepts the software that is on your motherboard is all about configuring the devices that are on the motherboard things like establishing power management intrusion detection security features such as passwords so that you guys don’t go in there or your brother-in-law doesn’t go into your biasing mess it all up you can configure the various types of memory tiny you can set clock speeds for your CPU I mean you’re actually going to build to complete pcs from scratch in Chapter three you’re in a build a gigabit motherboard which uses a UEFI 5 then in Chapter 11 you’re also going to do another one you’re going to do an ITX motherboard created by Intel and it’s going to be using the standard of old-style bias and in both of those boards you can ramp up the box speed you can overclock the CPU in other words you can take the clock speed that is normally a sign that I CPU and tweak it up but when you do that you can’t use the standard heatsink and plan that came with the CPU why it creates more heat the faster the clock speed the more heat is generated the standards that so be very careful about overclocking unless you know what you’re doing you

understand the ramifications of overclocking you can cause problems because every time you ramp up the clocks clock cycles to your RAM and to your CPU what is generated you yes you better you better change your heat sinks you better think about how your ram is cool because all of that is going to be impacted so be aware about overclocking and tweaking those RAM configurations but you must understand those are the things that were expected to understand from bias we understand what the bias the bias lithium Styles do we were familiar with that cooler beat let me come back here I this is a little bit beyond the scope of katia but I want you to understand it in the past 25 years we have used the standard legacy bias it’s basically written in assembly there were lots of problems for it it was very difficult to code there are only a very small group of engine years that really write the code for today’s standard bias it was very hard to bring third-party support and that is why everybody that’s in the business is moving to UEFI it is written in the C language it is very easy to add third-party support and to virus you can even I’ve got an HP lead I can boot up in UEFI launch my browser insert the internet get my email I’ve never even booted in this cool yes very nice so UEFI is where we are going we are going to UEFI this is somewhat of real things that we’re really looking to find in UEFI one one of the nicest features of ufi is a very graphical interactive interface it’s usually got a 3d color you can use your mouse it’s just really really nice at seven visually nice to look at it’s easier to understand it’s more intuitive to use where does the old BIOS was text on screen you navigate with the cursor and the spacebar and the tab yes it was ugly okay it was ugly so these are some of the new features that you can put in UEFI we can bring a an entire functioning pre-boot environment your plane’s get ready to take off you won’t be able to use your Windows operating system so you boot up real quick and UEFI check your email slap your laptop down and hit the airplane you’ve checked your mail very very nice quick functional think of it as a small nature operating system yes sir compared to BIOS they have the C Mon statistic lot more room is it easier for something to go wrong with it the amount of memory in other words the amount of space in your software they’re pretty comfortable we don’t really have to put we don’t have to put a larger chip on the board to use UEFI than we did with standard bias so there really wasn’t that much but it’s much easier to write to there’s a lot more program programmers that can write in C rather than a few that can write an assembly so it’s just much easier for developers to write to you in one quick couple things you want to remember boot sequence configure device memory configurations CPU clock speed I will tell you listen up listen up only on home retail pcs can you mess with memory configurations and clock speeds if you buy an enterprise box from Levin Oh from HP from any of the major manufacturers there’s nothing on the legacy boxes and allows you to mess with any of that you don’t need to be overclocking in here ok in a business environment you don’t do it but in a home environment there is these kinds of flexible you can monitor to the hardware you can look at how what the temperature the CPU is you can enable or disable stay with me you can label serial ports you can disable parallel points you can turn on USB functions so a lot of the hardware is controlled on the bias last but not least you can say I want nothing to show

up on the screen of Windows or you can say I want our corporate logos splash screen to come up welcome OCPs and then you boot in the woods so I can process that is right here we’ve got we’ve got quiet booth we can put various information that tells you about the boot process but last but not least and I need you to write this down right about virtualization this is a test question one of the features that is becoming very important to CompTIA that you know if you are going to do personalization on your PC you must go into bias we’ll turn that feature on let me show you where that’s at so if you decide to run VirtualBox or you’re going to run hyper-v on your new windows 8.1 you will do that in BIOS lastly last but not least there are a few additional things you don’t have to remember all of those but you’re going to think you’re going to have things like protecting the boot sector of your hard drive against viruses you’re going to have the ability to turn a weak on land these are very critical settings and the enterprise most of you don’t have to worry about them too often at home we talked about this just one more time remember if you suspect somebody has vinegar the bias okay one of the things that you’re going to do is to force bias back to what do some older factory settings are default that’s a very helpful tool I can’t tell you let me give you some experience we didn’t miss our interval when would I in what troubleshooting situation would I think about that let me give you a couple a person comes to you instead of something like this I was in the middle of work and all of a sudden you lost popular in the building just and now my PC is just you know shut off and then it our always reports the building and now I’m just working but it’s really something and you look at it and sure enough something is not right that is a great I’ve seen that many many times where I would go back into bias after looking at the problem to try to figure out what is wrong just something is out of sorts went back for us by inspector the faults in this one so that is a situation that I have seen many times in my years of working with PCs where I have found it’s goin back to bias the faults has helped let me give you another one I’m working all along and all of a sudden my computer I mean word I’m in Chrome I’m doing something and all of a sudden my computer is in lose power I didn’t hit the power button it just rebooted yeah I mean I’m I’m working away in up what happened that’s another it’s not always true but it is another problem that I have experience where I will say I will innocence situation and the symptoms and say let me start there let me let me get that out of the way let me force my inspected fault then let’s see are we stable from that point so those are two situations that I’ve seen in my experience where I would go back and reset bias the only other one that I would do definitely is when the boyfriends been working on it or the son has been working on it or my little you know it’s someone’s been working on it I’m going to flush bias and start from scratch because I don’t know what to have them yes many menu most of you have been in here most of you understand I’m not going to go I’m not going to spend a lot of time in here here’s what you must do you must get into these biases every time you have a chance get in and drive it’s okay to look don’t change until you get comfortable but get in there look navigate go see one of the features some of these biases are rich with features it’s important that you’re curious and you’re looking at them I do not understand people who enroll in this program and then after a year I’ll say well have you looked at your computer bikes at home and they’ll say to me know what field are you going into are you

there I’m puzzled I’m really baffled if you don’t have enough technical curiosity that you’re not doing this every time you get a chance it’s like okay boot up sequence I’m not going to spend a lot of time most of you have looked at these have tasted some of these you’re going to have labs where we’re going to ask you to get in here you can configure your your SATA ports your pata parts your IDE you can configure raid there are raid configurations in here you must get in here look on our home Paige we go here on our home page under preparing for the 801 or way there I have put a couple motherboards I think I’ve put an Asus and an MSI you can open them up and go look at them they’ve got a lot of information about their biases and it allows you to explore if you can’t get into yours you can turn on and turn off features floppy controllers clan ports parallel ports so if a function on the motherboard is not working first thing I’m going to do is go into my and turn it on see if I can enable it happens all the fun audio doesn’t work on a laptop and is turned off in device mister really got a question over here yes sir it’s if you can get into the BIOS usually what would be the best we have hard reset and that’d be pulling in sea monster check or is there a better way we’re going to get into how to clear the CMOS password or the memory password so if a lot of times for example if your boss goes out and buys 10 used laptops you find an option if I’ve still use laptops breathing which we use as a long the way you set them up give them to our sales staff what you fire them up and everyone has a bike spectrum well you’re going to have to learn how to clear that password so you can menthols how you put into the failsafe settings yes we got to get rid of password first yeah and that is done by the motherboard jumpers yes we’ve got jumpers on this motherboard that we have to locate on every motherboard there are a few that do not but most motherboards will have at least three pins sticking up they will have on their password reset and you can follow a set of procedures in fact come to you expect you to know and you can jumper those by changing jumpers and shutting off and turning on you can flush those passwords out and then you will do that in Chapter three when you do your lap we’re going to make you do that you’re going to do that twice at least remember virtualization is now becoming a very important part of the chipsets on the motherboard we talked about TPM can anyone give me a quick definition for TPM key piano what’s to do it’s a smart card it’s just like the SIM card you put in your so your cell phone yeah biases let me go back in Brooklyn who knows the definition for the acronym bias being cynicism there are good basic input/output systems there is also a function built into all firmware that is put on your motherboard and it’s called post post is a listen isn’t very short it is not an intensive test but it’s a very short diagnostic program that is run on the motherboard with post runs it produces codes so if you have a major chipset failure or a even a finest filter or even a Sima of the bathroom from back the lithium lithium battery is not correct the post can give you a look at that so let me show you something real quick pose when we run the power-on self-test during the bias Buddha there are codes that are generated I want you to look at

this key topic on this table a series of beep codes can be generated by a small speaker that is on the motherboard most motherboards will literally have either a small speaker on the motherboard and this one it does not so it’s expecting to have a speaker plugged in but many motherboards have a small speaker on the motherboard if post detects a problem when it runs Diagnostics it will give a series of these I find these as helpful as weeds in my grass ok I will tell you that in my experience years of experience working with PCs and experiencing a computer that boots up and beeps they’re right here it will be back to you basically I have found that it there are two codes that I have learned that it does help me with one generally if I hear a beep code it’s either video card or I guess remember two things that I found in 20 years of experiencing a problem with a beep code where the computer will boot up and it will be in fact I have them call me a teacher will call me and say mr Maynardville my computer is beeping at me it won’t do anything but it’s beeping at me I know that post has run and there are beep codes being admitted on that little speaker the only two issues I’ve ever found that it worked are indicated was either a video card problem it wasn’t seated or it was really defective or memories was wrong so my my my my wisdom to use this if you hear becomes open the case reset the video card first and then go ahead and pop out ramp and receipt your printer those things will nine times out of ten clear but do because write it down it’s gonna save you some time you’re going to be calling your hair the two major practical ways of fixing a Pico problem is recently receding your video card and receding you’re right there property whatever I didn’t work that’s a great question that’s a great question what happens often what he said is if my random isn’t properly seated wouldn’t that cause problems that’s correct what we are trying to fix when we take out rim and reset it these were not we’re not fixing that they were not properly seated what we’re really are fixing is we’re pulling those RAM dims out and we’re refresh in the connections you’re right if they’re not in there right and we hit the power button this is not going to be a good day so we’re really not trying to fix that but when the PC gets in there and sits in there for a year you get contact you get you get you get tarnish on the contacts you get oxidation on the contacts and many times it can’t read the signals so we pop it out push it back in and we refresh those contacts does that make sense to you now if anyone ever tells you listen get a pencil eraser look at me and they say clean the golden fingers of your memory with a pencil eraser and it will clean them up and you can receive them you know they didn’t know the word birthday no I don’t know where they got trained but they didn’t go here well you never use a pencil eraser on the figures the gold expose fingers on a video card on memory they have protective coatings on them you can use isopropanol alcohol and clean them off that’s a good way of doing it take a cotton swab or a cotton and just rub isopropanol alcohol on there that’s a great way to clean do not use a pencil erasers okay I don’t care if a YouTube video they think they’re really really good or someone says it worked for me at my 10 friends don’t you’ll ruin the context it’s an abrasive highly abrasive and it will actually cause more problems in life so sometimes it’s taking a chips out and

resetting and making those contacts right yes it’s a fun welcome but he said usually when you bet you know when you’re troubleshooting this computer that the veins usually you’re sitting in the room that’s that Computers and just like we had mentioned in a few days ago if you’re not careful with these motherboards bend the right way or just bang them drop them it can it can it can make these parts you know just a little bit off where they’re not making contact and that could be your shoring thing cuz I happen to me too like for example if you usually see these kind of beef problems when people move their computer they’ve been sitting in a cupboard for two years and they take them out and move and they clean things and they put them back well just moving things can cause contact problems and a lot of times often because get in there resync those things and a lot of times that experiment ok now come to you expect you to know this okay this table you need to know so what are you going to do a week before the test you’re going to commit it to memory that’s all you’re going to remember the only thing that I want you to remember is when you do have big codes I want you to reset RAM and reset the video card now CompTIA expect you to know about a post card here it is what is a post card a post card has an LED output readout has some special chips that repost close and will display hexadecimal values so if you don’t get any beat covers it doesn’t boot and you know something significantly wrong sometimes you can put a post card in and these LED lights will give you a code you can look up in the manual the manual for the HP the manual for the Levin oh and I’ll say if you give this code it indicates a possible chipset failure Ram failure Ram controller failure etcetera okay this is a postcard you got to know that for come to you question mister B is that the same thing that’s embedded in some motherboards – Adele has done this work Dell will actually embed four LEDs excuse me on the back of their their systems and based on the LED readout if the system fails to boot usually you’ll get an LED readout and you can take it the manual it’ll say this is possibly the problem that’s a poster that’s built in yeah my boss has come to me and said I need you to flash the bias I want you to flash the bias what’s the first thing you’re going to do but what do we need if I ask you to flash your bias what is some of the important things that I need to know yes I do need to learn read carefully the instructions to fly or else keep going person you’re heading the right direction that’s me how do I know what version I have I’ll go into my bias and on the splash screen it’s going to tell me the version I presently have then yes I’m going to go to the manufacturer find out if there is a newer one because many times you’ll go and you’ve got the latest version it’ll have no you’re not going to be doing what you’re not going to be flashing the bias if you’ve got the latest version so we need to find our version check the manufacturers website to see if there is a more recent version and then we’re going to read the instructions carefully what other thing have I mentioned about flashing bodies what other thing have I mentioned don’t do this unless you have this equipment battery Beca the better Rebecca battery backup because unless you have dual biases with that protection and you start flashing your bias and you lose power okay it won’t always be guys you’ll be ready to flash that bias plot the bias will be flashing and your favorite dog look at that power cord it’s a good thing you’ll love it okay if you’re going to be replacing that motherboard

and still feeding him and loving the good read the biggest thing to remember about flashing the bias is what what angel said don’t do this haphazard get your instructions that’s a great question when you flash the bias it is going to erase all the time well it will erase many it will upgrade most of the software and in most cases the contents of the memory will be flushed you really don’t need new code into old settings so when you boot up you’re going to have to reconfigure your device yes oh great when she does that so the question don’t you wish now they want you to buy I do buy the word that good question I get out piece of paper your name and a date make sure you put your date and let’s get started on some questions cameraman if you’ll just carefully go through those and then stop