Острог: в тіні історії | Ostroh: in the shadow of history

Identity can be different The relation between a person and a town in the context of identity is a very complicated issue; we have lots of examples in the history of culture, history of literature where this relation is illustrated For example, I do recall the novel “Town” by Valerian Pidmohylnyi Pidmohylnyi writes that town is hanging over the hero and there is always something greater then we are and we can not do anything with it Town matters something more, something that is bigger than we are Studio J.Lab supported by the National University of Ostroh Academy State historical and cultural reserve of Ostroh Town has an influence directly on identity, moreover, it shapes identity, a person and at the same time identity shapes the town OSTROH: IN THE SHADOW OF HISTORY Museum of Books and Printing OSTROH At this time, a boy from Konotop, Ukraine, was studying at the university in Saint Petersburg – Museum of Books and Printing OSTROH Museum of Books and Printing OSTROH his name was Maksym Parpura his name was Maksym Parpura “Some awkward person was being barbecued there, hot copper was being poured on the skin and was being crucified on the bull He had an abhorrent nature, and constantly prevaricated for gain, he exposed the properties of others without any shame and fear of God, forgetting the eighth commandment – don’t steal – he started to rob others” and all understood whom it is all about. It was the revenge of Kotliarevsky against Maksym Parpura… But it was a kind of push for him! Moreover, Parpura created a dictionary. The Ukrainian-Russian one It is a Ukrainian language, 215 words There is Lutsk Gate Tower in front of us, architecture monument of 16th century and from this tower Ostroh started its history 450 years ago The first part. Big generation It was a central entrance to town from Lutsk, that’s why it is named Lutsk Gate Tower It is called the gate tower because there was an entrance gate, it was a defensive building and the entrance gate It is preserved in a good way The restoration was started in 1975 Restoration work started and the plan was to rebuild it into a food unit It was aimed to open there a canteen, a café and a restaurant The restaurant was to be under open air. Later they changed their mind, it was a small town, few restaurants were already located here, but there was no place for lots of books that were kept in this local history museum Supported by a financial community of book lovers of Ukraine the museum started to be built in 1980, consequently it was opened on the 10th of December in 1985 It’s exactly through this gate famous historical persons came to our town Petro Sahaidachnyi came to study to the academy through this gate Ivan Fedorov typed books here, being supported by Prince Kostiantyn Ostrogski and his niece Halshka Through this gate Bohdan Khmelnytskyi galloped to us in 1648

The history of Ostrozkyi princely family started from the date when prince Fedir, the son of Danylo, had inherited the town Ostroh from his father From that time he and his descendants started to be named Ostrogski In last years the prince Fedir, having withdrawn from worldly affairs, took monastic vows under the name of Theodosius Therefore, he was installed in sculpture in the image of St. Theodore monk in the central square Along with Fedor, two his descendants were installed in bronze sculpture with him: Great Lithuanian Hetman Konstantin and his son Vasyl Kostiantyn This monument was erected in honor of the three most respected members of the representatives of the Ostrozki family Each of them, extending their possessions, also significantly contributed to the development of their family I would like to note that family of Ostrog princes, the owners of the castle, Mykola Manko, historian I would like to note that family of Ostrog princes, the owners of the castle, Mykola Manko, historian whose portraits we can see on the walls, played a leading role whose portraits we can see on the walls, played a leading role in the history of Ukrainian lands; in the Eastern Europe; in the Orthodox world during three centuries From this family came outstanding soldiers, generals, patrons of the Orthodox Church, including two Saints The founders and builders of cities, fortifications, churches, monasteries, schools, publishing houses, prominent philanthropists and educators Everyone, even not experts, know that Ostroh princes had in their possessions about hundred towns and castles on the territory of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Poland The center of Ostrogski princes’ possessions was their family nest – Ostroh Here, in the late 16th century, by means of Prince Vasily Konstantin and his niece Halshka the first high educational establishment of Eastern Europe – Ostroh Academy had been created Establishment, which combined Eastern Slavic and Western culture In Ostroh, together with the Academy, there was established an advanced printing house headed by Ivan Fedorov The result of his collaboration with the academic unit led by Gerasimos Smotrytsky was the Ostrog Bible – the first complete edition of all the books of Holy Scripture in Church Slavonic In 2016 two major events are celebrated in Ostroh: the 440 years of the founding of Ostroh Academy and the centennial of Ostroh historical museum A lot of activities are planned for this year; they are aimed to express the importance of the Ostroh cultural heritage at the national level Exhibition “Unique monuments of Ostrohiana” At the beginning of the 17th century, Ostroh held central positions in the political and cultural life of Volyn region Ostroh princes were among the most powerful landowners of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania In their possession were located 24 cities and more than half thousand villages Have a look at the map of Khmelnytskyi, Ternopil, Rivne, Zhytomyr regions, Ihor Teslenko, historian Have a look at the map of Khmelnytskyi, Ternopil, Rivne, Zhytomyr regions, Ihor Teslenko, historian every town was owned by a great aristocratic family. Many in this list are former possessions of Ostroh Princes every town was owned by a great aristocratic family. Many in this list are former possessions of Ostroh Princes Have a look at a map of the Southeastern provinces of the Republic of Poland – Tarnow, Ostrowiec Sventokshynskyy, Przeworsk (an old Ukrainian city Perevosk), Yarovslav, Kanchuha and many others

Although people who owned these cities, probably belonged to the Eastern Christian tradition, cities developed extremely actively, they built not only the Orthodox Churches, but also the Roman Catholic churches and monasteries, synagogues and Protestant assemblies – these people were tolerant, they wanted their servants to live in comfortable conditions, to be devoted, pay taxes and have some defense against the Tatars or any other external enemies Ostroh Castle (Dubno city) to be devoted, pay taxes and have some defense against the Tatars or any other external enemies Ostroh Castle (Dubno city) People of different languages and religions who settled in Ostroh paid taxes and defended their city, Ostroh Castle (Dubno city) People of different languages and religions who settled in Ostroh paid taxes and defended their city, they hoped to have certain rights. Just think about the time of which we speak – when in Ostroh appeared Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy – the year 1576 – 4 years after the bloody fire of Bartholomew in Paris, Huguenot wars, thousands of people were killed in wars between Protestants and Catholics in the European countries Soon in the North, in present-day Russia, started the confrontation between supporters of old and new rites and over a thousand people were in the fire of war. And in these circumstances Ukrainian lands, Belarus, Poland, and Lithuania were a hotbed of religious freedom Indeed, there is an image, rather fixed one, an image of a proponent of Orthodoxy, the man who devoted his life for the custody of the church However, pay attention – some circumstances of his life that show that the picture was probably a little more difficult So, perhaps, we are not dealing with a zealot of Orthodoxy, a man who was really worried about his church but didn’t stand aside from the outside world. The person that could communicate easily with Roman Catholics and Protestants, as well as with representatives of the Uniate church – the one against which he allegedly fought So, let’s have a look at the family of the Prince Vasyl Kostiantyn Ostrogski Apart from his sons, two of them from Orthodoxy convert to Roman Catholicism, and one son that remained in the faith of parents, the Prince had two daughters The eldest daughter married a Protestant and the youngest daughter married a Protestant And one of these men belonged not to the old Protestant denominations, like a Lutheranism or Calvinism, but he was an Arian It is clear that the decision to get marriage wasn’t made by the daughter, it was a decision of the Prince Vasyl Kostiantyn He just concluded a dynastic marriage, in order to achieve good political relations with the clan of Kishka Namely Halshka was married to Kishka And as it, that vindicator of orthodoxy married off a his child for heretic, for person who doesn’t recognize the Trinity This shows us that something was not so simple in the mind of openly Orthodox person Let us remember that after Berestechko Union in 1596 were more attempts to reach understanding between Orthodox, Roman Catholics and believers in the Pope’s Eastern rite, people, that represented the Uniate Church And the Prince Vasyl Kostiantyn participated in establishing of such a dialogue

That is the Union of Brest did not become a boundary, after which he withdraws himself from anything new In fact, Vasyl Kostiantyn Ostrogski was a wise, intelligent and flexible man, who was looking for some ways to come to an agreement And the fact that his descendants have changed their religious affiliation – this must be considered in each case separately They were the protectors of the Kiev Orthodox Metropolis – Orthodox Church of Ukraine and Belarus as part of the Patriarchate of Constantinople And when the Prince Vasyl Kostantyn died, he did not leave his political heirs The younger son of Prince Alexander, Anna-Aloiza’s father, died because of poisoning in 33 years The eldest son of Prince John, during the life of his father went to the Latin rite and although he didn’t celebrate religious intolerance, but still the Ukrainian Orthodox and Orthodox Belarusians were left without leaders, whom for hundreds of years have been Ostroh Princes But the holy place is never empty Instead of descendants of Volodymyr the Great, whose families switched to the Latin rite or disappeared, Orthodox camp of Ukraine and Belarus, which not only didn’t lose their human potential, but rather strengthened it, because exactly the Orthodox Ukrainians, Belarussians and Poles, who fled here, switched to the Ukrainian language, accepted Orthodoxy, settled in right-bank of Ukraine, occupied the left bank of the Dnipro, what we call Poltava, Chernihiv, Slobozhanshchyna Someone should have led them! So, instead of ancient Princely families, descendants of Volodymyr or Hedymin, the Orthodox people of Ukraine were led by Cossack camp, Zaporizhzhia Army Part two. Wild field Here is the Prince on a black horse, but in the foreground we can see Severin Nalivaiko in red bloomers, who was the centurion of prince’s outdoor banner. We have his sculpture here Then he left the service, later was Nalyvaiko uprising, and after that, he was executed in Warsaw in 1597 His brother Demian Nalyvayko was a figure of the Academy at that time; he was the priest of our church Well, Sahaidachny also was one of the figures of Academy; he studied here at a young age. That is his sculpture Museum of history (Ostroh city) Well, Sahaidachny also was one of the figures of Academy; he studied here at a young age. That is his sculpture Museum of history (Ostroh city) The Jesuit Collegium was situated in place of the five-story building It was built at the request of a granddaughter of Konstantin Wasyl Ostrogski– Aloysa Anna Chodkiewicz at the beginning of the 17th century This Collegium was built by the project of a very famous Italian architect of that time – Benedict Molly The main entrance to the Church and the body, which was so until the Tatar tower It was built in 1624. Then, after 24 years, in 1648 Khmelnytsky Uprising began It was liberation war of Ukrainian people under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky Khmelnytsky was in Ostroh, here by the way he wrote his third universal And this monument of architecture was a little destroyed, to put it mildly Mezhiritsky monastery (the village of Mezhyrich, Ostroh district) And this monument of architecture was a little destroyed, to put it mildly Mezhiritsky monastery (the village of Mezhyrich, Ostroh district) Fact that Cossack force in the mid-17th century destroyed the Jesuit Collegium… There is a need to consider this question much more broadly:

what the army did in the period of hostilities in the time of war The city was extremely rich Soldiers of the army of Khmelnytsky were interested not only in some high matter and goals, more likely, not only in it The Cossack officers and hetman fought for certain political rights and freedoms They knew that we want to obtain because of these fights and what we fight for However, I fear that soldiers, entering the city, did not think about high ideals, they thought about the prey The Cossacks of Ukraine is a phenomenon that has appeared relatively late, in the 16th century It emerged on the verge of the Slavic world and the Turkic world. By the way, the word “Cossack” is of Turkic origin Petro Kraliuk, philosopher It emerged on the verge of the Slavic world and the Turkic world. By the way, the word “Cossack” is of Turkic origin Petro Kraliuk, philosopher There were many Turkic families in the environment Petro Kraliuk, philosopher There were many Turkic families in the environment That means that the Cossacks of Ukraine forms a unique synthesis of the Slavs and Turks It was perceived quite ambiguously among the Ukrainian society At least, you see, if we talk about Right-Bank Ukraine, Cossacks were seen more in a negative way there Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky had a wide range of protective universals, which were written to his own colonels, and captains, where he orders under punishment of death not to destroy, not to spoil, attention, Orthodox monasteries and churches. What does this mean? It means that Cossacks sometimes spoiled and destroyed them! We are not talking about Jesuit College or Roman Catholic Church We are talking about the sacred objects that belong to our religion, to our faith. (Orthodox) So why were they destroyed? It happened because when the Cossacks army entering the hostile city, they punished the local community. They often robbed the town and implemented punitive actions The Crown army did exactly the same things Indeed, the Cossacks were engaged in “procuring”. Not only did they do some raids against Tatars and Turks, but they also did them against natives. Well, remember that the first big Cossack rebellion occurred against the Princes of Ostroh – Vasyl Konstantyn and Janusz Ostrogski It was the uprising under the leadership of Kosynsky. It didn’t matter for Cossacks whom to rob They lived by that plunder The result of the Cossack revolts in 1648-49s was the Treaty of Zboriv According to it, the King accepted the self-government of the Zaporozhian Host within The Voivodeship of Kyiv, Chernihiv and Braclaw On these territories, The Ukrainian Orthodox Church was reconstructed in its rights The Metropolitan of Kiev and two bishops had to join the Senate of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth At the same time, the exacerbated mood of Antisemitism on the territory of The Cossack Hetmanate led to the deprivation of the right of Jews to live in the Cossack’s autonomous Ostroh, a part of Wolyn Voivodeship, remains under the lordship of the Polish king The thing is that in The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth existed so called Va’ad Dmitry Tsolin The thing is that in The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth existed so called Va’ad Dmitry Tsolin Va’ad is translated from Hebrew and means “council”. Va’ad of the four lands, Va’ad is translated from Hebrew and means “council”. Va’ad of the four lands, namely Va’ad of four the largest parts of The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth: Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Red Ruthenia and Volyn And, accordingly, each of those four parts of the Va’ad had its own center. The center of Volyn was Ostroh The revolt under the leadership of Khmelnytsky, which, as for me, had rather negative consequences for us, than positive Because, firstly, there was a terrible depopulation on the territories of the country, millions of people died during the revolt We will not talk about who is guilty and who is innocent, but it was as it was Actually, due to Khmelnytsky revolt, Ukrainians lost the cities. Since that time, we had become a rural nation The greatest flourishing of the Jewish community falls on the 16th-17th century Respectively, Ostroh was the regional center. It means that Ostroh was on the same level as Lviv, Poznan and Krakow

Great synagogue (photo of the early 20th century) Respectively, Ostroh was the regional center. It means that Ostroh was on the same level as Lviv, Poznan and Krakow Great synagogue (photo of the early 20th century) Therefore, you can imagine how powerful the city was, and how strong was the Jewish community of Ostroh Therefore, you can imagine how powerful the city was, and how strong was the Jewish community of Ostroh Great synagogue (nowadays) When we are saying that we are Cossacks’ descendants – it is just a great metaphor Well, we sing the anthem that we are Cossacks’ descendants and so on However, this is a product of mythology, moreover, a quite late mythology that appeared in the 19th century Due to lack of traditions, the process of tradition engineering has started instead of their reconstruction or renascence Because of this, in my opinion, embroidering – is a result of organic loss of traditions Dmytro Shevchuk, philosopher Because of this, in my opinion, embroidering – is a result of organic loss of traditions Dmytro Shevchuk, philosopher Lots of different media technologies were used to create new “pseudo” traditions Lots of different media technologies were used to create new “pseudo” traditions The matter of the humanitarian sciences, as any others, lies in thinking and reflecting. A human being is a creature who thinks, so it has to evaluate things which surround it on its own Thus, it is impossible to create history of Ukraine by force Tadeush Kshonstek, military historian Thus, it is impossible to create history of Ukraine by force Thus, it is impossible to create history of Ukraine by force It is important to write the history as it was It is necessary to describe in details the period of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Galicia-Volhynia Rus, the period of the first Rich Pospolyta and residence of its lands as a part of other states as Volyn was Volyn province Volyn as a part of Rich Pospolyta (mid-18th century) the period of the first Rich Pospolyta and residence of its lands as a part of other states as Volyn was Volyn province the period of the first Rich Pospolyta and residence of its lands as a part of other states as Volyn was Volyn province A certain pause, long enough, had happened in the national development The last pause – 70 years long pause during the stay in The Soviet Union And in 90s, when the national renascence began, a problem of traditions arissed Of course, nowadays we try to talk about the value of that ancient aristocracy, of that prince Ostrogski I can say that actually prince Ostrogski did more for Ukrainian culture than all Cossack hetmans! After the death of Vasyl Kostiantyn Ostrogski in 1608, his son Yanysh inherited all ownership With his permission, equipment of Ostroh printing house was sold to Kiev-Pechersk Lavra As a result, Ostroh stopped to be the publishing center, what negatively influenced its statues of cultural center Afterwards, when Anna Aloiza Khodkevych was governing, Vasyl Kostiantyn’s granddaughter, a teaching of Polish and Latin languages was forbidden in Ostroh Academy, what meant the reduction of the educational establishment to the elementary school After 13 years, in 1636, in the wake of persecution of the Orthodox population, Ostroh Academy and the printing house were closed and dismantled into bricks for the building of the Jesuit College In 1793, as a result of the second division of Rich Pospolyta, Ostroh was a part of the tsarist Russia Within the framework of great empire, the town started to lose its cultural and historical significance “I was in Ostroh. Here, I visited ruins of the Jesuit Monastery, Jesuit College, Ostroh, Photo mid-19th century “I was in Ostroh. Here, I visited ruins of the Jesuit Monastery, Jesuit College, Ostroh, Photo mid-19th century the two-way subterranean and saw lots of different skeletons there Jesuit College, Ostroh, Photo mid-19th century Soldiers, who were billeted in Ostroh, went to these ruins, took down dresses from corpses and gave them to their wives Soldiers, who were billeted in Ostroh, went to these ruins, took down dresses from corpses and gave them to their wives Then, I visited the monastery of Capuchins that was not so ruined as the Jesuit. Recently, monks were absent; the Roman Catholic Church was kept with wooden utensils, icons and benches, although there was nobody to serve there. From the monastery of Capuchins I went to the hill, where were ruins of the Orthodox church of Epiphany, there were towers near it which were situated around fencing of Ostroh princes’ yard and their house’s remains

There was not roof on the church and walls could fall down in many places, so it was dangerous to walk between these ruins. Trees, sowed by chance, were growing picturesquely on the top of towels Looked round Ostroh, I set off and arrived at Rovno at night of the same day…” Mykola Kostomarov, 1844 During 900 years of its existence, Ostroh, like no other city, felt the inconstancy of history In the beginning of XX century, the high level of social instability led to fundamental changes on the political map of the world The first Russian revolution, the beginning of the World War, the October Revolution – all these events completely changed the distribution of powers in the Central-Eastern Europe After the dissolution of the empire, Ostroh, during XX century, alternately would be the part of 4 different states In 1920, it was the border town between the second Rich Pospolyta and the Soviet Union The third part. The inconstancy of history In 1920, it was the border town between the second Rich Pospolyta and the Soviet Union The third part. The inconstancy of history There were a lot of soldiers who were billeted in Ostroh. It was the border town and during the Russian Empire, The third part. The inconstancy of history There were a lot of soldiers who were billeted in Ostroh. It was the border town and during the Russian Empire, families of officers of 126 Rylsky infantry regiment were living there Then, in times of Poland, servicemen of the polish army – Uhlans of 19th regiment were living there But in Soviet times there lived families of officers of the Soviet army Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Lutsk, Ostroh, Dubno with amazing castle of the prince Ostrozky, Rivne, Kremenets, Bila Krynytsa – these places are solidly written into the history and traditions of the Polish army because large parts of it (Polish army) were in these bordering with Poland cities There were the cavalry, infantry, artillery, battalions of cavalry, and battalions of border defense corps 19th regiment of volynskyh uhlans was constantly stationing in Ostroh The regiment that had the name of Edmund and king Ruzhytskyh – heroes of the rebellion in 1831 and the next one in the same century, specifically the January rebellion in 1863-64 The Second Polish Republic lasted from 1918 to 1939 German-Soviet parade (Brest, September 22, 1939) The Second Polish Republic lasted from 1918 to 1939 German-Soviet parade (Brest, September 22, 1939) With the beginning of World War II, according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Eastern Poland was annexed to the Soviet Union With the beginning of World War II, according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Eastern Poland was annexed to the Soviet Union The next 52 years Ostroh will be included in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic It is not a secret, even my family thought that this is…just saying that this is a betrayal Allegedly, I betray them or betray Poland. But I have another attitude For me, I would say, this border does not exist. It exists but not for me. It is in a historical perspective It was one area. Once there were the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Poland, Lithuanian and Ruthenia Maybe, I live in history too much, but in fact Ostroh has such specifics A restoration of the Roman Catholic Church was accompanied by a large shortage of clergy in Ukraine

When the priest Witold-Joseph Kovaliv arrived in Ukraine, he was preaching in Ostroh, Zdolbuniv and Klevan churches He was the rector of the church of Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary The periodical was created under his leadership. ‘Wołanie z Wołynia’ highlights the past and present life of the Roman Catholic Church in Volyn, a history of churches, the lives of the saints and the chronicle of Ostroh parish of XV-XIX centuries The priest Witold is known as one of the most knowledgeable local historians of Ostroh I initially wanted to live in Ukraine. There were a lot of problems connected to the registration process and so on There was a problem with a so-called residence permit. But over time, it was overcome and I decided to take Ukrainian citizenship. So, I had to give up Polish citizenship because at the moment I am only a citizen of one state and that is Ukraine The Capuchin Church (1778-1832) From 2005 – the University Church of Rev. Feodor Ostrogski Forest-tundra… as you can see This whole area that is overgrown, it is actually a Polish cemetery The Poles were buried here until middle 70’s early 80’s of the XX century There is a picture of this. The ceremony, the funeral procession, the speech of mayor and then there were students in a solemn guard But in Soviet times, everything was closed, abandoned, neglected Historicity gives an opportunity to, somehow, become a part of this history. History is a story, a narration It helps the young generation to join to the writing of the text of the city In such a way, each of us feels his or her significant footprint; we feel that after us and before us there is something to be said Maksym Karpovets, urbanist In such a way, each of us feels his or her significant footprint; we feel that after us and before us there is something to be said In such a way, each of us feels his or her significant footprint; we feel that after us and before us there is something to be said This belonging to the collective method of portraying the city gives the sense, provides with an impetus for every single person as well as the whole city in general, for the community, for the whole population How do we build up our Ukrainian identity? It is formed on the basis of believes of our belonging to a certain community And, let’s say, this belonging to a particular community evolves from the amount of micro-communities, including those which represent a certain region or city We give something more and we can do nothing with this. The city itself is something more as well

and something more important in comparison to us. This kind of dependence and inability to make the city in one’s own way composes in a person the feeling of solitude, repressiveness, and let’s say other existential states which we hardly can relate to positive However, on the other side, identity is a self search. This search may happen in different dimensions For example, if to speak about students, I think it is the most interesting, as students are those who shape the identity of Ostroh with their spontaneity, openness, innovative thinking, creativeness and etc It means that we see students that don’t have a wholly formed ego-identity, who are open to some contents, to some pictures, memories, associations, various histories Anyway, they are already writing the history not even realizing this We are in the room of memory. This is an exposition, devoted to all the former owners of this building, which is now occupied by Ostroh academy. The oldest part of the building was built by the Capuchin monks, who got the permission to build a cloister behind the local swells Accordingly, the cloister was located on the outskirts of the city and for a certain period of time the premises served as the cells of the Capuchin monks Later, as the authorities changed, the purposes of the building changed too In the 19th century, at the time of tsarist Russia, there was a school for girls named after graph Bludov It was kind of Institute for Noble Maidens. Here studied girls from different regions, and teachers were coming, even from Petrograd, to teach them After graduation from the school, girls started working as governesses and home teachers While Poland came back to power, after the First World War, there was, for a short period, a teacher’s seminary for primary classes, and later, for a long period of time, after the Second World War, the building had a function of a boarding school Anastasia Heleniyk, the Director of National University of Ostoh Academy and later, for a long period of time, after the Second World War, the building had a function of a boarding school Anastasia Heleniyk, the Director of National University of Ostoh Academy There was exactly the 4th school in which I was studying. It was broken up Anastasia Heleniyk, the Director of National University of Ostoh Academy in order to make Ostroh academy function. Moreover, the school was established, mainly, in the main building, in order to make Ostroh academy function. Moreover, the school was established, mainly, in the main building, as the part of today’s known “Staromonastyrskyi” building was neglected too and wasn’t used at all It was necessary to transfer the building to Ostroh academy, so it could be restored and students could study here However, there were disputes as the school was being disbanded and everyone thought “What is happening?! What the academy should it be?!” Moreover, nobody had heard about academy, there were rumors about college only Higher college was the name of the institution, established in 1994 according to the decree of the President The Independence of Ukraine was accompanied with the boost of the national consciousness and population’s interest in the history of its region However, the initiatives concerning the renewal of important to the region historical memorials faced with a lack of financing and misunderstanding from the side of post-Soviet state power Ostroh, along with other small towns, continued to be in the state of stagnation At the end of the previous century, Ostroh has almost become the emptiness Ostroh was a school for underdeveloped children, the psychiatric hospital Wives scared their husbands that will send them to undergo treatment and parents along with teachers threatened kids to send them to hospital if they don’t study That was all about the town; it was almost on the verge of fading I remember Vitrenko Yurii Mykolayovych, a famous Vitrenko Natalia’s husband, shouting “I won’t allow a profanation of a higher education – there is nothing in Ostroh to establish an institution. I won’t allow!” This man used to work as a branch manager, later as a chief executive He was coming here and saying “I see what you’ve done here, but I think that First workers of the revived Ostroh academy (1994) He was coming here and saying “I see what you’ve done here, but I think that First workers of the revived Ostroh academy (1994) such institutions should be established in Kyiv, not on the suburbs” such institutions should be established in Kyiv, not on the suburbs” Many people doubted whether we were those legal successors of the ancient Ostroh Academy as there was a gap between us in four hundred years Ihor Pasichnyk, the chancellor of The National University ‘Ostroh Academy’ as there was a gap between us in four hundred years Ihor Pasichnyk, the chancellor of The National University ‘Ostroh Academy’ It was a great mistake of people, who were doubt about this. Why? Because we didn’t revive Ostroh Academy just as a simple name,

It was a great mistake of people, who were doubt about this. Why? Because we didn’t revive Ostroh Academy just as a simple name, but we studied all the traditions, history and works of famous scribes If we hadn’t done this, we wouldn’t complied with our function as future legal successors We talk about Maletij Smotryczkyj, Kopystenskyj, Rymsha and many others who had written their unique works We had already revived works of Jan Lyatosh and Maharsha The last one was an eminent scholar of Jewish origin who had been writing an interpretive dictionary Talmud I think, if there were no Ostroh Academy, this uncommon culture and this unique thing could not be revived again The four part. Forgotten nation and this unique thing could not be revived again The four part. Forgotten nation Jews had a tradition to decipher the names of towns they lived in Mordekhaj Yushkovskyj. A specialist of Jewish culture and traditions Jews had a tradition to decipher the names of towns they lived in Mordekhaj Yushkovskyj. A specialist of Jewish culture and traditions For instance, Ostroh was called ‘Ostra’ and that name was interpreted as ‘Os Tojry’, Mordekhaj Yushkovskyj. A specialist of Jewish culture and traditions and it meant – a letter of the Torah. It was a place of Jewish scientific life: there were outstanding rabbis, yeshivas and it meant – a letter of the Torah. It was a place of Jewish scientific life: there were outstanding rabbis, yeshivas Jewish religious books were written at that place One finds it difficult to imagine that before the World War Two, 65 percent out of all people who lived there were Jews, “The opening of the Centre for Jewish Studies” (National University ‘Ostroh Academy’) One finds it difficult to imagine that before the World War Two, 65 percent out of all people who lived there were Jews, “The opening of the Centre for Jewish Studies” (National University ‘Ostroh Academy’) because that was the biggest community of Jewish nation in Volyn region in 17th-18th centuries “The opening of the Centre for Jewish Studies” (National University ‘Ostroh Academy’) Ostroh was known as a centre of Jewish scholarship Ostroh was known as a centre of Jewish scholarship If we could develop that place in a proper way, it would be a leading one, because of its authentic location At a postwar period it was like storehouse – all the food had been kept here The thing is, that it was a synagogue as a cultural building where Jews prayed till 1939 The entrance to the Big Synagogue (Ostroh) The thing is, that it was a synagogue as a cultural building where Jews prayed till 1939 The entrance to the Big Synagogue (Ostroh) In 1939 all the synagogues got closed In 1939 all the synagogues got closed I consider all the Orthodox and Catholic churches were closed as well The atheism was supposed to be dominant And then it was closed. It was no longer a synagogue Yeah, exactly so. On the one hand a storehouse is not quite a good thing, but in terms of architecture construction it was brilliant, especially facade Inside, there were three storeys. You can see all these piles, it were different boxes of some kind of Italian boots, Moskovska sausage, overseas caviar made of aubergines, and so on… It lasted till the 80’s of the last century A new lodging for products was built, but in the last years of Gorbachov’s government a desire for doing something disappeared In result, many people, especially representatives of Jewish nation started to come here They were interested in landmarks of this city, properly speaking, Morshue, was buried here And that was a very important person for Jews If to speak about Ostroh we can say that it was such kind of a city where were different moments, but the majority of the Jewish nation who lived here at a prewar period tried to dwell in some way Gregoriy Arshynov, member of the Jewish community but the majority of the Jewish nation who lived here at a prewar period tried to dwell in some way Gregoriy Arshynov, member of the Jewish community And they had found necessary things in Ukrainians, Polish, Jews. They could get on well Gregoriy Arshynov, member of the Jewish community I was really surprised of some projects in Poland. Synagogues, cemeteries, social buildings I was really surprised of some projects in Poland. Synagogues, cemeteries, social buildings were reconstructed at the governmental and European Union costs Moreover, everything had been done in towns where are no communities and people who would take care of those landmarks The authorities decided to name these places as an inalienable part of the Polish culture And now, if we forget about the history of Jews from Ostroh or Poland, a ‘puzzle’ will not be complete and people will not get to know why everything had happened in this way, but not in another Then one must create some stories Khakan Sheshyr Demir, a programme manager of the Council of Europe (CE) A grave of Maharsha Edels (Jewish cemetery in Ostroh)

We come to the cadic. You know what is cadic? It’s rabbi. But not as a regular rabbi Is a rabbi like a good-good man, very-very good. Is a big man! – in the heart, in the mind So if you come here, God more help you – you feel good, yeah A mass fusillade in Mizoch (Rivne region, 1942) After some actions, a Jewish community that had been living here since 14th century was absolutely crushed It no longer existed here we can see a symbolic bank and a monument which were put at different periods A monument sacred to the memory of the Holocaust (a tract Krasnostav, Ostroh district) here we can see a symbolic bank and a monument which were put at different periods A monument sacred to the memory of the Holocaust (a tract Krasnostav, Ostroh district) They had a tendency to change . If we can focus on that granite plate, we will see the most important thing – They had a tendency to change . If we can focus on that granite plate, we will see the most important thing – an inscription of Soviet Union period. You will not find there anything about people who had died and reasons why everything had happened I don’t think so, that community become a part of a Soviet Union system even though it was deprived of religious heritage in 1939 Having been under the patronage of the Polish government, they couldn’t become Soviet at once On the other hand, a community disappeared A 600-years old history, traditions, children, elders, women simultaneously disappeared August 4th, 1941. When we woke up early and saw that groups of people were going to the new part of the town under escort of German military and Ukrainian Hilfspolizei with dogs Olha Ruy, a regional ethnographer under escort of German military and Ukrainian Hilfspolizei with dogs Olha Ruy, a regional ethnographer Obviously, we could not even think that those people would be executed. Everything was in such a way: at 3 a.m. a grandfather died Obviously, we could not even think that those people would be executed. Everything was in such a way: at 3 a.m. a grandfather died And I was told to go to the grandmother’s house and ask her to come and enrobe him She lived not really far away from that execution place Only when I grew up I realized what a foolish thing I had done Those Germans could capture me simply There were a lot of Jewish stores during the period of Poland occupation Over here in the place of the Ostroh restaurant was a store of a man with Jew origins Its modern name is “Iron screw” shop, where you could find ramps, locks, axes – everything you may need in farming Before the execution, my doors opened. The Jew came in (there was not ghetto so far) and brought a suitcase which was like the half of this sofa He was a friend of our family and he said to my mother: “A long time ago your brother bailed me out the conscription in 1914 during the war I do not know what is going to happen to us next, so I brought you this case – if I’m still alive, you’ll give it to me back

If not – use it for your own good.” He put it away, but we were brought up in such a way that nobody opened and looked into it to see what was inside When they had been already shot and nobody was left, my mother opened it There were chisel, files etc. There was also a piece of a very good blue gabardine for a man suit In addition, there was a note on the wool: “if I die, give it to Vasyl (mother’s brother).” The cloth had an outstanding origin: when his son Mykola was graduating from the military academy, we stitched a party suit for him The fifth part. Genius loci At one time, there was an interesting building. Overall, the Ostroh architecture of 19th century had its own peculiarities It was kind of small version of Lviv city. It began losing its authentic look about the middle of the 20th century, 70-80s Strange box-like buildings were began constructing: district committee, post office and so on It had been a little bit different before that, it had been better, I still remember this beauty No doubt, these landscapes spoil the general impression and aesthetics of the city They immediately spoil its aura and it is so difficult to get rid of them today. Although it is possible to outplay and reconsider them The major goal of Soviet-style blocks of flats and Soviet architecture, in general, is to unify the city and the landscape If we are talking about identity, about the voice of a city, here we, basically, have the case of a voiceless city You know, the city, which is the same as in Kyrgyzstan, Russia or Ukraine – if we are talking about the post-Soviet region – these elements are the same everywhere. The task of the Soviet architecture and culture is to create a Marcusian one-dimensional character And it is directly related to a city. It has neither a multifunctionality nor prospects The totalitarian architecture has, actually, its own pathos, its own interesting mythologies, ideas but they, considering the future, modern prospect, so to say, do not have any potential There was a catholic cemetery on the spot of this stadium at 18th or maybe the late 17th century There was a lot of Poles, Catholics. Therefore there was a cemetery. It existed till 60s of 20th century (1969-70s) The same that happened to Jewish cemetery happened to it. It is another story, a sad story There was no place to play football for locals, so the authority decreed that the cemetery is old, abandoned, untended, and they did not bury anybody there anymore There was a new catholic cemetery where they buried people who died. It was misconducted to destroy the cemetery and build a pitch

This building was empty and destroyed, of course. People from this lower the street thought that it will fall on them They wrote a letter to the Governor of Volyn in Zhytomyr regions, asking to allow them to destroy it So the Governor allowed it. The reason why he did it is unknown, perhaps because of lack of sleep or he drunk too much, nobody knows why, but he signed it So the local intellectuals – they are the people with higher education (priests, teachers, doctors, engineers) decided that it’s not right and even wrote a letter to the Tsar in Saint Petersburg It was 300 years since the death of the Prince Vasily-Konstantin Ostrogski in the 1906 year The government gave some money, collected the people’s money and began the restoration of the castle The First World War interrupted them. However, on 24th of August 1916, the doors of the Museum (it used to be called “Historical Museum of the princes of Ostroh) were opened and has not closed until today. During all the wars and cataclysms, the Museum kept working History was made somewhere in our capitals. And in these little provincial centers, Yaroslava Bondarchuk, historian History was made somewhere in our capitals. And in these little provincial centers, Yaroslava Bondarchuk, historian few people were interested in who lived and worked here Yaroslava Bondarchuk, historian And in order to set the people and their souls and minds free from this bondage oblivion, And in order to set the people and their souls and minds free from this bondage oblivion, Mykola Volodymyrovych decided to create a center or a committee on the revival of Ostroh, which he chaired himself There was no mayor for more than a year, there was only a representative Mykola Grischuk, the Ostroh mayor in 1988-1998 There was no mayor for more than a year, there was only a representative Mykola Grischuk, the Ostroh mayor in 1988-1998 By the way, when I came to the city council, the deputy left the keys on the table, shouted “Hurrah!” Mykola Grischuk, the Ostroh mayor in 1988-1998 and stormed out of the office. I have not seen anymore and stormed out of the office. I have not seen anymore The city froze in the winter; the city suffered from the thirst in the summer and I had to solve these issues. I lost myself in these questions I would be lost if it was not for Petro Zotovych Andruchow Petro Zotovych Andruchow – is known local Volyn historian, he is a veteran of the Second world war, he has worked as a history teacher in high school number one He was one of the founders of the Ostroh branch of the Ukrainian historical society and head of the scientific center for the study of Ostroh Academy heritage It was Peter Andrukhov who persuaded his former student, the town mayor Mykola Gryscchuk, of the importance of revitalization of Ostroh as one of Volyn’s towns of a great historical significance Together they got the things going, and within a few years the status of their hometown will be changed… In my early days, when I studied at school, he was invited to come and tell legends It was such a great event for us. Everybody was peering and hanging on every word He really liked this town. It was his idea to renovate the academy When Mykola Volodymyrovych began to raise the issue of the revival of Ostroh Academy in the late 80’s, early 90’s, he realized that it was too early because no one knew of Ostroh, and the town lost its image as a major historical and cultural center So we had to returned to Ostroh the image of the historic city in Ukraine

It should be noted that local historians and museum workers helped to revive the Academy: the first trip to ministries, assistance in obtaining historical information Do not forget that Mykola Kowalskyi came also supported this idea, left the office and apartment in Dnepropetrovsk and returned to his hometown, Ostroh, to start a new history of Ostroh from scratch It was, probably, one of the first Town Days in Ukraine. Since that time we held them regularly Mykola Pavlovych Kowalskyi spoke there once and wished us to begin the renewal with Ostroh Academy Cultural Society, called “Heritage”, was established in Ostrog. It was headed by Peter Zotovych Andrukhov “Heritage” was created on 5th July 1990, and then the first constituent meeting was held The main aim of the society was the revival of interest in the history of Ostroh, our region and the whole Ukraine This association has made a lot, of course, because of the Ostroh City Council’s support It was professor Kovalskiy initiative to rebuild a chapel and a bell tower Mr. Petro Andruhov, for example, was the initiator of installing in our Cathederal the plaque dedicated to Ivan-Pavlo Voronich This Genius Loci of Ostroh is not something that has been going on for a few years, it has been continuing for a few centuries already. It was at the time of the Ostrogski family, of Konstanty Vasyl Ostrogski and at the time of Ivan Fedorov, when he was publishing here The Ostrog Bible, and at a later time The fact that here is The National University of Ostroh Academy is not something accidental I can give you up a little secret that I remember when the idea of the revival of The Ostroh Academy just appeared, these unofficial meetings were held in this house on Kardashevych street, where I used to live – with Professor Kovalskyi, with Mr. Andruhov, Mr. Hryshchuk We were talking, discussing different historical things, drinking a little cognac… We used to dream that it would be nice to revive this Ostroh Academy It is actually fortunate that such people as Mr. Kovalskyi or Mr. Hryschuk made this dream come true As time has passed, we have found Mr. Pasichnyk and The Ostroh Academy was revived In 1994, at the initiative of the Ostroh City Council, with a support of the Vice Premier Mykola Zhulynsky and the President of Ukraine issued a decree About Establishment of Ostroh Collegium Despite that the status of the educational institution was not totally determined, on the 7th of December 1994 first 100 students began to study here In 20 years from the moment of revival, Ostroh Academy makes its way from the provincial institution to the National University with the highest possible rank the self-governing research autonomous educational establishment Many analytical agencies constantly add it in top republican rankings On the beginning of existence of the revived academy was founded Ostroh Academic Brotherhood, which unified famous people, who made a significant contribution to the building up and development of Ostroh Academy One of the first its members was Viacheslav Briukhovetskyi, who supported the inception of The “Heritage” society Due to its assistance, Ostroh Academy on the beginning was an affiliate to Kyiv-Mohyla Academy However, the formation of absolutely new educational establishment needed a huge organizational work and improving a material-technical base One of the first persons to be involved in this work was Roman Vasylyshyn, who sooner will become a permanent protector of Ostroh Academy Owing to Liubomyr Buniak`s and Mykola Stepurko`s funds, were reconstructed destructing buildings of the Capuchin Church

and were created normal circs for studying Yevhen Marchuk gave Academy lodgments of disbanded military bases, which provided most of the students with dwellings A significant work in a popularization sphere did Larysa Ivshyna – editor-in-chief of a newspaper The Day Vitalii Haiduk, Mykola Soroka, Erast Hutsuliak – all these people realized the role of revival of the first Higher educational establishment of the Eastern Europe for the national consciousness forming Their actions were supported by representatives of The Ukrainian diaspora from the U.S. and Canada Because of the financial support of the North America patrons of Ukrainian origin, the university’s new library building was completed in 2007 During the same year the construction process of the new campus began, which will allow student enrollment to increase up to 5,000 High-ranking positions and the fundamental historical heritage of Ostroh is marked by current students not less than by the absence of the corruption The totality of these factors is what primarily motivate students all over Ukraine to study in a small provincial town in the Rivne region It was a desperate situation, there were no chairs, no tables and no books, I don’t even mention Candidates of Sciences – there was no professor First of all, when I came to these ruins, I made a promise to myself that there would be no place for bribes for admission and the final exams of the semester in the academy But the factor of motivation must be studied: children from villages, from small towns want to move to big cities such as Kyiv, as they see better prospects for employment there. They attend those universities not because they are good universities, but because they are in Kyiv. If we take to the consideration 400 universities, I think 25% of them are concentrated in Kyiv This is absolutely unfairly. It creates the idea of Kyiv’s universities as the ones that provide colossal knowledge – which is absolutely untrue Valentyn Sylvestrov concert (Ostroh Academy, 2016) epilogue You know, as I see it Ostroh Academy is more expressive as an institution, because first of all, I think that Ostroh exists as a town due to the academy Yuriy Nikitin, Artist first of all, I think that Ostroh exists as a town due to the academy first of all, I think that Ostroh exists as a town due to the academy In the absence of the students, the town would remain the regional center, which is still quite good, but thanks to the existence of the academy where are so many young people and life here flows in such a cool way An artist from Kyiv, Yuriy Nikitin, a frequent guest of Ostroh, bought a house on the ancient billow in 2014, where from the 11th – 13th centuries an Old Kievan Rus fortification existed For 600 years in this place not far from Ostroh, the monasteries of various Christian denominations were being built and falling into ruin The only structure which had been built on that billow and still exists today is a hut dating from the end of the 19th century Once an ordinary country house, the famous artist’s workshop is now situated there I don’t know if the people of Ostroh truly appreciate what a historical heritage God gave them It is not only the castle, but also the Church of the Epiphany, Mezhyrich, synagogue, which, unfortunately, is ruining And nobody has a power of will to bring up this question so, to revive it, as it is the unique architectural sight Many write about Ostroh Slavonic – Greek – Latin Academy, because it was the first high school in Ukraine But the Ostroh mosque wasn’t the first mosque in Ukraine And the Ostroh yeshiva – the synagogue – weren’t the first synagogues in Ukraine

If it were proved that the first Jew came and had settled down exactly in Ostroh, was buried in 1520, 1320 – all sorts of books would be written about it, all the TV shows would talk about it How much can you remember about what happened 10 – 20 years ago? Not much, right? In general, it is proved that the human memory can retain certain facts – meaning the verbal memory – not more than 100 – 150 years The human memory is selective and chooses to keep only what is the most memorable The human memory can remember several things: the word “ostroh” means the rampart, the stronghold, the fortress; the Princes of Ostroh – the most prominent princely family, direct descendants of Volodymyr the Great, Yaroslav the Wise, Volodymyr Monomakh and Daniel of Galicia The Ostroh Academy – was the nation’s first high school, and the Ostroh Bible, the original of which, by the way, can be seen in the castle and in the Museum of Books, was the first fully printed publication of books of the Old and New Testaments in the Old Slavonic language When sometimes I leaf through Kiev scientists’ works about Ostroh princes or others, I wonder about our scientists’ principle: they strongly believe that when some event happens somewhere outside of Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv and any major city of Ukraine, this event is not essential to the entire country, this event is regional In the scientists’ works there is the thesis that Ostroh Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, that was founded by Prince Vasyl Kostiantyn of Ostroh, was just a regional school that has importance only for our region Let’s say in such a way: Ostroh is a small town with 15 000 residents. In order to make a powerful myth, of course, we need some resource. We need the media resource and have to invest in it quite a large sum of money To tell the truth, I do not know if we would make our myth hit the headlines so much, although, undoubtedly Ostroh princes have played an extremely important role in the Ukrainian history and, especially, Ukrainian culture It is being built almost with the help of donations. We have a special fund which involves some funding We have no one believes that there is such a huge construction in modern Ukraine, we are still putting up this building slowly but surely What will it be? It will be not just the Humanities building but embellishment of Ostroh, it will grace whole Ukraine as it will be the next architectural wonder. And I’m sure that tourists, firstly, will come here to see our building, and after that they will recall the Ostroh castle There will be competition between the Ostroh castle and our The Humanities building In Ostroh has been changed many things and as for me not in a better way. I mean streets and their names

But perhaps the most unpleasant thing is the transformation of this street which we can see From the 20s years of the 20th century a small piece of the street called “Avenue of Mickiewicz.” From the middle of the 70s years of the 20th century there were some changes in the central street of Ostroh Plenty of old buildings were demolished, despite the fact that they could be restored Not all, but it was possible to do it mainly with other. It was decided to make a road to two lanes, and the alley was destroyed, even this forest part of nature 90% of Ostroh people were just crying due to that situation, but they were not able to do something The party said: it is necessary – the Young Communist League agreed. We all just ate a humble pie. Unfortunately… I certainly have heard not a lot of such voices. Each of us has heard not many voices, but they, being the voice of the generation, involve some nostalgia This is the nostalgia of people who knew the city of their adolescence and childhood; who contributed a lot to their city; who were acquainted with other people who are not already in the city It directly creates a poignant situation which makes Ostroh stand out from the crowd So, there is an “echo” of the past. In such a way I can describe Ostroh from the points of view of these people, particular nostalgia for the past Anatoliy Khelenyuk – is the main worker of Museum of Books and Book printing After graduation from Rivne State Institute of Culture, came back to home, where has been acquainting a lot of guests with the history of one of the oldest cities in Ukraine The land in which the group of scholars from all orthodox world created the first printed Slavik Bible 400 years ago The difference between the Ostroh Bible and other Bibles is that all Bibles of that times priest Raymond Turkonjak, translator of Ostroh Bible The difference between the Ostroh Bible and other Bibles is that all Bibles of that times or even the Protestant Bibles were translated from one text priest Raymond Turkonjak, translator of Ostroh Bible The difference between the Ostroh Bible and other Bibles is that all Bibles of that times or even the Protestant Bibles were translated from one text priest Raymond Turkonjak, translator of Ostroh Bible or even the Protestant Bibles were translated from one text The Ostroh Bible is not the translation of one text. They did everything as it was mentioned in the preface: they gathered together plenty of texts and created one scientific text based on them This is the work which has not been done at that time. The Ostroh Bible was published in 1581 Factually, we had not had any completed Bible by that time That is why the Ostroh Bible is very important as the next Bibles made from Slavic text were derivative of the Ostroh Bible Ostroh was small fortification and essential cultural center of the country, forgotten regional center and border outpost There was book printing which made the difference to an empire and dismantled monumental buildings for material Since time immemorial, there have lived, worked and have been brought up special people Personalities who influenced their contemporaries and wrote their history Jews…Polish…Tatars… All of them were different, but the part of one an ancient city, who underwent the instability of the history So you can see that I was born and was studying during Polish period

In the 39-41s there was the Soviet Union period. The occupation. And then the soviet regime. Ukraine So, who am I? For instance, I say to everybody that I do not have any patriotism – neither Ukrainian, Polish nor any I am a patriot of Ostroh