Hannibal SMASHES the Romans in Battle | Battles BC (S1, E1) | Full Episode | History

narrator: HE WAS BORN TO FIGHT RAISED TO ACCEPT NOTHING LESS THAN VICTORY ON THE BATTLEFIELD HE IS THE GREAT MILITARY COMMANDER FROM CARTHAGE, HANNIBAL HANNIBAL’S LIFELONG MISSION: DESTROY ROME OR DIE TRYING HANNIBAL BATTLES HIS WAY ACROSS THE FROZEN ALPS BLOODIES THE GROUND WITH TENS OF THOUSANDS OF ROME’S FIERCEST WARRIORS, AND MAKES MILITARY HISTORY ON A BATTLEFIELD, WHERE HE SLAUGHTERS 70,000 MEN IN ONE DAY HANNIBAL IS A KILLER HANNIBAL IS A CONQUEROR HANNIBAL IS THE ANNIHILATOR Captioning presented by A&E TELEVISION NETWORKS narrator: THE YEAR: 219 B.C THE MAN: HANNIBAL BARCA OF CARTHAGE ONE OF HISTORY’S GREATEST AND DEADLIEST GENERALS HANNIBAL BURNS THE ROMAN TOWN OF SAGUNTUM TO THE GROUND THESE SMOLDERING FLAMES ARE JUST THE INITIAL SPARKS OF THE RAGING INFERNO THAT WILL SOON ENGULF EUROPE AS HANNIBAL THE ANNIHILATOR LAUNCHES A BLOODY REIGN OF VENGEANCE AIMED TO CRUSH MIGHTY ROME HANNIBAL’S HOME OF CARTHAGE IS A COMMERCIAL BEACON ON THE NORTHERN COAST OF AFRICA THEIR TRADE IN MILITARY INFLUENCE REVERBERATES THROUGHOUT THE MEDITERRANEAN Richard: THEY TRADED FAR AND WIDE, AS FAR OFF TO THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN THERE’S EVEN SOME EVIDENCE THAT THEY TRADED AS FAR WEST THROUGH THE STRAITS OF GIBRALTAR TO ENGLAND narrator: 400 SHORT MILES FROM CARTHAGE IS ROME THOUGH NOT YET THE COLOSSAL EMPIRE THEY WILL BECOME, THEIR MILITARY MIGHT THREATENS CARTHAGINIAN COMMERCIAL DOMINANCE IN THE REGION Mark: THE ROMANS ARE VERY MUCH A WARLIKE, IMPERIAL PEOPLE THEY’RE NOT AN EMPIRE YET, BUT YOU COULD DEFINITELY SEE THIS REPUBLIC STARTING TO EXPAND ITS BORDERS IT WAS ONLY A MATTER OF TIME BEFORE ROME AND CARTHAGE BUMPED INTO ONE ANOTHER narrator: HANNIBAL’S PERSONAL AND BRUTAL DESTRUCTION OF SAGUNTUM IS A BLOODY INVITATION, HAND-DELIVERED TO ROME, INVITING THEM TO JOIN HIS DEADLY GAME OF BUTCHERY AND ANNIHILATION Richard: THE SIEGE OF SAGUNTUM LASTED EIGHT MONTHS AS FAR AS WE KNOW WE’RE PRETTY MUCH LACKING IN DETAILS FROM A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE WHAT WE DO KNOW, HOWEVER, IS THAT ONCE THE WALLS WERE BREACHED AND CARTHAGINIAN TROOPS WENT IN, THEY WENT HOUSE-TO-HOUSE AND HUNTED DOWN ALMOST ALL OF THE ROMAN FAMILIES, KILLED THE ROMAN MALES, AND SOLD THE WOMEN AND CHILDREN INTO SLAVERY narrator: THROUGH THE SMOKE AND STENCH OF SCORCHED EARTH AND TORCHED ROMAN CORPSES COMES ROME’S RESPONSE: CAPTURE HANNIBAL AND CRUCIFY HIM man: IT’S A VERY FAMOUS SCENE BY THE GREEK HISTORIAN POLYBIUS, WHERE THE ROMAN AMBASSADOR GRABS HIS TOGA, A FOLD IN EACH HAND, AND SAYS, “ROME OFFERS YOU “PEACE OR WAR CHOOSE, IT MATTERS NOT TO ROME.” narrator: HANNIBAL AND THE CARTHAGINIANS GLADLY CHOOSE TO FIGHT IT IS WAR, THE SEEDS OF WHICH WERE PLANTED NEARLY HALF A CENTURY EARLIER THEN, CARTHAGE AND ROME BLOODIED THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA IN WHAT IS CALLED “THE FIRST PUNIC WAR,” NAMED FOR THE LATIN TERM FOR CARTHAGE, “PUNICA.” Richard: 400,000 CASUALTIES, ALMOST 15% OF THE MILITARY MANPOWER OF THE ENTIRE COUNTRY OF ITALY WAS LOST IN THAT WAR IT WAS A TERRIBLY BLOODY WAR narrator: THE WAR EVENTUALLY ENDS IN A MILITARY DRAW BUT FOR CARTHAGE, THE PEACE TREATY IS ESPECIALLY COSTLY Matthew: PART OF THE DEAL THEY MAKE WITH ROME IS THAT CARTHAGE WILL LIMIT THEIR NAVY TO 100 SHIPS THIS IS PRETTY CRIPPLING TO AN EMPIRE THAT WAS A NAVAL AND COMMERCIAL TRADING POWER narrator: WITH MOST OF THEIR COMMERCIAL FLEET GONE AND THEIR POCKETS EMPTY, CARTHAGE USES ITS MILITARY POWER TO EXPLOIT THE RICHES OF SPAIN man: TURNS OUT THAT SPAIN’S GOT VAST SILVER MINES, AND THE CARTHAGINIANS QUICKLY GAIN A HOLD ON THEM AND AMASS A FORTUNE THEY DECIDE TO BUILD UP THEIR LAND DEFENSES INSTEAD OF THEIR NAVY, WHICH HAD BEEN PRETTY MUCH DEPLETED IN THE FIRST PUNIC WAR narrator: HANNIBAL’S FATHER, HAMILCAR BARCA, ONE OF CARTHAGE’S MOST ACCOMPLISHED AND BATTLE-HARDENED MEN, LEADS THE ARMY INTO SPAIN Richard: NOW, HAMILCAR BARCA IS THE FOUNDER OF A GREAT MILITARY DYNASTY

IN CARTHAGE CALLED “THE BARCIDS,” AFTER THE NAME “BARCA,” AND HE REALLY HATED THE ROMANS narrator: YOUNG HANNIBAL IS IMMERSED IN A VIOLENT AND BLOODY WORLD AS HE WATCHES HIS FATHER, TEACHER, AND ROLE MODEL ENGAGE IN FIERCELY BRUTAL COMBAT David: HANNIBAL IS ONLY NINE WHEN HAMILCAR TAKES OVER SPAIN, SO HE ESSENTIALLY GROWS UP ON THE BATTLEFIELD narrator: HAMILCAR PROVIDES YOUNG HANNIBAL WITH A HANDS-ON EDUCATION IN BRUTALITY AND WARFARE Richard: BY THE TIME HE’S 19, HIS WHOLE LIFE HAS BEEN IN A MILITARY CAMP, AND HERE HE WATCHES HIS FATHER AND OTHER GENERAL OFFICERS, AND LEARNS HOW TO COMMAND MEN narrator: HANNIBAL LEARNS THAT TO BUILD AN ARMY OF LOYAL FIGHTERS WILLING TO MARCH BY HIS SIDE INTO THE HORRORS OF WAR, HE MUST SOMETIMES PUNISH HIS OWN IF A CARTHAGINIAN OFFICER FAILS IN BATTLE, HE IS CRUCIFIED IN THE PUBLIC SQUARE Steven: CARTHAGINIAN RULE IN SPAIN IS DOWNRIGHT CRUEL IT’S BASED ON FIRE, SWORD, AND CRUCIFIXION narrator: BUT HANNIBAL ALSO MOTIVATES HIS MEN BY SLEEPING WHERE THEY SLEEP, EATING WHAT THEY EAT, AND FIGHTING WHERE THEY FIGHT THEY OBEDIENTLY FOLLOW HIS WORDS, HIS SWORD, AND HIS DEEP-SEATED DESIRE FOR REVENGE AGAINST ROME, WHICH HE INHERITS FROM HIS FATHER BUT HAMILCAR WILL NEVER TASTE REVENGE IN 228 B.C., HE DIES SUDDENLY SOME SAY ASSASSINATED Richard: HIS PLACE IS TAKEN BY HIS SON-IN-LAW, CALLED HASDRUBAL THE SPLENDID, WHO CONTINUES ON AGAIN FOR ABOUT ANOTHER SIX YEARS, BUILDING CARTHAGINIAN POWER, INCREASING ITS SCOPE AND THEN FINALLY, HE’S ASSASSINATED, TOO AND THERE’S SOME QUESTION, HISTORICALLY, OF WHETHER OR NOT HANNIBAL HAD A HAND IN THIS narrator: IT IS FINALLY HANNIBAL’S HOUR HE’S ONLY 26 YEARS OLD, BUT COMMANDS THE ENTIRE CARTHAGINIAN ARMY BUT HE IS FIERCE, BATTLE-TESTED, AND DRIVEN Matthew: LEGEND HAS IT THAT HAMILCAR MADE THE YOUNG HANNIBAL SWEAR AN OATH ON THE ALTAR OF BAAL THAT HE WOULD SPEND HIS LIFE IN OPPOSING, AND THEN ULTIMATELY DESTROYING ROME narrator: IN 219 B.C., WITH HIS FATHER’S HUNGER FOR REVENGE BURNING INSIDE HIM AND WITH SAGUNTUM AFLAME, HANNIBAL LAUNCHES HIS ATTACK AGAINST ROME THE SECOND PUNIC WAR IS ON David: HANNIBAL AMASSES A STRIKE FORCE OF ABOUT 50,000 SOLDIERS BUT BECAUSE HE HAS NO NAVY, HE’S GOT TO INVADE ITALY BY LAND narrator: HANNIBAL’S ON THE MOVE FROM SPAIN, HE LEADS HIS FIGHTING FORCE OF ABOUT 50,000 NORTH ALONG THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST, TOWARD ROME A GRUELING 2½ MONTHS LATER, AN EXHAUSTED, BUT BATTLE-READY HANNIBAL REACHES THE RHONE RIVER BUT HANNIBAL IS SHOCKED TO DISCOVER THE ROMANS HAD CAUGHT WIND OF THE ADVANCE, AND LAUNCHED A STRIKE FORCE TO INTERCEPT Mark: THE ROMANS HAD CAUGHT WIND OF HANNIBAL’S MOVEMENTS IN SPAIN, BUT INSTEAD OF HEADING DIRECTLY TO SPAIN, THEY WERE SMART THEY LOOKED AT A MAP, FIGURED OUT WHERE HANNIBAL WAS GOING TO MARCH, AND TRIED TO BLOCK THE LAND ROUTE TO THE ITALIAN PENINSULA ON THE COAST OF THE MEDITERRANEAN narrator: IT IS THE GREAT MILITARY ROMAN GENERAL PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO WHO LEADS THE ATTACK AGAINST HANNIBAL SCIPIO’S FORCE, 10,000 MEN STRONG, IS IN MASSILIA, A ROMAN ALLY ON THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST HANNIBAL’S FORCE, FIVE TIMES AS LARGE, HAS CROSSED THE RHONE RIVER SCIPIO SENDS 300 OF HIS CAVALRY UP THE RHONE TO FIND HANNIBAL HANNIBAL ORDERS 500 CAVALRY TO SCOUT THE ROMAN ADVANCE THE TWO RECONNAISSANCE UNITS COLLIDE WAR BETWEEN ROME AND CARTHAGE RAGES ONCE AGAIN David: THIS IS A SMALL SKIRMISH BETWEEN SCOUTING PARTIES IN THIS PARTICULAR SKIRMISH, HANNIBAL’S FORCES TAKE THE BRUNT OF THE ATTACK, AND THEN RETREAT SCIPIO ORDERS HIS ENTIRE FORCE TO FOLLOW Matthew: HANNIBAL KNOWS SCIPIO’S ONLY A FEW DAYS’ MARCH AWAY, AND SCIPIO’S A TALENTED COMMANDER HE SHOULD BE ABLE TO GIVE HANNIBAL A RUN FOR HIS MONEY Steven: BUT WHEN SCIPIO ARRIVES AT THE LOCATION WHERE HANNIBAL’S ARMY SHOULD BE, THEY’RE GONE IT’S AS IF HANNIBAL’S WHOLE ARMY HAS VANISHED INTO THIN AIR narrator: SCIPIO FORCED HANNIBAL TO CHANGE HIS PLAN NOW INSTEAD OF MARCHING ALONG THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST TO ROME, HANNIBAL’S ATTACK WILL COME FROM THE NORTH, THROUGH THE ALPS Richard: THE REASON WHY HANNIBAL CAME BY LAND, THROUGH SPAIN AND OVER THE ALPS, WAS NOT BECAUSE IT WAS A GREAT, STRATEGIC CHOICE IT WAS, IN FACT, A ROUTE THAT WAS FORCED UPON HIM BY, ESSENTIALLY, ROMAN ADVANCE, BY THE SITUATION HE CONFRONTED AT THE TIME narrator: HANNIBAL REACHES THE ALPS IN AUTUMN OF 218 B.C AT THIS ALTITUDE, HE AND HIS 50,000 SOLDIERS FACE FREEZING TEMPERATURES AND TREACHEROUS ICE ON A NARROW, ROCKY TERRAIN

THE MEN ARE HUNGRY, THEIR SUPPLIES ARE LIMITED, AND HE’S LEADING MORE THAN JUST INFANTRY HE’S ALSO LEADING 9,000 CAVALRY AND 37 ELEPHANTS Richard: ALL THE MAJOR ARMIES HAD A FEW ELEPHANTS IN THEM WHEN THE GREEKS FOUGHT CARTHAGE IN ONE OF THEIR LITTLE SKIRMISHES, THE CARTHAGINIANS USED TO HAVE CHARIOTS, AND THEY WERE DRIVEN FROM THE BATTLEFIELD BY THE ELEPHANTS AT WHICH POINT THEY SAID, “LET’S GET RID OF THE CHARIOTS, “AND REPLACE THEM WITH ELEPHANTS.” AND SO AS A CONSEQUENCE, BY THE TIME OF THE PUNIC WAR, CARTHAGE HAS IN THEIR HOME BASE, SHE HAS 300 TRAINED ELEPHANTS LIVING IN THE WALLS OF THE CITY OF CARTHAGE SO THAT’S HOW YOU GET THE ELEPHANT INTRODUCED IN WARFARE narrator: THE CROSSING OF THE ALPS WITH SUCH A LARGE FORCE IS A DIFFICULT MILITARY FEAT FOR HANNIBAL AND HIS ARMY, IT HAS HORRIFIC CONSEQUENCES Matthew: MEN FREEZE, MEN STARVE AT ONE POINT, A LANDSLIDE COMPLETELY BLOCKS THEIR WAY IT’S ABSOLUTELY HELLISH SUPPLIES ARE EVEN RUNNING LOW, AND THEY’RE NOT EVEN TO THE MOST DIFFICULT PART OF THE CROSSING YET David: WELL, THEY HAPPEN UPON THIS GAULIC VILLAGE WHERE THE GAULS OFFER PROVISIONS AND SUPPLIES HANNIBAL ACCEPTS THE HELP, BUT HE DEFINITELY IS SUSPICIOUS OF THEIR MOTIVES, BECAUSE HE KNOWS THAT SOMETIMES THE GAULS ARE FRIENDLY, AND SOMETIMES THEY ARE NOT narrator: HANNIBAL DOESN’T FULLY TRUST THE GAULS, BUT EVENTUALLY ACCEPTS THEIR HELP THE GAULS DIRECT HANNIBAL TO A NARROW PASS, WHICH LEADS TO A GORGE Mark: HANNIBAL’S ORIGINAL SUSPICIONS WERE RIGHT ON THE GUIDES SUDDENLY BOLT ( men yelling ) narrator: IT’S A TRAP narrator: 218 B.C.: HANNIBAL LEADS HIS CARTHAGINIAN ARMY OVER THE TREACHEROUS ALPS TO INVADE ROME ALONG THE WAY, MARAUDING GAULS AMBUSH HANNIBAL WITH A BARRAGE OF BOULDERS AND ARROW FIRE David: HANNIBAL ENCOUNTERS DIFFERENT TRIBES THROUGHOUT HIS CAMPAIGN THEY WERE MAINLY GAULS THIS WAS A TRIBAL PEOPLE WHO LIVED IN WHAT’S NOW MODERN-DAY FRANCE THEY’RE NOT A UNIFIED PEOPLE, AND USUALLY DON’T ALLY THEMSELVES AGAINST A COMMON ENEMY SO SOMETIMES THEY’LL JOIN HIS WAR ON ROME, AND OTHER TIMES THEY’LL ATTACK HIM Mark: IN THIS CASE, THE GAULS ARE OUT FOR BLOOD THE GORGE TURNS INTO A GAUNTLET OF DEATH narrator: GAULS BLOCK BOTH ENDS OF THE GORGE, BUT HANNIBAL’S TROOPS FIGHT THEIR WAY OUT, LEAVING THE BUTCHERED ENEMY IN THEIR WAKE AFTER SOME 30 GRUELING DAYS, HANNIBAL AND HIS MEN EMERGE FROM THE ALPS WHEN THEY FINALLY ARRIVE ON THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF ITALY, NEARLY A THIRD OF HANNIBAL’S ARMY HAS PERISHED Richard: THEY LOSE ABOUT 18,000 INFANTRY, ABOUT A THIRD OF THE CAVALRY, WHICH WOULD BE MAYBE 4,000 HORSE AND YOU ARRIVE WITH LIKE 27 ELEPHANTS, YOU’LL LOSE A THIRD OF THE ELEPHANTS narrator: BUT HANNIBAL HAS ALWAYS KNOWN THAT CROSSING WOULD BE COSTLY FROM THE VERY BEGINNING OF THE WAR, HE’S HAD A PLAN TO REPLENISH HIS FORCES A PLAN THAT RELIED ON HIS ELEPHANTS Richard: PART OF HANNIBAL’S STRATEGY IN CROSSING THE ALPS WAS THAT HE UNDERSTOOD THAT HE DIDN’T HAVE ENOUGH MANPOWER TO FIGHT THE ROMANS THEREFORE, HE WOULD HAVE TO ACQUIRE IT ONCE HE GOT INTO ITALY HOW WAS HE GOING TO DO THAT ? HE WAS GOING TO DO THAT BY ATTRACTING TO HIS STANDARD, THE GAULS– THE CELTS AND GAULS, WHO HATED THE ROMANS BECAUSE THEY’D BEEN FIGHTING ONE ANOTHER FOR 500 YEARS, AND HOPEFULLY, AS WELL, GET SOME ROMAN ALLIED STATES TO DEFECT SO THE REASON FOR BRINGING THE 37 ELEPHANTS OVER THE ALPS WAS REALLY TO IMPRESS, IN A POLITICAL SENSE, BOTH THE GAULS AND THE ALLIED STATES THAT THIS WAS A SERIOUS ARMY narrator: HANNIBAL’S ELEPHANTS THUNDER INTO NORTHERN ITALY THEY SUCCESSFULLY LURE GAULIC TRIBES TO THE CARTHAGINIAN SIDE BY NOVEMBER 218 B.C., HANNIBAL’S NUMBERS SWELL TO NEARLY 40,000 ROME ANSWERS WITH 40,000 OF ITS OWN SOLDIERS TO FACE HANNIBAL’S THREAT BOTH ARMIES ARE NOW ON A COLLISION COURSE THAT WILL ROCK THE ANCIENT WORLD AND REWRITE MILITARY HISTORY Steven: THE ARMIES OF CARTHAGE AND ROME COULDN’T BE MORE DIFFERENT HANNIBAL’S MEN ARE MERCENARY SOLDIERS FROM ALL OVER THE MAP narrator: HANNIBAL’S ARMY IS FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE REGION, MANY OF THEM MERCENARIES, DRAWN TO HIS LEGENDARY LEADERSHIP IN BATTLE THE LIGHT INFANTRY ARE FROM LIBYA THESE MEN CARRY A SMALL, ROUND SHIELD, AND FIGHT WITH A SMALL SWORD, OR JAVELIN HEAVY INFANTRY ARE WARRIORS FROM GAUL

MEN WHO RUN INTO BATTLE NAKED, INTIMIDATING THEIR ENEMIES WITH THEIR DEADLY, TWO-HANDED BROADSWORDS HEAVY CAVALRY IS FROM SPAIN AND NORTHERN EUROPE THEIR WEAPON OF CHOICE IS EITHER A BOWED SWORD CALLED A “FALCATA,” OR A DEADLY LONG SWORD David: HANNIBAL’S ABILITY TO ORCHESTRATE THESE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FORCES IN A COORDINATED ATTACK IS WHAT MAKES HIM TRULY A REMARKABLE GENERAL THE ROMAN ARMY IS MUCH DIFFERENT THAN HANNIBAL’S FORCES WHERE THE CARTHAGINIANS ARE VERY DIVERSE, THE ROMANS ARE QUITE UNIFORM narrator: ROMAN SOLDIERS ARE ABLAZE IN ARMOR BRONZE HELMETS PROTECT THEIR HEADS CHAIN MAIL OR BRASS BREASTPLATES DEFEND THEIR BODIES EACH SOLDIER CARRIES ONE OF HISTORY’S DEADLIEST THROWING SPEARS, THE PILUM Richard: THAT LONG, METAL ROD WAS MADE OF SOFT METAL WITH A HOOK WHEN IT WENT THROUGH THE SHIELD, THE WEIGHT OF THE WOODEN BODY WOULD BEND IT YOU COULDN’T TAKE THE PILUM OUT OF THE SHIELD NOW THE ENEMY HAD A CHOICE OF FIGHTING WITH A SHIELD WITH A SPEAR STUCK INTO IT, OR WHAT THEY FOOLISHLY DID VERY OFTEN IS SIMPLY THROW THE SHIELD AWAY NOT A GOOD MOVE AGAINST ROMAN INFANTRY narrator: SLAUGHTER ALSO COMES IN THE FORM OF A STRAIGHT SWORD, FORGED OF IRON, IDEAL FOR UP-CLOSE-AND-PERSONAL COMBAT THEIR SCUTUM SHIELD PROVIDES ALMOST COMPLETE PROTECTION FROM MISSILE ATTACKS WHILE HANNIBAL’S ARMY IS COBBLED TOGETHER, HIS OPPONENT IS A MUCH MORE COHESIVE FIGHTING FORCE Richard: THE ROMAN ARMY WAS A TRUE NATIONAL ARMY THEY ALL SPOKE THE SAME LANGUAGE, THEY ALL HAD THE SAME EQUIPMENT, AND THEY WERE ALL TRAINED TO THE SAME TACTICS narrator: BUT THE MOST SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IS THEIR STYLE OF BATTLE Steven: SO YOU HAVE THIS ROMAN FORCE OF HIGHLY DISCIPLINED CITIZEN SOLDIERS, EQUIPPED AND TRAINED TO GO STRAIGHT AT THE ENEMY, AGAINST A GROUP OF PROFESSIONALS THAT COULD HIT YOU IN ANY NUMBER OF WAYS narrator: AT THE TICINUS RIVER, THESE RADICALLY DIFFERENT FIGHTING STYLES CLASH IN A HURRICANE OF VIOLENCE David: HANNIBAL’S LIGHT CAVALRY SURROUND THE ROMANS, SLASH AT THE ROMAN CAVALRY, THEN BACK OFF, THEN RE-ATTACK IT’S CHAOS AND CONFUSION– NOT WHAT THE ROMANS ARE USED TO narrator: THE BLOOD OF 2,000 SLAIN ROMAN SOLDIERS DRENCHES THE GROUND IT IS A SHOCKING DEFEAT Richard: THE KEY POINT ABOUT THE LITTLE SKIRMISH AT THE TICINUS RIVER WAS THAT PUBLIUS SCIPIO WAS WOUNDED narrator: THE ROMANS REPLACE SCIPIO WITH GENERAL SEMPRONIUS LONGUS, A STRONG LEADER WITH AN EVEN STRONGER TEMPER Mark: SEMPRONIUS IS A HOTHEAD HE’S DESPERATE FOR GLORY, AND HIS ONE-YEAR TERM AS ARMY COMMANDER IS ALMOST UP HE’S CHOMPING AT THE BIT TO FIGHT, AND HANNIBAL KNOWS IT Richard: SOME EVIDENCE OF HANNIBAL’S BRILLIANCE AS A MILITARY COMMANDER WAS THE FACT THAT HE STUDIED HIS ADVERSARIES CLOSELY NOW, WHERE HE GOT THIS INFORMATION ISN’T CLEAR SURELY, THE NUMBER OF ROMAN COMMANDERS WAS RELATIVELY SMALL, AND SO THEY WOULD’VE BEEN WELL-KNOWN, BUT ALSO, MY GUESS IS THAT THE TRULY EXCELLENT CARTHAGINIAN INTELLIGENCE MAY HAVE BEEN AT WORK HERE SO THAT WHENEVER HE WAS PREPARING FOR A BATTLE, HE KNEW WHO WAS IN COMMAND ON THE OTHER SIDE, AND HE STUDIED HIM CLOSELY, KNEW FOR HIS STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES, AND IN THE CASE OF SEMPRONIUS, HE KNEW SEMPRONIUS WELL HE KNEW HE WAS A HOTHEAD, AND HE PLAYED HIM LIKE A FIDDLE narrator: THE TWO ENEMY ARMIES CAMP ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE TREBIA RIVER, ABOUT 70 SHORT YARDS APART Richard: IT’S NOT MUCH OF AN OBSTACLE IN A PHYSICAL SENSE, BUT IT CAN BECOME AN OBSTACLE WHEN YOU REALIZE THAT IF YOU HAVE TO CROSS IT, IT’S NOVEMBER, IT’S GRAY, AND IT’S SNOWING, AND SO THAT’S GOING TO BE– ANY ARMY THAT TRIES TO CROSS THAT RIVER UNDER THOSE CONDITIONS IS GOING TO SUFFER SOMEWHAT narrator: HANNIBAL’S STRATEGY ? TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE FRIGID TEMPERATURES, THE ROMAN COMMANDER’S FIERY TEMPER, AND USE THE ELEMENT OF SURPRISE Richard: HE SENDS 2- OR 3,000 CAVALRY IN THE EARLY MORNING DAWN ACROSS THE RIVER TO ATTACK THE ROMAN CAMP Mark: THE ROMANS ARE SHOCKED AWAKE THEY STUMBLE AROUND IN THE COLD WITH NO FOOD THE ROMAN GENERAL SEMPRONIUS IS FURIOUS HE ORDERS THE MEN TO CROSS THE RIVER AND ATTACK SO THEY PLUNGE INTO THE ICY WATER TO CHASE HANNIBAL’S MEN NOT THE BEST WAY TO START YOUR DAY narrator: 40,000 ROMAN INFANTRY AND 4,000 CAVALRY CROSS THE RIVER THEY LINE UP FOR BATTLE IN A FORMATION CALLED A LEGIO, MADE UP OF SEVERAL MANIPLES David: MANIPLE LITERALLY MEANS “A HANDFUL OF MEN.” EACH MANIPLE CONSISTS OF ABOUT 120 SOLDIERS narrator: THE ROMANS ARRANGE THEMSELVES IN A CHECKERBOARD CONFIGURATION THIS IS A FORCE SPECIFICALLY

DESIGNED TO MOVE FORWARD AND CRUSH ITS ENEMY BUT HANNIBAL HAS HIS OWN CRUSHING MACHINES: PACHYDERMS, THE HEAVY TANKS OF THE CARTHAGINIAN ARMY THEY CHARGE AT THE FLANKS OF THE ROMAN CAVALRY Mark: NEARLY IMPERVIOUS TO SPEARS, THE ELEPHANTS’ EARTHSHAKING ASSAULT SCATTERS THE ALLIED HORSEMEN IN SHEER TERROR narrator: HANNIBAL’S CAVALRY, 10,000 STRONG, FAR OUTNUMBERS THE ROMANS Steven: THIS NUMIDIAN CAVALRY IS SO FAST AND AGILE THAT THEY APPEAR TO BE EVERYWHERE AT ONCE Mark: HANNIBAL’S HEAVY SPANISH AND CELTIC CAVALRY SLAM WITH SUCH FORCE, THEY DEMOLISH WHAT’S LEFT OF THE ROMAN CAVALRY narrator: HANNIBAL’S CARTHAGINIAN CAVALRY TURNS INWARD AND SMASHES THE ROMAN FLANKS HANNIBAL SURROUNDS THE ROMANS ON THREE SIDES, BUT HE IS NOT DONE YET narrator: HANNIBAL HAS JUST CROSSED THE TREBIA RIVER, AND HAS A BLOODY SURPRISE FOR THE ROMAN ARMY USING SPECIALLY TRAINED HORSES, HANNIBAL HAS SUCCESSFULLY HIDDEN CAVALRY IN THE TALL GRASS Matthew: TRUMPETS BLAST AND AN ELITE CARTHAGINIAN CAVALRY FORCE CHARGES FROM THE SWAMP THE ROMANS TURNS AROUND TO SEE 2,000 HORSES STORM UP FROM BEHIND IT MUST HAVE BEEN ABSOLUTELY TERRIFYING narrator: THE CARTHAGINIAN CALVARY BLINDSIDES THE ROMANS, WHO ARE THEN PUSHED BACK TOWARD THE RIVER, AND CUT DOWN MERCILESSLY Richard: OF THE 40,000 MEN, ROMAN AND ALLIES, THAT TOOK THE FIELD THAT DAY, 30,000 DIED 30,000 MET THEIR DEATHS ON THE BANK OF THE TREBIA RIVER IT WAS THE WORST DEFEAT THAT THE ROMANS HAD SUFFERED SINCE THE DEFEAT AGAINST THE GAULS 125 YEARS EARLIER Mark: THE BATTLE OF THE TREBIA IS AN ABSOLUTELY CLASSIC EXAMPLE OF HOW TO USE TACTICAL SURPRISE AT A KEY MOMENT IN THE BATTLE THE RESULT WAS COMPLETE SLAUGHTER narrator: HANNIBAL DOES SUFFER LOSSES AT TREBIA ALL BUT ONE OF HIS ELEPHANTS DIE OF STARVATION OR EXHAUSTION HE RIDES THE LONE SURVIVOR, NAMED “SARUS.” THE HORROR OF TREBIA SPURS THE ROMAN SENATE TO RAISE FOUR NEW LEGIONS, 20,000 MEN ROME ALSO APPOINTS TWO NEW CONSULS TO LEAD THE MEN INTO BATTLE: GNAEUS SERVILIUS GEMINUS AND GAIUS FLAMINIUS THEIR TARGET: HANNIBAL THEIR MISSION: SEEK AND DESTROY IN THE SPRING OF 217 B.C., THE ROMANS DECIDE THAT THE BEST WAY TO BLOCK HANNIBAL’S ADVANCE SOUTHWARD IS TO DIVIDE THEIR FORCES GEMINUS TRAVELS NORTHEAST TO COASTAL ARIMINUS FLAMINIUS HEADS NORTHWEST TO ARRETIUM, BUT THEY LEAVE A SOUTHERN ROUTE OPEN, THROUGH THE MARSHES OF THE LOWER ARNO RIVER VALLEY Richard: NOW, THE ARNO MARSHES WERE AN ENORMOUSLY LARGE, SWAMPY AREA, CREATED BY THE ARNO RIVER IT’S FULL OF MUCK, INSECTS, SNAKES IT’S A TERRIBLE NATURAL BARRIER, SO MUCH SO THAT NEITHER OF THE ROMAN COMMANDERS BLOCKING THE ROADS ON EITHER SIDE THOUGHT ANYONE WOULD BE CRAZY ENOUGH TO TRY TO MARCH THROUGH THESE MARSHES WELL, HANNIBAL IS KNOWN FOR DOING THE UNEXPECTED, AND DON’T YOU KNOW, HE TRIES TO PENETRATE THESE MARSHES narrator: THE SURPRISE MANEUVER DOES PROVE COSTLY FOR HANNIBAL David: WHILE RIDING ATOP SARUS, HIS LAST REMAINING ELEPHANT, HANNIBAL IS SUPPOSEDLY STUNG IN THE EYE BY AN INSECT IT GETS INFECTED, AND HE BECOMES BLIND IN THAT EYE narrator: BUT HANNIBAL REMAINS UNSTOPPABLE HE SLIPS THROUGH THE TWO ROMAN FORCES AND ARRIVES AT TUSCANY, A ROMAN ALLY, AND TORCHES THE LANDSCAPE Richard: HANNIBAL STARTS BURNING THE TUSCAN PLAIN– HOUSES, TOWNS, SLAUGHTERING ANIMALS, CHOPPING DOWN TREES narrator: HANNIBAL’S PLAN: DESTROY THE AREA AND INFURIATE THE ROMAN GENERAL FLAMINIUS, WHO WATCHES THE DEVASTATION FROM THE CITY WALLS OF ARRETIUM Richard: AND FLAMINIUS IS JUST HORRIFIED BY IT HE’S HORRIFIED NOT ONLY SO MUCH THAT THIS AREA’S BEING DESTROYED, BUT HE KNOWS WHAT HANNIBAL IS DOING narrator: INSTEAD OF ATTACKING FLAMINIUS INSIDE THE CITY WALLS, HANNIBAL IS SENDING A MESSAGE TO OTHER ROMAN ALLIES Richard: WHAT HANNIBAL IS SAYING TO THAT ALLY IS, IF YOU STAY WITH ROME, THIS IS WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT HE’S TRYING TO WOO THAT ALLY AWAY AND FLAMINIUS ALSO KNOWS THAT IT’S A SIGN OF ROMAN WEAKNESS THAT YOU CANNOT STOP THIS narrator: HANNIBAL KNOWS

HIS ENEMY WELL, AND WANTS TO LURE FLAMINIUS ONTO THE BATTLEFIELD Richard: WHY ? THAT’S HIS PLAN DESTROY AS MANY ROMAN ARMIES, KILL AS MANY ROMANS AS YOU CAN, UNTIL THE ROMAN SENATE TIRES OF WAR AND SUES FOR PEACE YOU CAN’T DO THAT WITH SIEGE WARFARE YOU’VE GOT TO DRAW THE ENEMY OUT INTO BATTLE narrator: HANNIBAL CONTINUES TO TAUNT FLAMINIUS BY MARCHING HIS ARMY RIGHT PAST THE WALLS OF ARRETIUM, FLAUNTING HIS COURAGE AND POWER Matthew: HANNIBAL IS JUST FAR ENOUGH AWAY TO TEASE FLAMINIUS HE’S REALLY SAYING, “COME ON, “IF YOU’VE GOT ANY COURAGE, “YOU’LL LEAVE YOUR LITTLE “PROTECTIVE FORT, AND COME AND FIGHT LIKE A MAN.” narrator: FINALLY, FLAMINIUS TAKES THE BAIT Mark: HANNIBAL LEADS FLAMINIUS ON A WILD CHASE ACROSS TUSCANY HE STAYS A DAY OR TWO AHEAD, WHICH ALLOWS HIM TO SURVEY THE TERRAIN AND PICK THE MOST ADVANTAGEOUS PLACE TO FIGHT narrator: MOVING QUICKLY, HANNIBAL AND HIS 30,000 MEN RACE PAST THE SMALL VILLAGE OF PASSIGNANO INTO A HILLY FOREST ALONG LAKE TRASIMENE FLAMINIUS IS IN HOT PURSUIT THE ROAD LEADS HANNIBAL, NOW ON HORSEBACK, THROUGH WHAT’S KNOWN AS A DEFILE, A NARROW PASSAGE BETWEEN THE MOUNTAINS AND THE LAKE’S SHORELINE Mark: BY NOW, ALL OF HANNIBAL’S ELEPHANTS ARE DEAD AND AS HE MARCHES INTO THIS DEFILE, THIS NARROW PASSAGE BETWEEN THE CLIFFS AND THE LAKE, HE BECOMES IMMEDIATELY AWARE OF THE LANDSCAPE’S TACTICAL ADVANTAGES narrator: HANNIBAL HAS DISCOVERED THE PERFECT LOCATION FOR HIS NEXT BATTLE IT COMES WITH ITS OWN NATURAL ADVANTAGE Steven: IN THE MORNING, A THICK FOG COMES OFF THE LAKE AND OBSCURES THE ENTIRE VALLEY IT’S MADE-TO-ORDER CAMOUFLAGE narrator: HANNIBAL ORDERS SOME OF HIS MEN TO CAMP AT THE FAR END OF THE VALLEY, IN PLAIN VIEW OF ALL WHO PASS THROUGH THE DEFILE Mark: WE’RE TOLD THAT HANNIBAL SENDS SCOUTS FAR AHEAD INTO THE HILLS TO LIGHT CAMPFIRES HE WANTS TO CONVINCE THE ROMANS THAT HE’S FARTHER AWAY THAN HE ACTUALLY IS narrator: STILL CHASING HANNIBAL, FLAMINIUS REACHES PASSIGNANO AND SENDS A RECONNAISSANCE TEAM INTO THE DEFILE Richard: THEY COME BACK, AND IT’S TOO NARROW THERE CAN’T BE ANY POSSIBILITY OF AMBUSH THE NEXT DAY AROUND DAWN, THE ROMAN ARMY BEGINS TO MOVE THROUGH THE DEFILE narrator: AS FLAMINIUS REACHES THE VALLEY, THE EERIE LAKE FOG ROLLS IN ONCE AGAIN IN THE DISTANCE, FLAMINIUS CAN SEE THE FIRES OF HANNIBAL’S CAMP ON THE HILL Steven: FLAMINIUS THINKS, “I FINALLY GOT HIM “I’VE GOT HANNIBAL TRAPPED, “AND IT’S TIME TO TEAR HIM APART.” narrator: FLAMINIUS ORDERS 6,000 ROMAN SOLDIERS TO RUSH UP THE HILL AND ATTACK HANNIBAL Richard: THE LEGION DOUBLE TIMES, GETS OUT THERE, CLIMBS THE HILL, AND SMASHES INTO HANNIBAL’S CAMP narrator: THE ROMANS HACK AT HANNIBAL’S REAR-GUARD INFANTRY IN WILD COMBAT SUDDENLY, HANNIBAL’S MEN TURN AND RUN, ENTICING THE ROMAN SOLDIERS TO PURSUE HANNIBAL THEN SPRINGS ONE OF THE DEADLIEST TRAPS IN MILITARY HISTORY narrator: HANNIBAL BARCA OF CARTHAGE IS ABOUT TO SPRING ONE OF MILITARY HISTORY’S GREATEST TRAPS 30,000 CARTHAGINIAN INFANTRY AND CAVALRY RISE OUT OF THE MORNING FOG AND SMASH INTO THE STUNNED ROMAN FORCE THE BLOODBATH BEGINS THE BATTLE RAGES ALONG THE SHORES OF LAKE TRASIMENE IN NORTHWEST ITALY HANNIBAL’S SPANISH- AND-AFRICAN-HEAVY INFANTRY HIT THE ROMAN FRONT WILD CELTIC TRIBESMEN STRIKE AT THE CENTER NUMIDIAN LIGHT CAVALRY CRUSH THE ROMANS FROM THE REAR Richard: THE ROMANS ARE TRAPPED, AND IT IS TERRIBLE THEY’RE IN LINE OF MARCH, THEY’RE NOT EVEN SET FOR COMBAT FORMATION, THEIR WEAPONS AREN’T OUT, AND THEY’RE TAKEN RIGHT IN THE FLANK BY THIS LARGE ARMY, AND IT JUST SLAUGHTERS THEM IT SLAUGHTERS THEM Mark: HANNIBAL MAKES TWO BIG GAMBLES AT TRASIMENE FIRST IS THAT THE FOG WILL RETURN TO HIDE HIS 30,000 MEN IN THE HILLS SECOND, THAT FLAMINIUS WILL JUMP AT HIS DECOY CAMP AND HE WINS BOTH BETS Steven: OUT OF 20,000 MEN, 15,000 DIE IN ABOUT THREE HOURS, INCLUDING FLAMINIUS HIMSELF HANNIBAL’S LOSSES: 1,500 THAT’S A KILL RATIO OF 10:1 narrator: IN ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL AMBUSHES IN HISTORY, ANOTHER ROMAN ARMY HAS BEEN WIPED OUT AT AGE 27, HANNIBAL IS ALREADY A LEGENDARY MILITARY TACTICIAN

Mark: IN LESS THAN TWO YEARS, HANNIBAL HAS HANDED ROME THREE CATASTROPHIC DEFEATS 2,000 MEN AT TICINUS, 30,000 AT TREBIA, AND NOW 15,000 MORE AT TRASIMENE ROME HAD NEVER SEEN SUCH A SERIES OF DEFEATS IN ITS HISTORY narrator: IN THE FACE OF THIS DEFEAT, THE ROMAN SENATE MAKES A BOLD, PERHAPS DESPERATE DECISION THEY VOTE TO APPOINT A TEMPORARY DICTATOR OVER THE MILITARY TO PUT AN END TO HANNIBAL’S REIGN OF TERROR HE IS QUINTUS FABIUS MAXIMUS Mark: SELECTING A DICTATOR’S EXTREMELY RARE IN ROMAN HISTORY THEY HIGHLY VALUE THEIR REPUBLIC, AND SO THE IDEA OF HANDING ABSOLUTE POWER TO ONE MAN ISN’T TAKEN LIGHTLY IN FACT, THE POSITION CAME WITH AN AUTOMATIC TIME LIMIT OF SIX MONTHS narrator: FABIUS RAISES AN ARMY OF 90,000 MEN, THE LARGEST YET IN ROMAN HISTORY BUT HE ISN’T GOING TO USE THEM IN DIRECT COMBAT AGAINST HANNIBAL Richard: FABIUS IS AN EXCELLENT STRATEGIC THINKER HE TAKES ONE LOOK AROUND, LOOKS AT THE ROMAN MANPOWER, NAVAL RESOURCES, FOOD RESOURCES, THE GEOGRAPHY, AND THEN COMPARES THEM WITH HANNIBAL’S SMALL ARMY– AWAY FROM HOME, CAN’T RE-SUPPLY, NO NAVY HE CONCLUDES QUITE CORRECTLY THAT HANNIBAL CAN’T WIN THAT, ESSENTIALLY, THERE’S NO POINT TO CONTINUE TO TRY TO DEFEAT HANNIBAL IN THE FIELD Steven: AND THIS BECOMES THE FAMOUS FABIAN STRATEGY: DO NOT ENGAGE THE ENEMY IN HEAD-TO-HEAD BATTLE HARASS HIM WHEN HE SENDS FORAGING TEAMS TO LOOK FOR FOOD, KILL THEM IF ANYBODY PROVIDES SANCTUARY IN A SMALL TOWN, BURN THE PLACE DOWN narrator: FABIUS’ STRATEGY LEAVES HANNIBAL AND HIS MEN HUNGRY AND TIRED THEY ARE CONSTANTLY HUNTED AND HARASSED, AND NEVER ABLE TO RE-SUPPLY Mark: FABIUS’ STRATEGIES WERE NOT ONLY GOOD, THEY WERE EXACTLY THE STRATEGY THAT ROME NEEDED TO STOP A MAN LIKE HANNIBAL, WHOSE WHOLE TACTICAL AND STRATEGIC VISION WAS BASED ON FIGHTING BATTLES TO HAVE A STRATEGY THAT’S BATTLE-CENTRIC, YOU HAVE TO HAVE AN ENEMY WHO OBLIGES BY REFUSING TO GIVE BATTLE, FABIUS DENIED HANNIBAL TO FIGHT THE WAR THAT HE WANTED TO FIGHT Richard: THIS IS A STRATEGY THAT WOULD WORK, BUT THE PROBLEM IS LIKE ALL STRATEGY, IT DEPENDS ON POLITICAL WILL DEPENDS ON THE POLITICAL WILL OF THE SENATE TO ESSENTIALLY CONTINUE THE FABIAN STRATEGY PERHAPS FOR THREE, FOUR, FIVE YEARS WELL, WHAT HAPPENS IS, THIS IS NOT THE ROMAN WAY narrator: DESPITE THE STRATEGY’S SUCCESS SO FAR, THE IMPATIENT ROMAN SENATE FORCES FABIUS TO RESIGN AFTER SIX MONTHS THEY RETURN TO THEIR MORE TYPICAL MODE OF GOVERNMENT, WITH THE ELECTION OF TWO CIVILIAN CO-CONSULS PAULLUS AND VARRO ARE CHOSEN AND DIRECTED TO DEFEAT HANNIBAL AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE VARRO WANTS TO FIGHT HANNIBAL IN AN ALL-OUT WAR PAULLUS, HOWEVER, DOES NOT WANT TO BE LURED INTO BATTLE Mark: THIS IS PROBLEMATIC, BECAUSE THERE’S A COMBINATION OF TWO ROMAN ARMIES TWO CO-CONSULS, PAULLUS AND VARRO TRADE OFF COMMAND EVERY OTHER DAY IT MAY SOUND INSANE, BUT ONE DAY PAULLUS WAS THE SUPREME COMMANDER, THE NEXT DAY, VARRO HANNIBAL’S WELL AWARE OF THIS, AND KNOWS WHO HE’D RATHER FIGHT narrator: HANNIBAL’S STRENGTH IS IN FACE-TO-FACE COMBAT, AND HE WANTS TO FIGHT VARRO’S WAR HANNIBAL GATHERS HIS INTELLIGENCE, LIES IN WAIT, THEN SENDS IN A STRIKE TEAM JUST AS VARRO TAKES COMMAND ON CUE, VARRO ROARS INTO ACTION AND SENDS A FIGHTING FORCE TO MEET HANNIBAL NEAR CANNAE, ITALY VARRO’S COLOSSAL ARMY IS MADE UP OF MORE THAN 80,000 ROMAN AND ALLIED FOOT SOLDIERS AND 6,000 CAVALRY IT IS THE MOST MASSIVE ROMAN FIGHTING FORCE EVER TO TAKE THE FIELD AT ONE TIME VARRO ARRANGES HIS SOLDIERS IN A TYPICAL ROMAN MANIPLE FORMATION, BUT ADDS A NEW TWIST TO THE OLD FORMULA Richard: WHAT THEY DO IS THEY PACK THEMSELVES A LITTLE TIGHTER THAN BEFORE, SO THAT THE FRONT IS SHORTER, BUT THE DEPTH IS THICKER narrator: ONLY 300 FEET AWAY, HANNIBAL DEPLOYS HIS OWN INFANTRY FORCE OF 35,000 BUT IN A UNIQUE CONFIGURATION NEVER BEFORE USED ON ANY WESTERN BATTLEFIELD Richard: NORMALLY, AN INFANTRY LINE WOULD BE DEPLOYED STRAIGHT HE DEPLOYS IT IN A CONCAVE BOW, WITH THE BELLY OF THE BOW FACING CLOSEST TO THE ROMAN LINES IN A KIND OF SEMICIRCLE narrator: HANNIBAL HIMSELF LEADS THE INFANTRY FORCE FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE LINE THE BATTLE OF ANNIHILATION BEGINS ( man yelling ) ( all roaring ) narrator: THE INFANTRY BATTLE

IS FIERCE BUT IT’S THE CARTHAGINIAN CAVALRY THAT SCORES THE FIRST PUNISHING BLOW Richard: HEAVY CAVALRY SMASHES INTO THE ROMAN CAVALRY WITH SUCH INCREDIBLE FORCE THAT IT SHATTERS IT I MEAN, BETWEEN THE DEAD AND THE WOUNDED AND THE DEAD HORSES, THE REST JUST TAKE FLIGHT narrator: TRYING TO OUTRUN THIS TIDAL WAVE OF DEATH, THE ROMANS ARE CHOPPED DOWN FULL STRIDE IT IS THE BEGINNING OF ONE OF THE GREATEST BATTLES OF ALL TIME narrator: IT’S THE SECOND PUNIC WAR BETWEEN CARTHAGE AND ROME TWO GREAT ARMIES SLAUGHTER EACH OTHER ON THE PLAINS OF CANNAE, BATTLING OVER WHO WILL CONTROL THE ENTIRE MEDITERRANEAN REGION HANNIBAL HAS CONFIGURED HIS ARMY IN A UNIQUE SEMICIRCLE ON THE FLANKS, THE CARTHAGINIAN CAVALRY COMMANDER DETACHES PART OF HIS FORCE TO HELP THE NUMIDIAN LIGHT CAVALRY ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE BATTLEFIELD David: WITH A NEARLY FOUR-TO-ONE ADVANTAGE, THE CARTHAGINIAN CAVALRY MAKES SHORT WORK OF THE ROMAN CAVALRY ON– AT THE FLANKS narrator: IN THE CENTER, THE ROMAN INFANTRY DRIVES HANNIBAL BACK, BUT IT’S A RUSE HANNIBAL IS GIVING GROUND ON PURPOSE David: AND THIS IS WHY HANNIBAL ORIGINALLY ASSEMBLED HIS MEN IN A SEMICIRCLE HE KNEW THAT THE CENTER WOULD GIVE GROUND, AND HE KNEW HIS FLANKS WOULD HOLD SLOWLY, THE CENTER COLLAPSES, AND THE ROMANS WOULD THINK THEY’RE WINNING, AND COMMIT MORE TROOPS IN THE CENTER narrator: THE ORIGINAL BOW SHAPE OF THE CARTHAGINIAN LINE NOW RESEMBLES A “V.” Mark: AS HANNIBAL’S INFANTRY FLEXES INWARD, THE ROMAN UNITS ARE DRAWN DEEPER AND DEEPER INTO A “V”-SHAPED LINE AND AS THEY GO FURTHER, THEY GET COMPLETELY PACKED TOGETHER narrator: PRESSED INTO THIS “V,” THE ROMAN INFANTRY CAN ONLY MOVE IN ONE DIRECTION: STRAIGHT AHEAD Richard: LIVY, ONE OF THE ROMAN HISTORIANS, TELLS US THE PRESSURE WAS SO GREAT THAT ROMAN SOLDIERS’ ARMS WERE FORCED AGAINST THEIR BODIES THEY COULD NOT LIFT THEIR SWORDS narrator: ON HANNIBAL’S SIGNAL, THE AFRICAN PHALANXES TURN IN TOWARD THE MIDDLE AND CRUSH THE ROMANS FROM THE SIDES HANNIBAL BLOCKS IN FRONT THE AFRICAN INFANTRY SQUEEZES THE SIDE HANNIBAL’S OLDER BROTHER, HASDRUBAL, USES CAVALRY TO SLASH FROM BEHIND THE ROMANS ARE JAMMED INTO A KILL BOX Richard: HASDRUBAL THE BRILLIANT NOW RIDES AROUND IN BACK OF THE ROMANS, HITS THEM IN THE REAR THIS IS A FAMOUS DOUBLE ENVELOPMENT IT HAD NEVER BEEN DONE IN THE HISTORY OF WARFARE BEFORE, NEVER AND IT’S A BRILLIANT MANEUVER David: WHAT HANNIBAL REALIZED IS THAT WHILE THE ROMAN ARMY IS NEARLY UNSTOPPABLE AS IT ATTACKS STRAIGHT AHEAD, ITS MANIPLES CAN ONLY MOVE FORWARD AND BACK THEY CANNOT TURN, AND THEY CANNOT ENVELOP AND IF YOU KNOW EXACTLY HOW YOUR ENEMY IS GOING TO FIGHT, IT’S NOT THAT HARD TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO DEFEAT IT narrator: BY THE TIME THE SUN SETS, HANNIBAL HAS SLAUGHTERED AN UNBELIEVABLE NUMBER OF ROMANS ( Hannibal yelling ) Richard: THE BATTLE OF CANNAE

WAS SO FULL OF DEATH THAT IT GAVE RISE TO A NEW TERM IN MILITARY TERMINOLOGY IT’S CALLED “THE BATTLE OF ANNIHILATION.” THE BATTLE OF ANNIHILATION THE ENEMY WASN’T DEFEATED, IT WAS ANNIHILATED narrator: CANNAE RANKS AS ONE OF THE DEADLIEST AND MOST BRUTAL BATTLES IN HISTORY MORE THAN 70,000 ROMANS ARE BUTCHERED IN A SINGLE DAY Richard: 70,000 DEAD, KILLED IN AN AREA ONLY TWICE THE SIZE OF CENTRAL PARK ASK YOURSELF– THIS IS AN AGE BEFORE MECHANICAL WEAPONS HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO KILL 70,000 HUMAN BEINGS WITH SWORDS AND SPEARS, ONE AT A TIME ? THE ANSWER SEEMS TO BE ABOUT SIX HOURS narrator: HANNIBAL IS ON THE VERGE OF REALIZING HIS DREAM OF ROME’S DESTRUCTION BUT THE VICTORY AT CANNAE WILL ACTUALLY MARK THE END OF HANNIBAL’S MILITARY SUCCESS ON THE ITALIAN PENINSULA Mark: AFTER THE BATTLE, THE COMMANDER OF THE NUMIDIAN CAVALRY, MAHARBAL, URGES HANNIBAL TO MARCH IMMEDIATELY ON ROME BUT HANNIBAL REFUSES THIS LEADS MAHARBAL TO EXCLAIM, “HANNIBAL, “YOU KNOW HOW TO CONQUER, “BUT YOU DO NOT KNOW HOW TO USE YOUR VICTORIES.” narrator: HANNIBAL MIGHT BELIEVE THAT ROME WILL FINALLY BOW BEFORE HIM, AND SURRENDER AFTER THEIR DEVASTATING DEFEAT Matthew: OR MAYBE HE REALIZES A SIEGE OF ROME WILL BE IMPOSSIBLE TO MAINTAIN WITHOUT REINFORCEMENTS AND SUPPLIES CANNAE IS ABOUT 260 MILES AWAY FROM ROME, SO HE GETS CLOSE, BUT NOT CLOSE ENOUGH narrator: WHATEVER THE REASON, THE DESTRUCTION AT CANNAE IS THE CLOSEST HANNIBAL EVER GETS TO FULFILLING THE BLOOD OATH OF REVENGE HE MADE TO HIS FATHER David: HANNIBAL DOES TRY TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE DEAL WITH THE ROMANS AFTER CANNAE, BUT THE ROMANS REFUSE IN FACT, THE ROMANS ACTUALLY OUTLAW THE WORD “PEACE.” NO CITIZEN COULD EVER CONSIDER IT OUT LOUD narrator: ULTIMATELY, THE ROMANS DECIDE TO RETURN TO THE FABIAN STRATEGY OF CONTAINMENT INSTEAD OF TRYING TO BEAT HANNIBAL ON THE BATTLEFIELD, THEY WILL TRY TO OUTLAST HIM Mark: THINK ABOUT THIS FOR A MINUTE: ROME, WITH ALL THEIR IMPERIAL, DESTRUCTIVE WAYS SAYS, “YOU KNOW WHAT ? “WE CAN’T BEAT THIS GUY “WE CAN ONLY HARASS HIM, WE CAN ONLY CONTAIN HIM.” David: HANNIBAL IS ABLE TO GET MANY OF THE SOUTHERN ITALIAN TOWNS TO DEFECT TO HIM, SO HE WAS ABLE TO LIVE OFF THE LAND BUT TRY AS HE MIGHT, HE COULD NEVER FULFILL HIS OATH TO HIS FATHER HE NEVER BURNS ROME TO THE GROUND narrator: FOR ALL HIS TRIUMPHS ON THE BATTLEFIELD, HANNIBAL’S CAMPAIGN MUST BE SEEN AS A FAILURE HE EVENTUALLY ABANDONS HIS QUEST TO DESTROY ROME AND SAILS BACK TO CARTHAGE Mark: IF YOU WANNA THINK ABOUT A MORE MODERN EXAMPLE, YOU COULD LOOK AT ROBERT E. LEE DURING THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, LEE WON NEARLY EVERY ONE OF HIS BATTLES, BUT ULTIMATELY LOST THE WAR Richard: NO MATTER HOW MANY BATTLES YOU WIN, THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF A BATTLE IS A MEANS TO AN END, TO WIN THE WAR STRATEGICALLY FROM THAT PERSPECTIVE, HANNIBAL’S CAMPAIGNS WERE A FAILURE THE INDIVIDUAL BATTLES WERE VICTORIOUS, BUT THE STRATEGY OF BRINGING ROME TO HEEL AND MAKING IT SIGN A PEACE TREATY FAILED YOU DON’T GET ANY POINTS IN WARFARE FOR TRYING narrator: THE GREATEST IRONY OF HANNIBAL’S INVASION IS THAT IT SETS IN MOTION THE EVENTS THAT WILL TURN THE REPUBLIC OF ROME INTO AN EMPIRE THAT WILL CONQUER THE ANCIENT WORLD Richard: HAD THERE BEEN NO HANNIBAL, HAD THERE BEEN NO SECOND PUNIC WAR THERE’S NO REASON TO SUSPECT THAT ROME WOULD EVER HAVE EXPANDED TO THE DEGREE THAT IT DID narrator: HANNIBAL’S TACTICS AND STEALTH, HIS BLOODLUST AND DETERMINATION, HIS SAVAGERY AND GENIUS, ARE ALL TAUGHT TO MODERN MILITARY COMMANDERS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD BUT THE GREATEST LESSON MIGHT BE THAT WHILE HANNIBAL COULD ANNIHILATE THE ARMIES OF ROME, HE COULD NOT ULTIMATELY DESTROY ROME