Jean Rondeau Conversation

>> Anne McLean: Thank you so much for coming We’re delighted to present Jean Rondeau today here at the Library It’s very exciting to have you here Welcome >> Jean Rondeau: Thank you very much >> Anne McLean: I’m Anne McLean from the music division, and this is my colleague, David Plylar And I wanted to say that we don’t usually double-team artists like this, but Dave’s voice is disappearing, so I’m just here as a relief pitcher in case Jean, you’ve brought an elegant and thoughtful program of Bach and Scarlatti today, with the title “Italian Recycling,” and I know that you’ve said that creating a program is something you enjoy very much And I wanted to ask you to talk about how you go about creating such a program as this >> Jean Rondeau: Hi Hello, everyone So the program is — for me to create a program is to create a musical form Like, of course, we have to settle the pieces together, in terms of styles and energy, but also to feel what it could make to the audience to — you know, to play through pieces like this Also, we have to take care of the keys, different keys, tonality, and yeah, for me, like, it’s a — like, one program should be like one big piece, in a way Even, like — there is, like, reds and blues, or whatever, but it’s — like, inside one piece sometimes there is silence, or breathing, and so a program would — should be like this, like a journey, like a story, a storytelling in a way >> David Plylar: One question I have for you — I don’t know if you can hear me, but when you’re coming up with these programs, do you think of sort of thematic links between them? Because I — as I’m listening to you playing, I hear things, like at the — with the Marcello, with the central movement of the Italian concerto having a certain match to them, in terms of feel And I don’t know how far into the weeds you might want to get with that, but is that just something that is also a thought about motific and thematic material, and how those might be related across? >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, sure Like, that’s a question of the style, and, like, the idea of the program Like, you came here to listen to harpsichord, and, like, 18th-century music, and maybe to create bridges between the composers, like between, for example, Bach and Italian music And because of all this Marcello concerto, which has been written by Marcello, but, like, Bach worked on those kind of concerto to get inside the Italian style, and to try to — yeah, to understand the style from inside And — but also, Bach is kind of an outsider, like in a way is writing not like a very new music, and he’s not traveling as much as other composer from that time, like Handel or Telemann And Scarlatti also is an outsider by his own — like, getting — like, not traveling a lot, neither — like, he — like, from Italy to Portugal and Spain of course, but staying with the court, and being, like, quite alone in his production, in his music, and in his style And so, I mean, like, the music of Bach and music of Scarlatti is very, very different in the style, but still, I like the — to associate them by their unique way of writing music, and the unique approach also of the keyboard And sometimes, also, it’s great to just create links by ourselves, and how we feel also >> David Plylar: You — in general, I think, you have a very adventurous approach to both the music-making and the selection of repertoire, and the Scarlatti, I think, in particular —

I don’t know how many people in the audience have had a chance to listen to this music And also, you have a new CD that’s — that features a selection of 15, I think, Scarlatti sonatas out of 550-plus There’s something about this time period, and also in the French repertoire that you also record with Rameau and Royer, and — that’s so dramatic harmonically and stuff And I’m wondering if you could say a bit about the Scarlatti, because some of these pieces are famous for their dissonances, and the clusters, and the types of effects that are quite different when heard on a piano, but kind of really come to life when heard by a harpsichord >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, so as you said, like, Scarlatti wrote a lot of sonatas, and he had access with — with different instruments, harpsichords, different harpsichords, but also, he knew the piano and the organ So, like, the Scarlatti sonatas are mainly written for the harpsichord, but some of the sonatas could really fit really well for the piano also When I say piano, it’s piano of his time, of course, and also there is a few sonatas dedicated to organ But, like, what you said about this — like, he used a special technique of — way of actually — like, in harpsichord, you do a lot of arpeggio Like, it’s a way of expression, but somehow, he is also sometimes using apogeteur [phonetic] and real note in the same time So it creates this — what you were talking about, like this really dissonances And it comes, I think, more from the guitar, when, like, a guitar player would, like, pluck all the strings together, even, like, there is aprogeteuras [phonetic] And it’s called in Italian [foreign language], and, yeah, it creates something really dramatic And — but what I find the most really surprising in the harmonical journey of Scarlatti music, Scarlatti sonatas is, somehow, he made some harmonical progressions than no one have ever made before him, and actually after him, too Like, he’s really unique in the musical form, plus inside the harmonical progressions Sometimes, I don’t know if you are a bit familiar with the degrees, like in music, like your — like the degrees is what is the equivalent of the architecture of the music And it’s — the — all, like — it creates the story, even it’s not really a — it’s a bit heathen You know, it’s technical, but, like, sometimes, Scarlatti goes from one degree to another, and you never find that in any music except for example like pop music from the ’60s, or more new music But, like, it’s very unique, and he has been the first to do certain musical drawing And, yeah — and never before — before — my English is — you know, I have to — I’m not English native speaker [laughter] >> Anne McLean: I read that he — Scarlatti had been using elements of even street music — of street music, folk elements and so on >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, exactly Like, he was really inspired by the pop — what we call popular music, like the music he could find around him, you know, and in particular in — yeah, in Portugal, but in Spain, south of Spain He has been, like, to Andalusia, and Seville, and we know that there were a lot of musicians — street, and in particular, like, guitar player who were, like, playing guitar and singing in the same time And there is a lot of sonatas, like this — like when — on the left hand, I play, like, chords, a bit like the chords from the guitar, and the right hand is doing the melody, a bit like the singing

And it’s quite obvious also — like, it’s funny, because the left hand with the chords does not really respect the harmonical rules of keyboard in general Like, you can — it’s weird to do that, you know And I think it’s because the guitar has not the same pattern of association of note because of the tuning, like because of the — yeah, the tuning of the strings And so, we can really feel that Like, actually, from historical point of view, like, the music seen from the street, but also inside the music, you can really feel this connection And so, I will play the sonata 208 in A major, and as typical, you will — you might heard that it’s typically this chord on the left hand, and melody like making think of the guitar and street musicians, indeed >> David Plylar: One thing that’s interesting to kind of compare, then, is if he’s — if he has some of these folk influences, is that with his — writing these presumably for the — eventually the Queen of Spain, and the context in which they’re being presented It’s just a — it’s kind of a striking contrast, but I wonder — I know that he — the first batch was published in 1738 or something as the exercises But were there — what sort of a broader influence do you feel like that his music might have had at the time, in terms of keyboard music with other composers, or do you feel like it took a while, because most of it wasn’t published until later? >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, it’s difficult to know exactly how much the composer after Scarlatti knows — knew his music, actually We can feel connection somehow with the music after him, in the style, but it doesn’t mean that the composers knew his music really well So it’s kind of difficult to precisely know about that, but I think it’s very — like a precursor, precursor in this — in the style we will find more in the second half of the 18th century But also what is interesting also is that all those sonatas he wrote was mainly dedicated to his only pupil, the Queen Maria Barbara, and it’s like exercises And you — we can see and feel all the different even technical approach, technical aspects on the keyboard Like, it’s — he’s exploring a lot also to make her practicing, and I think it’s great impression, like you have more than 550 sonatas with almost the same musical form in two parts And inside those really repetitive form, you have, like, so many ideas, really imaginative way of writing music, and yeah, I think it was really in order for his pupil to practice, to explore the keyboards, and et cetera So I really like the idea of the sonatas as exercises, like how was called the first publication It was exercises Like, then it was also published as sonatas, but I like the idea of exercises, like — a bit like Bach also Like, when he wrote the — what he called Clavier-Ubung, ubung mean exercise And I find really moving to always remind that all the Scarlatti sonatas, like also the — clavier and the Goldberg, are exercises >> David Plylar: That’s a really good point to make, too, is it’s not just — you don’t’ just mean technical exercises, but also musical ones Because, I mean, if we’re looking back at Scarlatti, there’s so many that are just musically rich, and not necessarily as technically demanding, but then there’s — at the other extreme, there’s ones that are — require extreme virtuosity >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, and also — yeah, among the technical aspect, there is, like, for me — what I really like is maybe the position composer like Bach or Scarlatti could have with their own works Like, for example, the composer today would be more,

“It’s mine.” You know, what he wrote, what he writes is — belongs to himself I think I like — I really like the idea in general that the music doesn’t belong to anyone, even when you compose it Like — and as exercises, I think about that a lot, like the very humble position they could have with their own music, too >> David Plylar: You know, maybe flipping that around a little bit, in a sense, when we go back to the Marcello, that’s — that comes from a time, I think — correct me if I’m wrong, but I think Bach was in Weimart at the time, doing his — where he took these Italian concerti and did these transcriptions for keyboard And it’s almost like a practice for him as a composer, as — and so, that — it strikes me that that’s something there And again, kind of not — just not taking orders He acknowledges, sometimes incorrectly, I guess — but he acknowledges who the original composer was, but that’s an interesting thing there And it’s also a factor that comes into play with the rest of your program as well, with this notion of transcription And I’m wondering if you can — you know, it’s one thing in the case of the Marcello, where you have a written-out version, but in the case of the Chaconne, it’s kind of been mediated through Brahms and through others to go from solo violin to keyboard And so, I’m — and I’ve heard your recording, which is great You — on your “Imagine” CD, I think Maybe you could talk a bit about that process of making it work that is so associated with that solo violin, and then making it successful on the harpsichord >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, actually, also, like, Bach loved to — recycled his own music, and also he liked to do himself transcription of his own music, like, from one cantata to one — to one concerto, et cetera So I think it’s also raised the question of the position within his music And for the Chaconne, he wrote the Chaconne for the violin, of course It’s the only Chaconne Bach wrote, and actually — so it’s more also personal connection I have with this piece, that the first time I heard this piece was on the harpsichord And I really loved it, and yeah, I like also — the first time I heard it was also this transcription I like it very much, because Brahms wrote — so this transcription for the piano, for the left hand only, in order that the player can — could feel the same sensation of difficulty than violins could feel And I think he wrote that in a letter to Clara Schmann, and so, as it’s only for one hand for the piano, we are very close by the original text, actually Like, in the transcription, he wrote dynamics and stuff for the piano more — the transcription on the piano is more about the left hand, and also all the expression and dynamics writing on the score So on the harpsichord, it’s like even the transcription of the transcription, because I’m playing it with two hands, because there is no — pedal on the harpsichord So if I play it just with one hand, we’ll lose a lot of the harmonical journey, and resonances, and stuff But — so in the harpsichord, you are in the low-medium register, which is very charming, and it’s very simple Like, sometimes, just like mono D, sometimes there is chords, but I like because there is — the connection is very much with the original music And, yeah >> David Plylar: You know, when — like, if you look at the other extreme, if you look at the Busoni transcription for piano, that’s an adaptation that works, you know, at — one has opinions about these things But it’s definitely been adapted to work really well for the piano, and it feels like that going through the Brahms, and the decisions there The types of arpeggiations he makes works for the harpsichord, but what also works for it are the types

of considerations you give it with ornamentation and other things like that, that just make it feel at home, at least in the recordings I’ve heard One thing we haven’t talked about is the Italian concerto, and do you want to say anything about that related to his Italian transcriptions, or just about the piece in general? >> Jean Rondeau: I think he wrote like he was really inspired by all the work — all the works he did with all these Italian concerto by Vivaldi, Marcello, et cetera, on which he did, like, a transcription Maybe it gives — it gave him the idea of — like an Italian concerto in that way, that from those transcription for keyboard, this idea to write concerto for keyboard So it’s not really a concerto, but it’s from that dynamic he created with his works with this music And so, it’s a really typical three movements Italian concerto, and he’s playing a lot with the different keyboards on the harpsichord, and the way of expression of the harpsichord to create a lot of different colors, and also to create the sensation of tutti and solo It’s quite clear when you hear this piece that a — like, with the music itself, but also with the play of the two manuals of the harpsichord, that, like, there is, like, a really concrete part of solo and tutti So it’s kind of crazy piece, because you are alone, and playing a concerto, but for — just for one instrument, but inside, you can hear a lot of different instruments Like, in a way, sometimes there is, like, bass line, which remind us of cellos There is, like, a solo line on the right hand, could remind us of the violin, et cetera And sometimes there’s like a sensation of orchestra So it’s great >> David Plylar: The — yeah, I mean, it’s a great piece Everybody — it’s hard to look at a piece by Bach and not say it’s a great piece, but it’s paired with — I think it was the French overture, or the — a very large work And I’m wondering if you could say a few things just about this — something that doesn’t seem quite as pertinent today as maybe it once was, but the nationality effect on, like, why Bach would write an Italian concerto and have that nationality be kind of in the forefront >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, I think the concept of nationality was very different back at the time, and also in Germany, where — like, I’m not — I’m not an historian, but still, the — Germany was divided Like, it was not a united country, like we know like today The Italy was the same, actually So, like, more the region or small area could be more — could have more this impact of nationality like in the way we hear it today And also, I think the influences of different geographic places in Europe depends a lot of how much the composer were traveling or not, how scores he could have from different countries, from different composer and stuff Because, like, today, we have the recording We have the CDs We have internet, so we are more connected to what could happen in the — like, very far from us But at that time, like, when you go to the concert, you listen to music only in live, only live music, and plus, if you don’t, like, move a lot from your place, and you don’t have access to score, you could — you — there were composer who could be very isolated And there are also other who were traveling a lot, getting access to a lot of music, and it depends Like, everything was also gravitating around the different courts in Europe, so it was also the place they could meet other composers, other musicians But, yeah, Bach and Scarlatti, as we said before, was more — like, Bach traveled also, this big traveling for meeting Buxtehude Scarlatti traveled also to follow the court — the Spanish court But in a way even, like, Bach has access

to this Italian music, and also French music, and also, like, each time he has — he had access to those music’s, he did work also on that Like, he wrote also the French Suite, and the English Suite So yeah, but — what was the question? I forgot >> David Plylar: [Laughter] No, that addressed it, I think >> Jean Rondeau: Right Anyway, so yeah, the question of how — the influence So it — it depends very much on each composer’s life, and — yeah >> Anne McLean: Speaking of influences, you’re talking about the regional and stylistic influences, and I wanted to ask you to talk a little bit about your own work today, and the influences of music you work on of such a wide variety, including jazz I know that you have an ensemble that is involved with jazz Is it Note Forget? But also, just how does it inform or affect your work in other areas? >> Jean Rondeau: Actually, my main work is concentrated on interpretation of old music, and — but I think it’s — for my point of view, I’m really interesting also in new music, like — also, because of the influences of composer from the past Because it’s quite new then we play music — like, in the 18th century, in the 19th century, we are playing always contemporary music Like 80% of the concerts was music from — like, contemporary Now, we are more into something — like to play, you know, a bit of other — Bach, so music from before, from the past And so, it’s also by the influences of this approach of the music that, like, I love to work on past music, but I think it’s also really important to stay connected from what — which music is creating now, and to — not to separate Like, just like, oh, there is music from the past, and there is music from today Like, there is a continuity also, and so, I think it’s really important to stay really aware, really curious And as I said, we have great chance to have internet and recording, so we could, you know, fulfill our curiosity And so, yeah — so I have different projects with more actual and contemporary music Even like for harpsichord sometimes I’m writing new music for harpsichord, or I’m — for example, I’m in a Baroque ensemble on historical instruments, Baroque instruments And we will do, like, next month a piece from a contemporary composer, like new music, and also have, like, different groups of music on which I’m playing piano, or keyboards, and on which we are thinking and working on new music, and also new form of music, and how we could, you know, keep doing the work All those composers has all this beautiful legacy we have to do Yeah, I think it’s important >> David Plylar: — what type of repertoire do you see yourself exploring in the coming years? Are you going to do more Scarlatti, or are you moving away from that, or in performance — >> Jean Rondeau: On the harpsichord, the repertoire for harpsichord is huge Like, it’s very, very big It’s even bigger than piano Like, it’s — let’s say, to sum up, like beginning of 16th century until the end of 18th century, so three centuries of music And it’s very prolific, and, yeah, there’s a lot of — so also, like, it’s quite difficult to — you know, to arrive at the end of something with a harpsichord repertoire Like, it’s so huge, and also, like, so different from — I don’t know, the English music of 16th century to French music of the end of 18th century Like, even the style is completely different It’s like — it’s like the difference is as huge as the difference between Mozart and Stravinsky, you know, and also, like, of the time, also Like, it’s like two centuries Like, who could separate, like, different —

and also, as we spoke about the connection between the countries, and the difficulty sometimes to getting into different music — so it’s huge, and I think I’m willing to continue to explore all this repertoire And also very important when I have a — I don’t know, an album project, I’m really focused on one composer Like, for example, for the Scarlatti, I wrote — I sight-read all the Scarlatti sonatas, you know, to choose, and then to create a program and stuff And my next project will be — like in terms of album, will be a CD with — in duo with a flute player around, like, music from Versailles composers Then I will do, like, a program with different composer of 17 — 16th and 17th century, including Froberger, Frescobaldi, and also virginalist music, like English music So yeah, I think it’s quite huge, and yeah >> David Plylar: That’s great You know, I wonder, at this point, would it be — take some audience questions? >> Jean Rondeau: Oh, yeah, sure I think it’s — yeah, because I’m speaking, but I don’t know if you are interesting in what I’m saying [laughter] So maybe the best is to answer questions, if you have questions >> David Plylar: If you could just wait until — >> Jean Rondeau: Anything except American politics [laughter] >> David Plylar: — if you could wait for the microphone to come to you — >> Jean Rondeau: Or I can repeat the question also, you know Like, you know — all right, all right >> Thank you It was very interesting to hear about it I was just wondering — I know you said there’s a lot of harpsichord music, but can you play a piece that’s written for the piano or the spinet on the harpsichord, or does it have to be modified? >> Jean Rondeau: The spinet and harpsichord is the same family of instrument The piano is very different — mechanics, the technique The way of create expression on the piano is very, very different Sometimes, you can Sometimes, you cannot Like, for example, as I spoke about Scarlatti, as he knew the piano, sometime and somehow there is sonatas could work perfectly well for piano and for harpsichord And even if it’s modern piano, like piano from today, it could work also, because it’s the same instrument It’s not the same instrument, but it’s the same original — originally, the same instrument Like, it’s called a piano, and so it’s the same approach of expression But for example, if you want to — like, there is, like, music — if you want to play in another instrument of which it has been composed, you have to do a transcription Like, for example, if I take just few examples — Couperin, Francois Couperin’s music for harpsichord has been really written for harpsichord Like, on the contrary, like Scarlatti, it could be different keyboards, but even Bach, it could be different keyboards Because Bach sometimes wrote for keyboards, and you could play something on the organ, on the harpsichord But Francois Couperin harpsichord music is very dedicated to harpsichord So if you play Francois Couperin on the piano, you can, but you have to do a transcription So you have to position yourself In a way, you have to work on how you could transform, transcribe the expression from one instrument to another So you have to ask yourself a lot of question of why you do that, and how, and et cetera You cannot just take the music and play in — playing it on the piano, just because it’s a keyboard, you know But in the same way, if you want to play, for example, like a very pianistic music — for example, Liszt, or Chopin on the harpsichord, you have to do a transcription You know, you cannot just play it like this It won’t work So I think, like, as Bach did also with his own work, with his own piece, like, to use materials from one instrumentation to another, like, I think in music everything is possible if you just ask yourself the good questions, and you add up the good position between the music and yourself >> That answered my question It’s [inaudible] — do you think Scarlatti had a lot

of influence on — >> Jean Rondeau: So the question is Scarlatti has a lot of influence on Boccherini music, and as I said previously, I don’t really know how much the composer after Scarlatti had access to his music And in particular, for Boccherini, I have not a lot of clues about that, so I could not say >> Because when I listen to, for instance, the early — well, the English transcriptions of Scarlatti’s keyboard music done by Addison — orchestral music — >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah? >> — they don’t sound like Scarlatti to me >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, yeah, true >> But Boccherini does That’s why I was wondering >> Jean Rondeau: But sometimes, you could, like, have two composers from the same period of time who could not know the music of each other, and it could — looks like very, very much the same So sometimes, it’s also more — like, I don’t really believe in — like, oh, there is one composer, and there is a major influence from just this guy You know, like, it’s — the influence is very large, and in music — but even for musician and composer, with all the component of a society, of arts, you know, architectures, the social way of doing music in a period of time, et cetera, et cetera, I think everything is an influence for composers So, like, of course, when we hear Bach music, we — and Buxtehude music, we say, “Oh, okay, it’s very much influenced by Buxtehude,” but still, it’s not only Buxtehude Like, if you just take Buxtehude and Bach, you know, Bach would not have wrote what he wrote if it was just that You know, like, there — it’s — I think it’s very much more than that And second part of the question? >> Second part — it seems to me that at the Spanish court, while Scarlatti was there, there was another musician who was a member of the court who was even more famous than Scarlatti Does anybody here have an idea who that might be? >> Jean Rondeau: Farinelli? >> Farinelli, yes And did Scarlatti ever write vocal music for him? I mean, he had — >> Jean Rondeau: Not really No, it’s — >> — greatest singer of his time >> Jean Rondeau:– yeah, like, as I said, like, in the courts, like, it was very much the place where a lot of musicians could meet, play together and stuff, but actually, Scarlatti didn’t write a lot of vocal music He did, like, a few sacred music, but it’s very — there is, like, some big mystery in Scarlatti’s life, I think Like, there is period of time we don’t even know what he was doing, or — like, it’s very dark Like — and he was described as a really also very introvert and dark person, so on the contrary of Farinelli, who was, like, the big star in Europe, in Italy, and in Spain, too But actually, it’s more — Farinelli wrote some letters about Scarlatti after that Like, oh, also, the — he wrote what is so bad, these composers, but we don’t really know how far was the musical relationship with — between the two of them We know they met, but it’s true that there is not this particular music dedicated for Farinelli, who was a star, and a connection, like, obvious between the two guys But still, also, it depends also of the person Like, Scarlatti was maybe that introvert, that he was doing his work, and, you know — like, I don’t know Like, there is big stars, singer today, and it doesn’t mean, like, everyone is writing for them, you know? >> David Plylar: One thing I think, if I — my understanding is that Farinelli’s — a lot of information about Scarlatti comes to us through those letters of Farinelli, so that’s just a — as far as, like, more personal information

So there’s not a ton of information, but — >> Jean Rondeau: Other questions? >> Yes >> In your answer to the first question up front, you said that Bach music could be played on harpsichord, or on piano or whatever Was he doing that deliberately, making it general enough to play on any keyboard instrument, and would that have added complexity to the composing? >> Jean Rondeau: Actually, he has a really specific connection with harpsichord and organ, and there is pieces like the Goldberg Variations, for instance, or even the Italian concerto, which really was written for harpsichord And there is also all the organ work when, you know, you have, like, pedal line It’s really music for organ, but sometimes, like, there is also pieces which could be in between, you know, like Fantasia, like Prelude, Fugue, from the, for example, Well-Tempered Clavier, and that’s all that those pieces could work really well — I mean, like, in term of expression Like, an instrument — the composer is trying to know and to write music in order that the instrument express the music So sometimes, Bach — we can feel that a piece could be expressed with organ or with harpsichord For the piano, it’s quite — it’s a bit different, because he met the piano at the very end of his life So it was not, like, a very — he didn’t have a very specific and particular connection with the piano But, like, it’s more the idea — I wanted to compare with Bach because of, for example, Couperin, when he said, “I am writing for harpsichord.” And sometimes Bach — there is pieces like just for keyboard, and for him, keyboard was — around him was harpsichord and organ So that’s more what I wanted to say [ Inaudible Speaker ] The piano He said the piano >> Yeah, you haven’t mentioned clavichord, but clavichord is very similar in action to piano >> Jean Rondeau: It’s true I didn’t — >> And all of those composers would have been very familiar with it >> Jean Rondeau:– yeah I think there is the same kind of relationship also with the clavichord There is some pieces who could really well fit with the clavichord, because Bach knew the clavichord He has clavichord — but also, like you said, spinet, you know, virginal — like, there is, like, different also name for different harpsichord Clavichord, it’s true, is — we have to be careful It’s the ancestor of the piano, and not of the harpsichord Because the string on the clavichord are hammered, and, like, strike — I don’t know how to say it — instead of plucked Yeah, other questions? Yeah? >> Can I take you back to your other musical interests? Some would say that the world of jazz is a very different world of music from that which you’re here to play today I wonder whether you could say also a little bit about why your interest in jazz is as it is I’m guess that you might actually see a relationship between the two musical worlds, but I shouldn’t presume your answer And secondly, of the jazz tradition, contemporary jazz pianists today, are there any musicians that you’re particularly influenced by, or you have an admiration for? >> Jean Rondeau: Actually, I am not sure of seeing the music as a very linear — as, you know, connection of time, you know Like — and I’m not particular interest in jazz I think I’m really interesting in — interested in music, and I really want to explore every different styles, every background of music There is a lot of music, but still, like, I think in every music, in every music’s, there is music Like, and actually, for the jazz part, it’s a bit particular What I’m particularly into is to compose music, to write music, or to listen to new music, as we said before

Jazz, at first, was a dynamic, was a — maybe a state of mind of being able to flexible the style, to write music, to write new music Like, if you take, for example, the life of Miles Davis, like, he — like, every year, he was doing another style of music, because he was using the music of his time And we said it’s a jazz musician So jazz, I’m not sure about jazz as a style of music, and like today, for example, when there is jazz musicians who are playing be-bop music, they are doing the same than when I’m playing Bach music Because they play music from an old period of time So what I like in this jazz approach, jazz mind, is, like, to always be curious, and to always fit in the style, and in the music of your time, which is now a bit delicate Because we don’t feel and see the jazz like this So I’m not sure about, like, using this word jazz, you know But I’m just, like, really curious about every music’s I’m too much in love with the music to say, “Oh, no, I don’t like this I don’t like this,” you know Like, for me, like, when I say I don’t like this or I don’t like this, I’m saying, “Okay, I’m liking you a bit less, music I’m liking you a bit less, music,” et cetera Because as I — I really feel that there is music inside every musics I could not say, “Oh, yeah, that is good This is bad.” Like, I am — I really — my work is to take care of my love for the music, I think, and the more I say, “Oh, no, Handel — no, I don’t like Handel,” or — yes, there is people like this, who love music, but no The — Stravinsky is not my thing Like, I could not really — I think we should be very humble also with that Sometimes we say we don’t like It’s just like — it’s not maybe the good moment, and we should wait, or we should try to understand why So yeah, and the influence — like, of course, the music has influenced — like, influence each other, like different styles and stuff Yeah. No, there is questions [laughter] What time is it? >> Anne McLean: Just one more question >> Jean Rondeau: One more? Two more. Two more [laughter] >> I’m interested in knowing if you also perform on fortepiano, and the rest of this question is, do you find music of the classical period suitable to play on the harpsichord — Mozart and Haydn? >> Jean Rondeau: Yeah, Mozart and Haydn wrote for harpsichord, and wrote — it was the same — wrote also for keyboard And somehow, at this period of time where the piano was — were emerging, sometimes you had, like, instrument — like, just, like, by watching, you could not say if it was harpsichord or piano, you know And sometimes, there is also instrument which were harpsichord, and they use the box of the harpsichord, and change the mechanic, and did piano, and also the other way Like, it was very fluent [foreign language] between harpsichord and the piano in this period of time, like in the second half of 18th century, and we can feel in — also in the evolution itself of Mozart music, or Haydn music, like a — all right, we are playing more with the way of expression in the piano and stuff But I think there is, like, a lot of pieces that could work on the harpsichord, and also, like, in a very young age, for example, Haydn or Mozart also when they were — it depends what they have, you know, like, at home And somehow, like, if they have a harpsichord, and they were writing for keyboard, and the keyboard there was a harpsichord — it was like at the same maybe position with the keyboard in general But little by little, like, the piano had more influence on the composer, and the harpsichord was getting more, you know, away, getting away And that’s why, for example, in 19th century music,

the harpsichord was almost completely gone from musical stage, because also the piano evolved a lot Like, the harpsichord evolved also very, very much for three centuries Like, you can find, like, even — like, if you go in the museum, or you can — like, watching — like, the thousand of different models of harpsichord, and different shapes, and sounds, and stuff And the piano had this new — also this [foreign language] of making, like, in 19th century, and also, like, it getting also bigger and bigger, and the sound was bigger and bigger So the concert hall was bigger and bigger, and the harpsichord has a very intimate sound So the harpsichord could not fit in those halls, concert halls we were creating among a lot of different other factors of the desperation, like the — of the harpsichord Last one question, maybe? >> I was wondering whether you bring your own harpsichord with you, or play something from local sources, and if it — especially if it’s your own, is there anything really noteworthy about the particular harpsichord? >> Jean Rondeau: So I am playing everywhere on the planet Imagine — imagine if I would have to take my harpsichord in the plane [laughter] So — but I wish I could, you know, like, just — I’m sometimes very jealous of other musicians who has their own instrument So they practice what they want to do in concert, like, on their own instrument, and then they play on their own instruments So it’s a very difficult aspect of harpsichord players to be able to change instrument all the time So there is very positive aspect Sometimes you just meet very great instruments, and also, the instruments could really influence you, like in the present time of the concert, of — you have to be very aware and careful of the sound of the — everything So it’s — in a way, it’s very difficult, but there is also very — lot of positive aspects, and for example, also when I come back to a place I have already played in, and I started to know the instruments around, I can also decide — oh, I think this instrument would be better, because I know it, and also for the repertoire So for example, the instrument from tonight, I played it already once or twice in Washington So — but I don’t play it every day, you know So it’s — and I like it very much And so, it’s a — it’s tricky [laughter] And sometimes, it’s very, very, very frustrating [laughter] And sometimes, you have very, very great surprise So it’s very challenging, in a way All right, thank you very much [ Applause ]