Scottish Plant Lore: an illustrated flora with Dr Gregory J. Kenicer

my name is Kenny Redpath and I’m the events officer at the library it is my pleasure this evening to introduce Gregory G canister who is here to talk about his new book Scottish part plant Laura an illustrated flora of the cancer is a botanist admira’s Royal Botanic Garden his PhD looted DNA diversity and evolution of pulses after its completion he returned to Edinburgh and joined the Royal Botanic Gardens thriving education department who is what ever since I think we’re in for a real treat tonight and Justin naught to see Greg will try and answer as many questions as he can after the event so get thinking but for now hopefully what what do you drink I mean many things can you hear me okay as is yes yep great stuff thanks very much well it’s a great pleasure to be talking to everybody here and we’ll see if we can get our presentation up and this will behave itself this is all fairly new technology but stuff that we’ll all have to get used to it in the coming months cereal okay so hopefully that’s everybody able to see em what we’re looking at today this is the brick we produced down at the garden Scottish plant war an illustrated flora which was an absolute pleasure to work on and it’s one that as the name suggests roots at the floor of Scotland and just investigates lots of that really fascinating war and that’s what we can’t know is some of the very interesting ways in which people have used plants and interpreted plant over the years in this quite interest in the country excuse me that they’re hearing itself so just to put things into context when we look at em plants and plant diversity and particularly how people use plants the way that we use plants it’s not a static thing it’s a very very dynamic thing and if you look at this little corner up here of Europe that is Scotland the influence is that there have been in terms of cultural influences are enormous and thats things coming in from many many different parts of europe and of course there were recent times the way your world as well so right from about em something like nine thousand eight thousand years ago we had a hunter-gatherer societies in scotland and they of course made a huge amount of use of the plants that were there then we had agriculture coming in with a very different way in it i could have quite innovative way of using plants then successive waves of different groups of people traders and everybody all bringing in these quite wonderful ideas in many cases they weren’t just being ideas about how to use plants but also the plants themselves and this is a couple of them and i just kind of include these because the book itself mostly looks at native plants it was part of our a project where we were looking at the native plants of lots of different countries and amazing botanico illustrators for each of the different countries that was involved in this big project we’d illustrate these native plants and what a native plant is is a plant that naturally got to a particular area so in scotland for example we have a relatively limited flora of just over they’re so native plants but things like these to hear a great example of non-native plants these were ones that were in these cases intentionally brought in by humans we have on the right hand side here ego podium poor agraria that has lots and lots of different names and you might if you live in Britain in Northern Europe you might have this in your garden and if you do you probably curse it a bit because it’s a really quite invasive weed but we think it was originally brought to Scotland from continental Europe by monastic communities because it was a quite important medicinal herb this is often called Bishop wheat or goat weed and that’s thought to be because the bishops from the monastic communities we’re supposed to be the people that often got goat allegedly they would drink lots of why even that would give them this quite in full condition and causing swelling of the legs the treatment that you would use for that was this thing here bishop wheat or gobi also known as ground elder so an interesting plant really useful in the past it makes a really interesting kind of like spinach like vegetable as well so foragers will often take this but you’ve got to be supremely careful because it looks like quite a lot of tend to be toxic plants on the left-hand side here we’ve got sweet Cicely this is

Marissa Hirata another plant was introduced probably by monastic communities but possibly and this is wonderful this has got a roots of soft wheat and a really nice pleasant fragrance to it as well a slight aniseed smell to it and you can use the the leaves in cooking and that’s probably what people did for sweetening things up as well giving flavor and medicinally to but one of its big uses was in medieval times taking these leaves and just throwing them on the ground it was what’s called a strewing harab so people would throw the leaves on on the the floor of their house in which they lived and they might well live with large families and sometimes even with livestock in the same house so it could have got quite smelly in that house and the idea behind the string here of like sweet Cicely was to mean that when you walked over the you get this lovely fragrance and that would hopefully get rid of the smell of unwashed bodies so there’s a lots of wonderful plants that be brought in and have become part of our native flora but let’s turn to the other plants that the native ones as well and some of the people who we find out that knowledge from because we are very lucky we did have people like Robert Sippel tissue in here and Martin Martin later on James Robertson and John White food and all of whom were botanists or physicians as well so doctors and they collected a whole host of really interesting snippets and stories now it never gives you the full picture of exactly how people were using things but it means we do have a really rich written history that’s been brought down in parallel to that we’ve also got a really interesting oral history as well and that was was collected by people like Alexander Carmichael who was a Gallic speaking tax collector and but he also in the way and of 1918 hundreds he collected a whole host of really interesting stories and freezes and sayings and created them together into a group called communica Delica and that’s really fascinating Lukas but lots of different aspects of rural life and in particular in the Gallic speaking areas and lots of little snippets of war in there so these were the kind of places we return to to find out our information and a lot of that’s readily available online and then we’ve got a lot more contemporary writers as well so people like merely beef and lots on again the Gallic speaking parts of Thornton but if you would compare our medicine and medicinal aspects of plant and similar to an Barker and then William Milliken and Sam Bridgewater and taste Garvin I’ve written on quite quick weight aspects as well we’re also really lucky because there’s a lot of linguistic studies and dictionaries and that we could plant names in particular know I might tend to use em the Latin names for things I’ll try and give English names as well I’ve been conditioned over many years to try and use that means and but that’s just part of the story cuz one of the beautiful things about plants of course is that everybody gives them different names when you were a child as as bait many of us we’d have had our own kind of pet names for particular plants that you knew you could pop the head off or em you could not that classic one that you could stick on to other people that’s one a plant that we have here if they often called sticky Willy or sticky will they’re kind of one of its common names and but there are some others as well so one of the bits that we did for this MOOC was to try and create together a host of different plant names from across Gallic goats and English in Scotland and even though we have quite a small flora there are almost 10,000 different names for just over a thousand different plans and it shows just how rich people’s understanding of plants truly is it’s great so this thing here on the top left is something in Latin it’s called pit ascites hybrid e-hybrid is something to notice butterbur because these big leaves were used to wrap up butter that’s maybe it’s most commonly and but there’s a really nice name for it as well just flap her bags quite a recently in this one and and that’s possibly because when these leaves get a bit old and saggy and fall over they look a little bit like an old plastic bag so it makes it kind of modern name and then down on the right hand side for many of you who live in Europe and through lots of the northern hemisphere or in temporary areas in particular you can might well know this this is of course dandelion so it has names like a piece only and French so or P the bed because apparently if you touched it and it would be diuretic even just touching it and it could cause you to wet bed the children were often told not to touch it but there’s another really nice little local name in Scotland which sounds rude but I promise it’s not okay and it’s bum pipe because that’s that sounds like it’s referring to something quite rude but in fact it’s not I don’t know if you can make out you may not be able to see my mouth but just where we’ve got these two yellow flower heads this red stork here this thing that holds up that

flower head there and those are actually horrible and you can break them apart and you can make them into a kind of kazoo a or a little whistle and make a humming noise and bum in this case isn’t real at all it just refers to that humming noise so bum is hum in some parts of LAN extra for example so I just love how you’ve got something such a familiar plant that many of us know as dandelion and we have created well over 20 different local names for it the way we looked in the book together was to look at it by habitat there’s a lots of different ways we could have chosen to do it but and that seems to fit quite nicely so it’s a bit of a tour that will go on just from the seashores and we’ll make our way up towards the mountains and then we’ll end up from there and in the city so we cooled out lots of different really interesting useful plants I think from our native flora and many of them were beautifully illustrated by these illustrators as part of this project but we also included some things like this this is marram grass which is used quite widely for weaving and making into basketry a coastal grass really quite tough and quite resistant but for this we chose to illustrate it with a picture from our herbarium so the herbarium at the Botanic Garden Emre has over 3 million preserved specimens of plants that’s an incredible really useful resource for researchers around the world so yeah that’s a wonderful plant there realized what about and then for the illustrators they produced things like this which are just delightful so this is Margaret wal T’s and wicked seaweeds choosing some of them what happens to be really the most useful seaweeds in particular and Rowan Scotland’s coasts we do have a really rich diversity of different seeds which have become incredibly Bairstow and used for a lot of things in the past so here you can see things like on the top where we have sugar kelp or sugar rack which is used em as a foodstuff that was eaten kind of quite common it’s got this mannitol sugar in it that makes it quite sweet at times although is also of course salty and I edenia Israel top down to the bottom where here we’ve got the green seaweed there that Cu ettus which as the name implies you can eat like a lettuce of it and on the right hand side we’ve got a a crack or knotted rack asked for them the dorsum one of these big brown seaweeds that’s just a fundamental thing for putting on to the crops that was one of the things that people all roam the course we go and collect large amounts of these brown seaweeds and put them onto the crops no Margaret’s illustration here I’m afraid on any presentation like this online it won’t do justice to the kind of vivid color and the rich texture she’s bought from the acrylic which just give them that really got per fill me Keamy defueling you can kind of compare that with some of the other things though one of the things that we saw there in Margaret’s illustration this one down here towards the bottom rate the red one is dolls and that was one of the real classics at Scottish historical use and you can still find it to equal readily and new companies do sell it and this is it here I just thought I would pull one of the quotes from Martin Martin who was a Gallic speaking physician who collected a whole host of really interesting different ways of using plants around Scotland in the late 1700s but wait 16-under and he says a large handful of the see plant dogs growing upon stone being applied outwardly as is mentioned above takes away the afterbirth great ease and safety this remedy is to be repeated until it produces the desired effect although some errors may have be intermittent the fresh of the dulcis the operation is the stronger for if it’s above two or three days old who has to be expected from in that case I’m seldom or never fail with success though the patient had been delivered of several days before and of this I’ve lately seen the extraordinary instance the Enron’s Scotland where the patient was given over his dead so we have these beautiful gems of the old tracks of information where you have this person Martin Martin recording a traditional use and a really quick interesting medicinal traditional use so as a way or if the afterbirth Center wasn’t flushing after a toad had been born people would use this and this sea mead um we don’t quite know why and that’s what’s really interesting that’s the only information we have for it so it’s sometimes a bit of a week of the imagination it’s required to think maybe it was one of these ideas of the doctrine of signatures it may be that because this dose looks a bit like a human placenta it might have been used to treat that entry quite dangerous condition and I like to think however if you treat any big lump of wet fresh sea meat and dropped it onto your stomach it would make your stomach contract hugely and maybe we show anything then from the room as well so a really quite intriguing one and I think she was nicely that historical information is fascinating really intriguing but and it’s always filtered through just individuals you are telling us their perception of

things and this there is is kind of wing contrast to Margaret Walters piece this is Li 10 deals in I’m an area picture so this is one of the big brown she means I think just cap there is exactly how this seaweed sit when it’s in the water in particular just you know for nodding over like this so this was are a work in progress and the work is finished in the actual and peace and snow still but this brown seaweed all the other big brown seaweeds are one of the the things that were collected and not just because concourse and or manure if you like for growing crops they were also used for this so for producing kelp this is our an illustration here where it shows a woman who has a huge big pit on the shore I think in Orkney and this enormous amount of brown seaweed around her and she’ll feed this fire in the pit and it just keeps slowly burning through and as it does so the ash that comes out of its this really quite strange very very mineral rich ash and you get a very high proportion of this ash back from burning it and that was actually really useful for making glass for using as a fertilizer on fields for bleaching linen it was a huge industry and indeed the weirds are I know all of the parts the course of skull and really encouraged people to do this kelp burning industry through the 70s 18th and early 19th centuries and it made the Laird’s a lot of money but it was hard work very hard work indeed and like many of these things eventually the bottom fell over the industry because alternative sources of things like iodine and potash came in instead and that meant that when that industry filled the way or its ended up turning to something else instead and of course when he turned to was sheep so the failure of the kelp industry ultimately was one of the things that precipitated the Highland Clearances and I did two shows I think how these plants that are around us have completely shaped our society as they do today I just thought I’d give you another little quote before we leave the seashore and start moving inland and from Martin Martin again and he’s talking about this little plant here this little cabbagey plant then on the bottom right-hand side and with the heart-shaped leaves scurvy grass is cold he says this rock affords a great quantity of scurvy grass of an extraordinary size and very thick the natives eat it frequently as well boiled as raw two of them told me they happened to be confined on the rock for the space of 30 hours by a contrary wind and being without victuals failed to eating this very grass and finding of a sweet taste far different from the lands curvy grass they eat a large basket full of it we should bundle they satisfied their appetites until they returned home they told me also that it was not the least windy or any other wave troubles and yes that’s really nice again I love Martin Martin seems to be slightly obsessed with flatulence I have to see but that actually tells us quite a lot about how people saw diagnosis oh of maids so because there wasn’t all the modern diagnostic tools that you have people would be much more aware of what their intestines were doing and doctors like Martin we’re always thinking okay what’s happening to is that person’s face very flushed and red are the sweating a war aim or is their stomach upset are they flatulent that kind of thing as well and so you often get some quite interesting interpretations of how plants were used and particularly the symptoms that diseases can cause and how the plants would help fix those diseases as well so we’re moving just up the river stop the wetlands and this is just River in the borders of Scotland on the left-hand side here we can see em an older and this is our illustration of older that we have interviewed by Sharon tingey and it’s done in a style that M is kind of classic botanical illustration style so looking at lots of different elements and chewing the plant through the course of the year we’ve got the profile of the plant in winter for example and that’s one of the styles that we have but then you’ll see with the other illustrations in there’s a huge range of different elements here and alder is a really intriguing plant and it’s one that has quite dark red wood that’s very very water resistant so it was used as the piles the main posts that were used to make the M the jetties it kind of M like small bridges that went out to the crown orbs which were the kind of Waco rock huts or walk and buildings that were out in the middle or the side of rocks and they would have these posts that held them up because order is very rot resistant in water that was always what was used and there’s some wonderful artifacts as well wait they’d been made from single pieces of older huge trunks of orders that we almost don’t have any orders like that anymore annuities and

they were hold I am and then because they were water resistant again you could put butter into these huge big em these big buckets keep the top on steel off with wax and then you can sink it into a bog and the bog would keep the butter cool fresh and preserved so if you ever visit the National Museums of Scotland you’ll see some really amazing older bog but their older bog buckets that’s a difficult one to say you have to see em but if you look inside them they’ve got this beautiful rich red color to the wood and interestingly that has been interpreted in the past as being blood so people believed that the reason it was red was because older had been used to make the crucifix and the blood didn’t side the root was the it’s guilt and having been used to make the crucifix that Jesus was crucified on and we get lots of really interesting stories for different types of trees that tie them into the crucifixion or tie them into other religious aspects as well and are used to explain some of the particular traits of the tree really quite interesting little things agree so moving yeah if I River again maybe to a bit of slightly kind of smaller stream we get to this and this is a really interesting plant because almost all of these monkey flowers you’ll find em through the Americas they’re almost all native to the Americas and this thing here has been brought over probably as an ornamental plant and as escaped from gardens maybe 150 years ago or something like that but what happened with some individuals in Shetland is that they underwent a genetic change and they didn’t quite form a new species but they formed a new very local variety so even though this is a plant that you might say is non-native brought over by humans over time actually quite a quick time only 150 years it’s undergone this genetic change and it’s ended up to a degree adapting for the conditions in Shetland then you can’t find this same plan back in Alaska this is this is a mutated version in a way and it shows us how these plants can conform new species and evolve over time assent to it and Janet Watson who satis is no longer with us she was a botanist for her background so she will particularly keen to do this this monkey fur and should we captured the vivid yellow of the bit or Superboy I think and I hope we’re okay for a time oh okay try and speed up a little bit but also in wetlands in bogs we have this little thing which is one of my favorite plants this is butter wort which is named because you could take this in such a carnivorous plant quite small indeed you could take this plant and people used to drop it into milk and it would curdle the milk to a degree that’s possibly because of some of the enzymes it uses to digest insects on it and put in an extra for example it was used in the cheese making industry so really quite important for that and this is window russell’s illustration and we have a photo here as well of the individual I just thought I would cool out some of these names as well so the names that are applied to this are things like butter wart and butter plant we can understand these Aaron in graphs as one of the Scots names earning in that case means curdling and some of the Gallic names relate to that as well but we also see things like rock grass and sheep root and that relates to another thing that people fill up like butter war wars if you took your sheep out and wear them graze and they eat butter worked then it would potentially give them a really horrible disease that rots off their hooves and their their feet really badly em as far as I can tell it’s not the plant’s fault that that happens it’s more if you have your sheep grazing and exactly the can habitat the bugs that this plant lives in then there’s a really high chance of causing some kind of fruit law in the Sheep but this pure plant seems to have adopted the blame for this interesting animal husbandry it was Sheila at sea but a wonderful little plan so we’ll pop into a bit dry really and I wouldn’t go to the grasslands and I love this this is an illustration by Jean wisely a quick field sketch so there’s a fuse of inaccuracies in a few areas but that’s a really challenging thing to do when you’re out in the weather in Scotland plaintive an illustration done quickly but the plant of looking at here is really Spade straw used as our bed straw so put into mattresses for a really soft mattress but it’s in a a family called the rubiaceae that’s the same as the coffee family and the code the rubiaceae because their roots a produce red chemicals in them that kind of aim a group of chemicals that can be used to dye red and Red’s quite a premium color if you’re dying and it’s difficult to get reds and purples quite often but yellows and greens are much easier for a frying so and people used to collect

this in huge quantities but unfortunately because it’s a grassland plant and likes growing and particularly in sandy soils it meant that it was over collected and actually there was an edict in the fifteen hundreds and a repeat of the edict in there seventeen hundreds that forbade people said to people you do not collect lady’s bedstraw because if you’re cooling these up and then taking all the roots out then you’re awarding the soil and very quickly the window blew all that sandy soil away and it’s a kind of an ecological edict maybe also a bit of that kind of um ecological with legislation that we don’t think that today we think that’s kind of a very modern concept but it’s not as a practical thing in the past as well and in this at sea is a plan I have spent a long time with this is the delightful wealth the rest will for a bit of age and it’s one you might have heard of it’s quite interesting it’s got all these tiny little dots to tell you it’ll blog’s all over the roots are all bacterial and no jewels so it uses these to help capture nitrogen in the atmosphere but the bigger blobs the bigger kind of root tubers used to be dug up em and it’s what’s given bitter reputations – Martin Martin and Robert Sibbald in the way 1600 they write a lot about this plan in particular as being the plan that people would dig up and they would either dry out the tubers and flavor whisky with it or important things you can eat the tubers and it would give you a energy and it would help to suppress your appetite as well and you can see the kind of that became a very very interesting thing for many researchers after that we’re still not sure of what it does some wouldn’t advise going out and and thinking any up anything at all but it is quite an interesting and slightly kind of literacy taste to it as well then it would give to workers a really fascinating interesting plan and over time from the initial reports that you see from Martin Martin and Robert Sibbald it was really funny to see as you read over time this plant gets more and more spectacular reports of what it can do so apparently if you were really drunk and you eat a couple of these it would magically get rid of you at your em drunkenness or if you had to cover over the effects of a hangover it could magically just eat one of them and it would grow me again in no evidence we have for that at all so don’t try a home please and then I just thought okay listen this is another Grassland member of the pea family like her bitter veg there and but done in nice very very different style as well this is loose and I think this is ink and watercolor as the combination but it just captures the way that red clover is in emitter superb and then in here we just pop into woodlands and I think we’re doing okay for a time but I’m Kenny Joey any point if you want to interrupt and shove me along the river so 7-minute mark very fast okay that’s like you no problem at all perfect so we’re in woodlands and I thought I’d just poo in a few kind of really nice woodland plants we’ve got em jawsman and rabbits by authoress yeah beautifully intricate and I’ve done a terrible thing I think by EM not blowing this up to full size to show the intricate fans of course we’re a very fair snow group and they were burned a bit like seaweed to produce ash in the past and but also quite a lot of them were used and cause of a quite a lot of toxic chemicals in them that they use to defend themselves from being eaten by soil organisms and worms and things people use that same batch of chemicals as a lots of treatments for worms so if you had intestinal worms or intestinal parasites you would have a decoction of ferren’s and it would always certainly kill off those worms quite successfully but you need to be careful because it might do you some damage as well and Oh what were innocent and pleasant things on the right-hand side here it’s weed sorrel so this is a little thing that looks a little bit like clover and with these three little leaflets all together and but it produces these little white single flowers and really nice but classic thing that people children especially even nowadays will pick and eat has got this really nice kind of a Polly green mbox Ella Cassidy and malic acid et so it’s a very very fresh little snack here again don’t try it at home even though it’s fine but good try Oh home please okay and a couple more here which I think show the contrast really beautifully between all plants and ones that aren’t so edible so we’ll start with the one on the right-hand side here which is one of our native garlic’s the broad-leaved Rams and suus Allium or Satyam and that’s finished flowering no this comes

out in huge Swedes in me time and people have collected it and used it a lot in the past and particularly garlic’s and onions in the past including this species were used for combating kidney stones that was thought to be good if you had kidney stones onions in particular so that was a regular part of people’s diet than they would eat but it also had what they perceived to be this medicinal effect as well and it’s what I think we would think of as a superfood nowadays we see it advertised in that kind of way but those dietary things that also have kind of a health association as well but we are exceptionally lucky here because this thing on the left-hand side was a much rarer dietary thing but it did have quite important health implications as well this is cuckoo pint m or a lords and ladies are immaculately ‘m and it’s got a root tuber at the bottom M which has got a lot of calcium oxalate crystals so if you bite into any part of this plant you could in the berries or anything you get a really horrible mmm painful stinging mouth loss of little actual crystals that scrape the inside of your mouths but in famine times and in the wait sixteen hundred’s there was a terrible famine build almost 25% of the population in our danger in famine times people had nothing else to eat and it seems to be that there’s records of people taking digging this plant up and processing it very commonly into a flower so and then using that flower to make braids but we don’t know how they did it and it’s not really recorded anywhere quite how they managed to do it so anytime I think recent foragers have tried to imitate that it always ends up giving them a very horribly itchy mouth so just it sounds like a very unpleasant thing to do but in the past people either seemed able to do it and could success we produce this or maybe a famine was just so bad you would just accept having a really scarred mouth which should be clear and I’m pleasant thing but you would merely survive because you’d manage to eat something just a completely different concept to what we are lucky enough to experience there it is and then this one here since Jordan’s Wharf a particularly famous I guess for its use for M nowadays for treating depression and other psychiatric issues and and it does have these contraindications with various other a made some types but it does have the compounds in it we don’t quite know how it works but it does have compounds in it that do do that they they will have this M effect for as an antidepressant it’s really quite intriguing because when you look at how people used it in the past they interpreted it differently they used it to stave off possession or am being attacked by Devils which is a really interesting way about thinking about psychiatric illness that was just interpretation and of course in Gallic speaking parts of Scotland it’s not st John’s wort at all it’s in Columbus plan because in Columbia was the dynamic and and bright midsummer st. at the time so he he’s of critius sanjana III and it was cold in some bits of Gaia diet it was called the armpit package of Sint Colombo it was tucked under the armpit because if people had hairy armpits and we’re walking about a bit sweaty and it would break down the plant and and the compounds are in there would go into the system there your body through your armpit so the armpit package of st Columba is a slightly less romantic names and some John’s wort but it still does the job and then this I thought I would just bring in a not because it’s used so much but Fran Thomas has done something really super here she’s taken the ink from this ink cap so this fungus basically it will add Eliquis and it goes all liquidy and you can see these little drips I think on the cap here as it gets all drips down and Fran corrected that and then used that to actually do this illustration itself so this is a an ink cap fungus drawn in its own ink which i think is just a beautiful bit of circularity okay so we’re nearly there in ruins and maintance we’ll have a quick look at just a couple here and just for a contrast I thought I’d put in like two Scott Palmer is put until I repair stress rocks sank foil it’s a very very rare plant in Scotland and it’s one that we grew at the Botanic Gardens in our conservation equation so we have populations of this that we’ve got growing at the botanics that we can name put out back into the wild it’s a really important job that my colleagues in the Horticulture Department do and then contrast that with this which is another kind of Montaigne plant but you find it in woodlands throughout Britain and lots of Northern Europe and it’s one that I think many many people can identify as Rowan with these really bright vivid red berries and I don’t think anyone has rocks and soil in their garden but in Scotland a lot of people have got Rowan at the front gate because of course this

is the tree that people grow in the front gate even nowadays to keep away witches and we’re not quite sure why it keeps away which is it’s a different interesting theories as to why that might be but the usual one is that apparently witches didn’t make the bright red berries so we’ll leave that open we’re not doing any experimental work down at the Botanic Gardens on em you know their efficacy of Rowan in keeping away witches but there’s sounds like a PhD in that at some point to do it and our final habitat is this one so it’s one that we often don’t think about but a really really important one it’s the human habitats well the ones that we generated so this is a bit of all drones that had maybe been left for seven or ten years in Edinburgh and the biodiversity the different plant species that we just found our way in there is incredible really wonderful so these connect temporary habitats this one unfortunately no since been built on but another one will have opened up a bit further down the road and this dynamic can have habitats in human habitats what we’ve done means we have a really interesting flora and a quitter dynamic one in cities as well so we get some things in here that people have almost domesticated so this is Sutherland kale done by Lizzie Sanders and this again showing you on the screen doesn’t do justice to what beautiful intricacy Lizzie’s brought into this and then a couple here that you might find in walls in any any sort of town or city if you have a lot of bits of gonna cool temperate northern Europe and certainly we get lots of both of these and walls and shady parts of Edinburgh for example on the left-hand side we’ve got Maiden here spleen work and on the right hand side is em hearts tongue lenience go attend reom and the two of these really intriguingly where apparently brewed together into a beer so we don’t have anything much more that says there these two plants were brood together interfere and used to combat consumption and consumption is tuberculosis one form of tuberculosis and we don’t know if it worked we don’t know how it was brewed we don’t know anything other than that one little sentence but it’s just really quite intriguing there’s lots of potential there for being able to investigate potential Masons for the future and the way we are at the moment you can understand that that kind of imperative to get looking at you mates this I thought I would bring in as an interesting old mates and so this doesn’t show the reuse of this but this is quartz fruit and people might have heard of corks fruit backe so believes of this we used to make our kind of tobacco that apparently was really good for you and would help to clear your runs so again we’re not quite sure if that would work but it quite an interesting one in deep I thought I would include it because if we zoom in you can have a look at the fight in detail there on a Christopher is done here in the floor ahead of this this called really wonderful if I need you I’m a good Gorian you ins much more with an expressive metal here so very versatile plan find all round kind of human habitation and classic Wainscott when people thought that or think that they you can identify where people would go for a pee going goodnight because you’ll see a patch of metals because it’s slightly prepares a bit of an alkaline soil I’m not sure there’s any truth in it but that that’s the classical wisdom enemy and one of the things for nettle is that it was always used as a may tonic so you would have your may nettle porridge or your nettle soup several times through me and that would help to build up your strength for a kind of agricultural year as it went on in our last few it’s just two very very different weeks one of what you think of as our kind of our national flourish this is spear thistle and this beautiful witch ink style by Sue Anderson Hardy and then for a complete contrast for exactly the same plan and we’ve got this bike we’re McGee and I think just I love how two different artists can look at the same plan and interpret them in completely different ways but they both carefully capture what the spear thistle is now I say this is one of the contenders for the national plan for Scotland and it’s quite a good one I have to see but the alternative which I don’t have an image of is another one that clear heo was treated him in fine detail discussed so he fat her head is from the Mediterranean and it’s called on a poor donor calcium and and they think that might be the her heraldic thistle that was maybe brought over and by the Jacobite name dynasty and I find that’s a particularly poignant and to have list this plant it’s coming from the Mediterranean so and like all these ideas and like all these plants as well they’ll come with them and also politically because they’re our name in Greek means the fart of a donkey I think that’s a particularly poignant plan to have as a national flower and quite descriptive of childish Scottish humor as well so I would like to say just a huge thank you to all the artists who contributed it was a wonderful project and work on and also to the many other folks who helped to to make the big