The Past Beneath Our Feet (Stephen R. Potter)

I told Michael when he asked me if I wanted to do this that I’ preferred being behind the lens rather than in front of it. So I was somewhat pleased that you’re getting a disembodied voice but hopefully pretty pictures We’re getting both So this is the National Capital Region. It’s about 88,000 acres as Michael has already said in parts of Maryland Virginia West Virginia and all the District of Columbia. It includes some 35 Park units. If you look in the lower left hand corner, right of where it says National Capital Region, you’ll see a blow up of the national park lands within the District of Columbia. When people think of the National Capital Region, this is usually what comes to money. Memorials and monuments, you see just barely at the beginning of the middle ground, the back of the World War two memorial and then of course you cannot miss the Washington Monument However, there is more to this region than that and this is stepping off to my career in National Capital Region. Now long after I came here, I was introduced to the gentleman who was the Associate Regional Director for the office which at that time was known as the Office of Public Affairs. And after I was introduced to him as the New Regional Archeologist, looked at me and said very much with a straight face, “Oh everybody knows the only real archaeology in the National Park Service is out west.” So this presentation will hopefully prove that individual more than a little wrong We’re going to start with Rock Creek Park. It’s almost 3,000 acres just shy of a hundred reservation [inaudible 00:02:02] Rock Creek Park proper, and the reason I’m starting with this is because of this gentleman that you’re going to be introduced to. Here you see the lands that represent Rock Creek Park, the biggest green area is Rock Creek Park proper and it was the work done by William Henry Holmes of the Smithsonian Institution who which put Rock Creek Park on the map. At the time that Holmes began his work in Rock Creek Park in the 1980s, there was a raging debate in American archaeology over very crudely worked artifacts which Holmes argued were merely steps in the process of manufacturing stone tools And another gentleman was arguing that no, these were eoliths or dawn stones of great antiquity comparable to those that were being found at the time in Europe. So, Holmes undertook the first scientifically controlled problem oriented excavations in American archaeology. And here you see his map showing the Piney Branch quarries In the main part of the quarries in the upper left hand corner of the map, there you will see a V-shaped inverted V that represents what Holmes called the riverlet, and then you’ll see the excavations or trenches which he and his workman dug into the side of the valley walls These quarries are quartzite and here’s one of Holmes cross-sectional profiles showing orally quarry face on the right, the incredible teleslope which is made up of lithic debris from the working of the stones once the cobbles of quartzite were mined. And then you can actually see what Holmes referred to as a great shop deposit which is in front of one of the still intact deposits the quartzite boulders that you see on the far right This is the actual sequence starting with the cobble Holmes referred to this as test flakes that were removed so you could see the inside of the stone to determine whether it was something that the napper wanted to continue to work If they did, they then proceeded from left to right. Item B is one of the Holmes’ so-called turtle backs called … so-called because it has a faceted face on one side, and then you have the on worked or cortex on the underside or the reverse of the object. And they continue all the way down until you get to F which is a quarry blade. So, at that point you’re just nothing more than a few minutes away from a final tool form,

whatever you wanted that tool to be. If you walk the area today you can find these stuff hand-over fist. So, here quartzite flakes from the reduction of the cobbles into quarry blades Here you see one where they had begun doing that and this is something that Charles Abbott who was on the other side of the debate from Holmes, he was the one that was arguing that these were eolith or dawn stone of great antiquity. Well this is the kind of thing that Charles Abbott was saying, “Yeah, this is a pindex, it’s a dawn stone. Here you see another larger boulder of quartzite with some of the flakes removed. These probably were used, I would imagine because it’s good quality quartzite to make finished stone tools, and a hammerstone. And this daft is still visible if you walk the quarry today in Rock Creek Park It’s in there by the tons literally. This was a photograph that Holmes took. His work in the Piney Branch Quarries was recognized at the time as a great advance in science. So much so that he was asked to do an exhibit at the Colombian exposition of 1892. To help bring that exposition in his exhibit to life, he had these life size figures made and these are three of several others that are not in this picture He actually took all this out to the quarry, what you see in the far right figure is the face of some of Holmes’ excavations. You have intact archeological deposits between Indian on the far right and the one in the middle ground They fairly took a canvas and put it over part of the excavation behind where the Indian on the far right is. Covered it with dirt, but he wanted to make it look as though these people really were mining the deposits there at Rock Creek Park In front of the Indian on the far left who seeded flip knapping you’ll see actual artifacts that were collected by Holmes during his excavations, and to really add to the whole scene, you’ll even see a full group of ducks that it’s been re-hafted lying on the ground just to the left of the Indian on the far left. He went all out. He had a full size diorama that they set up at the Colombian exposition and these figures were some of those that were part of that exhibit. I thought it was pretty clever Holmes to do this and you can actually see what the quarry like. The riverlet is off to the far left and you can see that the area was heavily wooded even at the time that Holmes was working there in the late 1880s and early 1890s The Great Falls of the Potomac was the one spot that had to be portaged if you were moving up and down the Potomac River, and at the Great Falls we find a number of things including petroglyphs and here is one example. If you start at the top, you’ll see there’s a Y or a split. This is a purely representing some prehistoric Pablo Picasso’s rendering of an anadromous fish which has a split tail. If you follow then the Y coming down, you’ll see you have a wide wine that then leads to a body that’s been accentuated The innermost body of the fish is a diamond and you’ll see two cupules representing the eyes of it beneath the two eyes, a cupule representing the mouth and then that innermost diamond has been accentuated by a series of three additional consent diamond emphasizing the body of a fish This is almost spot on with a series of similar petroglyphs that were found at a place on the Susquehanna River north of Baltimore called Bald Friar. And these were documented in the late 19th, early 20th century before the Conowingo Dam flooded the area. Some of those petroglyphs were able [Audio Silence 00:09:50] You’ll see a light

water V off to the west of the center of the screen and that represents the basal stones, a prehistoric Stone Fish Weir. The archeological site that is outlined in red, and labeled 18 AG and you don’t need to know the rest of the number That means Allegheny County and in the state of Maryland. Is the site of the largest rock hard platform I have ever seen. It’s over 30 feet across and it’s buried two feet below existing grade because of various floods that have occurred since the rock hard platform, which purely was built to process the fish and to smoke them And this is the first time I’m aware of here in the middle Atlantic of a processing site being … one of these stone fish weirs In a way it was pretty exciting when we discovered this while doing GIS in this upper portion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. So, at this point you are near Old Town Maryland which means that you are in the heart of the Alleghenies. Another site on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal of great significance is this particular one which is the oldest and most deeply stratified prehistoric site that we are currently aware of in the National Capital Region. It’s 18 feet down to the early archaic level and says it spans 11,000 years So, you have a late woodland dating to about 1500 AD, an early woodland component dating to around 1000 AD. A late or middle archaic component dating to around 3800 BC, and then an early archaic component of about 8000. It’s a pretty amazing site and it … wood, seeds, pollen, animal bone is preserved and there are features. This is a very important site for this region. Another site of great interest that we came across in the years that I was working here, was here at Fletcher’s Boat House also within the C&O Canal National Historical Park. And this was part of a compliance Section 106 project They were going to put a cantilevered pedestrian and bicycle bridge over the C&O Canal. So that people could get down to Fletcher’s Boat House It was going to have a sizeable footprint and, in doing the archaeology for that, we discovered all of these amazing underground storage silos They were literally cylinders four to five feet across and just as deep and they … you can see a whole series of them here. There’s one, two, three, four five, six that’s under excavation and this is what they look like before you start excavation. You can actually see the circular outline of the soil stain. This particular one is just a little over four feet across and it was a little deeper than four feet and they are almost perfect cylinders Unfortunately we don’t know what they were storing in them since they obviously remove the content and then having remove the contents, they use them as handy trash receptacles for the duration of their stay. So, they had dug through earlier stratified deposits. So we had everything in here from early archaic projectile points dating back to around 8000 BC all the way up, but the lion share of the material culture that we found here suggests that these were dug probably in the middle woodland period somewhere around 200 to 500 or 600AD. And it was amazing, we had never seen anything like these features not only in the Patowmack Valley, but we hadn’t seen anything like these in the entire Chesapeake region at that time Another surprise in doing urban archeology in the nation’s capital, we find these pockets

of preservation. So, if you look at all the roads that are on here, you would say, “My god, what a spaghetti bowl, nothing survived of any consequence in this mess.” Wrong, so you have three sites. The Peter House site which as the name suggests, preserves a historic period House site dating from the late 18th and early 19th century, but it also masked some earlier prehistoric deposits. Then you have Ramp 3 and Whitehurst West and I’m going to show you those. Ramp 3 is V, with a cobble of TAG most significant prehistoric discovery in the city of Washington ever Here you can see us coming down on it. To let you know that doing urban archaeology can have all sorts of dangers, if you’ll see the person that’s on the far left where you can just barely see their right elbow. Well, if you went another three feet, you would come to a vertical excavation that would rise up and then two feet over from the edge of that excavation were concrete Jersey barriers and on the other side of a concrete Jersey barrier was the Rock Creek and Patowmack Parkway. So, heaven forbid if any of those jersey barriers had been knocked off to one side because it would have crushed an archeologist Well that little pile of stones that you see slightly off from center of that, marks an equal large pile of stones, heaviest of which weighed up to around 40 pounds that covered this. Here you see the drawing of part of the feature. It was a ritual cremation pit, and all sorts of things were found in it. The remains of probably a woman between 35 and 40 years of age when she died and then was cremated. Bird bones from a Big Bird it was a more than likely a Golden Eagle since it was a raptor, we obviously don’t have condors back here, this ain’t California It either had to be an American bald eagle or a golden eagle. There was no way to know which But anyway a raptor had been cremated with the person and there were also sharks teeth, they were disc fabric. Yes, you heard me correct Hammerstone and all sorts of other things and here’s an example of some of the objects that were found in this ritual cremation pit. The Antler head bone comb or headrest is almost identical to one that was found by one of William Henry Holmes’ associates in a mound in the northern Shenandoah Valley almost exactly 100 miles to the west. If you look over to the far upper right, the Chert Knife Blade the source for that Chert is 100 miles to the west in the northern Shenandoah Valley. You can also see stone gorgets, a wooden bead, the only one ever recovered to this point in the Patowmack Valley A stone phallus, and then shark’s teeth that were part of a necklace or teeth that were sewn on a garment. It’s hard to know whether they … but they were perforated. You can see on the top row second from the left of the top row of the shark’s teeth that there is one of the holes where the roots of the shark’s teeth had been perforated for either suspension or for sewing on a garment. This site is unheard of and it dates around 600 to 800 AD. Just on the other side of the Rock Creek Patowmack Parkway is Whitehurst West site 15 feet below existing grade, we came across this What you’re looking at is a layer of fire cracked rock lithic debris and in this, we found over a dozen transversely broken triangular blades They were processing fish here too. And so there was a fire crack rock, the transversely broken triangular blades and they were probably preparing the fish and then smoking here and this is 15 feet down, but because it was 15 feet down, we had to build the most amazing walls to meet OSHA standards so that we could open up this relatively small area. So you can well imagine the size of the excavation given the fact that we had

to step it down to open up this area. By the way when the archeological firm that was excavating this site was on site doing the excavations, this was during the presidency of Bill Clinton And there was a hiker biker path right beside here, and guess who came jogging by one day in the early part of his first term as president? President Clinton. So, everybody else is way down in the ground underneath a cover that we had to construct over this, was sort of a quandary like plastic cover because we were doing these excavations in the dead of winter, late December, January, February. The only two archeologist who were outside were the two young ladies who were screening the dirt and so there is a very well-known photograph of those two ladies standing to either side of President Clinton. So, you never know who’s going to drop in on an archeological excavation in National Capital Region. Down river from the city about 12, 15 miles directly across from George Washington’s Mount Vernon, is Piscataway Park Here you Piscataway Creek and it’s confluence with the Patowmack River. This place is one giant archeological site. You cannot turn a shovelful full of dirt over in Piscataway Park and not see some sort of artifact. Whether a prehistoric or historic origin. This is one of John White’s famous from White watercolor drawings of Algonquian Indians in what is now north eastern, North Carolina but their culture was very similar to those of the Algonquian speaking peoples in Tidewater Virginia, the Eastern Shore in the Patowmack valley below the falls. So if you notice you have an entrance to the village where they do the overlapping stockade walls, and here you can see something similar in the ground So, there are your post stains and there’s where they overlapped, and this village in particular had a rather narrow opening on this side of it It was a single occupation and apparently not one that was long term. If you go further to the west, in the mountains of western Maryland, at Catoctin Mountains Park, it is the national park that surrounds the presidential retreat of Camp David And we did a four-year archeological survey of Catoctin Mountain Park and this is one of the quarries, in this case Rhyolite that we found, so much different material to work than the quartzite quarry of Piney Branch in the heart of Washington DC in Rock Creek Park And this is one of the large boulders that’s exposed that’s had a number of large fragments of rhyolite knocked off from it to make stone tools Here you can see some of the lithic debris from the various stages of working the rhyolite there in the quarry. This is an example of the very worn and heavily patinated and used by faces that we find there in Catoctin Mountain Park These are latearchaic up to middle woodland and they have literally been used to a nub and then have been exposed on the surface for quite some time to receive this sort of patination In the 18th century, there’s more to what you see above ground than meets the eye. You’ve got this really nice mid-18th century Manor House called Harmony Hall located in Maryland Just down river and not far from George Washington’s Mount Vernon on Broad Creek. Well, they were going to upgrade the house so that it could be rented out, and they had to do some service, new service lines into the structure So we did archaeology, it’s a good thing we did because we found a 1695 to 1750 Earth-fast post in the ground house and here you see the excavations. This particular case, I’ll go back one. That photograph was taken if you look at the covered Central Hall entrance on the landward side of the Manor House, that photograph was taken from the window that is the second from the far

left corner of the main block of the house And so I’m looking straight down on the excavations and this structure burned and that’s why you have the dark stain. Here is one of the post holes and post moulds from Earth-fast house and you see the illustration on the left that shows a typical Earth-fast House. This one did have a cellar hole underneath it. And this is some of the excavations inside the burned area of the house, you have a wrought iron strap hinge from a door in the immediate foreground and then broken fragments from a wine bottle in the middle ground This is me back when I had hair on my head and my face. This was a while ago, and here you can see the stratigraphy of the burned layer of the house and then all of the material that built up above that post-1750 represents changes in the cultural landscape after the Brick Manor House of Circus 1750-ish was constructed. It was pretty amazing the buildup of material just from the landscaping activities that took place over time after 1750 until when the property came into the National Park Service in the 1980s. Another thing that is of interest, we have a number of canals here. Of course I’ve already spoken of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Well at Great Falls Park Virginia, we have one of the earliest canals, the earliest one here in this area. The Patowmack Canal. Its idea of began in 1785 and was the brainchild of George Washington and also he enlisted the aid of Light Horse Harry Lee, the Revolutionary War General and dear friend of George Washington’s. So, this is lock one. There are five locks and this was an engineering marvel of the time because these five locks provided over 80 feet of lift in less than a mile. People actually came from Europe to see this because it was considered such and … for today, and it began operation around 1803. It took 17 years to build from its blue sky conception until it became a functioning reality. Unfortunately a Patowmack Canal had a relatively short life It actually consisted of five skirting canals and then the rest of the distance it used the natural basin on the Patowmack River Unfortunately, we tend to have severe droughts around here, so that the Patowmack Canal really couldn’t operate year-round and actually was lucky if it could operate half a year. And so it ceased operation and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal then took its place as it were and they dug that from Tidal Lock in Georgetown to end of terminus in Cumberland Maryland, 184.5 miles. This is looking down in the excavations which revealed what is still oldest remnants of the [inaudible 00:28:47] in the bottoms of the two original lock gates, the lock one Patowmack Canal, and they are the oldest lock gates this far found in North America On the other side of the Patowmack at Great Falls Maryland on the C&O Canal, there is another petroglyph but this one from historic times. If you look in the photograph in the upper left hand corner. Just to the right of the person on the right, just to the right of their shoulder, that you can see is the figure that you see the blow up of in the lower right. And these are very similar to anyone who’s knowledgeable or knows of the famous face jugs made in stoneware in the south In the 1920s, there was an African-American CCC camp at Great Falls Maryland. So, this is quite possibly was the work of one of those men who was part of the CCC camp there in the 1920s

Moving up river to Harpers Ferry National Historical Park in West Virginia, building the Smith & Forging Shop is something that you couldn’t miss on just like you couldn’t miss the famous Engine House or John Brown’s Fort which is shown at the mouth of the street on the web side. That’s Macadamia Street by the way and this is the only known photograph of the Harpers Ferry armory taken before the Civil War and before it was destroyed as a result of the war. That’s flip stack by the way is 90 feet high and these are the amazing excavations that were overseen by Mia Parsons with the assistance of Darlene Hasler who’s now a permanent archeologist at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park and also Justin Ebersole who’s now I’m happy to say a permanent archeologist, and architect at the C&O Canal National Historical Park Here you can see the amazing excavations The stratigraphy is outrageous. So, if we go to the bottom of the excavation, you’re in late archaic times and all the debris from the fly ash which are those two layers that are kind of a whitish-gray. Well, that bottom most layer of white ash is sitting on top of a landform. Beneath it are a number prehistoric occupations, the early of which is probably late archaic and there may also be a middle woodland component here as well. The industrial activities of the armory in the earliest part of the armory grounds which is here, indeed preserved some amazing historic and prehistoric components Moving to Manassas National Battlefield Park, the park wanted to know which of three images including this, the only photograph was the real or Portici. There were two other from live sketches done by civil war artist correspondents that had been labeled Portici also. We had three images, this photograph and the two from live sketches by civil war correspondents all purporting to be the real Portici. So, the park wanted to know, what it looked like and if we could determine which of the three images was Portici. Well, we were able to … it was quite simple actually and Portici is indeed what is shown in this photograph. Those massive double and pair pitted brick chimneys are incredible And then just in front of the one that you see that’s facing us which would be the West elevation of the house, the front elevation is facing south That structure just in front of that massive double and pair pitted chimney is the kitchen and the kitchen had a whistle walk attached to it At this time we’re in the Camelot or glory days of the regional archaeology program. Myself and three others were full time permanent archeologist here. That’s the greatest number we’ve ever had at one time here in National Capital Region And we had an active volunteer list of over 120 people in here some of those dedicated individuals helping with the excavations Well, this is what we found. So there’s the footprints of Portici in the upper left and it had a full English cellar and you can see there was a bulkhead entrance to the cellar on the right or eastern side of the structure. It was almost a perfect square, not quite. The front elevation facing south would be down and you can even see that they dug a little trench for drainage to take water away from the house and go under the porch, and you know it’s under the porch because you can see the stones that were set for the wooden pier to hold up the porch, and there are three of the stones still left in place. The footprint of the detached kitchen with that massive chimney at the end of it, is just to the left of the footprint of the house The fire that took it out started on the left and we even had a fire marshal come out and look at our excavations once we were complete, and it was obvious even to us where the fire had begun. it was apparently ignited probably by a spark that was still in the fireplace or hearth on the main floor of the house on the left side,

and from there it ignited the rest of the house The family had left the home once the Battle of First Manassas which raged all around this place had taken place. They were living with relatives elsewhere and union soldiers occupied his house sometime in late winter early spring, probably around March of 1862 and we think that they may have had a fire going and then had not checked to make sure that all the embers were out in that … an ember popped out and ultimately caused the fire that caused the destruction of the house So much was found here and the state of preservation was superb because a lot of the metal had been reannealed because it had been through a second fire after having been forged Here you have a heating stove insert from the second floor of the house and this house collapsed in on itself literally like a house of cards. So, it all fell into the full English cellar which intuned the remains. First floor, second floor. The floor joists burned out of the wall pockets. And the second floor collapsed The heating stove of inserts pulled out of the chimneys. This one did a somersault, landed on its back and there you see the conserved door that was part of it. It split along the construction of the cast iron heating stove insert. It was made in Boston 1823, pretty amazing Beneath that, we found this. So you see on the far right, the cabriole to a piece of fine furniture and on the left in this excavation, there is a chestnut point from the first floor of the house and then you can see how they constructed it. They actually excavated the cellar out of the living rock which in this case is a Triassic red sandstone and then they used a technique just like they did for the locks in the C&O Canal, the Patowmack Canal. Like took clay and they cobbled the floor so that you would have a even flat floor. You can see what it was like because the Triassic sandstone had been turned on its side and if you had left that as the floor, you could have been stone cold sober and you would still had a hard time walking across that floor They then put in this two tenths to three tenths of a foot red clay floor and that was the floor on the full English cellar. And the reason those bricks are up there, they are the apron to a small fireplace or hearth. They punched in to the flue of one of those two chimneys on the east elevation and this is inside the full English cellar on the East elevation of the house, and they constructed a small room. And we know this because we found walls that were just two bricks thick, that butted up against the original interior construction of the cellar. We think that this was a room that was constructed as a sleeping place for one of the slaves to Portici Another fascinating thing at the corner that you see there of the fireplace apron, we found a whole little series of over a dozen tin washed straight pins. Someone had been doing their sewing by the light of the hearth, and we also found eggshell where they would make their meal on the hearth here as well. Some of the objects that came out of this are pretty amazing. The only known African heirloom artifact that we found anywhere in any of the region’s parks, it’s the woman’s finger ring that you see on the slightly to the right of the center of the slide. It’s carved from ebony, and ebony wood only grows in Africa and Asia It’s the size of the ring that suggest to us that this was a woman’s finger ring and so it is a genuine African heirloom artifact that came over on the hand of a woman who had survived the dread middle passage to come to Virginia To the right of it is a rim shirt of colonoware but this we know was certainly used by African-Americans and most likely was also made by them. And almost all

of it is a vessel form that is a shallow wide mouth bowl. The kind of thing that would have served as something for someone who was making a gumbo or some such dish, because these small shallowwide mouth bowls are a form that would not have been available commercially from any of the many local potteries in the Shenandoah Valley, or not far from here in Alexandria Virginia. So we think that these bowl forms were being made by the enslaved laborers because they were being used to serve the dishes that they were making And in the bottom, below the ring and the rim shirt you see three gaming pieces probably used in the African derived game of mancala And then we also have almost always the requisite to blue bead in the upper right corner just above the rim shirt. And blue was a color that given were the slaves probably were coming from in Africa was a color that was believed to ward off bad or evil spirits. At BrawnerFarmalso within Manassas National Battle Field Park we had an interesting project. There was a great discussion among historians and architects as to whether that clavered wooden structure you see in a state of disrepair in the middle of the slide was standing at the time of battle The Battle of BrawnerFarm fought August 28th 1862 and the answer to that question is a resounding no. It was not standing, and it was archeology that proved it both for the historians and the historical architects. If you look at that middle photograph, you’ll see that line of stones there in front of the standing structure. I should say the barely standing structure. And that is the original foundation to the house that in deed was standing at the time of the Battle of Brawer Farm in August 1862 If you look at the map in the lower right of the slide you will see the two exterior chimneys that were on the east elevation of the original structure. They actually used the footprint of one of those as the exterior chimney for the post-Civil War House that was moved on site. And then if you look on the far left, you’ll see a thin line representing a linear arrangement of stones that was the foundation for the west elevation of the original structure probably built about 1810, 1820 or in this case for the original house. And then after the battle, another home from probably less than a mile away was moved to the site and served as the extant structure running on an east west access and incorporating some of the stands from the west elevation of the first house And they’d flop them over and put them between the remnants of the foundation wall on the far left or Westside. And fill them in adjacent to it so that you had another exterior fireplace or hearth on the west elevation just like the one that they repurposed on the west elevation The huge el addition was added in 1904/05 and so this whole thing was modernized and victorionized in 1904/05. But that structure still has the remnants of the earlier house that was moved from somewhere else after the first house was pretty much heavily perforated by heavy small arms fire during the Battle of Brawer Farm. All sorts of battle related material Here you see Michael Stroud who is now an archeologist in the state of Texas. There you see the large stones of the foundation of the original house that were on the west elevation, and merely in front of Michael just to the right of his right hand with the paint brush in it, was the US model 1816 bayonet that would have been mounted on the end of a US model 1816 musket. Probably one made at Harpers Ferry Armory and at this point in the war 1862, only Virginians

and other southern units would have been using antiquated firearms like that. This definitely was not carried by the 19thIndiana who were armed with the latest state of the art 1858, probably We don’t know what model but most likely a spring field and a 58 caliber we know for sure, because for these things. So, we knew that the 19th Indiana Regiment part of the Black Hat brigade soon to be renamed the Iron Brigade. So Iron Brigade went up against the south’s most famous brigade in the Army of Potomac, well army of Northern Virginia, excuse me. The Stone Wall Brigade, so you have the Black Hat Brigade soon to become the Iron Brigade are standing 60 to 70 yards away from a firing line of the Stone Wall Brigade. And these two regiments along with the 19th Indiana and some other confederate regiment blasted away at one another for 45 minutes to an hour and a half in the dwindling sunlight and neither one budged And here you see the unfired or dropped 58 caliber bullets during battle. Here you see in the upper left hand corner a period illustration of a firing line. So you have two ranks and the action on the firing line is a very frenzy bit. So, your butter fingers, you’re nervous, you drop a cartridge, it doesn’t get loaded and so you have a dropped or unfired round Or you are in the act of reloading and you are hit while getting ready to load the cartridge into the muzzle of your most likely rifle musket And we know it had to been a rifle musket because we found always on fire 58 caliber bullets You also find other stuff like we did here You’ve got an iron roll of buckle from beneath a cartridge box. Just above the scale you have the iron stopper to a canteen. Just to the right of it, is a nap sack hook. To the right of that is the metal bottom to a leather bayonet’s cover. So bits and pieces of uniform, of accoutrements as well as unfired bullets marked a firing line, and the dropped bullets are shown in the map in yellow. And the militaria all those bits and pieces of accoutrements and equipage and uniforms. Look at that, you’ve got a perfectly straight line What’s interesting is you see the dropped bullets that are just below the firing line. That’s the area where the 19th Indiana advanced and then retreated when the firing stopped. We did survey work in advance of that line and we found nothing It’s a poor trap notes from confederate artillery We found no dropped bullets; we found no militaria off of union accoutrements in uniforms. So, that in deed represents the northern most firing line of the 19th Indiana And this I was told before we began this project by Park Service people, by civil work collectors that, “The area was hunted out and we wouldn’t find a thing.” Now the mow full of them. Metal detectors especially at this time, this is in the 1980s, walk a random pattern as usual and then when they get heats, it’s like a feeding frenzy. So, they focus where they are getting heat. It’s not systematic and things can still be preserved and in this case, a segment of what we know for sure is the firing line of the 19th Indiana. We don’t have to guess where they were, we know for a fact the furthest northern advance of the 19th Indiana One other thing that was a surprise after the civil war John Browner had his daughter who was illiterate fill out a claim to the United States government for damages suffered from the union soldiers prior to and as a result of the Battle of Brawer Farm. Well, he didn’t get his reparations that he was hoping for. In the claims that you filed you had to list in detail what you had lost and he lost one horse, one cow and 22 pigs. And in this small

roasting pit we found the bones of one cow, a pig and a horse. And as if we … icing on the cake sort of the maraschino cherry maybe on top of the icing, we found confederate Drum-Style canteen Which you can see the little white arrow there on the left in the lower part center of the slide is pointing to it, and you can see the pewter spout. It had been crushed It was toast away, and it was the last thing that was tossed on top of the remnants of this small roasting pit. And I believe this were famished confederates indeed because the part of the horse that they were gnawing on here was from the lower leg. The lower hind leg at that So that was old school, now I’m to bring you up to the 21st Century and Battlefield archaeology new school with GIS. So, we are now at Antietam National Battlefield, the bloodiest day in all of US military history, over 23,000 Americans were killed, wounded or missing in action during 12 hours of dawn to dusk combat. What we’re going to focus on, is that little rectangle of yellow inside the boundary of the Piper farm. The sunken road or Bloody Lane is named because supposedly the lane ran with blood because so many of the confederates were killed during the fighting in the late morning action as part of the Battle of Antietam Here is Alexander Gardner’s photograph showing for dead confederates. That is the white picket fence that surrounded the 16-acre commercial pole orchard. It was the only commercial orchard anywhere with a country mile Sharpsburg Maryland and it was part of Henry Piper’s farm And if you notice, look at the confederate on the far right in the foreground. He’s got two of the pickets from that fence underneath him They actually picked that body up and moved him into the picture to compose it so there would be more dead ribs and more gore. Alexander Gardner perfected this little technique of horror if you will, he did it unashamedly at Gatesburg multiple times. So you always have to be careful when you’re looking at these Civil War images Just look for signs that perhaps they were composed as Mr. Gardner certainly did here And so, we had the 16-acre orchard and the reason we were called in to do archaeology is because the Park Service wanted to restore it. It was an apple orchard and so they were going to be planting apple trees at 30-foot intervals and they were putting in two to three caliper trees which mean you’re going to have two to three foot root ball. And this in a part of the battlefield that to the best of our knowledge had never, I repeat NEVER been metal detected. Why? Because everyone wanted to go to the Bloody Lane. To the cornfield which opened the battle in the early morning hours of September 17 or the end of the battle at Burnside Bridge So, that’s where the historians and the collectors all focused their attention. To them, they didn’t think much of anything at all happened in the orchard. Wrong. So, we go in and our contract archeologists at this time in 1997, they were URS Corporation Archeologist and volunteers did a 20% sample, because the work of the URS Archeologist demonstrated and they had done several years of work at the battlefield by the time the work at the orchard was undertaken. That a 20% sample of transacts will allow one to define troop positions or troop movements on a Civil War battlefield So they did 20% sample. Here you see the metal detecting in one of the two meter wide corridors that they had marked out. In the upper right slide you see the targets that have been discriminated by the metal detecting and then in the lower right you see in this case a three ring 58 caliber minie ball that had been retrieved from the hole that was dug. So, that was a process and then we updated it. So, in 2002, 2004 and 2007 archeologists from the Regional Archeology Program with the assistance of park staff and volunteers undertook the work

because planting these trees is very labor intensive and apple trees are not cheap So the park had to do the replanting of the historic orchard in phases, a total of four which is why we had four archeological field seasons to coincide just before they began the planning. Here you see in the upper left corner the archeologist from the Regional Archeology Program and volunteers and you can see some of the red flags that indicate the location of potential military targets or metal targets were precisely. And then in the upper right, we finally graduated from a Topcon Transit to a total station. We piece plotted everything in, URS using a Topcon Transit and we as the Regional Archeology Program using a total station In the lower left you see some of the artifacts that have been retrieved, the military artifacts with field specimen numbers. You see in the center there again a 58 caliber three ring bullet as it was about to come out of the ground and then our lab at the Museum Resource Center in Landover Maryland where the objects were processed and catalogued. And this is what we came up with. We found over 2,000 military artifacts and all the black dots are the military artifacts, and the ones that are open circle, those are non-military artifacts. And that was a 25% sample because with the additional work we did, we added another 5% to the 20% so we have a 25% sample, which means that theoretically there should be at least another 246,000 military artifacts out there. So this area clearly was never metal attack, a rarity indeed on any similar battlefield in the eastern theater of the American Civil War We’re going to start with the attack of the Seventh Maine. There were five events that we were able to discriminate based only the archaeology in the orchard; five separate military actions within the footprint of the orchard and the one I’m going to talk about is the last one that took place late in the afternoon around five o’clock to 5:30 PM on September 17th 1862 And we’re starting with this image because it shows a confederate 12 pounder smoothbore artillery piece. Well, this is what was being used by the two gun section under the command of Captain Boyce of the South Carolina artillery So if you look at the map, the very bottom just above the Park Service Arrowhead, you’ll see the gun position of Boyce. And he had two of these 12 pounders, we know they were smoothbores, because they were shooting that ugly stuff in the red outlined rectangle. And that’s one-inch iron canister, it is very poorly cast which screams Confederate made. And those nasty things were packed into something, the equivalent of Hi-C juice can and then fired basically at point blank range at infantry. In this particular case, the Seventh Maine who had been told to attack Confederate positions at Piper Farm So, you will see the Confederate forces of RH Anderson which are aligned along the Hagerstown Turnpike on the far left and then just Catawampus from that position GG Anderson’s Confederates, remnants of many Confederate units that had been just basically almost wiped out, when the Confederate position in the Sunken Road or Bloody Lane collapsed as a result of pressure from the attacking Union forces So, they’re along the Piper Lane, you see a cluster of structures representing the Piper house and in that larger rectangle just up from one of the Confederate regiments represented by the linear red line, is the Piper Barn so. The Seventh Maine was ordered by Colonel Irwin who is reputed to have been inebriated at the time to attack Confederate positions and to drive them away from the Piper Farm. He was being asked to do this with just over 180 old

men. An entire division had failed to do that earlier in the day, which strongly supports people’s contention that indeed Colonel Irwin was three sheets in the wind or drunk as a skunk So here you see the distribution of the one-inch iron canister coming from Boyce’s two guns. He probably only fired those two pieces, once each, because these things were the equivalent of a combat shotgun. By the time the Seventh Maine got into the orchard to try and fight their way back to Union Lines which are in the upper part of the slide represented by the units in primarily gray and blue so Brooks, MA, Owen, those are union units and that’s where we can see the area up they’re marked Seventh Maine. That’s where they began their attack, so they had to come merge in front of the Unions, then come south into this little valley, going against RH Anderson in GG Anderson and of course with only 180 old men, they didn’t get very far before they had to skive out So, that’s what Boyce was trying to do, and so were a lot of other folks. So here you see the archeological footprints, literally, of the retreat on the Seventh Maine occurring between 5:00 and 5:30 in the afternoon on September 17th 1862. They swung into the orchard. Now, luckily these gentlemen were carrying the US model 1841 rifle also known as the Mississippi rifle, because it had been made famous by a regiment of Mississippians interestingly enough commanded by Jefferson Davis during the Mexican War And these things mounted a huge saber bayonet, so because they had the saber bayonet mounted on these four rifles; these are not rifle muskets with only three or four lands and grooves; these are seven lands and grooves, they are a totally rifled interior bore. They used those saber bayonets on the end of their US model 1841 rifles to cut through that incredible picket fence and they swung up. And what you see here, the circle with a dot in the middle represents the unfired or dropped 54 caliber minie balls used by the Seventh Maine, because that US model 1841 rifle I was speaking of, well guess what? It’s 54 caliber. Where you see the drops, they define a firing line or someone had to stop and physically reload, because these are muzzleloaders, they are rifles. And so you’ll see a one line and then you’ll see a second one somewhere above it Now, where you see the clusters of those dropped, notice you see all these red outlined triangles Those are fired Confederate rounds. So you’re looking from left to right, a 54 caliber Gardner, a 58 caliber Gardner, .577 caliber Enfield and a 54 Raleigh patterned bullets. All these are made in Confederate laboratories. So, we know for a fact that these were being fired by Confederates and it’s amazing we did a colonel analysis and there is an insanely high degree of Association statistically between the drop 54 caliber carried by the Seventh Maine and the fire Confederate minie balls being shot at them by their foes Now, we’ll do the flip side. So here we have at the top in the red outlined photograph, fired 44 caliber pistol bullets and fired .45 caliber minie balls with seven lands and grooves, meaning then they could only have been fired by people using the US model 1841 rifle. It’s amazing. Then below that are the unfired or dropped Confederate rounds, and again left to right and unfired 54 and 58 caliber Gardner’s and unfired Enfield complete with the wooden plug from inside the vessel concavity. A Raleigh pattered bullet, 54 caliber and another Raleigh patterned bullet that is a monster 69 caliber By the way those Raleigh patterned bullets were

made by the children who lived at the North Carolina school for the deaf, dumb and blind children. Now, look at the firing lines. So these firing lines marked in red represent the Confederate positions. So, where they were dropped confederate minie balls and incoming or fired union 54 caliber round, we know for a fact then that. And know by the way Washington DC is not burning down. Don’t panic here, we’re just in the center of the city, and being kind of large urban city in the east, this is what you get So you see at the bottom of the orchard, position of two confederate battle lines, because look at all those fired union rounds Those union soldiers aren’t firing at Specters’ or imaginary soldiers, they’re firing at real targets. And then you’ll also see there are some dropped Confederate rounds there and then as you get farther towards the north or the upper end of the slide and the orchard, you’ll see there were two Confederate fire lines and we know because thanks heavens Major High who was called upon by Colonel Irwin to leave this for Lauren Hope survived and wrote an incredible account He had an amazing memory and was a very articulate person and he talked about how the Confederates drove them into the northwest corner of the orchard and you can see that they continued after they had cut their way literally through the picket fence at this end of the orchard, were continuing to fire from the cornfield up to the north that was adjacent to the orchard back and to keep the Confederates who were pursuing them from getting closer. The other interesting thing is, are those four blue stars; they’d the fire pistol bullets A 44 caliber US army corp. you’re only going to use that effectively at 15 to utmost 25 yards. So this is something that was being fired by one of only three remaining line officers who were still alive at this point. So now, the Seventh Maine has gone from 180 something effective on duty to make the attack to less than half and this in less than 30 minutes and then they exited in that corner. This is the beauty and the power of not only being able to have a total station, but being able to have all the GIS and the software packages that can be used in GIS including Colonel Density Analysis and other things to aid us in interpret and reconstructing battlefield tactics of the American Civil War And here you see it. There’s the probable, here it is using Google Earth, you can see the buildings that represent the Piper farm, the Piper lane, where the various Confederate units were and then to refresh your memory the red circles represent the dropped or unfired Confederate minie balls, and the blue triangles represent the fired 54 caliber minie balls of the Seventh Maine and the yellow lines represent possible Confederate skirmish lines and their movements as they drove the Seventh Maine out of the orchard and back to union lines. Maryland Heights, it’s that great big blob of Wilburton Quartzsite opposite the historic lower town of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. It also is known as the citadel of Harpers Ferry because that was the key for General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s old stone wall to surround and ultimately capture Harper’s Ferry as part of the Antietam Campaign It was the largest surrender in all of the US military history of United States soldiers; over 12,000 Union Soldiers surrendered as a result of Jackson’s investment and bombardment of Harpers Ferry. It is because Harper’s Ferry sits in a bowl down at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac Rivers and here you see the Potomac in this slide with the various bridges that cross over into Maryland And Jackson, after just several days,

the Union Forces realized they were in a hopeless position because the Confederates were able to put artillery not only up on Maryland Heights, but on Loudoun Heights and Cavalier Heights So there were three heights Virginia, then Virginia now West Virginia and Maryland from which the Confederate artillery could just pour their death and destruction down on a hopeless Union troops which is why they had to surrender After that, the union said “Never again, we’re going to fortify this place to the max,” and that’s what they did. Here in the lower right, you see a map showing something that looks like it came out of 17th Century Ireland. You’ll notice there is a port with opposing bastions. Well that’s what you’re looking at the east elevation which would be the elevation on the right of that rectangle with the opposing bastions off of it. It’s amazing Who would have constructed a stone fort in 1862 in the Civil War? Well these guys did. Of course what they were going to do is then have a wooden superstructure above and this was going to be the foundation of the wall. The campgrounds are not modern campgrounds folks, those are Civil War campgrounds. Maryland Heights is covered in them and you always know when you come into a campground, because the area has been completely cleared, police stop by all the privates who were camping there. So they took up all the stones and in some cases they would make these funny little sneaky stone walls, in other occasions they would make piles of stones so that they could pitch their tents and create their company streets and all that good stuff This is the only known image of a union campground on Maryland Heights, and this was, they were going into Winner Quarters which is why they constructed amount of logs and they probably got the boards for the roofs stealing them off of farm structures from farms nearby This is Dr. Susan trail, she was not a doctor and she was not a trail at the time this picture was taken. She was an archeologist with a master’s from the College of William and Mary in historical archaeology and she was the person who was overseeing the archeological survey of Maryland Heights at the time If you look at the map in the lower right, Susan is standing in the upper left interior corner That beautiful map was made by John RavenHorst, a wonderful person and a fine cartographer, an archeologist and unfortunately he left us, departed this life away to soon an incurable disease. John’s handy work can also be seen in the slide in the lower right, one foot contour interval, that’s the only way you can effectively map these earthen fortifications. And so the photograph shows Dennis trail on the left, Susan trail on the right, and you can see the platform is in the interior of the earthen embankment Almost dead center of the slide and you see on the left inside the earthen embankment of the platform. Someone had constructed an illegal campfire here and Dennis is removing evidence of some of the deadfall that had been gathered up to create the illegal campfire. If you’re looking in there, you can also see the embrasures, worthy artillery tubes poked through the earthen embankment toward the top or the north of the slide. This is pretty amazing, so we’ve seen all sorts of rock art, in here you have rock art graffiti. This is private Parker of Company K. The 13th Massachusetts, 1861. And when I show you the next slide, you will understand why he chose to create this where he did. It’s amazing. You are looking up the Potomac River, Harpers Ferry lower town is to the left and what a prospect, absolutely drop dead gorgeous The house where Lincoln died also known as the Peterson house, is part of the National Mall and Memorial Parks, it’s directly across from Ford’s Theater, where President Abraham Lincoln was mortally wounded and after he was shot, he was taken across the street to the Peterson house. Mr Peterson was a German immigrant Taylor who’d come

over in the early 1840s, he had a huge family They also took in orders. How they got all those people, around 20 something in this small little row house is beyond me. Particularly given what it would have been like living in there with all those people during the months of July and August Anyone who’s ever been in Washington DC in July and August knows it can be pretty darn miserable So they discovered that the Park Service hadn’t exactly done right by the floor they put in sometime in the early 1950s in the room directly beneath the room that Lincoln was taken to and in which he died. They had started to put in a new floor and they were going to create a crawl airspace beneath it, but they found out that it was chocked full of stuff of artifacts, animal bone … I think it was the animal bone that actually scared him off. So, what they did is they put down bizarrely two to three tents of a foot layer of asphalt set the floor joist in the highest floorl. So the whole floor was floating The floor joists were not in pockets. Bizarre So, needless to say, this floor did not last very long before it started to deteriorate. The people who managed the property by this point had no idea that that is been the way that story was put in back in the early 1950s. So they come in to remove asphalt, and they bring in people from one of our maintenance facilities of Brentwood and they start turning over the … It’s not really dirt, it was more artifacts and animal bone and ash than it was anything else. And at that point they said, “We’re not digging anymore; we don’t like bones We don’t know if they’re animal bones, if they’re human bones, we’re out of here. Call us when all this is done and we’ll gladly put your flow in So, I got a phone call from the site manager at that time and we wound up doing this excavation, but he was a shrewd, natural born interpreter. His name was Joe Gary, he probably kissed the body stone once too often, but that was fine. That’s what made him such a great interpreter and he said, “Can you guys come back at the end of January so that you’re here in early February?” And we knew instantly what he wanted. Because Abraham Lincoln’s birthday is ta-da in early February, and he wanted us to be there because he knew that the national press would be looking for a new Lincoln copy around the time of his birthday So sure enough AP, UPIs, Scripps Howard, you name it, they were all there. This place which hardly got a visitor in the dead of winter broke all visiting records for this time of the year, because the door that you see that’s turned into the room is a judge’s door. So we were able to open the top and close the bottom. So when the visitors came down from their tour inside the house, they came down the staircase on the rear elevation of the house, which was covered and they came up to this corner where they had to turn right to go in a hall that took them back now to the front elevation in the main street So they were able to look in at the excavations There was also a little recessed area at the end of that hall and we were able to make a temporary exhibit and put it up and had it on display so they could see some of the actual artifacts that we recovered when we did our initial test when we realized we had a pretty significant deposit on our hands. What’s really unique is as I mentioned earlier, the historians and the architects have no idea that there had been a fire. So this was the second Ell Addition. The first Ell Addition burned some time before obviously Lincoln was shot and brought over to the house in April 1865, most likely based on the archeology, the fire occurred probably in 1863 and after the Ell was destroyed, the Peterson’s with this huge family and all these borders living in the structure used the area between the original foundation walls of the first Ell Addition as their trash receptacle After all, there was no Tuesday Thursday trash collection, so it literally went

out the back door; broken artifacts, animal bones, ash. Ash from the fire, ash from the various heating devices they had in the house and we were able to find two builders trenches And it’s because of the ash layers that we could determine which was which. So, in the upper left slide you see the first builder’s trench and then beneath the ash layer in the lower slide, you will see the much wider original builders’ trench for the first Ell Addition and in Ashland they covered. This is really cool. So, we get down here, so there’s a very narrow second builder’s trench dug into the first one and you can tell the difference between the brickwork Look at that beautiful brickwork below that thick layer of gloppy mortar, which was put in and in there instantly started back selling. And then look at that horrible job of brickwork above the thick layer of mortar, a difference between daylight and dark. Of course human nature being what it is, some things just don’t change and that three-piece mold-brown and Porter Bottle was found in the first builder’s trench. So, masons haven’t changed and they still apparently drink on the job, which may have had something to do with the quality of their work, although the earlier brickwork is really, really nice We also found what the cause of the fire in the first Ell Addition is. You can see the remnants of the in situ Herringbone brick floor, it’s a classic sign of a kitchen. And so there was a kitchen on the first floor of Ell Addition and that was apparently the source of the fire that took it down. Beneath that, in the unit just above where you see the in situ herringbone floor pattern, is a swept dirt yard And they were quite common all the way up into the middle of the 20th Century. My mother lived at a home outside of Manassas, Virginia analysis in the 1930s and it had a swept dirt yard Catoctin Mountain Park, back to the National Park surrounding the presidential retreat of Camp David in western Maryland, and here, roads everywhere. And so you can see how the roads can be discriminated because they are putting the rocks which is basically all Catoctin Mountains is, is one giant blob of wildlife and you can see the path of the road through to woods. And we found hundreds and hundreds of Collier, the evidence of charcoal huts made by Collier’s And here’s the period photograph of Colliers in the kind of interesting little huts they made for themselves when they were tending the charcoal huts and there are literally hundreds of these things on Catoctin Mountain Also evidence of farmstead, this case you don’t even have to dig. Here’s one of the outbuildings to a farmstead. And the types of artifacts that come from some of the earliest of the farmsteads start at the end of the 18th Century, but most date from the first and second quarters of the 19th Century. Moving up to 1870s, at Manassas National Battlefield Park, that massive stone exterior chimney base was to a small roughly 16 x 16ft structure that the Nash family lived in and they were African-American. So we’re talking about three African-Americans in post Civil War Virginia. The reason we have this knowledge is because one of the Union generals who fought at the second battle of Manassas August 29th and 30th 1862, had charges brought against him And so there was a court martial and luckily he was exonerated, but as part of that, they had union engineers go out and make an incredibly detailed map of Manassas battlefield, and they noted all the homes on it and the last names of the people who lived in it, and if two people had the same last name, they would give you the initial for their first name. Well, just to the right of that exterior chimney footing, we found a small cache and you can see quartz crystals, you see a halofacts point roughly about 5,000 old of quartz and into the left of the halofacts projectile point, it’s a huge lamp of Galena

These represent someone’s Sherman I would say a curing bag, a curing pouch, because all of these things were things that would have been used in African derived curing rituals. Indeed, some African peoples, like peoples elsewhere in the world believe that the stone arrowheads derived from the impact of the lightning bolt hitting the ground, and so where a lightning bolt hits the ground, that’s where you find the stone projectile out point; always thought that very interesting. Well now we’re getting up even more recent in time, so upper left corner that is the that building in the far distance in the upper left corner of that slide is the building of the Organization of American Historians Between the back of that wooden construction fence and the building of the Organization of American Historian is Constitution Avenue. You look just to the right in the center of the slide that is the Washington Canal Lockkeeper’s House which has been moved several times. We’re now in the area not far from the reflecting pool of the Lincoln. You’re not all that far, just a couple of blocks from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and then of course the Lincoln Memorial. And here you see the mother of all late 19th Century sewers The Keystone has a date on it, of 1880 when they excavated this all the way down to the bottom Two medium sized cars could pass through this tunnel it’s incredible and the number of bricks were just outrageous and of course, guess what? This added to the construction cost because until we archeologists found this, no one was expecting they were going to have to remove the sucker to do what they needed to do. Surprise, welcome to the world of urban archeology. Speaking of which we end with the Lincoln Memorial; a part of the National Mall and Memorial Parks, I hadn’t hardly gotten my seat warm and had just hired Bob Sanderman, so in the lower right hand corner that’s a younger me and Bob Sanderman to my left so I’m the one with the white hat on Underneath the Lincoln, and I get a phone call and first I thought it was a joke. He said, “We want you to do an archeological Survey underneath the Lincoln,” and I said, “Pardon me, did I hear you right?” The reason was this, they did tours under the Lincoln, so interpreters during the summer months would take those people in the know, usually people on the Hill, the House in the Senate, and if they wanted their family members, their friends who are visiting Washington to have a unique experience, he would go see stalactites and stalagmites that formed under the staircase of marble we knew to Lincoln at the top of the stairs and inside the memorial So all that marble with National Airport then called National known Reagan National, just down the river and the planes either takeoff or land almost right over top the Lincoln, which means all their exhausts that gathers whenever it rains, the water droplets pick that up and they deposit the acid and it percolates through the cracks in the construction of the marble that mix up the Lincoln. Hence the staircase is sort of a cave with stalactites and stalagmites. So in the tradition of money Python and now for something completely different when the rest of Washington DC is burning at around 95-100 degrees Fahrenheit in July and August, you’d of course want to go and see stalactites and stalagmites underneath the Lincoln was very nice and cave-like cool Well, some of the interpreters noticed at the end of their tours or the beginning of a new one that certain objects that they had pointed out to the visitors were rock and roll through some process of morphogenesis, sprouting lakes and walking off or as others say, the visitors were taking five finger discounts. So that’s why they wanted an archeological survey. So we had to create a base map for the Lincoln Memorial, and until Bob Sanderman undertook that, it had never been done,

because there were five different construction drawings, all showing different architectural features that he had to pull from to give us a base map. Before we even went under there to document where in the heck this stuff was This was okay, not going beyond, until we found this. I am a amateur graphologist, I used to do cartoons for my high school newspaper and here you have President Wilson with the cigarette holder and the silk top hat and then a workman behind him. And notice the cotton cloth cap he’s wearing, well we found one, there it is hanging on a nail that had been driven into the concrete forms or the foundation of the Lincoln. The one that took my fancy though was the caricature of the construction foreman on the left he has shown in five different locations this is the most incredible rendering. He’s always shown with the slouch hat, a pipe in his mouth, a huge belly and a rather prominent posterior, which in this case has a little birdie sitting on it probably to emphasize this person’s listlessness And we believe that this and the one of Wilson and the workman behind him were executed by Bosco Johnny whose signature is shown on the right and given the graphology and the great flourish that he signed his name, I’m willing to bet 99 and 44 100% that he was the creator of the best of the graffiti under the Lincoln’s and hopefully they’re redoing the Visitor’s Center for the Lincoln Memorial now and hopefully some of this is going to be featured there. Really interesting. So, you never know what you’re going to find in the national capital region. We have a great website which I and my colleagues Tom Goultney, Karen Orrence and Marian Creveling all had a hand in producing and please visit it. Also we have ways electronically that you can ask for both electronic and hard copies of our regional archeology program series, technical reports and so they’re still available So please, visit the website soon, I don’t know how much longer it’s going to be up, because this is part of the content management system stuff and so I’m not certain how much longer it will still be available. But I checked I checked it this morning and it’s still alive and well. That’s it Great, thank you so much. Thank you. We have about 15 minutes left, so I’m going to be not selfish and open up the phone lines for questions if we have any questions first Stephen, and if not, I’d like to ask them a question or two but his career Anybody still out there I’m here Don’t forget to turn on the mic on your phone. Do you have any questions to the audience? Well I have two questions and Stephen in here is part of both our Carter Award winner research in the parks and also is part of our [inaudible 01:33:48] archeologist in the Park Service interview. Stephen, so I want to just ask you about when you first decided to become an archeologist and then a bit about how you started your job as a Park Service archeologist? Sure, my interest in the past began at a tender age of six. I had a wonderful grandmother, my mom’s mom who was a great storyteller. So when I was four, five and six, she would relate stories that have been told to her by her grandfather in that particular individual and I had been in Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War. The story she told were amusing anecdotes, so there was nothing about horrors of the war. Then when I was six, I was walking with her husband, my granddaddy in the family barnyard and there had been a heavy rain the night before, and we were walking along the granary The granary didn’t have any guttering, but it had

two foot roof over it, so there was quite any drip line on the ground, I mean, we’re beneath it. My grandfather was a big man, he was 6’2” and large frame, and I maybe came up to his kneecaps at that point, I was six. So he’s walking along and I see him kick up something with the toe of his riding and he says “Reach down and pick that up boy.” And so I did, then said, “What is it granddaddy?” Because I picked this thing up and it was a great blob to me, rather heavy for its size, I didn’t know what it was. “Well, that’s a wood from the war boy.” And there was only one war, WAH, if you were going to use the Virginia accent and I was the American Civil War It was what I now know to be a three ring .58 caliber minie ball. And so I said, “Is that the same war that grandmother tells me about? That grandma tells her story? The light ball went on between the stories that my grandmother had told me, and the fact that I could actually pick up an object from that time. Can you mute your phone for just for five minutes if you want to talk? I have one more question and then we wrap things up? Sure. So I made the connection between the stories that my grandmother has told me and the fact that I could actually find objects from that time So, it made the past come alive, not only because these were my ancestors, but also because the changeable expression of those times could be found at that day. So I was hooked, it was just a question of whether I wanted to go into history, or wanted to go in archeology and probably did both. A minor in American history with a specialty in a clawny one Civil War period. I also have a minor in geology, a minor in statistics How did you choose archeology and then how did you choose the Park Service? I grew up in northern Virginia and so I was able to, after discovering that I’d not only could find Civil War artifacts on my grandparents farm, but I found out that the corn fields in the far back were loaded with pre-historic artifacts. At a point, I wanted to know more about them and so my mother learned that you could call a number at the National History Museum and get connected to the appropriate department and specialist to bring your objects in for identification. So she did and they could never get root of it. And so I wound up working as a paid summer intern beginning between my sophomore and junior high school Virginia and then senior year of high school in Virginia College Three consecutive summers, I had the incredible experience of being a paid high school intern working in the department of anthropology Smithsonian diction. Not only handled archeological material from Central and South America, from all over North America, but the ethnographic materials. So I was doing everything from Pacific to plains, Indians to north west coast, you name it and it was amazing My mentors at the Smithsonian, I had a couple, Dr Devon and Dr. Benny Meghas. They did me expecting well, and actually for my birthday, they will wind up giving me introductory books on archaeology By the time I got to the University of Missouri, I knew that I would graduate and specialize in archeology. In my introductory archeology class, I’d already read all the books. I’ll never forget

it, the only tests in my entire career that I actually made 105 because in writing of essays, I included parenthetical footnotes and blew the professor away so much, that I knew the literature so well that, “I couldn’t give you ecology number, but I gave you the source to tap that information He really answered me and he said, “How do you know this?” so I told him about my background Also, it’s the same professor that he was up there and he misspelled Ben Meghas last name. It’s D-E-R and he put in A on that And I raised my hand, “I’m sorry professor so and so, but the name is spelled …” And sure enough he went home that night and looked it up and came in and said, “You were right.” And I said, “Yes, I know. I have known him since I was 11 years old.” I blessed. Should we wrap up? Sure. Thank you so much. Thanks folks out there We’re going to wrap up this session. Next week we’re going to have William Reitze talking about his Carter Winning project. It’s a survey project of Petrified Forest National Park. It’s been conducting their research for about four years I’ll be sending out emails for the subsequent presentations that are going to run throughout the fall. Thanks so much everybody for joining us and we’ll talk to you next week. And thank you Stephen Potter very much for joining us