Journey to the Sun | Gregory Orfalea | Talks at Google

SHANNON: All right Welcome Well today, I am pleased to introduce, on behalf of the Talks at Google program, author Gregory Orfalea Greg was born and raised in Los Angeles and educated at Georgetown University and the University of Alaska He is the author or editor of eight books– I guess nine now, including “The Man Who Guarded the Bomb” and “Angelino Days.” The recipient of many awards for his writing, Greg’s “Angelino Days” won the 2010 Arab American Book Award and was named a finalist for the PEN USA Award in Creative Writing– I’m sorry, Creative Nonfiction He has taught at the Claremont Colleges, Georgetown University, and Westmont College Greg is here today to talk about his most recent work, “Journey to the Sun, Junipero Serra’s Dream and the Founding of California,” an authoritative and incisive biography of the man who founded California’s missions Combining European and American history, his religious scholarship, geography, and anthropology, Greg masterfully recounts the story and brings new information to our knowledge of a man whose massive cultural project not only created the blueprint for modern California, but changed the future of our nation Please join me in welcoming Greg Orfalea [APPLAUSE] GREGORY ORFALEA: Thank you, Shannon Who is God’s companion? Junipero Serra might have contemplated this thought on the road in the Salinas Valley of California, where in 1771 he met an Indian woman who offered him “a present.” When he asked her name, she murmured “Soledad,” Spanish for “solitude.” Or at least that’s what he heard- “I was astonished, and turning to my companions said, ‘Here, gentleman, you have Maria de la Soledad.'” He gave her glass beads for seeds; she nodded As “the name stuck to the place,” Serra made a note to found a mission in that desolate, treeless spot Soledad later became the hardest luck mission of them all Serra had undergone plenty of solitude, the “soledad” of the trail, the one that surrounded your neck like water at night, a “soledad” to conquer by singing Matins at first light Not English or American “soledad,” which celebrated being on one’s own, without others; Spanish “soledad,” which longed for them Serra was not about “soledad”– neither were the Franciscan fathers He’d swallowed his fill of it as a boy, losing two sisters and a brother, working the quiet fields of Petra, his home village on the Spanish island of Mallorca But his father’s hand, that leather hand, was always on his shoulder, and later his confreres’ abrazos; even though strangers in the confessional cut “soledad” with their pain Serra respected solitude, the solitude Christ felt in the garden the last night of his life when the apostles slept But Serra wasn’t Simon of the Desert, standing on his pillar alone He loved community, loved performing marriages He traveled as much as he could in a pair or group, because outside the mission walls, lay a solitude so vast only the sun could disperse it Now the dew was on the leaf, the earth shorn briefly of dust, dark and lovely and cool The sun began its climb of the Santa Lucia Mountains, casting them in gray outline As his mule snorted, taking him north in the early morning, the sun regarded Serra; he dared not look back

The sun, warm on his forehead, rising over the crown of the forest, now arched in his mind above the Tramuntana range of his old island and its olive groves to the sea, the Mediterranean waded into the Pacific, the sun wrapping the world in its arms Who was God’s companion? He was For a second, he looked at the sun; God put a white spot in his eye Anybody here ever looked at the sun? Not supposed to do that, right? And just to show you how complicated the choices are for a writer trying to bring an 18th century figure back to life, I still don’t know if those spots are white or black I chose white though in this case What I just read you was the prologue to the book, “Journey to the Sun.” It’s barely more than a page At one time, it was about 20 pages My editor, whose name is Colin Harrison, who is an accomplished novelist, told me to throw out the 20 pages of the prologue, throw out the 10 pages of the preface, throw out the 30 pages of the introduction, everything at the beginning And this is what his rationale was Colin said, “I want the reader to encounter Serra’s story right from the start and be pulled in by the force of it, by that and that alone I don’t want you parsing it or indicating upfront with the reader should expect or look for I want him captured.” And in a way, that’s kind of like falling in love, right? Nobody explains to you why they feel that way They just do You just do I hope that’s what a good book does The work on the prologue was only the first of many waves of editing the manuscript It was 1,300 pages at one time A good part of just 2013 alone was this relentless onslaught to bring it down I mean there was blood all over the floor, Serra martyred many times My own editor had an idea– my own editor, Colin Harrison actually, and my provost at Westmont College, had a title for a talk I’ve given two different kinds of talks for the past two weeks on this book tour One is a general summary of Serra’s life And I’m going to do something different for you Google folks because I think you’re sort of natively ready for something different I’m going to give you the talk I gave my own faculty, which is I’m going to give you five major obstacles I had to encounter in writing this book, five challenges about dealing with the life of Father Serra and indeed researching it And here they are I’ll summarize it for you And then we’ll go down one by one Number one, how to transcend the regional critique? Oh, Serra? That’s a California story No New York publisher is going to be interested in that OK So the regional critique, how to get over it Two, how to deal with the fact that half of Serra’s life is document poor and half of it is document rich? Number three, what is the pivotal moment in the Serra story? Not so easy to figure, and we’ll explore that How to understand the fact of floggings in the missions? A tough one, that’s number four And number five, what techniques– writers’ techniques– what can I bring to bear after writing for 30 years? What tricks do I have in my basket and research goals could I best marshall to bring a celibate Spanish priest of the 18th century to life for a jaded, if not

cynical, American culture? That’s probably the hardest one of all OK Now, I want to say at the outset let’s make this interactive in a way We can do the Q&A in general at the end Shannon, I’d would be happy to do it But jump in if you feel you want more on something as we go down these five obstacles I’ll pause after each obstacle to see if you want to throw in another obstacle OK, first, how to transcend the regional critique? Anybody have an idea? How would you transcend the regional critique? It’s only a California story, right? Nobody’s going to be interested in Junipero Serra We already have William Bradford and the Massachusetts Bay Colony We have Captain John Smith at Jamestown What do we need Serra for? All right, I’ll go into it I wrote the first outline in 2001 So it’s a 12-year year journey I toiled alone without an agent for a long time, with that outline and a sample chapter No success Even my own former editor– I had a great editor at the Free Press, which is another subsidiary of Simon & Schuster, for a book on World War II, about my father, in the war, call “Messengers of the Lost Battalion.” My editor was Adam Bellow, who is the son of Saul Bellow, the Nobel Prize winning novelist Adam is a pretty well-educated guy He went to Princeton He had never heard of Serra, never heard of him So to me, now I thought I was holding onto a hopeless obsession Even my old editor wasn’t going to take it One day, a friend of mine from Georgetown days, my undergraduate days– his name is Jason Berry, who loved what I was trying to do and was gung ho about it from the start– said send an outline and a sample chapter to my agent I think he might look at it Now, Jason is an interesting person I don’t want to get too off track on him But I will just say that Jason Berry was the first author to uncover the pedophilia scandal in the Catholic priesthood And he remained a Catholic, after 25 years of writing this hellish story I have often told Jason, there’s the book you got to write, why you stayed after all that misery Well, maybe Francis I is the better part of it So Jason’s agent, Steve Hanselman, took a look and he got it And why did he get it? Because he was born in Shafter, California, right outside of Bakersfield But he was living and working in New York So he loved it And he knew what it was all about Steve Hanselman understood that the Serra story was one that was important to him from childhood, in fact since the fourth grade Now, how many here did a fourth grade mission project? All right Which mission, Mike? Do you remember which one you did? MIKE: [INAUDIBLE] GREGORY ORFALEA: I see that was a mission you really loved Shannon, do you remember? SHANNON: Carmel GREGORY ORFALEA: Carmel, San Carlos Borromeo I just was there I love that mission Mine was San Juan Capistrano Anyone else? Anybody do San Gabriel, down in LA? That’s a good one Anyway, Steve Hanselman had done San Juan Capistrano too Steve was convinced that Serra badly needed a realistic, unbiased treatment, one that was both celebratory and critical He was convinced that the story had ripple effects far beyond California and could tell us much about the origins of the Hispanic influenced country we were becoming So we went at it And we totally revised the outline and the sample chapter But we were turned down by 12 publishers, even with a gung ho agent However, just when I was going to give up– isn’t that the way

it always is? Just when you’re about ready to pack it in, you get a little tinkle of a bell on your phone or at your door And in this case, it was Colin Harrison at Scribner, the best publisher and the best editor, in my opinion, in New York Colin– and this is kind of what he said, I’m sort of paraphrasing I am interested in alternate foundation stories for this country And this is certainly one we know almost nothing about And I thought, well, that’s how it works You’re lost and then by dint of a kindred soul, you’re found Now, the flip side to the regional critique immediately hit me Now, we have a contract We have a pretty decent advance I’m raring to go The critique about the smallness of the story suddenly becomes the reality of an immense story So what’s the fear now? And I up to it? Can I handle this? I’m a literature guy, not a historian, although I’ve written histories My background is literature and writing So what can I bring to this task that’s different? Well, I thought maybe– what’s literature most fascinated with? Character, character, a person, that’s what I want I want to get into the character of Serra I want the people to walk in his sandals and know what it was like to live in the 18th century and to do what he did Luckily, I had an editor that divined right away that I was insecure and bolstered me almost from the start He gave me his cell phone, his private cell phone I could call him on the weekends This has never happened to me before It happens to very few authors who aren’t best sellers He said we’re going to go at it chapter by chapter and we did 22 chapters, we had 22 conversations of an hour or more on the phone for each of those chapters Uncanny OK Yeah, the question is what drew me to Serra? Well, actually answer is the regional critique I was part of California I don’t know The earliest memory I have as a child is about 2 and 1/2, of having a bird land on my upturned arm at San Juan Capistrano Mission And the bird was pecking the bird seed out of my hand There’s a photograph of it But I hadn’t seen the photo in many years And in my mind I thought, oh, it must be a swallow because the swallows come back to Capistrano, on March 19, Saint Joseph’s Feast Day And I thought I was part of that Well, it turned out it was a pigeon But that early memory and that sense of sacred space, the sense too of going to Georgetown in the East for college, feeling like nobody understood things that were really close to me from California, the assumption that there’s no history Californians are ahistorical They’re trying to escape history That’s why people go West Well, people went West after the Spaniards were there There’s a lot of history before the Americans get here And that’s what I want– I think I was building up the instinct to do this for many years, particularly in the East, at Georgetown OK Challenge number two, how to deal with the dearth of material on Serra’s early life Up until “Journey to the Sun,” there was in fact only one extant letter of Junipero Serra, up to his leaving Spain forever at the age of 36 from Cadiz OK, so I said one letter for the first half of his life before he set sail That’s not a lot Five letters for Mexico– he was in Mexico for 18 years, longer than he was here So six letters up through age 54 I found two in my journeys Doesn’t sound like a lot But you guys know better than I, what that is, a 33% increase So I feel pretty good about that I also should mention that part of this problem with a dearth of material– the challenges,

you got to become not just a historian, but a sort of investigative reporter And you’ve got to travel I did five trips to Spain and Mexico You’ve got to focus on the myths, like a laser, especially the ones that are most controversial And I’ve done that I hope in “Journey to the Sun.” Also the challenge becomes how to weave a story progression through the creation of nine missions? That’s a challenge in itself Because no mission’s story stops with the creation of a new one So you’re weaving this man’s life story through the nine missions, which is part three of the four parts of the book And you’ve got a chapter for each mission, but then they overlap, interlace For example– just a quick example– the pivotal moment of the story, which I think I’m coming up to that soon, is the attack on San Diego Mission But the attack on San Diego Mission occurs in 1775 Mission San Juan Capistrano is being founded So I have the attack on San Diego in the San Juan Capistrano chapter And those are the kinds of things you have to deal with Now, you may wonder why is the Serra story so document poor for the first 36 years of his life? Anybody have any just random guesses or thoughts? There’s quite a few reasons OK First of all, he taught at the Lullian University He had a chair in theology He was a very respected, erudite theologian in Palma at the time That university, the Lullian University in Palma was closed in 1835 And a lot of the records, and sermons probably, and lectures were lost How about 1936 to 1939? What was going on in Spain at that time? AUDIENCE: Civil war GREGORY ORFALEA: Civil war, to which I would compare the Syrians’ civil war today I think that’s the one terribly tragic and bloody parallel to what’s going on in Syria The Spanish Civil War had Franco wiping out anything having to do with Catalan identities Towns, Basque or Catalan, everything was to be Castillian The language, the Catalan dialect, he destroyed the dictionaries So Palma and Mallorca is part of Catalonia So it’s very likely we lost Serra, or at least many of Serra’s holdings at the time of Generalissimo Franco So when you see “Guernica,” the next time you see that great painting by Picasso of “Guernica,” with the explosions in San Sebastian and Bilbao, think about we lost Serra right there, or at least records of Serra I did unearth four sermons of Serra to Claretian nuns in the 1730s that very few had ever seen before in Spanish And someone had done a sort of bad English translation in the ’90s that I found in Mallorca I added my own translation That really helped me with his way of thinking about God and grace and suffering Walking the streets where Serra grew up in Petra, being taken around Palma by a seminarian, who was living in the same hall in the Confendo de San Francisco in Palma that Serra had lived in as a young priest, was invaluable In Barcelona, I sustained “the terrible triad.” I don’t know if any of you have ever broken your elbows before Like an idiot, I chased a thief out of the metro and hit a little escalan, which we don’t have in our metros, a little tiny step And when flying as I was chasing him and smashed my elbow against stone, and broke two bones, the radial, the ulna, and the tendon came off And they call that the terrible triad So on my wife and I spent a week in a hospital in Barcelona, all in the service of trying to find some original documents of Serra’s And, in fact, I did come up with an original letter which revealed several things that couldn’t possibly be seen in the transcription I actually held Serra’s goodbye letter to his parents in my hands, given to me by a Capuchin monk in Barcelona I had to put the white gloves and hold it

And I saw two spots, which I’m going to share with you soon, two spots on the goodbye letter Now, what do you think two spots would be in a goodbye letter to parents? Llora, tears, yeah, tears That’s my guess Could be moisture damage too, I mean But that was sort of my feeling I also uncovered in Oaxaca, after some relentless research and coming up empty for days, I found the name of a man who was having a 14-year affair with a woman, who confessed it to Serra Now, we knew about this unknown person’s confession We didn’t know the name of the man It’s briefly disgusted in a 1787 biography by a friend of his, Francisco Palou, and then dropped for 200 years Briefly mentioned in 1959 by Father Maynard Geiger, the last major biography I thought, whoa, I want to find out who those people were And I did And once I had the name of the man who was carrying on the affair, Don Mathias Cortabarria, I ran around Oaxaca to five archivists And archivists love it when you give them something They just love– they sit around in these kind of dreary jobs all day long– dust of the archive And it’s pretty grim But when they have something and they know someone’s on the trail of something centuries back, they love it And they just really worked hard for me and found many of these names OK, any questions about the document-poor, document-rich? I should save the document-rich part of the story is that one Serra gets to California, you have 264 letters So it’s a bumper crop Now, it’s what do you use? What do you throw out and what do you use? OK Number three, the third obstacle, trying to pin down the pivotal moment Because a lot of the editors, prior to Collin taking it, want to know, OK, what’s the fulcrum here? What’s the fulcrum of the story? I struggled at first I thought maybe it was Serra’s decision to leave everything He ever went home He never saw his parents again He was so nervous about saying goodbye to them, he couldn’t address the goodbye letter to them He addressed the goodbye letter to a cousin, who was a priest, and said give it to them Could that be the pivotal moment? Well, maybe But what do you do then? If that’s the pivotal moment, he’s still got half of his life left That doesn’t serve How about the spider bite at Vera Cruz? When he first landed in Vera Cruz, and he was 36, he was bitten by a spider, walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City, 250 miles It festered It necrotized over time And it pained him for 25 years, the rest of his life, walking all over California A pretty serious pivotal moment, but a little amorphous too Was it his despair after the Cortabarria incident? I didn’t mention this But the man who was having the affair with the woman that confessed to Serra, when he realized that the woman was not coming back to him, he hanged himself And this had great repercussions in Oaxaca and affected Serra How about Serra’s meeting with the viceroy in 1774, when he went all the way back from Carmel, down through Baja, over on ship to San Blas, to Mexico City, and pleaded with the viceroy not to shut the whole project down because there was a terrible epidemic almost of molestation by the soldiers, of the Indian women, which Serra totally decried and fought But he was worried because their one was stopping them The commandantes were not cashiering these soldiers, that the viceroy was going to end the project at California In the end, I picked the incident I mentioned to you, Serra’s reaction to the murder of Father Luis Jayme, who grew up with him in Mallorca, during the second attack of Mission San Diego by the Kumeyaay And I’ll read just a brief little part of that, and then we’ll run to the end In the wake of the second major Indian uprising in California,

Serra sat down December 15, 1775, to write a soul-searching letter to Viceroy Bucareli in Mexico City I should mention that although the attack took place in San Diego, Serra was not there He was in Carmel Carmel was his home mission So he didn’t get the news for a couple weeks But when he did, and he knew that Indians had been arrested, at least nine, and then later a total of 24, to be executed– they were on death row– he had to act fast So he wrote this letter He contemplated the burned, shredded baptismal records, the stolen vestments and utensils of the Sacristy He hovered on giving up He reminded Bucareli of his insistence at the beginning of these conquests quote, “That in case the Indians, whether pagans or Christians, would kill me, they should be pardoned.” From the very onset of the Spanish movement into Alta California, Serra seemed to sense violence was inevitable and he wasn’t going to return it Nor did he want the military to return it Serra’s insistent note to Bucareli was not only exceptional in its anticipatory mercy, it seemed to beg the question of the whole enterprise This is a stunning position It’s almost as if Serra were asking for forgiveness, not only for the Indian, but from him, knowing what the Indian was going to have to give up even if he felt he was offering a better way, salvation, as he understood it So Serra attacked the clemency simply and profoundly And I’ll give you the exact quote in his letter to Bucareli “To prevent the Indian from killing others, let the soldiers protect us in better fashion than they did the now deceased padre And as to the killer, let him live so that he can be saved For that is the purpose of our coming here and its sole justification.” In short, “the gospel of love.” All right, the fourth challenge Yes, sir? AUDIENCE: What happened? GREGORY ORFALEA: What happened? AUDIENCE: Did the letter take effect? GREGORY ORFALEA: Bucareli was deeply moved He ordered all the Indians released In fact, one of them, probably the leader of the attack, Carlos, whose native name was Chisli, Carlos and his brother Francisco, they were both in on this rebellion, became very close to the missions, particularly Francisco I think he was a leader of Christian Indians in San Diego Carlos kind of went in and out of– he was a bit of a recidivist But he ended up at Carmel ironically, after Serra died, and had his family there and worked the mission in Carmel The fourth challenge was how to deal with the most troubling, if not revolting, fact of Father Serra’s life, that he allowed and even advocated floggings for penance and discipline in the missions, often against the very Indians he was otherwise protecting I’ll only say here I was faced with a twofold problem, a moral one and a narrative one The first was easier to confront Serra was wrong There’s no way to gainsay it Despite the fact that disciplinary floggings were commonly used in schools, as well as prisons, throughout Europe, Serra should have had the wisdom to be as ahead of his times in this area as he was in others The narrative problem was tougher If I tackled the issue of floggings too early, I might lose the reader’s commitment to the Serra story before it even began And although I sprinkled references to the floggings in the book prior, I don’t focus intensely on it until the last night of his life And it’s the end of part three of a four-part book And that night, I begin the chapter actually with this quote from that night

Serra says, “I have come under the shadow of fear.” That’s when I deal with the floggings It’s hard to explain them away But you have to remember that this was a sort utopic community, the mission And the Indians were not forced to come in That’s a myth It wasn’t slavery It was a kind of indentured servitude though Because once they were in, then they were committed to a community that needed their work They were given clothes They were given food and shelter and a home at a time when lots was going on in the native villages The germs were spreading The microbes were out and about And a lot of Indians were dying So the mission, and I say this at one point, the great irony of the California missions is that they were both protection and exposure The Indians were seen as children, not– how can I say this? We’ve all read some books where the padres refer to their flock as “my children.” I don’t think it was you’re inferior than me But it was a kind of way of regarding the neophytes, as they were called, as newcomers in the Christian faith As such, the number of the thrashings was half of what an adult would get That’s 12 versus 25 That still doesn’t make it right Personally, I think probably the worst thing about the thrashings was not the physical pain, but the humiliation People would steal There was adultery that went on I don’t have to tell you what went on in New England with adultery they didn’t whip you They burned witches at the stake, who they thought to be witches We have to be careful when writing history of what’s known as the presentism problem, to judge the past with our present attitudes and moral standards Still, like I say– and I make no bones about this, I think it was wrong Yes, sir? AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] GREGORY ORFALEA: It was actually part of the whole Spanish project And, in fact, it was part of the English project The English thrashed their students at prep schools, such as Eaton What was it? Four thrashings was a scrubbing Six lashes was a bibling in Eaton This was the standard of the time I suspect it was probably not much different in Asia I mean, unfortunately, corporeal punishment or corporal punishment was a standard Now, I will hasten to say that even during Serra’s time, people took issue with it One of the governor’s took issue with it And he got into a big argument with him in 1780 And I mention that By the 1820s, it was abolished throughout the Spanish lands So although it was the standard, it was beginning to come under question To move forward to last obstacle– and then we’ll open it up– the last obstacle was, in the words of Frank Buck, how to bring him back alive Another way of stating this is how to make the Serra story neither hagiography– and hagiography, overly praising or excessive adulation of the subject– nor a broadside attack In short, how to make Serra a real man One way to do this was to make those that he came to save for Christ, real men and women, that is the Indians of California So I had to do a lot of research about Indian culture As those of you have written books know– or people who’ve organized them, been involved with researching– organization is theme I tried to effect a kind of ecumenism by dividing the first two parts of the book like this Part one is Serra before California and part two is California before Serra Then we combine them in part three And then it’s after his death and the sainthood

issue in part four So it’s pretty simple But there was a method to my madness Another method of bringing him back alive was to bring back alive the women he loved, which included the Blessed Mother herself, his sister and mother, Maria Contreras in Oaxaca That’s the woman who confessed to him, the affair And Maria de Agreda– has anyone here ever heard of the 17th century nun, Maria de Agreda? I had never heard of her before I started the story She was said to have by bilocated 500 times from Spain, Agreda, Spain, to New Mexico And in the book, I say, well, there’s a spiritual frequent flyer if there was one It’s quite a story, Maria de Agreda But all this to say that other than his Bible and his divine office, the only other book that Serra had in his bag all over California was “The Mystical City of God” written by Maria de Agreda, a four-volume novelistic treatment of the Blessed Mother Anybody here interested in women studies, take a look at that book Not too many women novelists in the 17th century And here’s one writing four volumes about Mary Serra was entranced Another way I tried to bring him back alive was to use fictional techniques about nonfiction And that is, occasionally I will put interior thoughts in italics I try not to overdo it I always ground it in the real record And when the record runs out, I’ll sometimes use the subjunctive mood And my editor said, oh, yeah, the subjunctive will be the salve for the wound Beyond research for new primary and secondary material and the somewhat risky techniques was the matter of walking in his shoes, in Mallorca, mainland Spain, Mexico, and the two Californians This was exhausting, exhilarating, and for me at times deeply humbling The Serra story is interdisciplinary from start to finish You must steep yourself in the art he loved, his theological models, the history of the times, the history of the Church, music, literature, geography, and the environment And finally, I had a field day envisioning the beauty of our wondrous state through the eyes of one who fell in love with it for life, causing great hope and great pain for its inhabitants And I’ll leave you with this short paragraph of Serra traveling south, looking out on the water Troubled before La Assumpta– La Assumpta is an Indian village near present-day Ventura– Serra saw something out on the blue of the calm morning, a wound on the sea, a lambent dark red, the kelp beds, like a stigmata on the water At the hottest point of the sun, he might have climbed off the mule, taken to the sea, the water making his robes heavy, but his heart light Close up, the kelp was golden, its pods upright in the water The kelp leaf could pass over his face like a hand God, he loved suffering for this beauty Thanks [APPLAUSE] So a couple of quick images and then we’ll call it an evening This is Mt Ronda in Mallorca, a beautiful upsurge of mountain They’re all over the island And there are sanctuaries and monks, monasteries up there This is where one of Serra’s models, the 13th century monk Raymond Lull, claimed to have seen a vision of Christ crucified while he was living his dissolute life, sort of like Saint Augustine in his 20s Raymond Lull was writing a letter to one of his lovers And he saw this image of Christ crucified on Mt Ronda And it was a place that Serra loved Here’s Soller Now, what does that remind you of, that landscape? California So I always say, Serra left home to go home It’s beautiful If you’ve never been to Mallorca, you won’t regret it This is Soller, which is where the olive press, the great olive press was And Serra and his father would take the olives on a mule train over the mountain, the Tramuntana, down into Soller, which was a port town, and put the olives in the great grinder There he is Now, that’s probably the only painting he really sat for

But we’re not even sure that he did But we guess around 1773, we think it was Jose de Paez, who was a great Mexican painter He looks a little fraught, I’d say, puzzled The copy– the original, if it ever existed, is no more This is one extant copy And it’s at Mission Santa Barbara So if you ever want to see it, that’s where it is OK, the goodbye letter to his parents I flipped it This is the fourth leaf Remember, I was talking about the spots on the goodbye letter? Let’s see, can you see it here? There’s one way up here and then one down here I don’t know if you can see it It’s not quite focused But it’s there Also take a look at how he finished the letter This is the actual letter This is the margin And on the side of the leaf, he just couldn’t stop saying goodbye Goodbye to my– please express goodbye to my cousins, Jose And please say goodbye to the baker down the street in Petra He just filled this with goodbyes It’s obviously a very painful letter And then he ends it, cordial amigo in Cristo, your cordial friend in Christ, Junipero Serra, Junipero Serra, indigno sacerdote, which in Latin is “unworthy priest.” But look at this There’s a little squiggle here And I think– and you wouldn’t see unless you saw the original– that he added a superlative It’s not “indigno.” It’s “indignisimo,” which means “most unworthy priest.” All right, here’s North America in 1663 You see California? It’s this huge island And that’s what California was taken as for a long time Into the middle of the 18th century, California was thought to be an island And in this case, it’s half the size of the continental United States This is “The Founding” in Monterrey– the great painting called “The Founding.” The painting is 1877, but the event was 1700– 1770, sorry, the second mission This is the Vizcaino It’s no longer there today But there was an earlier mass done in 1602 by the explorer Sebastian Vizcaino And in it lasted for many years, until it finally rotted and was thrown into the bay when they were building a train, in about 1905 Probably one of the more famous trees in American history I mentioned Maria de Agreda This is a picture of her I got from Zacatecas in Mexico Here’s Maria And she’s sitting next to one of the evangelists Can you guess which one, the four gospel writers? It’s John, Saint John And they each are wielding a pen– writers And this is the name of her great book on Mary I mentioned to you the last night of his life was– great fear had come over him This is the great fear painting If there was any doubt that’s what he had said– very soon, he died in 1784 So six years later, there’s a painting about this moment It was legendary even then And it would have to have been transferred by his very close friend and first biographer, Francisco Palou Here’s Serra in the middle This is Palou himself, doing last rites Can you see? It’s not easy to see it Maybe over here, more easy There’s a face above Palou Can you see it? It’s very difficult to see on this project– that’s an Indian, Indian chief And on the left is probably Governor Pedro Fagus, who clashed with Serra constantly I love this painting It’s shown in Carmel Mission once a year, for the week before Christmas And it’s Mary being visited by St. Elizabeth, who’s pregnant with John the Baptist And Mary, of course, is pregnant with Christ The painting was done around 1500 And it is in the Uffizi in Florence, the great Uffizi gallery This is a copy And the copy– a very good one– is in Carmel Mission Oh god, forget him I’m out the childhood window And the last picture will make my wife– she’s in the backyard of Serra’s home in Petra, looking a little– oh, Greg, isn’t it time to go?

Well, thank you [APPLAUSE]