Sustainability, solutions for the future & jazzing things up with Prof Peter Newman

now I’m going to start with two quotes that are very academic sustainability is the new postmodern grand narrative and at its deepest level it can be argued that sustainable development is not a motherhood issue at all it is a subversive issue this is a debate about how we should understand difficult things it is the Galilean dialogue of our times I’m not going to say anything more academic from here on because I think sustainability has arisen out of practice it hasn’t come from universities actually we talk about it but didn’t come from here it came out of the need for a new way of understanding the world and of solving complex problems and when I was put in charge of running the state sustainability strategy and we had to try and do that in a way that made sense for this state it’s a bit of a background story there Jeff gallop was appointed as the premier 2001 and they had a commitment in their policy to developing a state sustainability strategy and he rang me up and said look you’re a professor of sustainability should know what one of them is and he rang me up because I was his cricket captain back in the undergraduate days at UWI and and we knew each other from way back but I pretended and said I hear you I could probably show you a few things about that but I had no idea actually and it had to be done in practice you had to work it out with the public servants with industry with the community and look at 42 areas of government and see what it meant so the definition we came up with took us two and a half years but it was a very intricate process as am is meeting the needs of current and future generations through an integration of Environmental Protection social advancement and economic prosperity now that’s basically what the whole story is about future thinking about long next generations and governments don’t usually do that and integrating across these different areas now the reality is we don’t train people to do that at University we train them in those separate areas we don’t train people to come together and integrate those knowledge sources so there was no profession you could go to and say well show us what sustainability means you had to do it and work it out so we developed a set of principles and we worked out what it meant now this was part of a global story that began in the 70s when environmental sciences began to develop a way of protecting the environment so environmental protection authorities started up and regulations for environment and assessment processes were put in place and they’re still there but they began in the 70s there wasn’t anything to lend and it it developed quite a lot of momentum and the economists looked on this and we’re a bit worried it didn’t quite fit their models and the environmental has looked on the economists and thought these guys are part of the problem and eventually there was a big global fight about it because I’ve worked with a an ecologist Paul air like at Stanford was very strong honest he hated economist he said they are the scourge of the earth they don’t know anything they don’t understand the second law of thermodynamics and you know go on like that and and the reality was there was a growing schism between these disciplines and in the world this worked out in the way that people were we’re looking at the future so the ax colleges were saying the world is now full there’s too many people the planet is overstretched we’re pushing all of the environmental systems and we’ve got to stop developing because development is the problem it is creating opportunities all the time for people to consume the earth and they had a point but on the other side you had a billion people going to bed at night hungry they weren’t consuming much at all and they had a legitimate need for development so in that in the you that the various UN events that were

happening there was this growing divide how to bring them together was the big issue so Madame brundtland was put in charge of a process it was called the UN Commission on environment and development she was the Prime Minister of Norway reaching the end of that and she brought together a team of people from around the world to to create a new approach which brought together economics and environment and they produced the word sustainable development in 1987 they brought out their report and our common future and it essentially said there is no reason why economic development cannot improve the environment rather than destroying it and there’s no reason why Environmental Protection shouldn’t be good for the economy but let’s try and work those two things out because there weren’t too many examples around of that they could quite if you read that book there’s lots of this is what we should be doing but not a lot of case studies saying this is how it’s done so the world began our journey at that point pretty soon they realized you cannot resolve those issues unless you bring the social society the issues only solved by communities in their different cultures and their different approaches and when you bring the three together when you’ve got the triple bottom line working then you’ve got a chance to create this sustainability in the middle so that was the journey that began and all these UN events rio de janeiro and sao anh happen and we’ve just finished having rio + 20 which is reviewing 20 years of thinking about sustainable development and what I’ll do at the end of the detectives tell you about a new thing that’s happened just been announced there are ten sustainable development goals that have been set for the world and they are going to replace what I called the Millennium Development Goals and that will be the next agenda for the next 20 years and every government and every University and every community and NGO every person has to try and see what they’re doing about those ten goals but let me just have a little meander through what’s been happening essentially these strategies were set up to try and improve this integration in the middle and what we found very quickly was that you can’t do this without involving the market community and government it’s not any one of those but all three and they have different approaches and different strengths so the market with its goods and services the communities values and visions driving the ethics of it and government regulations and infrastructure but you bring them together now one of the key groups that influenced a lot of people in the early days and certainly influenced our strategy was the World Business Council for sustainable development they had a set of scenarios they said there are three ways of looking at the future the first ones frog first raise our growth so businesses create wealth and then when they’ve finished doing good business they give a bit to the environment and a bit to Social Development and you know that’s the way in which we do it they the world Business Council said that doesn’t work anymore spill overs trickle-down doesn’t work the second one geo polity is where governments step in and they basically sort it all out themselves just regulate it for it intervene really and just take over and it’ll get fixed a lot of people like that approach but they said that doesn’t work either government failures just as bad as market failure you know for years farmers were required to clear their wheatbelt properties not because they wanted to because they had to every year a certain amount of clearance had to be done government failure is an endemic problem so what’s the solution they said the solution is jazz you’ve got to get all three elements of those the community government and the market working together and you never really know who’s leaving that’s why it’s like jazz jazz is actually quite hard to play and you’ve got all these different players and some people lead at different times and others follow and they work together and when they are all working together you get all this energy and flexibility and music and when that happens then you’re solving problems now

I have to say in those three years I worked in government on that strategy there were times when we play jazz and you can see the difference it was wonderful and we made 40 odd case studies based on where we thought some real jazz was happening we put them on the website I had 50 students working for me on this strategy by the way because no one in public sector knew what to do I said all my students know they didn’t know much either but they did know how to get to the web and find out how to what was going on in the world and and start interviewing the people that came forward now one story was our gold diamonds rio tinto had set up this diamond mine up there and it it was very productive for them but they had no indigenous people working in this mine site and it was part of the original agreement to keep well away from now this guy Brendan Hammond arrived from South Africa we’d worked a lot with indigenous people and and they did a review of their whole operations and came up with the conclusion that unless mining can create a legacy of social value we have no right to mine that’s a pretty powerful statement and so they said well what do we do well we start training people give people jobs and you train them and and it’ll all work in five years twenty-seven percent of the workforce at argyle were indigenous and they weren’t just truck drivers and so on although they lot usually started that way they their hand eye coordination which we see in football is really a very big asset for the kind of jobs quite clever jobs that were happening in the mind and there are now Foreman and managers who have come through that process so that agreement that process was clearly a great step forward they did all kinds of ecological things as well like worked out how to rehabilitate the mine site using natural species and getting the local indigenous community to to plant on it and they eventually started doing their law business on the mine site because that’s where the medical bush tucker plants were and so there are a lot of benefits that were gained in that whole process and i think that brendan hammond implicitly understood this idea of sustainability and what did it do to their profits their shares in value increased 10 times during that five year period so didn’t harm them and it certainly has set a standard for what can be done in the mining community and a lot of other minds now do that now we moved on a bit from the sustainability idea to talk about resilience that’s a new word that’s come around and in many ways it’s the same kind of word except get on with it and the latest term is the green economy and the green economy is something that is now seen to be the next wave of economic development so we’ve been through different waves with different kinds of fuels that the basis of a different economic models the next wave involves sustainability new technologies new ways of doing things and that green economy is now the next competition really and so you’ll find a lot of the literature now about sustainability is shifted into understanding what the green economy is and the OECD and United Nations talk about that so my question tonight is how are we going in all of that 20 years of activity and let’s look at climate change as one example I first heard about that in 1970 and a lot of people began that journey around then and you can see from the graph there hadn’t been a lot of change and but you can begin to see a bit of Hope coming and let me just show you what some of that is so the temperatures are going up the ice is melting we’re having these amazing storms like Katrina and reviews of people like Stern and others showing that we’ve got to go over that hill we cannot keep going up like that we’ve got to get 450 degree parts per million maximum and that means coming down that there that’s a pretty steep curve that’s where we’re at that’s the name of the game and I’m on the IPCC transport committee and we’re part of a group trying to show how you do it and Garneau has said well the ones who produce the

most emissions have to show the biggest change and places like China and India can continue growing for a while but at what point does that happen to wear that where do they start turning over and and when you read the literature in this here mostly we only hear about the despair it’s still out of control and it’s pretty scary when you look to the future but the goal is to what I say go from the D curves to the archives the D curves there’s lots of them they’re all about depletion disappearance desperation degradation and and they’re out of control they’re exponentially going up and they’re not showing any change impact out of control and we need to go to the archives which are about repair renew renovate restore and see them turning over so that the big message I want to give tonight is we are starting to see the turning of the curbs the ultimate thing is that we actually go below that zero line and begin regenerating creating better environments because that’s really the sustainability goal now I’ve just come back from Ethiopia the IPCC met in a disturber but when we had 10 days getting around it’s the most amazing place it’s very poor it’s not poor hungry anymore but it is extraordinary the color and the vibrancy and abundance of hope and so on that you find there but they have a green economy plan that’s incredible it’s so much more detailed than anything we’ve got it’s growing at ten percent a year now and that their goal is to be a middle-income country by 2025 but to lead in the green economy by doing it carbon neutral so all of their development from here to 2025 is not going to produce any more fossil fuels the only pretending produce one time a year of greenhouse gas per capita do you know what we have it’s about 40 okay so it’s very tiny but in the next 20 year period then they’re not going to produce anymore because they’re going to develop a model for how to do it based on renewable energy energy efficiency and so on so they’re playing it was very detailed Ethiopia’s climate resilient green economy strategy is and it was led by this guy Mellie’s at zenna we who died recently encapsulating agenda 21 that’s the UN’s agenda in the spirit of the day Mellie’s called for our conservation based people led people centered development it’s essentially sustainable development but said much longer way requiring a multidisciplinary broad spectrum approach for there is no peaceful solution to the problems at hand he understood he actually represented our Africa the Kyoto Convention and all of that he was a really highly educated and committed leader so they’ve got four pillars they’re going to improve crop and livestock production practices for higher food security and farmer income while reducing emissions protecting and reestablishing forests for their economic and ecosystem services including carbon stocks expanding electricity generation from renewable sources of energy for domestic and regional markets and leapfrogging to modern and energy-efficient technologies in transport industrial sectors and buildings now that is their plan and they have detailed plans showing how to do it in agriculture forestry transport industry buildings and the what it will cost some of them are cost neutral or or actually make money and others will cost money and they put it all together and and they say that we need that amount of money and they’re going to get it from the carbon markets they’re going to actually be by achieving these outcomes you can trade that and make money out of it that’s what the carbon trading system is all about and they’re over 60 countries now involved globally in that whole thing and that’s what Australia is now part of but they are the beneficiaries of this and they will do incredible things in their development so that’s sustainable development in practice it really is and it’s a lot more sophisticated and detailed now than anything we ever thought of it’s so much more detail now we have a green economy package it came out securing a clean energy future and the goal is eighty percent less greenhouse gas by 2050 lot of people don’t believe that’s possible but when you look at what other countries are

doing it’s certainly possible and there’s a 10 billion package that went with it but most other places are way ahead of this in Germany they have well all the EU countries have what’s called a low-carbon economy roadmap and the German one for 2050 says they buy then they’ll have eighty percent less carbon fifty percent less car use about that how many countries do you know have fifty percent less carbon unless car use gold a hundred percent carbon free power and all buildings rebuilt to use fifty percent less energy now they’re serious goals and they’ve got a road map showing how they’re going to do it why because they want to lead the world in showing how to do it that’s the new economy but Ethiopia wants to show how to do it in an African way and in an emerging economy way they want to become more wealthy but they want to do it based around this approach the UK a change government from a Labour government to a conservative one and they increased the rate at which they were a competing in this area they put a much higher radical carbon going and last week or a few weeks ago the u.s. joined the world finally finally now the reason they weren’t involved for a long time is that Ronald Reagan actually pulled the American delegation out of that brunt on commission because his wife had a dream that said the UN was evil and he had to do something about it and there’s books written about this and I’ve talked to state development officials about it it was a very serious difficult time because they banned the word sustainable development in the u.s. pretending year period we weren’t allowed to talk about it now there’s an advanced approach for solving these problems and they really lost global leadership at that time and they’ve been struggling ever since so it’s no you know you can see why there’s this huge difficult problem politically for Obama to step in and do this package so he’s had to do it himself he can’t get through Congress so he’s committed to a target of seventeen percent below 2005 levels by 2020 it’s at least a target that’s going down okay it’s not constantly going up and he’s got other mitigation methods in there which are all much more sensible they are joining the world and they have announced that they and the world bank will no longer finance coal-fired power stations so that’s a pretty big thing now we have written a book recently called green urbanism in Asia which looks at the Asian countries which is thought to be the real problems for the future because it doesn’t matter what we do China and India are going to blow us away they’re all going to be driving cars and they’re all going to ruin the planet and they’re taking our oil and so on it really is nonsense because they are going to lead this region certainly in terms of the green economy they are so far more committed to it and there are lots of examples that one quick one in Seoul that freeway was built over the top of a river and in about eight years ago there was an election held from there we’re a very strong community group said we want to take this highway down and because there’s a sacred river under there that needs to be restored and we don’t want to have more cars inside all the kind of things you here and expect but what you don’t expect is that the / one of the mayoral candidates put his hand up and said he would take it down and he won and you can imagine him walking into the traffic engineering department saying okay it’s coming down and even worse he was in charge of the engineering company that built it but he did it and it came down the chola Tang has been restored there’s a 10 kilometres long central city park there and the river of life has been restored and it is a wonderful place to go now he did ok as a mere and then he stood for president and got elected so doesn’t hurt your politics and he has said if you want to picture the green economy pick to the charger it’s a beautiful area it’s 20 or 30 degrees cooler in there hot summers down there the fish and the birdlife are returning and it is it is a humanly attractive place in the center of the

city so we’ve got some good examples there and we can go through lots more but what we’ve got happening around the world zero carbon buildings are happening everywhere zero carbon precincts like bedzie and verb on and zero carbon cities in master in abu dhabi is being built it’s it’s somewhere you can go now and see how to make a carbon-free city in a place that’s got a lot of oil and they have electric vehicles like this solar pv solar chimneys in the old arabic style dubai is now building a they want to keep up and and they were going to build a sustainable city and china has got 200 now eco-cities and like this that there’s you SolarCity but you can take those examples but is it mainstreaming are we seeing those graphs turning over let me give you some encouraging results because there’s three trends at least with fossil fuel power investment power consumption car use and oil peak fossil fuel power investment I read this article in The Australian King still reigns and it was basically saying well of course everybody knows renewables is too expensive and doesn’t really work so and coal is going to keep being the major investment I said I’d like to find out some numbers so I did some work on an article with Ray wills and we found the Green Line they’re showing the amount of investment in renewable energy is now outstripping the amount of investment in fossil fuels now the whole lot began to decline in the last year but it’s still a higher proportion is going into renewable so that well banking it’s not as though they’re leading the pack thanks everywhere are not funding coal-fired power stations anymore it’s over it’s quite simply something in the past it was a previous economic wave and it’s not going to be there for the future Australia should not see that coal exports are going to keep going up they are not there already under siege and some coal mines are closing but the where is this investment happening have a look at that one that’s the Asian region and they are seriously investing in these new technologies this year China built more wind and solar power than Australia’s total energy consumption in one year and they announced just recently that their greenhouse gases will decline from this year on and will never go up again they are turning over that curve and going down they are not going to be the problem our part of the solution and these are this is an emerging country so they’re actually doing it before most of us the second thing is peak power consumption we need to actually reduce how much energy we use in general and there’s all kinds of ways of doing the interesting things in most European countries now going down in their household energy use from all of these different appliances and parts of the household not in 2004 that happened and the same in Australia it’s actually energy use is going down it’s now a crisis for the utilities because they are used to this going up that’s what all their predictions were and they bought for that in Perth last year at last summer we had built for a peak power consumption level that was never even remotely reached we never had any brownouts did we we and yet it was the hottest summer on record because it’s starting to go down and power consumption is something that lends itself to all kinds of efficiencies in the home but also photovoltaics and clearly the carbon price is working because it’s going down and PBS are just taking off around the world that’s the graph now that’s a good exponential graph and the price of it’s coming down is now quite competitive with with any kind of power production so we’re at a point where Peavy’s if you put P Vees on your roof you’re essentially able to

undercut the power system and that’s what’s happening so the PV price has come down in a similar way that mobile phones have and and so around the world the feed-in tariffs are disappearing now where is it where solar being bored it’s being bought in Sydney Brisbane Adelaide and Perth mostly not much in Melbourne and so on and or in the regions but out alive where are the suburbs that are built a buying PVS all in the outer suburbs same in sydney taming perth now I’ve got a little house in Fremantle I can’t even fit TVs on the roof there but I walk everywhere goodbye so I you know I’ve got something I can do about reducing energy but in the suburbs especially in those big with those big houses and people are buying p vics and at a rate that is quite remarkable as 138,000 of them now in Perth with households with P Vees on the roof so it definitely is fading in and out that on the hot days when the power when the sun’s out and we’re all putting on our air conditioners that’s when the PV start working so it’s it’s fitting in to this transition and it will help us to go over that peak but the utilities weren’t ready for it they should have been but they weren’t now this is what we have to do in the world to stay under a rise of two degrees centigrade the World Bank and I was all said that’s the guy we must not go over a rise of two degrees centigrade because we will it’ll just be ridiculous for the world economy otherwise though that means we’ve got to follow that green line and it is possible to do so the 450 part per million won now this is the most recent way it’s been seen and most of it they say should happen in the non-oecd countries because they’re the growing ones seventy percent should happen there they also have shown that in terms of coal gas and oil they are all going over that that transition these are other sources of energy and that it does really indicate a significant change that we’re going through so there’s some hope there and power is in fact a bit easier but everyone says that to me okay but you’ll never get people out well this one took me by surprise we’ve been following data on Caillou’s around the world from our global cities database and we found that car use was going down per capita and this is pretty low in that period 052 2005 but we didn’t predict that after that period Caillou’s would continue to decline and start going down and that’s the reality now so us peaked in 2004 before the GFC and this is the first time in a hundred years that around the world you can see car use going down so the transport planner certainly didn’t predict this their models are wires about if you’ve got more wealth you’ll buy cars and you’ll use them depending on how much wealth you had and all the predictions show increasing wealth so to inevitable but it stopped and eighty dollars a barrel helped for the price of oil and in Australia exactly the same year 2004 we also peaked in each of our Australian cities so that’s Perth there now it didn’t feel like it’s in the last seven or eight years did it because we had this massive population boom happening and this is per capita so that we actually did grow in terms of traffic but if you go to Sydney now Sydney’s total traffic is back to what it was in 1992 and Tony Abbott is still committing to build a 15 billion dollar freeway system and one in Melbourne and one in Brisbane because that’s in his knitting he says an urban rails not but it’s a it’s really a relic thinking and it’s part of an old way of approaching the

future because we are actually out of our cars in ways that we didn’t predict now why is it going to keep on the price of oil is going to keep going up all of the the predictions are there because and this is the official Australian perspective now on oil they now recognize that the peak in conventional oil has happened and the new sources of oil are more expensive and they are also peaking at a bit later period so we are going to have to get off oil we’re going to need every electric vehicle we can and biofuels and all of that but we’re also needing to reduce our total use of cars now what it means is that these outer suburbs the ones that are putting all the PVS on their roof are pretty vulnerable in terms of oil I’ll fix the coal situation but that won’t do much for a while because they’re car-dependent and that you can see that these are the poorer areas of place like Sydney and but they use cars 10 times as much as these trendy central areas of Sydney 10 times more and and the those wealthy areas there have got lots of other options now what are the green areas that’s where the railway lines go and they use half the fuel of the red areas there’s a bit of a message there urban rail should be in every politicians knitting and if they don’t don’t get elected out because that’s what happened in the Melbourne on the Victorian electro state election the New South Wales one and what was the number one issue in Western Australia was public transport it’s on the agenda for ordinary people doubt in these suburbs they’re a bit stuck they need some options and they are pushing very strong the Conservative government in New South Wales is building rail all over the place and Victoria too and they all need help and federal helps needed so the same in Perth with the vulnerable areas now the second thing is that the culture is changing I’ve mentioned this already the young and the wealthy are the ones getting out of cups in America the red lines are the most recent ones can see the big drop in car use in the teens the 20s the 30s or 40s the 50s right through to us baby boomers out here and then you see this still going up and we’re a bit stuck in our cars the gray hairs in the audience will understand this we got cars as a way of liberation our freedom and connection in the community came about with the car so it’s going to be very well drive our cars to the grave Oregon and to our own funerals problem but the the but that’s not the agenda here why is this it seems to me every time you go on a train younger people are totally free and connected whilst being on the train because of their mobile phones and their iPads that’s when they catch up with their friends on Facebook and do all their connection and it’s a bit much easier place to do it then if you’re driving driving gets in the way and you get actually yeah it to illegal so sometimes you can be on two at once so Richard Florida’s written a new book about this phenomenon America cars are so yesterday’s is young and Richard leave guzzlers behind so there was a twenty-three percent decline in a nine-year period there for the 16 to 34 year olds now that’s massive it’s a revolution it’s a cultural change it has to be culture is no longer anything that the economists can explain because their elasticity would not have predicted this where are they going they’re going onto public transit biking and walking but mostly they’re moving back into cities where they don’t have to need a car as much and that’s happening across the world and it’s happening in Latin American cities and European cities and Australian cities it’s a very powerful process that’s happening in London the latest data show a 19-percent fall in traffic total traffic now they started out with Ken Livingstone with the congestion tax but has continued on can always less and less traffic every year supporters of peak car theory see a future in which the inner cities are given over to pedestrian cyclist and public transport and cafe culture replaces car culture in my talk last night I showed house and Georges Terrace

has been narrowed that this the footpath widen and coffee shops spilling out along it now something we wouldn’t have predicted into it oh you can’t send or just terraces full of cars e is it you know it was a boring old Street now it’s it’s really attractive that’s happening everywhere and London New York these are the cities of the world that are leading the way now Sydney if you look at is also doing this where is the growth happening in sydney now the inner suburbs grew fifteen percent in that last census that ten-year period the middle suburbs twelve percent the outer suburbs six point five percent now that is a massive change the city’s coming back in if the other thing is that the speed of transit the red areas there are in the most recent they’re going up relative to traffic so freeway building is actually declining everywhere and building railways which are faster than the traffic is happening all over the place so rail is booming in every one of the region’s we look at particularly in Asia rail is being built everywhere so what does it mean the out-of-control growth curves are beginning to peak and decline they’re not quite our curves yet but they are plateauing and they’re starting to decline now this graph is very important because it is the centerpiece of what we’re putting in our transport chapter in the IPCC the and it is indicating what we can now see is going to happen in transport you can see the turnover is happening and the sharper curves the dotted curves are what I needed to go to the two-degree scenario rather than the four degree and there’s still a bit of growth there in the lower areas which are the emerging economies but not much there plateauing now this has been published in a journal so it’s not as though I’m giving you something that’s out of session but it is very encouraging to see how we have in this journey in the last two years of developing this each of the chapters have seen more and more of the hopeful science and are recognizing that we can actually do this you know how you get climate change her rangas it come out so we got to do this and we got to do that well it’s happening it’s a much better message because I think we’re getting it we were getting a bit tired of being arraigned I certainly was and and the world is starting to merge and show that it can change so the predictions are now like this this is the travel vehicle miles and as a unit of gdp so they’re going down GDP goes up travel goes down and that’s the kind of predictions and in some cities and like Washington DC and Portland especially it’s a very dramatic difference and and it’s it’s because they are providing them with good rail so we’ve turned the corner and around the world we are the technical word is decoupling as GNP goes up travel is going down they are decoupling what about these emerging cities Shanghai changed dramatically you could see there in a 20-year period and they started building freeways but they are on the field and because it’s very dense you can see it’s easy to film and you can go to any Indian or Chinese city and have that experience so what do you do it’s completely full already and well shanghai built the biggest metro in the world in a ten-year period look at that network unbelievable network covers eighty percent of the metropolitan area and it carries eight million people a day and we built rebuilt our rail system quite quickly but by teeth nothing like that extraordinary growth now what you find is 82 Chinese cities are now following Shanghai and building metros 16 Indian cities it’s growing every day our building metros and all the middle eastern cities are building metros de but that’s the dubai metro there and Saudi Arabia is spending a trillion

dollars on a high-speed rail system right across the country they know something so the Delhi Metro is an extraordinary system that is it’s as good as anywhere in the world and people love it and it’s certainly well used so I think we’ll be a bit surprised by those emerging cities they are beginning to show the way in that perhaps will indicate they are curves quicker than we thought and what about perth that’s me back in 1979 with the last the last train to Fremantle where I started to the campaign to bring it back and I suppose that was the profit in that coming in from the desert because in terms of desert I had no knowledge at all about transport at that stage so I did learn a lot and what I learnt most was if you get a bit of a bee in your bonnet about anything and really follow it through and get 12 other people who follow you with you you can do amazing things because we did win that and the there were three or four elections that electrified this system and then built the Northern Line and then built the sodomite 172 kilometres of system that’s been built in that period now and the Southern Railway is extraordinary 78,000 people a day compared to 14,000 thats were carried on buses down that corridor nineteen percent growth and the last year that’s like Shanghai and and the the best part about it is it is a model because it was quite cheap you can’t build a lane of traffic on a freeway for less than 50 million kilometer that was built for 17 million a kilometer and carries eight lanes now and the model was to create these ability to get to the stations by bus easily so eighty percent of people get there by bus and they transfer very quickly and easily it’s a fully integrated system and it works extremely well so what it’s done is show how you can build into the suburbs you don’t have to create a free man suburbs to create a sustainable city you can actually build what’s there and if you if you provide other options people will use them so we’ve had this is Adelaide this is us when we built the Northern Line built the southern line if you build it they will come and it’s pretty obvious why it works because that many cars can be put in three buses or one light rail and you create so much more space the city’s work so the future city will be much more like this it will have lots more of these centers and they’ll be linked together by good rail systems going around and across and that is the model we’ve talked about for 20 years now and it seems to be unfolding nearly every city in the world wants to be a polycentric city that means you develop around stations well we did that this is 140 williams street which was a real model building and we’re about to build now over the the Fremantle sinking of the railway line there that will become the new center of Perth and the foreshore development would never have happened while we had that freeway there you can’t even remember it Kenya Williams Street overpass and once the Esplanade station was put in there you could take it down and now we’re going to get dubai on the waterfront and it would never have been able to contemplate if you didn’t have that station there but we’re having these kind of centers now developing a tuned alup and and so on now we’ve put together a plan for the next 30 years and said if we built this ring rail and light rail here this is the one that goes out to curtain we could build around that and there wouldn’t need to be another single house built further and further out in the suburbs and those options are what we really need and they’re there they are cheaper and they will have significantly less greenhouse so we we did the work on the knowledge city light rail the knowledge arc light rail that’s now become max and it’s a little bit of a dotted line out to curtain but there’s no way in the world that will not get built nor that one it’s just a matter of negotiating and this will go out to ECU so it’s really connecting the universities and that’s really important for the future the knowledge economy is with us and so it’s not like we’re destroying Perth in this process these are the development sites you can see this one out at Stirling and we’ve read about the port of Fremantle s

hot new development this is coburn coast and cannington Murdoch these are all centres and this big one out here is curtain which is planning to develop its own City here and this will happen if you get a good rail system built so what is curtain doing about sustainability and I’m just about to finish one of the four pillars of the university is sustainable development it’s built into the the way in which the university is structured the Australian sustainable development institute was created to manage the 12 centres in the university that have research orientations towards sustainability and they created cusp customers nearly six years old now and cusp was set up in Fremantle and and we have a center there that has got now 65 PhD students we attract lots of people in their 30s and 40s who have come out of professions that want to be part of this sustainability revolution they want to develop hope and they do it through stories and data and there’s some amazing people there they are usually funded from outside sources we have a master’s degree in sustainability and climate policy and and it’s the place i’m very proud of because we work together in as a real research community now I’m just going to feature a few stories of what we do these two young ladies there were given awards from Julia Gillard and because they worked on south fremantle high school as a carbon-neutral project and they worked for several years with the students there and they did a whole lot of auditing which enabled them to get fully accredited and we were the first carbon-neutral school in fact the first carbon-neutral non-industry organization to be accredited as carbon neutral and they did that in their spare time as voluntary activity and and they were recognized by the Prime Minister this is the ppm coming to bless the school and one of the key things we found when we did the audit was that we were spending forty thousand dollars at the school on water how can you do that and they discovered that the urinals were on 24 hours a day all year flushing every five minutes so the young lady carbon neutral officer who was appointed just went in and turned them often and so the PM and Melissa Parke had a tour of the boys and it was a good example of how you can save money and save water and save energy we have been assessed in various various times in ways we were called an exemplar of research being put into practice we have for research streams mine on sustainable cities dora’s on green innovation Jeanette’s on participatory sustainability and and laura’s on resilient systems mainly coastal areas and we work closely together to quick projects just to explain what we do both have been funded this week one on suburban sustainability one on urban sustainability funded by this new crc one is Josh burn you know Josh from gardening Australia he’s finished his PhD and he’s going to join us as a postdoc and he’s built a new house out in Hilton that is a 10 * house and its low cost it twelve hundred dollars square meter he was over build it for and it’s fully monitored it’s it’s covered with wires going everywhere so he and his family going to live in there and it’s going to be monitored but he’s also going to set up a monitoring process for a whole series of houses in the area some of which is state government homes and then everything wrong with the design but they’re going to be monitored and and that’s being funded for the next three years but he said he’s of course the media star and he’ll be filming the whole process and that is something you can follow on the web as well as on the TV we had a two of their recently with a whole lot of international people it was absolutely sensational and he’s going to be a real asset to us and and you can see that what he’s done is show all kinds of ways of saving energy all kinds of ways of saving water and greenhouse gases and it’s actually going to save money it’s

slightly more to start with but within a few years it’s cheaper and cheaper that’s the kind that’s sustainability that’s it’s a beautiful house well it is in terms of a social environments wonderful lovely Gardens so you can follow that on the web the second one I like to feature X Prime Minister’s it seems but the gym are green on the left there jon is not working for us but Jimmer is and she was a London investment banker how do we end up with a lone investment banks you want to come home and she discovered cusp and she’s into sustainability and she she’s been getting money out of all kinds of departments and she’s now working on a low-cost precinct development one of which it will be built using this new construction technology where you can build a whole system in three or four days based on off-site construction and what they find is you can make them very precise so they’re hugely lower in cost and lower and carbon with significant reductions in waste now she’s going to apply this to to project one is fred’s it which is the same as benzene but this is going to be built in fremantle and one is brownlee which is just around the corner from Curtin it’s the old public housing development area there that’s going to be redeveloped as a classic example of low cost low carbon housing and it’s close to Perth of course and it’s very close to curtain and the final word here about by Ophelia you probably haven’t heard of this term it’s a Newton and timbi tlie there has written a book and he writes with me as well on biophilic cities we made a film about this but it’s um it’s about how you landscape walls and roofs now and you call the city in the process and they’re appearing all over the world this is in central London and this is in Sydney and this is in Singapore where some of the best examples are and where we made our film which has got something like 10,000 hits on YouTube these days Singapore biophilic city they made a hospital they’re totally based on biophilic principles the idea is that if you have people who are sick they will de-stress if there’s a lot of nature around them you need a daily dose of nature as well as vitamins and nature is something you can build in to the way cities are built so there are now have school tours at this hospital and they’ve got a community garden on the roof and so on now we’re going to be working on distressing site offices public spaces and just recently with the Centre for Aboriginal studies project on prisons they need distressing so what’s next I said I’d I wanted to give you these new goals these are the gods I’ll read them very quickly to end extreme poverty including hunger easy achieve development within planetary boundaries ensure effective learning for all children and youth for life and livelihood achieve gender equality social inclusion and human rights for all achieve health and well-being at all ages improve agricultural systems and raise rural prosperity empower inclusive productive and resilient cities curb human-induced climate change and ensure clean energy for all secure ecosystem services and biodiversity ensure good management of water and other natural resources transform governance for sustainable development all at the same time that’s the challenge we know each of them are right but how do you do it together so everybody demonstrate that so it’s essentially how we get each of these goals keep them as balls in the air the whole time and do it together a new profession is needed we know that and we know that it’s hard but that’s what the challenges and at Curtin we’ve got a proposed program of sustainable development to try and show how to do that and to do it in developing countries so we already have really good contacts with ah sayed that have said they will help us in this because when you bring PhD student to work it curtain they stay they go to another developed country but if you develop a PhD on a project that’s a real problem there and we go there to help them after having some training then you’ve got a chance of actually contributing to that area so we will be using public health and business and

renewables and nrm and climate change and transport and cities from across the campus and bring together people who can work on these projects and there are a lot of very good people at Curtin who are very keen to be part of this how can I am no help well you can get involved in some of these projects some of your work in other countries and you know about the issues there and really every skill that you have is it going to be needed in these development projects you just have to work out what it means your skill for all the other skills and how it links into them and how to do them simultaneously and at the same time anyone who goes on a holiday knows that they can become part of a development project and there are lots of ways we can train for this and we do these kind of kirkland I’ve got some handouts out there if you want it but I went to this place in Bali recently it’s owned by an Australian he’s developed it with the local village there it’s their major source of income now so there’s about 20 families whose lives are changed and improved by this development and they are very pleased about that whole process but it was a simple investment from a an Australian who went there and loved the place and you come across these stories all the time now we’re in Ethiopia recently and the tour guide that whole system was run by an Australian who was decided to invest there instead of in a developed country so these places these are the future and that’s certainly a place that has benefited from some Australian aid of an unusual kind my final quote I’ll just leave it up there and I’m very happy to and answer any questions about the future of the world and how it can become more sustainable thank you very much you you