50TH Anniversary of PRTD

>> Welcome to the 50th anniversary of the Preservation Research and Testing Division It’s hard to believe we’re 50 years old, and thanks to Hans, who popped into my office last year and said, oh, did you know that someone is writing a book, and currently you guys are 50 years old? So we were pretty excited about that I wanted to hand over, just very briefly to Jake Nadal who has been called amongst– between multiple meetings, but just wanted to pop on and say a few words >> Thanks Fennella I won’t hold up the proceedings too terribly much, but first, just to say thank you all for being here, and my thanks to everyone who has been involved in this program over the recent years, and the last five decades It’s, I think tremendously important that we have this capability The Library’s ability to actually do preservation is substantial We have a large and diverse set of divisions doing the work of keeping the collections accessible, but to have a group here, specifically focused at a fundamental level on understanding if we’re doing the work of preservation the best way it possibly can be done, to help us think about new methods, and new approaches to treatment, is essential for doing our work It also pays this tremendous benefit back to the field Every year, I see presentations being given not only in venues we would expect, like AIC, but also in other scientific meetings that build awareness of heritage and cultural preservation in other disciplines It helps us bring new information to ourselves, as well as often times bring interesting information to allied fields We just, this Saturday actually, had a wonderful program on the glass at risk project, right? And I think if you had asked me when I walk through the door the first day, how much time do you think you’ll be spending about degradation of 19th Century crystal flutes, I would say, well none That sounds like a Smithsonian kind of thing And in fact, it turns out to be quite a lot and we’ve learned a tremendous amount about not only that material, but one of the library’s most distinctive collections, and that’s just one example of many, where I think our ability to do exploratory research has led us to some really engaging findings, and has led us to understand not only how to do the work well, but what the work means, and in effect, the meeting that I’m a few minutes late here from, we were just talking about how important the work of preservation is to the whole scholarly purpose of the library that we can answer questions about fundamental materials that inform the way scholars and users of those materials interpret history and interpret the past We spoke at a colloquium put together by Dunn Barton Oaks last year, about the Wayatsenko [phonetic spelling], Kodaks, and the Ostatique [phonetic spelling] pack lands maps, and research conducted by our conservators and preservation scientists about the pigments used to make those deeply informed the scholarly community about issues of interpretation Informed them about things that they always suspected might be true, but that they could never quite pin down through the record available to them And so our ability to bring the point of view of a conservator or scientist to the interpretation and care of these objects, I think, not only helps us keep things available, but expands what available means, and how people interpret them And so I am glad we have a little time this afternoon to honor that and to give you a chance to hear about the work that is going on in the division With that, I’ll hand it back to the division [laughs] [ Applause ] >> So today, rather than, I could talk for three hours about the really cool stuff that we’ve been doing, and even though I’ve got a funny accent, I’ve decided that’s really not what you want I want it to be about the amazing staff we have in the RTD And so, really what I’m going to focus on is sort of going through some of the changes that have, from then and now, and sort of the new initiatives, and the way that sort of changed and opened up over the last 50 years, and as many of you know, I’ve only been here about 13 years So that’s more where my knowledge is And then most of the time, when we have tea and coffee afterwards, all the staff will be here, and sort of showing some of the amazing work they’re doing So you’ll get to interact with them, which is what I want this all to be about, a celebration of their work So the– we did find the original memo I was looking at the photocopy,

thinking I wonder what condition their paper is in? Thank goodness they ditched [inaudible]– so the press release in February of 1970, which was talking about a grant from the council Maybe resources to bring in scientific equipment to the library of Congress, and this was really fascinating, because this is what they’re talking about There are a whole range of different types of materials and we’re still having trouble I love it, you know, keeping abreast of how we deal with it I am thinking well, you know, I guess it’s job security for all of us, and preservation, and there was a mention to William Barrow, as some of you may know, we had the Barrow Collection here, as part of our reference collection, so that’s phenomenal to actually have that here And once we found it all, and then just a range of issues that continue to be a challenge with that I love the fact that they want the program to be national in scope, with the thought that, you know, we really are doing this to work with colleagues elsewhere, and that we’re going to draw vitality from the interaction with the greatest collection of printed materials in the world Also the fact that they’re talking about that collaborative interaction between everyone working in the area So, I just– we have all had a wonderful chuckle about some of the original images from what the lab used to look like They can, the 1970s, some of the equipment, some of us are still not quite sure what this was, but I particularly love the early computers And then this one I loved because the dear old FO testers, MIT FO testers, and guess what, we’re still using them today I suspect there may be one or two original in there, but it’s phenomenal to think some things change, and some things stay the same, which is really fascinating And then moving on to sort of the new instrumentation from their expensive desktop to the portables, to historic recipes, to the imaging, sort of the number of areas that you’re going to see more of, as we move through the fore today And so we have physical, chemical, optical and aging labs I always talk about the upstairs and the downstairs lab, which for some of you have seen down to [inaudible] will get the reference, but it’s amazing that we’ve got those capabilities, and we have that range of instrumentation to work with and to do the analysis, as Jackson rightly pointed out I want to just do a few acknowledgements I’m trying to stay away from names, because I know I will leave people out, but from when I arrived in 2007, there was a big push to re-do the preservation labs, and Deana Markham, Bob Dysart, and Diane Van de Reiden [assumed spelling] were incredibly supportive of that Mark Sweeny, also, when I started saying things about– we have instruments that are 12 years old, and do you think we can put like, a thing in the budget for about $150,000 and he didn’t flinch too much But my colleagues, the Preservation Chiefs, Curatorial Staff, researchers, PITD, and Conservation, all of our colleagues at LC are just so important for how we make this work and what makes us excited about our work as well What I’d like to do is hand over to Kathlin Smith, who is a Director of Communications at the Council on Library and Information Resources, which is the now-CLIR, and it was so exciting, because I’ve been doing a lot of work with CLIR to realize in fact that they had the prescience back in 1970 to actually fund and move forward, and as you’ll hear from Kathlin’s presentation, LC and CLIR still work very closely together So I’m going to hand on over to her, to give some summary of that >> Thank you Fenella, it’s such a pleasure to be here today for this celebration and to be invited to talk a little bit about CLIR’s early involvement with the Library, and the creation of the Preservation, Research and Testing Division The Council on Library Resources, CLIR’s precursor organization, came into being in September 1956 By coincidence, one week after IBM released the first commercial computer with a hard drive The computer was bigger than a refrigerator and weighed about a ton, and the hard drive stored a staggering 5 megabytes of data, about the size of an MP3 music file today It’s hard to know whether the Council’s founders could have imagined the profound impact that this would have on libraries within just a few decades, but I’m getting ahead of myself In its first year of operation, the council awarded just four grants

One of them was to the scientist, William Barrow, for research into the causes of book stock deterioration and possible remedies And that time, libraries worldwide were witnessing the embrittlement of books printed just decades earlier Barrow connected paper embrittlement to the acids and other elements in the production of wood pulp paper that started in the mid-19th Century He asserted that unless action was taken, few of the books published in the first half of the 20th Century would be usable in another 100 years To enable more extensive and comprehensive scientific research on book preservation, in 1961, the Council established the W.J. Barrow Research Library and Laboratory in Richmond Early work focused on paper permanence, de-acidification, book bindings, and the effects of temperature and humidity on book longevity The Council funded the lab until 1977, a decade after Barrow’s death But getting back to the early 60s While Barrow’s research already led a handful of publishers to start experimenting with acid-free paper, such publications were rare, and libraries found themselves spending growing portions of their budgets on microfilming at-risk materials It was clear that a national plan was needed for sharing the burden And in 1960, the Association for Research Libraries appointed a committee on the preservation of research library materials to develop such a plan The first task was to estimate the size of the problem The Council commissioned the state librarian of Virginia, Randolph Church, to design a method for sampling, and Triangle Research Associates to estimate the number of books that would need attention and by when The report from the investigation estimated that 57% of the titles in the National Union Catalogue, comprising some three billion pages, were at risk There were two main approaches to addressing the problem of embrittlement One was to de-acidify the originals, and store them at reduced temperatures But this was relatively expensive, so not practical for entire collections Another, as noted earlier, was microfilm, which was less expensive, and allowed for ease of duplication and access, though microfilm was the format that most scholars loved to despise A Council-funded study by Gordon Williams, then-Director of the Midwest Interlibrary Center, which later became the Center for Research Libraries, weighed the advantages and drawbacks of these approaches And also identified photocopying as a possible solution for access Acknowledging that redundancy of effort was expensive Williams recommended that there be one national agency to represent research libraries, assuring the physical preservation for as long as possible Of at least one example of every deteriorating record, and that agency would make copies of those records available to any library that needed them For years, the Library of congress had been segregating its badly deteriorated books into a brittle books collection By the late 1960s, it was also exploring the administrative and bibliographic means for assuring the preservation of books for ongoing use in the research community But problems of implementing preservation solutions remained For one thing, there was still no inexpensive method for de-acidifying books And environmental storage conditions needed to be specified In 1967, the library appointed Frasier Poole as preservation officer to organize and develop a comprehensive preservation program that would serve the country and planning began for the preservation research office Three years later, the Council awarded $95,000 to the Library of Congress, to equip the new laboratory And by June 1972, it was up and running Today, you’ll hear from my colleagues here about the lab’s trajectory and the stunning array of activity through the decades that followed But I’d like to reflect for a few moments on the Council’s trajectory, and the broader preservation environment in which we find ourselves Through the 70s, and early 80s, the Council continued to invest heavily in preservation, but its efforts took a new turn in the mid-80s,

with the formation of the commission on preservation and access, under the leadership of Patricia Batton Concentrating on the Brittle Books Program, the Commission sought to expand awareness of the issue, strengthen access systems, conduct more fact-finding studies, and most importantly obtain Congressional funding for a nationwide preservation microfilming program In 1997, members of the Commission joined with the staff from the Library and other organizations to testify before Congress at a special hearing on the Brittle Books Program As a result, the appropriations bill for FY1989 gave any age 12.5 million dollars, of which 8 million went into instituting a 20-year program for microfilming three million endangered volumes In the end, just over one million volumes were microfilmed, far short of the goal This was, in part, because of budget cuts at NEH, but also because digitization was becoming an attractive alternative to microfilming Well before the Brittle Books Program ended, libraries were converting significant portions of their preservation budgets to digitization But digitization brought a new set of preservation concerns, and in late 1994, the commission joined with a research libraries group, to create the Task Force on Digital Archiving Its groundbreaking report in 1996, written by Don Waters, and John Garrett, noted, if we are effectively to preserve for future generations the portion of this rapidly expanding corpus of information in digital form, that represents our cultural record, we need to understand the cost of doing so, and we need to commit ourselves Technically, legally, economically and organizationally to the full dimensions of this task Meanwhile, discussions had been taking place about the feasibility of collaborating to create a distributed open-digital library With this aim in mind, in 1995, the Commission joined 12 academic libraries, the Library of Congress, NARA, and the New York Public Library, informing the Digital Library Federation And the Commission served as DLF’s administrative home That same year, the decision was made to merge the Commission on Preservation Access, which had started as a program of the Council, back into the Council, to form a new single organization, the Council on Library and Information Resources, or CLIR The merger was completed in 1997, under the leadership of Deana Markham The challenges of digital preservation and access have remained central to CLIR’s efforts over the past quarter century Today, CLIR’s digital library federation continues to grow with more than 190 members, a vibrant annual forum, and 12 working groups, tackling issues from born digital access to digital scholarship CLIR currently awards some four million dollars annually to digitize hidden special collections and archives of high scholarly value, and one million dollars annually to digitally reformat valuable audiovisual recordings at high risk of loss We’ve also collaborated with a library on more than a decade of studies and publications focused on the challenges of recorded sound preservation, as mandated by the National Recording Preservation Act of 2000 We continue a robust publications program, and in late 2019, launched a podcast, Material Memory, which explores the effects of our changing world from digital technologies to the climate crisis on our ability to access the record of our shared humanity Through stories and interviews, we examine the critical role that libraries, archives, museums, and other public institutions play, in keeping cultural memory alive Finally, this spring, we will join our project partners in announcing a new digital library of the Middle East platform, that will support the Federation of Digitized Middle Eastern Materials from institutions around the world While much of this activity is focused on digitizing for preservation and access, we’ve been fortunate to learn more about the technologies, physical and digital, that allow us to ask new questions of old materials Thanks to the work of the Preservation, Research and Testing Division For nearly two decades, CLIR has run the Mellon Fellowships for Dissertation Research in Original Sources,

which promote creative approaches to original source research In 2011, as a new aspect of the program, we created a CLIR Library of Congress Fellowship to support original source dissertation research This fellowship allows a PhD student to work in the PRTD, using tools and equipment that would not otherwise be available to them, to analyze source materials in new ways And I’m so delighted to see Marlena Cravens here today, whose work she can describe over at the table afterwards She is the current CLIR L.C. Fellow While on the topic of CLIR’s ongoing collaboration with he PRTD, I’d be remiss if I didn’t note that the Division’s Chief, Fenella France, who is a clear Presidential Fellow, will start her tenure as a CLIR Board Member this spring! We are so delighted! The challenges that our community faces seem to get increasingly complex as we steward rapidly growing physical and digital collections at the same time We struggle to preserve not just the material aspects, but also their significance and relationships to one another With often scarce resources, and an impending climate crisis, the risks of loss to our intellectual and cultural heritage grow more dire with each passing year Despite all that we are facing, the consciousness of the need for strong leadership, international collaboration, and collective action to address preservation challenges is as strong as ever The world looks to the Library for its direction and example The achievements and talents of the people of this Division, and most of all, the generous spirit with which you share your talents with others, are making a real difference We look forward to continuing to support and celebrate your work for years to come Congratulations, and thank you [ Applause ] >> And for those of you who haven’t been on the CLIR website, there’s a lot of resources there, so something a lot of new podcasts and things So then and now We had a loop beforehand, and I’ll put it on again when we finish sort of some of the interesting photos, but just some of the changes, particularly over the last 15, 20 years, that have been coming into play, there is a strong move towards materials analysis, and then an acceptance that we have a very diverse range, my colleagues from Conservation already know the diverse range of materials we have But I remember when I first came to the Library, and people saying, “So, what are you going to do there? They have like paper and what, some photographs?” And there was just this complete misunderstanding of the richness of the collections And I think that sort of seeing the collections as a range of formats, and all the commensurate issues that relate to that, those specific challenges, you know, paper, parchment, adhesives, magnetic tape, record out in the original memo in the 70s, but we are working a lot with musical instruments, with sound recordings, digital storage media, all of these different ways of preserving our information, and I think that focus, too, on the original object, as opposed to the facsimile is something that we will feel incredibly strongly about That we couldn’t often pull out some of the interesting information we find with the new techniques, if we hadn’t preserved the original So we’ve been working a lot, thinking about a more integrated and collaborative approach to research Some of the instrument changes that we’ve found have been really interesting The instrument size has been, I think, one of the main things Andrew and I were talking about an atomic force microscope, which used to be the size of, you know, my office And he came in a year or so ago, and he’s like, I can buy a portable one And I said, a portable AFM, right? And you’ll see it on the table, it’s like this thick, and it was like, a little bit much for my brain to comprehend going from a room size, to this portable instrument But that has been really amazing And then thinking about the limits of detection, we can detect so much more which means we have to up our game in in terms of understanding what are we actually seeing here? What does it mean in terms of the material changes and the degradation? Another interesting area has been working with manufacturers to try and sort of customize or make sure we’ve got open architecture instrumentation and Lynn’s done a lot of work with us so that we can move away from sampling as much as possible, and try to see how we can safely analyze on the object itself And as you’ll also see, the portability has been a huge area where we really felt we couldn’t justify spending hundreds

of thousands of dollars for a desk, for a lab instrument, lab-grade instrument, when in fact we got 80% of what we needed in terms of the information from a portable instrument that could walk to the collections, and makes conservators and curators extremely happy that they don’t have to walk down to the lab with all of those materials So non-invasive, in terms of not doing any interaction with the collection, has been a big push for all of those instruments And you’re going to see many of them shortly And then thinking about the techniques to sort of assure these no-impact on collection items Many of you in the audience have seen changes over time, as instruments were brought in and then 10 years later, we look at the damage that we can now see from that instrument So, we had a really huge push to sort of look at can we absolutely make certain that with a new technique, or the way we’re using that instrument, that we’re not actually causing any harm or any change to the collection item? So, as part of that approach, particularly over the last few years, we really looked at a more integrated, structured way of making best use of our time and resources, and answering all of the questions that come out We usually start with a baseline imaging using the spectral imaging system, to sort of get a mapping of what different materials are in the object And from there, we do a range of inorganic and organic analyses, to sort of build up that deep learning at specific point sources that we’ve mapped out from the original object Using reference samples has been a very large part of that move towards non-invasive, and being able to expand our capabilities Because if we don’t have a reference known of what we’re working with, then it’s very hard to tell us what that actually is And so the reference collection that I’ll talk about soon has been a big part of working with that So the slide that always has more words than you can ever read is just a quick overview of much of what you’re going to see So this spectral imaging, and reflectance, transmitted, raking, for courier transform infrared, to look at the organic component, the x-ray fluorescence, to look at the inorganic, the fiberoptic reflectance spectrometer sort of gives us more information about dyes and pigments Raman spectroscopy So all of these different techniques are being used to complement each other, and build up the picture of what we need to know about that particular object And it has also opened up for us to, rather than just push towards a specific instrument, really engage with our colleagues about what is the question and how do we need to be extending and expanding the utilization of the instruments that we have, or customizing in some way So we have what I affectionately term– and I still haven’t come up with a different term, the Go Team, which is, what instruments can we put on a cart and wheel somewhere for those instruments, and those people to take those techniques And Megan and I came back from Ireland a week ago? Where we taught the Spectral Imaging System, and some of our colleagues in PITD said so you could either wheel it across to the Jefferson Building for the first time, but you’re taking it to island for the first time? Like to show its capabilities, and we’re like yeah! And please talk to Megan more about that, it was a phenomenal experience And so coming back to the Reference Collection, we have an extensive range of materials, and we’re building on this And this is to replicate what we have in our collection, but we can then do destructive testing on So the Barrow Collection, from the Barrow Labs, which Kathlin mentioned, we have those thousand boxes from 1500 to 1900, the best fun is when you start, come in, and I say you’re allowed to take a page out of this book, and you’re like really? I can take a page out of this book and destroy it? So it’s– the interesting crossover of still having that physical reaction to the collection item And Andrew will be talking about some of the information that we’ve looked at from the Barrow Collection, which goes back to the original research, and how we’ve been building on doing those analyses, again, over time We’ve a lot of 20th Century, 21st Century books The reference papers from various projects, which are customized and we have also been using it a lot as a training research experience for new staff who want to be cross trained in different instruments We have historic and modern colorants, and pigments, and Cindy has been taking the lead on that If I’m ever somewhere else overseas, I usually get this little email that’s like, do you think you could drop into this place and bring this one back? And really interesting project for with a number of PITD staff, of looking at historic recipes and recreating them The type of fibers, FRIL, the Fiber Reference Imaging Library,

we’ve got an extensive range of parchments, which we’re starting to work with parchment, because, to bring in with different treatments, sound recordings and storage media So these are all building up our collection And as we build up those reference materials, we’re now keeping the originals, but also doing some re-testing of naturally and accelerated age So we can get that baseline understanding information about them Some of the reference materials that we have, as you can see, the Barrow Box, which are individually boxed Magnetic tapes We even have a goat skin that came from Israel, pigments, damaged books, fibers, you name it, it’s there And so it was part of that, and the big move towards trying to make that information more accessible and available, which you also heard from Kathlin is a focus with the axis Class D, the Center for Library Information– uh, Linked Analytical Scientific Samples– Digital The Library is very good at acronyms And this is all of the data that we’ve collected about all of our reference materials, which is expanding into a way of collecting data and making it accessible, about all of the analyses we do on collection items And from this, we’ve also worked very carefully with the digital formats, to make sure that they are sustainable, and then layered another level on with Andrew Forsberg, of what that visualization of this type of information might start to look at Why is this interesting? Because if we just take an image on this is high magnification image of a piece of paper, and with the scanning electron microscope, some of that information is embedded in the image, but it’s not extractable So what do we do? We want to extract from the instrument itself all of the metadata about how the image was captured, what the elements are, how we can admit those, and how we captured that information So all of these different types of information have been collected to be made accessible to our national and international colleagues And we have been working studiously and Amanda has taken the lead on working with some of the re-working of this database structure, and so again, you can see just the complexity of the relationships between the object-based focus, and then as we start to add in other types of analyses, so we have a research project, we have one– five different samples, 12 different analyses, then we age them, so you can mention how just the bulk of things expand immensely as we move forward with that And I wanted to focus on shared expertise, and thinking about the internal and external partnerships Our colleagues in Conservation, you know, just phenomenal to work with in terms of that knowledge they have as conservators, so that we can work with them And without that strong interaction, we wouldn’t be able to do a lot of the work that we do, and so I just want to thank you all with that, and also for the curatorial divisions, who now instead of being afraid of what is this scary instrument that you might take to my collection and do something to, now feel comfortable about saying “I have this kind of weird question,” and that becomes a conversation, and then an ongoing collaborative, iterative process of that shared knowledge, because if we did the research in isolation, it would not actually have that richness, and that depth of knowledge, and expense And a lot we’re doing with local and national and international colleagues Just a selection So with particularly Washington D.C., we’ve been working a lot more extensively with National Archives With NIST, National Institute of Standards in Technology, the Smithsonian, the National Gallery of Art, the University of Delaware, the ongoing one with Collections Demography with the University College London We’ve been working with the Getty Institute, some round-robin ones, a number of those, but I just wanted to give like a short selection of the diverse range of, from forensics to academics to other national labs And in terms of research grants, we’ve been really very excited about the work that we’ve been able to do with some of these additional labs, with National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, where you’ve got some early imaging support for, as we built out the Spectral Imaging Lab, National Endowment for the Humanities, as Jake mentioned, the Glass at Risk Project IMLS, we worked with the University of South Carolina, looking at making a tape degradation– and I’ll finish up by talking about their current Mellon Foundation grant Interns and fellowships has been an amazing way for us to expand what we can do

When sometimes, over the years, when staff sizes have reduced and expanded, I mean, the size of the number of staff, not the staff sizes [laughs], that did not come out well, so junior fellows, as well, and we’re always delighted to be able to participate in, and then the preservation science internship, which is an unpaid fellowship, but we’re getting a lot of people from local universities as Kathlin mentioned, the CLIR-Mellon Fellowship for Dissertation, Research and Original Sources, and we’ve also been delighted to have a post-doc, in data curation through CLIR-Mellon G.W. Forensic Science Master’s Program They often come and do their research projects with us The SEED Program, which is looking at under-privileged high school students, it’s just so exciting and rewarding HACU, there’s so many different programs that we enjoy working with, and I do want to, again, take my hat off to my staff who, we pretty much learned that do not anticipate getting much of anything done over summer, because working with the students, which is incredibly rewarding, but does take a lot of time and effort So that’s another good support from our Directors, has been a phenomenal way for us to sort of look at diversity and expand what we actually do with training possibilities and reaching out And I struggled with this slide, because as I started looking back through all of the tops in the symposia that we had done, I got a little bit tired, but just a couple of examples of some of the bigger ones, and then, you know, we’ve done everything from Iron Gall Ink to musical instruments, to Terahertz, to UNESCO, it is amazing what we have actually worked on with colleagues, and also training workshops We’ve started building up that Working with ensuring a knowledge for people in a range of different areas, through chemometrics, rare book school, imaging science and technology, so expanding that scope of how we can share our knowledge and work with different groups and audiences The data science and visualization has been a really exciting area, where we started thinking more, you saw when I was talking about the new approach, where we do, we start with the spectral imaging, and then we do the deep dive down So how do we start to bring all of this work together in a way that actually allows us to engage with the information and make it available to other people And so I wanted to– where does this come from? So we are talking, and this is a block book from 1470, we are talking to a curator who is like, well, I want to see how it’s made in terms of how it’s printed, and then what is that? So we do the XL riff, and it comes up as copper, so we are like, well it could be verdigris or malachite, so with the FORS, now we can see that it’s actually verdigris, not malachite, and then we’re asked, well is it, what’s the sizing, so we combat with the gelatin sizing, so all of those– how do we start to think about a more exciting way rather than having to read like a 20-page report which you know is going to send you to sleep by page 5, even though you’re interested in all of the graphs And how can we actually do that more functionally? So we started working with the International Image Interoperability Framework Triple-I, F, and the Mirador Viewer, and thinking about how people currently engage with that So one of the exciting ones, which I will direct you to ask Megan and Chris about, since they did all the work on this, which is a letter from Alexander Hamilton And using this platform, we can now start to put all of the information about it, show how we’ve worked with extracting the text from under a redacted component, and bring out what the original transcription from that was And I will let you ask Megan or Chris why they– the son redacted this from his parents’ letters And one of the interesting things going on further was then how do we start to engage and input both curatorial, and bring together curatorial and scientific data? Because we get so impatient and excited about what we do, we want other people to see that, and engage with it So using this platform, we can now start to, for this one, bring in the information about the analyses we’re doing, work with a curator to add in annotations about curatorial information and that, and then start to think about how we can layer in the scientific data So now we have a way of sort of adding in all of the different spectral imaging data that you can click through and look at Some of the processing Because I’m lazy, I had Andrew do a slider, so you can just click through that more easily and engage with it You can zoom in from the platform So a much more effective way to engage with the type of information that we’re putting there, and putting it out into the digital realm And then when we start to look at scientific analyses, we can zoom in on that, and for the geeky scientist, of course, who wants to see all of the different graphs, we can now link through those as well We edited and started thinking about what we wanted to do

in terms of high-level metadata, and how this could be more exciting for curators, who might not be excited about all the scientific graphs that we are excited about So if you hover over, for example, verdigris, because if they didn’t know what it was, you could get this simple, this is a carbon-containing pigment, or we can actually use True Link to open data, and link to the Wiki data or the Giddy site, to actually link those different websites together So these are things we’ve been doing, even into the scientific data, where for reflectance, we didn’t want to redo all of this, you can click on there, and you get to the IUPAC gold Books, which is the original chemical terms So these are ways of sort of starting to pull all of that information together I wanted to wrap up with the current project we had with the Mellon grant, which is assessing the physical condition of the national collection Because it starts to bring together a lot of these initiatives and approaches that you’re seeing So this was a grant for $540,000 for 40 months, about three years, and allowed us to bring two additional staff members, well, people into PITD, Andrew Forsberg, and Robin Hodgkins, as the researchers on that project And this is to really start to look at and think about what’s coming back in a wonderful full circle to Kathlin’s comments about brittleness How do we know what the current state of the National Collection is? And how can we use our facilities and our knowledge to work with people to understand that more effectively? So we have five partners, and five different regions of America, and they’re allowing us to take a 10 millimeter strip of one general collection book, and we can analyze the same 500 volumes from all the partners, to see how alike or not alike they are And we wanted to really think about, can we get information about the environment and usage, in terms of what we’re seeing with the differences between these materials? And we’re just starting to look to see what, of course, as you know, many institutions don’t have a lot of easily accessible environmental and circulation data, but we’re trying to fold that, and where we’re at, and please see Andrew and Robin, I just want to sort of give a bit of a background about this So over the last five or six years, we’ve really looked at how do we miniaturize test methods? So from Cindy, can we do like a micro-pH, rather than taking two and a half pages? Taking that down to three hole punches, to Andrew, when he first arrived And I was like, so how small can we get a sample for size exclusion chromatography to look at the molecular weight And we’ve really minimized the size of samples from all of these, so that we could, from this 10 millimeter strip, do size exclusion chromatography, to look at the molecular weight Mini tensile testing, mini acidity– looking at the ultraviolet UV/VIS and infrared Additional tests we wanted to do was the dear old double-fold, and I’m going to leave that for people at the tables to talk about, because I’m sure there will be some wonderfully animated discussion, and then thinking about other things, like the spot test, how subjective or objective could they be? How can we start to correlate those? And Callie and Eric will talk to you about what we affectionately call box sniffing And how can we start to go from this now-huge volume of data that we’re getting from all of these different methodologies, to create a reproducible, useful test that people can use, in the stacks, that really does give them a good feeling about what the condition of the collections are And so what we’re working on this, and if anyone is interested, please let us know, because we’d be happy to send out papers to have people try the test method to see is it useful, is it horrible? Did you like it? Did you not? But it has got to be inexpensive It needs to be quick, it needs to be effective, and these are the things we’re looking at, as well as the objectivity What does identical look like? So one thing we started doing was taking pictures of the– each shipment that came in of the same 80 to 100 books Because the next five slides are the same books, top left, across, from each institution, and I think you’ll quickly see that they don’t bear a lot of resemblance to each other I mean, these are actually the same books Then, to make life very interesting, we see up to four different types of paper in one book Identical is not very identical This is one book, top to bottom, with different types of paper in it So what we’re really trying to look at now,

is what is the impact of that different paper type on the qualities of that, because I’m sure at the time when they printed it, it looked exactly the same color, and responded, they thought it was the same And some of the really interesting information in terms of how people are dealing with this, and coming back to that stack test is thinking about people will do the visual assessment of what they do, and so what we’ve gone through is visually how do people think about this information and look at the assessment of the binding and the text block itself? We’re focusing mainly on the textbook And then as we start to look at this a little bit more, thinking about the text block, what are the four categories that make the most sense in terms of damage? So going from actual physical damage, like broken corners of the actual paper itself, to things that could be structural, like text box separation The visual– which is always very subjective, and then things that happen to the volume that may have happened after the case, not necessarily part of the inherent properties of the paper Now, as Andrew has so amazingly done, we can now extract out those specific key components that relate to the visual assessment, and then start to look at what is the pH, what is the tensile testing? What are the spot tests? What are all the different infrared and fiberoptic reflectance spectroscopy analyses, and then one I really love, the Chromatesting diagram, so you can see if it’s going yellow, which direction the color is going in So this is all now part of this huge volume of work that we’re working on, that really starts to inform us to know more about where we’re at with the collection information So I want to finish by thanking everyone, and I’ll invite Kathlin and Jake back up to the podium if you have questions, but I really wanted to spend most of the time for you to engage with the staff, and see their phenomenal work and what they’ve been doing So thank you so much for listening [ Applause ] >> Do we have any questions? I know, it’s post-lunch on a day after the holidays >> Thank you for very fascinating, very cutting edge [inaudible] Just a couple of basic questions Is there [inaudible]– [ Inaudible Question ] >> Yes, Preservation, Research and Testing Division is within the Preservation Directorate, and there’s four Divisions There’s Preservation, Research and Testing, the Conservation Division, we work with Special Collections, and then some of my colleagues are here, Binding and Collections, Kia, and Preservation Reformatting So those four divisions make the Preservation Directorate And Jake is the Director of the whole Preservation Directorate So, without further adieu, I will let my staff scurry back to their tables, and open up for questions Thank you [ Applause ]