Jurassic Fight Club: Killer Dinosaur Gangs (S1, E3) | Full Episode | History

>> POUND FOR POUND, THEY WERE THE FIERCEST DINOSAURS EVER TO WALK THE EARTH SCIENTISTS CALL THEM DEINONYCHUS YOU KNOW THEM AS RAPTORS! BUT WHEN THIS CUNNING CARNIVORE TAKES ON A TOWERING DINOSAUR 10 TIMES ITS SIZE, IT’S A GANG KILL THEY’RE THE EARTH’S FIRST FIGHTERS, THE ULTIMATE PREDATORS NEW DISCOVERIES AND FORENSIC SCIENCE BRING TO LIFE THE PREHISTORIC ART OF WAR THIS IS “JURASSIC FIGHT CLUB”! GO BACK MORE THAN 100 MILLION YEARS EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, AND NORTH AMERICA FRACTURED INTO LARGE DRIFTING ISLANDS IT’S THE EARLY CRETACEOUS PERIOD THE TERRAIN RUMBLES WITH CONSTANT VOLCANIC ACTIVITY, HURLING MILLIONS OF TONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO THE AIR AND RAISING GLOBAL TEMPERATURES THE ERUPTIONS ALSO CREATE RIDGES RISING HUNDREDS OF FEET OFF THE OCEAN FLOOR 40% OF THE CONTINENTS ARE FLOODED WATER SETTLES INTO A WESTERN INTERIOR SEAWAY FLOWING FROM THE ARCTIC OCEAN TO THE GULF OF MEXICO NORTH AMERICA IS SPLIT IN TWO AT THE END OF THE JURASSIC PERIOD, LARGE DINOSAURS, SUCH AS ALLOSAURUS AND CERATOSAURUS, VANISH FROM THE EARTH IN THEIR PLACE, NEW SPECIES BETTER ABLE TO ADAPT TO THE DRAMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES, INCREASING HUMIDITY, AND TEMPERATURES SOARING IN EXCESS OF 100 DEGREES IN WHAT IS TODAY THE STATE OF MONTANA, HERDS OF GIANT HERBIVORES MIGRATE ACROSS TREACHEROUS ROCKY TERRAIN SURROUNDED BY DENSE FORESTS PERFECT PREY FOR COORDINATED KILLERS FAST FORWARD 115 MILLION YEARS THE LOCATION, NEAR THE TOWN OF BRIDGER IN SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA PALEONTOLOGIST JOHN OSTROM IS ON HIS LAST DAY OF A SUMMER SEARCHING FOR FOSSILS HE HAS NO IDEA THAT HE IS ABOUT TO MAKE ONE OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT DISCOVERIES OF DINOSAUR CARNAGE HE SUDDENLY SPOTS SEVERAL SHINY BLACK BONES PROTRUDING FROM THE GROUND TAKING ADVANTAGE OF WHAT LITTLE LIGHT REMAINS, HE AND AN ASSISTANT BEGIN TO REMOVE AS MANY BONES AS THEY CAN THEN THEY FIND ONE THAT’S UNUSUAL AMONG THESE FOSSILS WAS A DEEPLY CURVED SICKLE-SHAPED CLAW THE BONES WERE FROM A PREDATOR OSTROM CONTINUES TO UNEARTH MORE BONES WITH EACH ONE, HE REALIZES HE’S NOT JUST LOOKING AT ANY PREDATOR IT WAS A DEINONYCHUS A RAPTOR! >> DEINONYCHUS BELONGS TO A GROUP OF DINOSAURS WE NICKNAME THE RAPTORS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME IS DROMAEOSAURS RAPTORS HAVE A COUPLE OF DIFFERENT FEATURES THAT MAKE THEM DIFFERENT FROM OTHER PREDATORS NUMBER ONE, IT WAS THE DESIGN OF THEIR TAIL THEIR TAIL IS HELD STIFF BY A SERIES OF INTERCONNECTING BONY RODS THAT SORT OF LOCKED THE VERTEBRA IN PLACE THIS STIFF TAIL ACTED LIKE A BALANCING POLE THE DINOSAUR WAS ABLE TO CHANGE DIRECTIONS QUICKLY HE COULD JUMP HE COULD LEAP INTO THE AIR HE WAS AN INCREDIBLE ANIMAL BUT THE MOST DISTINGUISHING FEATURE OF A RAPTOR WAS THE KILLING CLAW ON ITS FOOT IT’S AN OVERSIZE CLAW ON THE SECOND DIGIT OF EACH FOOT THAT WAS HELD UPRIGHT WHEN THE RAPTOR WAS WALKING BUT WHEN HE SPOTTED HIS PREY AND HE LEAPED ON TOP OF IT, THAT CLAW SORT OF ACTED LIKE A MOUSETRAP IT WOULD SWING FORWARD, AND THIS DINOSAUR COULD SLICE YOU OPEN WHILE HE’S HANGING ON TO YOU >> I THINK IF WE TRIED TO LOOK AT DEINONYCHUS IN TERMS OF LIVING ANIMALS, WE COULDN’T REALLY COME UP WITH A MATCH HOWEVER, IF WE COMBINED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TASMANIAN DEVIL AND THE WOLVERINE AND A FEROCIOUS EAGLE, I THINK WE MIGHT HAVE A GENERAL GLIMPSE OF WHAT IT MUST’VE BEEN LIKE

>> THEN OSTROM’S CREW MADE ANOTHER REMARKABLE DISCOVERY– LYING NEXT TO THE RAPTOR, THERE WAS A SECOND SKELETON TWO RAPTORS, SIDE BY SIDE BUT THIS RAPTOR’S BONES HAD BEEN CRUSHED– EVIDENCE OF MAJOR TRAUMA THEY CONTINUED TO DIG THEN JUST A FEW FEET AWAY, ANOTHER DISCOVERY– A THIRD CARCASS ON THIS ONE, THE BONES WERE ALSO CRUSHED PALEONTOLOGISTS REALIZED THEY WERE LOOKING AT A FIGHT, ONE WHERE AT LEAST THREE RAPTORS WERE INVOLVED ALL THREE HAD BEEN PULVERIZED >> WHENEVER YOU FIND A LARGE NUMBER OF THE SAME SPECIES OF DINOSAURS LYING TOGETHER MIXED UP, IT’S A PRETTY GOOD INDICATION THAT THEY DIED AT THE SAME TIME THIS IS COMMON IN PLANT EATING DINOSAURS, BUT VERY RARELY DO WE FIND PREDATORS THIS WAY FINDING A GROUP OF DEINONYCHUS IS A VERY GOOD INDICATION OF PACK HUNTING >> THEN BURIED ONLY A FEW YARDS AWAY, ITS SKELETON SPRAWLED IN A DEATH POSE, A FOURTH RAPTOR THE REALIZATION WAS STUNNING– THIS WAS A BATTLEFIELD WITH MULTIPLE RAPTORS INVOLVED IT WAS A PREHISTORIC GANG KILLING >> PALEONTOLOGISTS HAD ALWAYS WONDERED IF RAPTORS HUNTED IN PACKS WELL, DR. OSTROM’S DISCOVERY IN MONTANA OF THESE FOUR DEINONYCHUS ANSWERED THAT QUESTION THESE RAPTORS LIVED AND DIED AS A GROUP >> THE RAPTORS WERE RELATIVELY SMALL PREDATORY DINOSAURS, NOT MUCH LARGER THAN A MAN THEY STOOD 5 FEET TALL, WERE 8 FEET LONG, AND WEIGHED CLOSE TO 150 POUNDS BUT WHAT THEY LACKED IN SIZE, THEY MORE THAN MADE UP FOR IN WEAPONS DR. OSTROM WAS QUICK TO IDENTIFY THREE DEADLY WEAPONS THAT WERE USED IN THE BATTLE THE FIRST WERE ITS TEETH THESE TEETH CURVE BACKWARDS TEETH THAT CURVE BACKWARDS ARE DESIGNED TO GRAB AND HOLD ON TO SOMETHING THAT IS STRUGGLING TO GET AWAY NOT ONLY ARE THEIR TEETH CURVED BACKWARDS, THEY’RE SERRATED ON BOTH EDGES THEY’VE GOT A MOUTH FULL OF STEAK KNIVES >> WHAT IT WOULD DO IS IT WOULD GET A HOLD OF SOMETHING, AND THEN IT WOULD JERK ITS HEAD BACKWARDS, AND THAT’S WHEN THE CURVATURE OF THE TEETH WOULD CAUSE ALL OF THESE LITTLE TEETH TO ACT LIKE SERRATED HOOKS, AND THEY WOULD JUST TEAR OUT A BIG CHUNK OF MEAT >> ALTHOUGH ITS TEETH WERE FORMIDABLE WEAPONS, THE CLAWS ON THEIR HANDS WERE JUST AS IMPORTANT IN THE FIGHT >> THEY REALLY LOOK A LOT LIKE CAT TALONS THEY’RE PRETTY INCREDIBLE AND I SUSPECT THEY WERE USED IN MUCH THE SAME WAY THESE WERE VERY, VERY SHARP INSTRUMENTS OF GREAT PAIN >> BUT ONE WEAPON SET THIS DINOSAUR APART FROM ALL OTHER MEAT EATERS–THE KILLING CLAW >> WITH THIS CLAW ON THE FOOT, THIS WAS CLEARLY A KILLING CLAW, BUT WHAT WAS IT DOING? GOING AFTER THE ANKLES OF OTHER DINOSAURS? NO IN ORDER FOR IT TO HAVE BEEN USEFUL, IT HAD TO BE LEAPING AROUND TO SLASH AND TEAR AT ITS VICTIMS >> WELL, THE THING THAT REALLY TYPIFIES DROMAEOSAURS IN GENERAL, THE GROUP TO WHICH DEINONYCHUS BELONGS, IS THAT THEY HAVE THIS LARGE RAPTORIAL CLAW ON THEIR FOOT AND EVEN THE CLAW TODAY, THE BONY PART OF THE CLAW, IS ABOUT FOUR INCHES LONG OR SO BUT IN LIFE, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN COVERED WITH A SHEATH, LIKE A FINGERNAIL, THAT WOULD HAVE MADE THE CLAW TWICE AS LARGE SO IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A PRETTY SPECTACULAR WEAPON >> CAT SCAN RESEARCH OF THEIR BRAIN CAVITIES CONDUCTED BY LARRY WITMER OF OHIO UNIVERSITY CONCLUDED THAT MEMBERS OF THE RAPTOR FAMILY HAD EXCELLENT VISION >> WHAT I WAS ABLE TO DO WAS GET MY HANDS ON A VARIETY OF FOSSIL SKULL BONES OF DEINONYCHUS AND CAT SCANNED A VARIETY OF THEM TO GET A GLIMPSE INSIDE THE HEAD OF DEINONYCHUS WHEN WE LOOK INSIDE THE BRAIN CAVITY OF DEINONYCHUS, WHAT WE SEE IS AN EXPANSION OF THE VISUAL CENTERS, CENTERS THAT IN MORE PRIMITIVE DINOSAURS WE DIDN’T REALLY SEE ENLARGED THAT SUGGESTS TO US THAT VISION WAS A VERY IMPORTANT SENSORY MODALITY IN DEINONYCHUS AND UTAHRAPTOR AND THESE OTHER RAPTORS IT WAS CLEARLY A MAJOR PART OF THEIR HUNTING STRATEGY >> IN FACT, THEIR VISION WAS SO STRONG, EXPERTS HAD TO CONSIDER: DID THEY HAVE NIGHT VISION? >> THEY HAD A VERY LARGE OPTIC LOBE OF THE BRAIN SO THERE’S NO REASON TO THINK THAT THEY COULD NOT HAVE HUNTED AT NIGHT BUT IT DOESN’T MEAN THAT THEY WERE RESTRICTED TO THAT >> HAVING THAT INCREDIBLE EYESIGHT WOULD NOT JUST BE HELPFUL AT NIGHT; IT WOULD BE AN AWESOME ASSET ANYTIME THERE IS LIMITED LIGHT

DURING VOLCANIC ACTIVITY OR STORMS, THEY WOULD STILL HAVE THE ABILITY TO SEE WHEN OTHER CREATURES WOULDN’T HAVE >> LIKE A MODERN CAT, RAPTORS RELIED ON THEIR LARGE EYES TO HUNT AT NIGHT THEY WERE PERFECTLY DESIGNED AS NIGHT HUNTERS CAT SCAN EVIDENCE WOULD ALSO REVEAL ANOTHER CLUE THE RAPTORS AT THIS BATTLEFIELD WERE INCREDIBLY AGILE >> WE HAVE A SENSE THAT THIS ANIMAL COULD REALLY MOVE AROUND WITH A FAIR AMOUNT OF DEXTERITY SO IT’S INTERESTING FOR ME, THEN, WITH THE CAT SCAN TO HAVE A LOOK INSIDE THE SKULL AT WHAT THE INNER EAR LOOKS LIKE, BECAUSE THAT SPEAKS TO THE CENTER OF BALANCE FOR THIS ANIMAL AND THE QUESTION IS, DID IT HAVE A SENSE OF BALANCE THAT MATCHES WHAT WE SEE FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE SKELETON? AND THE ANSWER IS VERY MUCH SO THEY CERTAINLY HAVE THE KIND OF INNER EAR STRUCTURE THAT FULLY SUPPORTS THE IDEA THAT THESE WERE VERY ACTIVE, AGILE ANIMALS >> THEN FOCUSING ON THE INNER EAR CANALS, WITMER’S TEAM DISCOVERED SOMETHING STARTLING THESE RAPTORS COULD PICK UP LOW FREQUENCY SOUND >> ONE OF THE EXCITING THINGS WHEN WE DID THE CAT SCANNING OF DEINONYCHUS IS WE FOUND VERY LARGE AIR SPACES SURROUNDING THE BRAIN REGION OF THE BACK ENDS OF THESE SKULLS, AND THEY’RE VERY CURIOUS TO US WHY DID THEY HAVE THESE VERY LARGE SPACES WITHIN THEIR SKULL? THEY WERE AIRHEADS IN A VERY LITERAL SENSE IT TURNS OUT THAT HAVING A VERY LARGE MIDDLE EAR SPACE, THE SPACE OF JUST INSIDE THE EARDRUM, HAS AN IMPACT ON THE KINDS OF SOUNDS THAT YOU’RE POTENTIALLY SENSITIVE TO IT POTENTIALLY OPENS UP GREATER SENSITIVITY TO LOW-FREQUENCY SOUNDS AND SO IT’S CONCEIVABLE THAT DEINONYCHUS AND ACTUALLY MANY OF THESE PREDATORY DINOSAURS, LIKE TYRANNOSAURUS AND OTHERS, THAT HAVE THESE LARGE SINUSES ASSOCIATED WITH THEIR EAR, WERE ACTUALLY USING LOW-FREQUENCY SOUNDS POTENTIALLY TO TRACK THE MOVEMENTS OR ACTIVITIES OF ANIMALS THAT WERE REALLY QUITE FAR AWAY, POTENTIALLY ANIMALS THAT WERE OUT OF THEIR LINE OF SIGHT OR BEYOND THEIR SENSES OF SMELL SO THE SENSE OF HEARING AND THEIR SENSITIVITY TO LOW-FREQUENCY SOUNDS, WHICH IS SOMETHING WE NEVER COULD HAVE DISCOVERED WITHOUT CAT SCANNING, PROVIDES US WITH A UNIQUE GLIMPSE INTO THE BIOLOGY OR THE POTENTIAL PREDATORY BEHAVIOR OF SOME OF THESE KINDS OF DINOSAURS >> WHY WOULD A SMALL DINOSAUR LIKE A RAPTOR NEED THE ABILITY TO HEAR LOW-FREQUENCY SOUND? THE DISCOVERY OF YET ANOTHER DINOSAUR AT THE SCENE WOULD COMPLETE THE PUZZLE AND PAINT A PICTURE OF A PREHISTORIC GANG KILL >> ON A BARREN HILLSIDE IN THE BADLANDS OF MONTANA, A GROUP OF PALEONTOLOGISTS UNCOVER A 115-MILLION-YEAR-OLD BATTLEFIELD FOUR DEADLY RAPTORS LAY CRUSHED BY AN UNKNOWN FORCE THEN ANOTHER CLUE AS PALEONTOLOGISTS CONTINUED TO INVESTIGATE THE SCENE, JUST A FEW YARDS AWAY FROM THE GANG OF RAPTORS, THEY UNCOVERED THE SCATTERED REMAINS OF YET ANOTHER DINOSAUR, BUT THIS ONE WASN’T A RAPTOR IT WAS A LARGE, PLANT-EATING DINOSAUR CALLED TENONTOSAURUS [TENONTOSAURUS GROWLING] TENONTOSAURUS WERE GIANT HERBIVORES THAT STOOD MORE THAN EIGHT FEET TALL AND WEIGHED IN EXCESS OF A TON, MORE THAN 10 TIMES THE WEIGHT OF A RAPTOR BUT HOW COULD SCIENTISTS KNOW IF THE TENONTOSAURUS WAS LINKED TO THE RAPTORS? WAS IT POSSIBLE THAT IT JUST WASHED THERE BY A FLOOD? >> THERE’S A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF EVIDENCE THAT CAN BE GATHERED AT A FOSSIL SITE JUST BY LOOKING AT THE GEOLOGY THE SIZE, SHAPE, AND EVEN CONFIGURATION OF THE ROCKS THAT SURROUND THE BONES CAN TELL YOU A LOT THEY CAN TELL YOU IF THOSE BONES ARE BURIED IN MUD, SAND, OR ASH THE WAY THE BONES ARE FOUND CAN ALSO KIND OF GIVE US AN IDEA OF HOW THE SKELETON ARRIVED THERE WAS IT WASHED IN, WAS IT SLOWLY COVERED BY WINDBLOWN SAND? IN THE CASE OF THESE DEINONYCHUS AND TENONTOSAURUS, IT WAS PRETTY CLEAR THAT THESE ANIMALS HAD NOT WASHED TOGETHER, THEY HAD DIED TOGETHER >> CLEARLY THIS WAS AN ALL-OUT MELEE BUT WAS THERE EVEN MORE DIRECT EVIDENCE OF A GANG ATTACK? AS THE PALEONTOLOGISTS DUG CLOSER TO THE SCATTERED REMAINS, NEARLY A DOZEN RAPTORS’ TEETH WERE FOUND AMONG THE BONES THIS EVIDENCE SPOKE VOLUMES THE TENONTOSAURUS WAS HALF-EATEN >> ALONG WITH ALL THE BROKEN

TEETH FOUND AMONG THE TENONTOSAURUS BONES, ONE OF THE MOST TELLING PIECES OF EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE IDEA THAT THE RAPTORS HAD ATTACKED IT IS THAT THE RAPTOR SKELETONS WERE REALLY COMPLETE, BUT THE TENONTOSAURUS WAS HALF-EATEN THIS MAKES A VERY GOOD ARGUMENT THAT NOT ONLY DID THEY ATTACK THE TENONTOSAURUS, BUT THEY ATE HIM AS WELL >> THE TENONTOSAURUS HAD BEEN HALF-EATEN, BUT DEAD RAPTORS LAY EVERYWHERE SO WHO HAD EATEN THE TENONTOSAURUS? >> THIS IS A PRETTY COOL MYSTERY BECAUSE YOU HAVE FOUR DEAD RAPTORS LAYING BESIDE A HALF-EATEN TENONTOSAURUS THE RAPTORS DIED IN BATTLE, SO HOW COULD THEY EAT HALF OF THEIR OPPONENT IF THEY WERE DEAD? THE ANSWER IS THEY WERE DEAD BEFORE HE WAS EATEN >> A CLOSER INSPECTION OF THE TENONTOSAURUS REVEALED CUTS AND SLASHES IN THE BONE MADE BY THE TEETH OF RAPTORS IT WAS PROOF THAT THERE WERE MORE THAN FOUR RAPTORS IN THIS PACK FOUR HAD DIED IN THE BATTLE, BUT OTHERS SURVIVED TO FINISH OFF THE TENONTOSAURUS AND EAT PART OF ITS REMAINS >> THAT’S HOW THE MYSTERY WAS SOLVED CLEARLY, FOUR OF THE RAPTORS HAD BEEN KILLED, BUT THEY WERE ONLY PART OF A LARGER PACK THEIR FELLOW PACK MEMBERS CONTINUED THE ATTACK AND ULTIMATELY KILLED THE TENONTOSAURUS WE KNOW THIS BECAUSE THEY LEFT THEIR TEETH AT THE CRIME SCENE AND ATE HALF OF THE TENONTOSAURUS THIS IS WHAT MAKES THIS SITE ONE OF THE MOST AMAZING DISCOVERIES IN NORTH AMERICA >> A PACK OF DEINONYCHUS WOULD BE AN AWESOME FORCE OF POWER, BUT THE EVIDENCE AT THE BATTLEFIELD PROVED THAT TENONTOSAURUS WAS FAR FROM HELPLESS SOMEHOW, THIS ONE HAD TAKEN DOWN AT LEAST FOUR RAPTORS THEY MOVED AT A SNAIL’S PACE, BUT THEY WERE BY NO MEANS DEFENSELESS THEY RELIED ON THEIR SHEER SIZE AND INTIMIDATING NUMBERS TO DETER MARAUDING PREDATORS >> ITS TRUE STRENGTH COMES IN ITS ABILITY TO TRAVEL IN A HERD A HERD OF TENONTOSAURUS HAS DIFFERENT STRENGTHS–IT CAN TRAMPLE SOMEBODY TO DEATH >> TO FURTHER STRENGTHEN THE HERD’S STRUCTURE, THE WAY THE GROUP TRAVELED WAS PREDICATED BY RANK–A MILITARY TACTIC STILL IN USE TODAY >> WHEN DINOSAURS WALK IN A HERD, THERE’S A LOT OF ORDER TO WHAT THEY DO THE HERD IS KIND OF BROKEN UP INTO THREE DISTINCTIVE GROUPS THERE IS GROUP “A.” THIS IS MADE UP OF THE LEADERS THIS COULD BE ONE, TWO, THREE, MAYBE AS MANY AS FOUR ADULTS THEN GROUP “B” IS MADE UP OF THE MAJORITY OF THE HERD THESE ARE THE HEALTHY ADULTS THESE ARE THE SUB-ADULTS, AND THIS IS WHERE THE BABIES ARE THEY’RE IN GROUP “B.” AND THEN YOU HAVE GROUP “C.” THESE ARE THE OLDEST MEMBERS OF THE HERD, AND THESE ARE THE DINOSAURS THAT ARE SICK OR WEAK OR INJURED AS THEY WALK, THEY WALK IN A SPECIFIC ORDER THEY WALK Bs IN FRONT, As IN THE MIDDLE, Cs IN THE BACK THE “A” GROUP ALWAYS REMAINS SECURE IN THIS WALKING ORDER AND WE SEE MODERN HERDING ANIMALS USING THESE SAME TACTICS IT ENSURES THE SUCCESS OF THE SPECIES >> ALONE OR IN A GROUP, THIS DINOSAUR’S GREATEST STRENGTH WAS ITS COLOSSAL BULK BUT DESPITE ITS STAGGERING POWER, THE TENONTOSAURUS HAD TWO INHERENT WEAKNESSES THE FIRST WAS ITS SMALL BRAIN SIZE A COMPARISON OF THE BRAIN TO ITS BODY SIZE SUGGESTS THAT THESE WERE NOT INTELLIGENT DINOSAURS BUT IN A FIGHT, THINGS ARE NOT ALWAYS WHAT THEY APPEAR THE CRUSHED REMAINS OF FOUR RAPTORS IS CLEAR EVIDENCE THAT TENONTOSAURUS HAD WAYS OF DEALING WITH THESE ATTACKERS >> WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE FOSSIL EVIDENCE, IT SUGGESTS THAT THE RAPTORS WERE CRUSHED UNDER SOME PRETTY IMPRESSIVE WEIGHT HAD THE TENONTOSAURUS CRUSHED THEM WITH HIS FOOT, I THINK THEIR BODIES WOULD HAVE LOOKED LIKE PANCAKES BECAUSE YOU HAD ALL OF ITS WEIGHT BEING FOCUSED ON THAT SMALL FOOT AREA BUT BECAUSE THEIR BODIES WERE RELATIVELY INTACT, I THINK THEY WERE EITHER CRUSHED BY THE TAIL OR, MORE LIKELY, THEY WERE CRUSHED UNDER THE WEIGHT OF THIS ANIMAL >> COULD THE TENONTOSAURUS USE ITS MASSIVE BODY TO CRUSH A RAPTOR DURING AN ATTACK? TO HELP FORMULATE HOW THIS GANG KILLING OCCURRED, PALEONTOLOGISTS BEGAN TO PIECE TOGETHER SCENARIOS OF HOW THE RAPTORS SINGLED OUT THE PLANT-EATER >> THEY WOULD PROBABLY STALK THEIR PREY MAYBE ONE WOULD GET UP AND SIZE UP AND TRY TO PICK OUT THE WEAKEST ONE, MAYBE GET THEM ALL RUNNING AND GETTING THE SLOWEST ONE SO THEN THEY WOULD TAKE AFTER THAT SLOWEST ONE AND MAYBE THEY WOULD TAKE TURNS CHASING IT AROUND, TIRING IT AS SOON AS IT WAS ENOUGH WHERE ONE COULD JUMP ON ITS BACK, ALL THE REST OF THEM WOULD JOIN

AND IT WOULD BE CURTAINS FOR THAT TENONTOSAURUS >> LIKE WOLVES, I SUSPECT THAT THESE ANIMALS WOULD ATTACK FROM DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS THEY WOULD TAKE THEIR CHANCE TO COME IN WHEN THE ATTENTION OF THE TENONTOSAURUS WAS ATTRACTED SOMEWHERE ELSE >> SO ITS KEY TO SUCCESS WAS GET IN THERE, TEAR HOLES IN IT, RIP OPEN THAT BELLY, AND THEN AS MORE AND MORE OF THEM STRIKE, IT JUST GETS WEAKER AND WEAKER UNTIL IT COLLAPSES AND THEN THEY CAN COME IN AND FEAST >> UNDER ATTACK FROM A PACK OF RAPTORS, THE TENONTOSAURUS HERD WOULD INSTINCTIVELY SCATTER IF SEPARATED FROM THE GROUP, THE LONE TENONTOSAURUS HAD TO RELY ON EVERY WEAPON IN ITS ARSENAL, INCLUDING THE ENVIRONMENT >> I THINK ITS MAIN WAY OF SURVIVING WOULD BE TO GET IN A PLACE WHERE THE ATTACKERS COULDN’T COME AT IT FROM ALL THE SIDES SO IF IT WENT INTO, LIKE, DENSER VEGETATION, INTO THE FOREST, RUNNING THROUGH THE BRUSH TO HELP PROTECT ITS FLANKS FROM ATTACKERS, THAT WOULD PROBABLY BE ITS SAFEST COURSE >> IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT THEY LOOK LIKE THEY’RE MORE OR LESS DEFENSIVE, THEY HAVE ARMS AND LEGS AND STRENGTH, AND THAT TAIL LOOKS PRETTY WICKED, ACTUALLY, OVERALL SO I WOULD SUSPECT IT WOULD DRAW ON THOSE IN QUICK SUCCESSION ONCE IT WAS ATTACKED >> IF A TENONTOSAURUS WAS UNDER ATTACK, WHAT WE EXPECT TO SEE HAPPENING WOULD BE SEEING IT PIVOT TOWARDS ITS ATTACKER IF IT CAN KEEP THE ATTACKER IN FRONT OF IT, IT PROBABLY CAN’T BE SUCCESSFULLY ATTACKED >> THE BEST DEFENSE AGAINST A PACK OF RAPTORS WAS TO TRAVEL IN GROUPS BUT SECURITY WAS NOT THE ONLY REASON FOR THEIR HERDING BEHAVIOR SCIENCE SUGGESTS THEY MIGRATED TO FEND OFF STARVATION >> THEY WERE RELATIVELY LARGE AND IN BIG NUMBERS, THEY COULD DEFOLIATE THINGS IT WOULD LOOK LIKE SOMEBODY CAME THROUGH WITH THE WORLD’S BIGGEST HEDGE TRIMMERS AND JUST STRIPPED EVERY LEAF WITHIN RANGE >> TENONTOSAURUS HAVE THIS WONDERFUL BATTERY OF TEETH THAT IS ABSOLUTELY SUITED FOR GRINDING FOOD IT WAS SUCH A GOOD TECHNIQUE THAT IT SURVIVED FOR 70 MILLION YEARS >> TRAVELING IN A HERD, MIGRATING IN SEARCH OF FOOD, THE TENONTOSAURUS HAVE NO IDEA WHAT AWAITS THEM IN THE FOREST WHEN 2,000 POUNDS OF RAW MUSCLE COMES UP AGAINST 150 POUNDS OF PURE HELL, A LIFE AND DEATH STRUGGLE WILL ENSUE ON THIS PREHISTORIC BATTLEFIELD WHERE GANG KILLERS RULE >> IN MONTANA, A GROUP OF PALEONTOLOGISTS UNCOVER A PREHISTORIC CRIME SCENE WHAT IS REVEALED IS EVIDENCE OF 115-MILLION-YEAR-OLD GANG WARFARE THE RAW POWER OF TENONTOSAURUS WAS ENOUGH TO DEFEND ITSELF AGAINST A SINGLE RAPTOR BUT HOW WOULD IT FIGHT AGAINST THE PACK >> WHEN YOU’RE ATTACKED BY A GROUP, IT CHANGES THE GAME CONSIDERABLY WHAT IT MEANS IS THAT EVEN IF YOU’RE LARGER THAN THE ANIMALS THAT ARE TRYING TO KILL YOU, YOUR SIZE MAY NOT BE AN ADVANTAGE AND IN THE CASE OF TENONTOSAURUS, ITS GREATER SIZE AND STRENGTH MAY NOT HAVE BEEN ENOUGH TO HANDLE MULTIPLE ATTACKERS >> TENONTOSAURUS IS A VERY STURDY, STRONGLY-BUILT ANIMAL THE BONES ARE VERY LARGE, AND THOSE BONES WERE CLOTHED WITH RELATIVELY POWERFUL MUSCLES TO CARRY THE LARGE ANIMAL AROUND DEINONYCHUS AS AN ANIMAL WAS CERTAINLY A VERY STRONG ANIMAL BUT WHEN WE THINK ABOUT ITS SKELETAL STRUCTURE, IT’S RELATIVELY DELICATE >> TENONTOSAURUS IS DEFINITELY A FAR MORE POWERFUL DINOSAUR IT’S LARGER IT’S A FAR BIGGER ANIMAL, MORE POWERFULLY BUILT, MORE SOLID BONES A LOT MORE MUSCLE >> THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TENONTOSAURUS AND DEINONYCHUS SUGGESTS THAT IN ORDER TO ATTACK ONE, THE DEINONYCHUS WOULD BE FORCED TO HUNT COOPERATIVELY TO HAVE ANY CHANCE OF BRINGING IT DOWN >> IF THE DEINONYCHUS WAS IN A GROUP, THEN THE GROUP MIGHT BE ABLE TO OVERWHELM THE TENONTOSAURUS, BUT IT’D BE AWFULLY DANGEROUS >> A PACK OF DEINONYCHUS WOULD BE A CLOSER MATCH TO AN INDIVIDUAL TENONTOSAURUS SO IF YOU’VE GOT A WHOLE BUNCH OF DEINONYCHUS OPERATING TOGETHER, YOU HAVE ABOUT THE SAME MUSCLE STRENGTH AS YOU HAVE WITH A SINGLE TENONTOSAURUS >> THE RAPTOR’S BODY DESIGN SUGGESTS THAT WHEN IT CAME TO SPEED AND AGILITY, IT HAD THE UPPER HAND >> WITHOUT A DOUBT, DEINONYCHUS

IS DEFINITELY A FASTER, MORE AGILE ANIMAL THAN TENONTOSAURUS YOU LOOK AT THE INDIVIDUAL BONES OF A DEINONYCHUS, AND THEY’RE QUITE NARROW ITS WHOLE STRUCTURE WAS BUILT TO BE ABLE TO MOVE QUICKLY AND IN AN AGILE WAY >> AGILITY-WISE TENONTOSAURUS IS CERTAINLY MUCH BETTER OFF THAN ANY OF THE CERATOPSIANS OR SAUROPOD DINOSAURS, BECAUSE TENONTOSAURUS CAN BE FUNCTIONALLY BIPEDAL, SO THAT GIVES IT A LOT MORE TURN ABILITY, IT’S GOT A FAIRLY RIGID TAIL >> ONE OF THE MAIN REASONS WHY RAPTORS ARE SO FAST IS BECAUSE OF THEIR LUNG DESIGN AS THEY BREATHE IN, THE AIR TRAVELS INTO THEIR LUNGS AND THEN FROM THERE, IT’S FORCED INTO VARIOUS BONES AND VERTEBRAE THAT AIR THEN ULTIMATELY EXITS THE BODY THROUGH HOLES IN SOME OF THE BONES IT DOESN’T WASTE ENERGY PUSHING THAT AIR BACK OUT OF ITS THROAT, SO IT’S AT FULL THROTTLE ALL THE TIME >> DEINONYCHUS WAS ALL ABOUT AGILITY, MOVING AROUND QUICKLY RAPIDLY MAKING QUICK TURNS– QUICK MOVEMENTS OF ITS HEAD AND NECK WE HAVE LOTS OF EVIDENCE THAT THAT WAS IMPORTANT FOR DEINONYCHUS BOTH FROM ITS SKELETON, BUT ALSO FROM THE WAY ITS BRAIN AND INNER EAR WERE STRUCTURED, WHICH AGAIN SHOW VERY IMPORTANT SIGNS OF QUICK, RELATIVELY RAPID MOVEMENTS BEING IMPORTANT FOR DEINONYCHUS THAT’S NOT THE CASE FOR TENONTOSAURUS >> EQUIPPED WITH TEETH AND CLAWS, THE RAPTOR PACK CAME READY FOR A FIGHT BUT THE MASSIVE TAIL AND SHEER MASS OF THE TENONTOSAURUS WOULD HAVE EVENED THE SCORE >> TENONTOSAURUS DOESN’T HAVE MUCH IN THE WAY OF SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY ADAPTED AS WEAPONS, BUT IT DOES HAVE SHEER MUSCLE STRENGTH AND THIS ENORMOUS TAIL, BIGGER THAN WE SEE RELATIVE TO BODY SIZE THAN IN MOST OF THE PLANT-EATING RELATIVES OF IT >> TENONTOSAURUS, OF COURSE, HAS THE STRENGTH AND THE WEIGHT AND IT HAS THIS EXTREMELY LONG TAIL THAT SEEMS TO BE VERY MASSIVELY BUILT AND I THINK IT WOULD USE IT AS A CLUB AGAINST THE DEINONYCHUS >> DEINONYCHUS CLEARLY HAS RAPTOR WEAPONS THE SHARP CLAWS ON EACH HAND, THE KILLING CLAW ON THE FOOT, THE RAZOR SHARP TEETH IN ITS MOUTH HE’S GOT THE TYPICAL WEAPONS OF A RAPTOR, AND THAT’S WHAT MAKES A RAPTOR SO DANGEROUS >> RAPTORS WERE BORN TO ATTACK USING AN ARSENAL OF WEAPONS, SPEED AND AGILITY, IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST DEADLY FORCES IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM TENONTOSAURUS WOULD HAVE TO RELY ON EVERY TRICK IN THE BOOK TO SURVIVE AN ATTACK >> WHENEVER A CARNIVORE FACES OFF AGAINST A HERBIVORE IN MOST CASES, A CARNIVORE HAS A LOT OF EXPERIENCE ALREADY IN FIGHTING THE HERBIVORES MAY BE AGGRESSIVE, BUT WON’T NECESSARILY HAVE THE EXPERIENCE >> IF WE COMPARE AN HERBIVORE LIKE TENONTOSAURUS VERSUS A CARNIVORE LIKE DEINONYCHUS, DEINONYCHUS COMES OUT WAY AHEAD IN TERMS OF FIGHT SKILLS IT HAS A LOT OF SPECIALIZED BEHAVIORS INTENDED TO FIGHT BECAUSE THAT’S THE WAY IT MAKES ITS LIVING IN ORDER FOR IT TO SURVIVE, IT HAS TO KILL, AND IT HAS TO KILL FAIRLY OFTEN TENONTOSAURUS DOESN’T REALLY HAVE TO DO THAT IT MAY HAVE TO DEFEND ITSELF ON OCCASION, BUT A LUCKY TENONTOSAURUS IS ONE THAT NEVER HAS TO ENCOUNTER A MEAT-EATER >> TENONTOSAURUS VERSUS DEINONYCHUS IS AN INTERESTING KIND OF BATTLE, ONE THAT WE ACTUALLY THINK TOOK PLACE BECAUSE WE HAVE EVIDENCE THAT THESE ANIMALS, NOT ONLY LIVED IN THE SAME AREA BUT ACTUALLY INTERACTED WE FIND THEIR FOSSILS INTERTWINED A SINGLE DEINONYCHUS PROBABLY COULD HAVE TAKEN ON A SMALL TENONTOSAURUS, A SICK TENONTOSAURUS BUT PROBABLY NOT A FULLY ADULT HEALTHY TENONTOSAURUS SIMPLY BECAUSE TENONTOSAURUS WAS A LARGE, POWERFUL ANIMAL AND DEINONYCHUS WAS A RELATIVELY SLIGHTLY-BUILT, DELICATE KIND OF ANIMAL SO IF DEINONYCHUS WERE TO TACKLE A LARGE TENONTOSAURUS, IT WOULD NEED HELP >> BECAUSE TENONTOSAURUS HAS THAT LONG TAIL, IT’S A CLEAR SIGN THAT IT IS DESIGNED TO BE MORE OF A WEAPON, SO IT’S GOT A GREAT WAY TO DEFEND ITSELF THAT MEANS THAT THIS ANIMAL CAME IN CONTACT WITH PREDATORS A LOT IT HAD FIGHT SKILLS BECAUSE IT LIVED WITH DEINONYCHUS, AND THAT MEANT IT WAS ON THE MENU A LOT SO IT HAS ACTUALLY VERY GOOD FIGHT SKILLS FOR AN HERBIVORE DEINONYCHUS ABSOLUTELY HAD GOOD FIGHT SKILLS THIS IS AN ANIMAL THAT MAKES ITS LIVING KILLING AND THE MORE IT KILLS, THE BETTER IT SURVIVES AND THE MORE IT KILLS, THE BETTER ITS FIGHT SKILLS ARE >> THE SITE OF A PREHISTORIC BATTLE UNFOLDS IN THE BADLANDS OF MONTANA AN ENORMOUS TENONTOSAURUS IS AMBUSHED BY A PACK OF DEADLY RAPTORS BASED ON FORENSIC AND CAT SCAN EVIDENCE AND ANALYSIS OF MODERN ANIMAL BEHAVIOR, EXPERTS

PRESENT A SCENARIO OF THIS GANG ATTACK WHERE THE VICTIM STRIKES BACK >> A HERD OF TENONTOSAURUS IS ON THE MOVE, TONS OF ROLLING THUNDER CONSUMING EVERYTHING IN ITS PATH, ONLY THIS DAY, THEY’VE GOT SOME UNWELCOME COMPANY >> THESE DINOSAURS HAVE NO IDEA THEY’RE BEING FOLLOWED BY SOME OF THE NASTIEST AND MOST DANGEROUS LITTLE DINOSAURS THAT EVER WALKED PLANET EARTH >> THE RAPTORS–THE DEADLIEST OF ALL DINOSAURS–ARE ABOUT TO STRIKE QUICK, INTELLIGENT, AND CAGEY, THEY SINGLE OUT THE WEAKEST MEMBER OF THE HERD >> THEY WOULD STAND OFF AT A DISTANCE AND LOOK AT THE HERD THEY WANT TO CHOOSE THE MOST EFFECTIVE TARGET THEY’RE NOT JUST GOING TO RUN IN AND TRY TO ATTACK THE FIRST DINOSAUR THEY FIND IT COULD BE THAT THAT DINOSAUR IS BIGGER THAN THEY ARE OR, MORE IMPORTANTLY, IT’S COMPLETELY HEALTHY AND CAN DEFEND ITSELF ONCE THEY PICK OUT THEIR PREY, THEY’RE GOING TO ATTACK AND THE TENONTOSAURUS IS GOING TO BE IN DIRE TROUBLE >> THEIR EYES LOCK ON TO THEIR TARGET THEY BEGIN TO STIR–SLOWLY, DELIBERATELY–SILENT EXCEPT FOR THE HISSING OF THEIR BREATH >> WHAT MAKES A RAPTOR SO INCREDIBLY DANGEROUS IS THEY’RE BUILT LIKE NINJAS THEY’RE FAST, THEY’RE STRONG, THEY’RE AGILE, THEY’VE GOT RAZOR-SHARP TEETH, AND THESE TEETH CURVE BACKWARDS WHEN YOU ARE BITTEN BY AN ANIMAL WITH TEETH THAT POINT BACKWARDS, IT’S GOING TO RIP A CHUNK OF FLESH OUT OF YOU BUT THEY’RE UP AGAINST A MUCH BIGGER ADVERSARY, SO THEY’VE GOT TO WORK IN UNISON THE RAPTORS RUSH IN INITIALLY IN HOPES OF STARTLING THE HERD IF THEY CAN SEPARATE HIM, THEY HAVE A BETTER CHANCE OF TAKING HIM ON >> TERRIFIED AND DISORIENTED, THE HERD STAMPEDES THEIR IMMENSE LEGS MAKE A DEAFENING SOUND >> THEY DO THIS FOR TWO REASONS NUMBER ONE–THEY DO IT BECAUSE THEY WANT TO GET AWAY FROM THE ATTACKER BUT THE SECOND REASON WHY THEY DO IT IS BECAUSE WHEN YOU RUN, IT EXPOSES THE WEAKEST GUY AND THAT’S THE ONE THE PREDATORS ARE GOING TO FOCUS ON OUT OF ALL THE HIDING PLACES THE RAPTORS RUSH IN, THE PACK WORKS IN UNISON MUCH LIKE MODERN-DAY WOLVES DO TO BRING DOWN BIGGER PREY THEY BURST OUT OF THEIR HIDING PLACES, AND THEIR JOB IS TO INFLICT AS MUCH INJURY AS THEY CAN >> THE RAPTORS SEEM TO COME FROM EVERYWHERE AT ONCE, AT TIMES LEAPING MORE THAN 10 FEET IN THE AIR >> DEINONYCHUS ARE INCREDIBLY FAST THEY’RE AGILE THEY’RE VERY SWIFT PREDATORS TENONTOSAURUS IS A VERY HEAVY, SLOW, LUMBERING ANIMAL THERE’S A COUPLE OF KEY WEAKNESSES IN TENONTOSAURUS NUMBER ONE–IT’S HIS UNPROTECTED THROAT THERE IS NO ARMOR, AND THE THROAT IS ONE OF THE PLACES THE DEINONYCHUS ARE GOING TO FOCUS NUMBER TWO–IT’S HIS UNGUARDED FLANKS TENONTOSAURUS’ SIDE IS LIKE A HUGE BILLBOARD WITH A BIG BULL’S-EYE ON IT THAT SAYS, “STRIKE HERE.” THE DEINONYCHUS ARE ABSOLUTELY GOING TO GO FOR HIS UNPROTECTED FLANKS IF YOU CAN CUT THROUGH THE THICK HIDE AND EXPOSE THE GUTS, THAT IS WHAT’S GOING TO DEBILITATE THAT TENONTOSAURUS AND TAKE HIM OUT OF THE BATTLE BEFORE IT EVEN BEGINS >> INSTINCTIVELY, TENONTOSAURUS FIGHTS BACK >> THEY’RE HARMLESS, BUT THEY’RE NOT DEFENSELESS THEY’VE GOT AN EXCEPTIONALLY LONG TAIL THEIR TAIL IS ALMOST THE LENGTH OF THE REST OF THEIR BODY THEIR TAIL IS SORT OF DESIGNED LIKE A BASEBALL BAT INTERCONNECTING RODS CONNECT EACH VERTEBRA AND GIVE IT A STIFFENED APPEARANCE IT’S NOT WIGGLY LIKE A CROCODILE’S TAIL THIS THING IS A WEAPON >> ONE SWING OF THE TAIL SCATTERS THE PACK >> ALTHOUGH DEINONYCHUS IS A NASTY DUDE AND HE’S GOT SOME PRETTY WICKED WEAPONS, HE STILL HAS A VERY LIGHT BIRD-LIKE SKELETAL STRUCTURE A DIRECT HIT FROM A TAIL COULD END THAT GUY’S LIFE

HIS HAND CLAWS AND FOOT CLAWS CAN BE BROKEN PRETTY EASILY IN COMBAT, SO EVEN THOUGH HE’S GOT THESE WICKED WEAPONS, HE’S STILL GOT TO BE CAUTIOUS ABOUT HOW HE USES THEM >> THE OTHER RAPTORS SCRAMBLE TO REGROUP THEN THEY STRIKE AGAIN FROM EVERY DIRECTION >> ONE OF THE FAVORITE ATTACK METHODS OF THE RAPTORS IS WHAT WE CALL THE SLASH AND DASH YOU RUSH IN, YOU SLASH THEM WITH YOUR HAND CLAWS, AND YOU HOPE THAT YOU INFLICT A SERIES OF INJURIES, AND THEN YOU DASH TO SAFETY YOU ALLOW YOUR PREY TO SLOWLY BLEED TO DEATH THE PROBLEM IS BECAUSE OF THE THICKNESS OF TENONTOSAURUS’ HIDE, THAT ATTACK DOESN’T DO MUCH DAMAGE THAT’S LIKE ATTACKING A RHINOCEROS WITH A FORK AT THE END OF THE DAY, YOU’VE GOT A BENT FORK AND A PISSED OFF RHINOCEROS >> THE RAPTORS QUICKLY UP THE ANTE DEADLY, SWIFT MENACE WITH A SINGULAR GOAL: KILL! >> THEY TAKE THE CLAWS FROM THE HANDS AND DIG THEM INTO THAT DEEP HIDE AND HANG ON RAISING THEIR FOOT, CURLING DOWN THEIR TWO TOES, THAT BRINGS THEIR KILLING CLAWS FORWARD, AND THEY BEGIN TO SLICE AND CUT THE TENONTOSAURUS >> THE RAPTOR STRIKES HARD WITH ITS LETHAL KILLING CLAW THE TENONTOSAURUS LAUNCHES AN UNEXPECTED COUNTER-ATTACK >> ONCE THE DEINONYCHUS LAND ON HIS BACK, THE TENONTOSAURUS IS GOING TO ROLL OVER USING HIS WEIGHT TO CRUSH THEM IT WOULD BE LIKE BEING RUN OVER BY A ONE-TON TRUCK THE BONES WOULD SNAP AND BREAK LIKE PENCILS >> TWO MORE RAPTORS NOW LIE DEAD WHILE THE WOUNDED TENONTOSAURUS IS STILL STANDING >> THE RAPTORS ARE LOSING TOO MANY MEMBERS OF THE PACK THE TENONTOSAURUS IS ABLE TO REPEL ASSAULT AFTER ASSAULT SLASH AND DASH DIDN’T WORK THIS FULL CONFRONTATION IS NOT WORKING 2,000 POUNDS OF TENONTOSAURUS AGAINST AN 150-POUND RAPTOR IS NOT AN EVEN FIGHT AND HE CRUSHES THEM >> THE RAPTORS ARE FORCED TO RETREAT A POWERFUL STORM IS BREWING NIGHT IS FALLING >> THEY’RE NOT GOING TO FOLLOW THE TENONTOSAURUS BECAUSE THEY DON’T WANT TO KEEP HIM ON HIGH ALERT THEY’LL WAIT FOR NIGHTFALL AND FOLLOW HIS BLOOD TRAIL THEY’LL KNOW WHERE HE GOES >> WEAK AND BLEEDING, THE TENONTOSAURUS SEARCHES FOR COVER, HIS ONLY HOPE OF GETTING OUT ALIVE >> HE REALIZES THAT BY MOVING INTO THE TREES, IT’S GOING TO BE HARDER FOR THE DEINONYCHUS TO HAVE ROOM TO MANEUVER HE FINDS A GROVE OF TREES AND MOVES IN AND HOPES THAT NOTHING OCCURS OVERNIGHT >> BUT TO THE RAPTORS, DARKNESS IS A TRUSTED FRIEND >> NOW THEY’LL SWITCH OVER TO THEIR NUMBER-ONE MOST EFFECTIVE HUNTING METHOD– NIGHT VISION >> THE STAGE IS SET THE FINAL DEVASTATING SHOWDOWN LOOMS AHEAD AND IN THIS BATTLE, THERE CAN ONLY BE ONE OUTCOME: WINNER TAKES ALL [DINOSAURS GROWLING] >> A PACK OF BLOOD-THIRSTY RAPTORS HAVE TARGETED A 2,000-POUND TENONTOSAURUS SEPARATED FROM THE HERD TO SURVIVE THIS LIFE OR DEATH STRUGGLE, THE HULKING HERBIVORE MUST RELY ON ITS SHEER SIZE THE RAPTORS COUNTERED WITH STEALTH, SPEED, NUMBERS, AND YET ONE MORE ADVANTAGE >> THEY’VE GOT EXCELLENT NIGHT VISION AS THE STORM OFF IN THE DISTANCE MOVES CLOSER, THE RAPTORS REALIZE THEY CAN USE THE SOUND OF THUNDER TO MUFFLE THEIR FOOTSTEPS AND THE VIBRATIONS OF THEIR FOOT THEY MOVE IN FOR THE FINAL ASSAULT >> WITH QUICK, ERRATIC MOVES AND THE PREDATORY INTELLIGENCE OF A GIANT BIRD OF PREY, THE PACK MOUNTS ITS FINAL AMBUSH >> THIS SPOT IS DESIGNED PERFECTLY TO PLAY INTO THE STRENGTHS OF DEINONYCHUS THERE’S A RAISED RIDGE BEHIND THE TENONTOSAURUS IT’S THE PERFECT LAUNCH SITE FOR AN AERIAL SILENT ATTACK >> THE ENVIRONMENT ALSO FAVORS THE RAPTORS TENONTOSAURUS IS NOW AT THE MERCY OF HIS MERCILESS ATTACKERS >> UNDER ATTACK, TENONTOSAURUS HAS GOT TO HAVE HIS SENSES WORKING AT PEAK STRENGTH SIGHT IS GOING TO BE IMPORTANT,

BECAUSE HE’S GOT TO SEE WHERE THE ATTACK IS COMING FROM SOUND IS ABSOLUTELY IMPORTANT AS IT BECOMES DARK YOU’VE GOT TO HEAR WHERE YOUR ATTACKERS ARE THE SENSE OF SMELL IS VITALLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT ALLOWS HIM TO FIGURE OUT WHERE THOSE RAPTORS ARE OUT IN THAT DARKNESS >> TRAPPED IN A THICK GROVE OF TREES, TENONTOSAURUS IS HELPLESS HIS IMMENSE WEIGHT AND POWERFUL TAIL, USELESS THE RAPTORS FLY INTO ACTION WITH WHITE-HOT INTENSITY >> NOW THEY’RE ABLE TO DIG THEIR CLAWS DEEP INTO HIS SIDE USING THEIR HAND CLAWS, THEY’RE HOLDING ON, BUT IT’S THE KILLING CLAW ON THEIR FOOT THAT HELPS THEM DIG DEEP INTO THE FLESH [DINOSAURS GROWLING] ONCE THEY BEGIN TO SLICE OPEN, THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF THE TENONTOSAURUS WILL SPILL OUT ONTO THE GROUND >> THE ASSAULT INTENSIFIES THE RAPTORS ARE NOW IN AN ALL-OUT FEEDING FRENZY >> AS HE FIGHTS FOR HIS LIFE THROUGHOUT THIS HORRIFIC ASSAULT, THE TENONTOSAURUS STILL MANAGES TO KILL FOUR MORE MEMBERS OF THE RAPTOR PACK BUT AFTER AN EXHAUSTING EFFORT, THIS DINOSAUR FINALLY LOSES CONSCIOUSNESS AND FALLS TO THE GROUND THE ALPHA MALE RAPTOR GRABS THE PREY BY THE THROAT AND BEGINS TO CRUSH ITS WINDPIPE THE REMAINING RAPTORS TAKE ADVANTAGE AND BEGIN TO FEED ON THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF THE TENONTOSAURUS LIKE A PACK OF WOLVES, THESE DEINONYCHUS ARE FIGHTING FOR THE BEST PARTS >> THE SPEED, INTELLIGENCE, AND CUNNING OF THE RAPTORS IS TOO MUCH FOR THE LUMBERING BEAST >> WITH THIS BANQUET OF TENONTOSAURUS GUTS LAID OUT IN FRONT OF THEM, THE ALPHA MALE ASSERTS HIS DOMINANCE AND PUSHES AWAY THE RIVALS FOR THE TASTIEST MORSELS >> OFF IN THE DISTANCE, THUNDER CONTINUES TO RUMBLE THEN ALL IS QUIET THE STORM PASSES ONCE AGAIN, SILENCE DESCENDS OVER THE GREAT PLAIN >> TENONTOSAURUS WAS BIGGER AND CERTAINLY HEAVIER TENONTOSAURUS DIDN’T NECESSARILY MAKE A MISTAKE IT WAS NUMBERS THAT TOOK HIM DOWN ONE DINOSAUR EVEN AS BIG AS TENONTOSAURUS CANNOT WITHSTAND AN ONSLAUGHT FROM A PACK OF RAPTORS >> RAPTOR GANG KILLS WOULD CONTINUE FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS THEN THEIR WORLD SHUDDERED AND EVENTUALLY VANISHED NO ONE KNOWS EXACTLY WHAT HAPPENED, BUT MODERN-DAY SCIENTISTS HAVE PIECED TOGETHER AT LEAST PART OF THE PUZZLE >> EXTINCTION, OF COURSE, IS SOMETHING THAT HAPPENS NOT JUST ONCE, IT HAPPENS ALL THE TIME OVER AND OVER AGAIN I MEAN, FOR EXAMPLE, NO DINOSAUR ACTUALLY LASTED MORE THAN A COUPLE OF MILLION YEARS AND ALL THE SPECIES WENT EXTINCT AT DIFFERENT TIMES THE THING ABOUT EXTINCTION EVENTS IS THAT, OF COURSE, THEY’RE VERY BAD FOR THE ANIMALS THAT GO EXTINCT, BUT THEY OPEN A DOOR OF OPPORTUNITY FOR A LOT OF OTHER ANIMALS AND PLANTS AND BASICALLY ONCE CERTAIN SPECIES DISAPPEAR, THEN OTHER SPECIES WILL EVOLVE AND CHANGE AND TAKE OVER THEIR PLACE IN THAT PARTICULAR ECOSYSTEM OR HABITAT >> DURING THE MID-CRETACEOUS PERIOD, THE WORLD’S ENVIRONMENT WAS CHANGING GLOBALLY AND THESE CHANGES CAN BE SEEN IN THE FOSSIL PLANT RECORD WELL, DINOSAURS LIKE TENONTOSAURUS AND DEINONYCHUS FOR WHATEVER REASON WERE UNABLE TO DEAL WITH THESE CHANGES, AND THEY WERE REPLACED BY OTHER DINOSAURS THAT WERE BETTER SUITED FOR THE NEW ENVIRONMENT >> LONG BEFORE RECORDED TIME, GANG KILLERS ROAMED THE EARTH, HUNTING AND KILLING BEASTS 10 TIMES THEIR SIZE BUT IN THIS FIGHT, A VICTIM STRUCK BACK WITH AN UNSUSPECTING DEATH BLOW AND 115 MILLION YEARS LATER, THE EVIDENCE LIVES TO TELL ABOUT IT >> NEXT WEEK ON “JURASSIC FIGHT CLUB,” IT’S THE ULTIMATE BATTLE OF THE SEXES A MALE AND FEMALE ENGAGE IN A FIGHT TO THE DEATH IT’S A DOMESTIC DISPUTE THAT WILL END WITH ONE DINOSAUR COMMITTING ONE OF THE MOST VICIOUS ACTS OF THE PREHISTORIC WORLD