Old Diplomacy Part 2 and Intro to WWI

Alright we are continuing on look at foreign policy and diplomatic mystery Last time I tried to give you a sense of this change from the old diplomacy. How we used to react to deal with or interact with other countries and the basic understanding was that we sort of set back and let the world come to us And we could do that again with the luxury of geography, Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean a certain sense of isolation and a feeling of we weren’t really vulnerable or threatened. That all begins to change with industrialization and all the new technologies that industrialization provided. So the world began to get much smaller communications, transportation, the speed at which you had to respond to situations or be able to respond to situations. But ultimately it’s economics, it’s going to be not the desire but the demand, the necessity to get American manufactured goods in the board are things. So this is what I mean by industrialization forced us, unless we want to go back to a pre-industrial society which we weren’t, it forces us to get out into the world in a way we had never done before right. So we had to actually start implementing or thinking about foreign policy and in a significant way for the first time. And I gave you a couple of examples of that last time with Samoa with the Venezuelan boundary dispute again Venezuela we didn’t care about the gold or who got it we just want to be the ones to determine who got it. That’s the projection of power and that’s really what the United States is most interested in here is as this economic and political power on the world stage right. We are an emerging world power in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Now we’re not a superpower, we won’t be a superpower until after world war two that that’s down the road a little ways. But it was the demands of economic growth caused by industrialization that forces us out into the world whether they have. So we ended last time with a brief look, a very brief look about the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands. And I had one more slide we’re going to show you here to kind of wrap that up. Again you can know it’s kind of political cartoons to kind of get to the heart of a of a message here with is just a couple of images. We have a Hawaiian princess being forced to marry – know who that is? Uncle Sam right Again this is another shotgun wedding and of course President McKinley is overseeing the ceremonies here. And the point here is another shotgun wedding with neither party is willing right. We annex the Hawaiian Islands we’re going to officially annex them in 1898 but the writing was on the wall here because we’re gearing up for a war against Spain And if we’re going to deal with Spain this means you don’t deal with just the nation of Spain that’s not the issue. And the irony of the Spanish-American war is that the United States goes to war against Spain in the Caribbean and the Pacific okay. So it’s not a war where the United States and Spain themselves are going to fight on each other’s country but it is about empire. It is about control of territory and colonial possessions alright. So the Spanish-American war is what we want to primarily focus upon today okay. Now the other thing I was trying to indicate is that, last time, is that a lot of times historians suggest that the Spanish-American war is this first real example of the new diplomacy in action And prior to that it was the old diplomacy and again it’s usually you know history doesn’t work it’s not usually not that neat and compact that we have kind of a before and after moment here. We are slowly implementing the new policy and again the demands of industrialization is what’s forcing us to do this. So the Spanish-American war is definitely an example of the new diplomacy, it’s the most important example because it’s really after the Spanish-American war that we acquired, took over, we acquired a significant amount of real estate around the world particularly in the Caribbean islands and in the Pacific near Asia the Philippine Islands okay. So just a little background to this conflict here. The old Spanish Empire back to the time of Columbus and the conquistadors in the new world has much been reduced there’s not much of it left. The nations in South America and Central America had largely

rebelled and gone through their independence interface back in the early 19th century. But Spain still possesses a lot of islands and most importantly it’s Cuba Cuba and the Philippines are going to be the two islands or island nations that we are concerned with okay. So Cuba was possessed by the control occupied by Spain but there was this movement in Cuba amongst the Cuban people for independence. They want to free themselves of their Imperial masters here the Spanish and they were had been appealing to the United States in some very direct and bold manners Trying to how do you say this play upon the sympathies of the American people because notice the language they use right. We are a people possessed and controlled by a brutal empire, we want independence, we want our liberty, so the American people can understand this cause here as we get thrown off our own Imperial masters the British in our revolution or war of independence not a revolution back in the 1780s right. So I think in many ways there you know the American people are quite happy to help people when we believe, that’s the key here, when we believe we’re doing it for moral and ethical reasons not Imperial economic political reasons right. So the sympathies of the American people we’re going to get our heartstrings tugged on here just a little bit and there is some concern for helping the Cubans liberate themselves right. How many times have we heard that before to go liberate people from oppressive regimes and governments right Now to help this along this tugging at the heartstrings of the American people we have to consider us specifically how do I say this a type of journalism or media influence called yellow journalism And at the heart of this is the guy you’ve at least heard of the award named after him Joseph Pulitzer he is a newspaperman right. And he along with his chief competitor William Randolph Hearst are very much engaged in what we call yellow journalism. And if you want an example of yellow journalism in a contemporary seting today just watch Fox News ok just watch MSNBC right. These are highly sensationalized mostly editorial comments that’s not really news in any way. It’s usually designed to stir up sensational stories and headlines and bold images for what purpose? Not so much to get people riled up although they are happy that’s a side product More basic than that, OK money but in the form of ratings, this is about commercial advertising and if again if it’s more sensationalized news people tend to pay attention or at least check it out right. Fox News is the number one most watched, scary as that sounds, news network in the United States OK. So the same thing is happening here it is about selling newspapers more than anything else. It’s a circulation war and they’re trying to drum up business by tugging at the heartstrings of the American people and what they’re really focusing on and just give an example of this William Randolph Hearst very famously said “You provide the pictures and I’ll provide the story” right. You don’t really need to worry about fact-checking and you know whether our facts are all exactly correct we just need to get to the heart of the story here and the purpose again is to sell newspapers. Now in this particular instance this plays a really important role in influencing, as we were saying, the other side of this is influencing or at least shaping American opinion about what’s going on in Cuba ok Now what is going on in Cuba? Well Cuba again as I said there’s an independence movement there. But Spain like all empires are not interested in losing territory they’re going to fight to maintain that. And so what the Spanish began to do is implement policies of extreme brutality on the Cuban people It is fair to say that they implemented what we would call today

concentration camps. They literally rounded up thousands of people, mass starvation, torture, murder, violence, human atrocities, crimes against humanity however you want to say that. They absolutely brutalize the Cuban people as an effort to put down this independence and rebellion movement in Cuba okay. So from that perspective these are the stories that are being told back in the United States and again to be fair they’re not exactly exaggerated a whole lot of that, but there is also an agenda here for war and agenda here for again well economic expansion versus liberating people from an independence movement okay. So for example what’s going to happen here is we have an incident in which the United States under, now this is again 1898 and, the president William McKinley and he sent the USS Maine its a battleship one of them is part of the American battle fleet there that we when we started building navies. We sent this battleship down to Cuba and Havana in the harbor of Havana as a show of force right. This is a, again, this is a projection of power that is we can use this on Spain if we need to right. So it was an attempt to try to maybe calm some of the tension down there by saying that the United States is going to play a role in determining the outcome here right. Well the problem is that this battleship exploded in the harbor and sunk. Now what is the how do we say this here, this becomes the war cry becomes “remember the Maine to hell with Spain” right. And this kind of drum beat now becomes justified at least in the minds of some Americans, because we have now been attacked by the Spanish. Did we actually bother to investigate the cause of this incident no. We do eventually but we do that all the time eventually we get around to it and then we come back to find out the real reason was an accident on board the ship itself okay But the belief was and at least what’s being promoted by guys like Pulitzer and guys like William Randolph Hearst is that it was delivered to the harbor was deliberately mined by the Spanish to sink this ship. Well now we have just cause to go to war okay. And the question that we have to think about here in terms of you know what is our purpose? Is it Cuban independence or what is that new diplomacy all about access to foreign markets, economic expansion Remember that Cuba is ripe for a tremendous amount of agricultural produce most importantly sugar right. Again we saw what happened in Hawaii, the overthrow of a rightful legitimate government simply to make money by including Hawaiians way to avoid taxes right. So this becomes the sort of battle cry here remembering the Maine and going to war against Spain. Now there was a lot of people in the United States who disagreed with this right. People that we would put in the anti-imperialist camp that absolutely opposed going to war with Spain particularly if it had any kind of economic incentive or motivations. So in our again Congress is going to submit we call those things there it did wartime appropriations bill that’s what I’m trying to say here that is to fund the war and attach to these wartime appropriations bills going before Congress that gives the United States military and the President the authority to use force is attached an amendment called the Teller amendment And what the teller amendment said is that the United States has no interest in occupying or possessing Cuba when this conflict is over. So it was basically added to the wartime appropriations bill to calm the fears and concerns of the anti-imperialists that somehow we had an agenda to take control of the island okay. So with that added to it it appears that our main

motivation that on the surface at least was to liberate the Cuban people right Well, the first action of the war between the United States against Spain over the island of Cuba is to attack the Philippines ok. Now what why are we attacking the Philippines because when you go to war with the country like this or like Spain you go to war with all of its Imperial possessions right when Great Britain goes to war the British Empire goes to war ok. That’s the purpose of empire so this is the map we’re looking at here for just a moment because off the coast of China we have the majority, the bulk of the United States Navy right. Commanded by Commodore Dewey and Dewey is going to attack the Spanish Navy in the Philippines to make sure that they will not pose a threat to us right. Now in this particular incident here at Manila Bay, the Spanish Navy is caught off guard and the United States completely destroyed the entire navy without any losses to the United States right. It’s a complete lopsided victory here and from this point forward the Spanish Navy will pose no threat whatsoever to United States both here as well as back in Cuba right. And this was one of the headlines here of Dewey in Manila Bay in the Philippines here where it was a complete rout the Spanish Navy was no match for this new, remember brand new, modern United States navy right Perhaps third or fourth in the world at this time ok. So the Navy is now taken care of from the Spanish Navy’s now taken care of back to Cuba ok. Well this is where we need to go back just a little bit to Teddy Roosevelt or TR as he’s oftentimes referred to. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders now remember what I said about this idea that you need to prove yourself in battle to show that you’re a real man right. These sort of gender definitions become very prominent in the late 19th century in u.s. in the United States there and nobody embodied that more than TR. He was itching for a fight right and in fact he said to one of his confidants in strict confidence I should welcome almost any war or I think this country needs one. Did we need a war well I suppose that’s to be debated right but he certainly believed it as did many many Americans. Remember this guy is going to go on to become one of the most popular presidents in American history Now at this point is the assistant Secretary of the Navy not real power but he resigned that position, he gave it up, he quit so he could go fight in this war and he formed what’s called the Rough Riders. This was be very clear they put them in uniforms but here it says USV What does the V stand for? He’s a volunteer, this is not the professional army. This is a militia group, it’s basically cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt right. And in fact when he gets down to Cuba, he and the Rough Riders were, how should we say this, they were a thorn in the side of the Regular Army the entire time they’re there. Because Teddy Roosevelt is racing all over the island and engaging the enemy, causing problems, not telling the Regular Army what he’s doing and getting a lot of people killed in the process. Remember what his mission is to prove himself in battle right. Now he and the Rough Riders do play a pretty important role in the capturing of San Juan Hill right. This is that famous charge up San Juan Hill and in doing this it did bring about the end of the war. So they do play a decisive role here in conjunction with the regular army at the end of the war. This war by the way lasted about six weeks to eight weeks maybe about two months or so roughly speaking in terms of major military action. Not terribly complicated here from the United States perspective all right. And here’s his attitude I think that sums so much of what this we might talk about gender definitions here what it means to be a man “No triumph of peace is quite so great as supreme triumphs of war”. Now if you have a guy like that as President you can expect more conflicts and we’re going to have more conflicts with him as President later on all right. Now here’s what’s important about

this we have a tradition of electing war heroes to the presidency it goes back to George Washington. Most of the time they are much better military commanders than they are political leaders all right. He is going to definitely be the exception to that he’ll be much better president than he was a military leader but he’s not really a military leader to begin with right this is kind of a riding club that is basically all it was here. But notice you remember what we talked about with George Armstrong Custer and the fact that he got promoted so quickly during the Civil War because he led these spectacular charges against the Confederacy. Charges that probably never should have happened and a lot of good men died as a result of that. Why? So he could be promoted that’s exactly what he was doing here as well he is trying to make a name for himself and prove his manliness in battle right. And as a result of this again he obviously makes it all the way to the White House. When he comes back from this war, he is elected the Governor of New York and then immediately in the election of 1900 during the war it’s still Mckinley runs for president again and he becomes the vice president. Now the irony of that is in 1901 McKinley is assassinated and now he is president as his political opponents of the time said that damn cowboy is now President right. Now just to give you a sense as I was saying in terms of the just overwhelming amount of racism going on here. Remember back to that annexation of Hawaii situation Roosevelt’s response to that when we failed to annex them the first time he said it was quote “a crime against the white race” right. So again this is an era that really promoted and celebrate racial superiority of anglo-saxons and as we’ve already talked about and again this is only going to re-emphasize the time and time again here the success against the Spanish against the Cubans against the Filipinos right. Now when the war is over in Cuba remember that Teller amendment. You know we’re not going to take over Cuba we have no interest. Oh wow did that seem like we kind of rushed into that all of a sudden and they kind of get out the white marker their little white out and they get rid of it. And when the new Cuban constitution is written, we insert what’s called the Platt Amendment which said that the United States has the right to intervene in Cuban foreign policy. More or less will kind of let you run your show here locally but as it affects US interest abroad we will intervene whenever we feel it’s necessary right And when you implement this into their constitution it sort of gives it this legal credibility but what is it? It’s a projection of power that the United States is going to determine the course of events in Cuba right. So Cuba becomes a U.S. protectorate, now we don’t quite annex it the same way as we do quite excuse me but it becomes basically a US possession right. So why do we have Guantanamo Bay today? It goes back to our early occupation of the island after this war right. Now here’s the question we want to think about. Remember I said that this war is eighteen ninety eight to nineteen Oh two four years this war lasts Yet we defeated the Spanish in Cuba in about two, two and a half months. Where where’s the rest of the war well it’s in the Philippines, remember this is a a global conflict here I mean on a small scale global conflict because you’re dealing with Spanish territories around the world and the Philippines is going to be the source of fighting for the next three and a half years. Because when we defeated the Spanish Navy and we are posturing for war to liberate Cuba and give them independence that’s what the Teller Amendment was about, then we are going to the belief was that the same thing was going to happen in the Philippines and the leader of the Philippine independence movement was a man named Emilio Aguinaldo and as the Spanish Navy was defeated and it appears that the United States has more or less defeated Spain in the Philippine they begin figuring out how to create a new Filipino constitution under an independent Philippines. But we have different plans in mind for the Philippines. Notice there wasn’t a Teller amendment that said we wouldn’t occupy the Philippines it was

kind of ambiguous. Well now here’s an opportunity and what we are going to do is put down Aguinaldo’s what we would call today this is very reminiscent of what’s been going on a Filipino insurgency. We take possession of the islands and spend the next three and a half years putting down the Filipino independence movement. We are going to make sure that we maintain possession of this island that’s what empires do. Now the problem here is how we do it how many of you have ever heard of the Filipino American war yeah two hands you guys didn’t get this in high school and notice how even when we present it we still present it as this little sub story Philip is the spanish-american war right where we went to war to liberate Cuba against the atrocities of those barbaric Spaniards. What do we do in the Philippines well fighting insurgencies is very difficult as we have experienced over the last few years right. And it is again guerrilla warfare hit-and-run ambush this is a very difficult type of war to wage right. Now it’s very interesting attitudes about the Philippines. We want to think just a little bit here about what is our real interest in the Philippines why are we doing this right. Well here’s what President McKinley said okay he’s talking to a group of ministers in the White House that are visiting and he talked about his decision about what to do with the Philippines. He said before you go I’d like to say just a few words about the Philippine business the truth is I didn’t want the Philippines right. I mean we we never want (unintelligible) but when they came to us as a gift from the gods I did not know what to do with them. I sought counsel but got little help. I thought first we’d only take Manila then Luzon then the other islands right. I talk I walked the floor of the white house night after night until midnight he’s really worried about this and I’m not ashamed to tell you gentlemen that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for providing guidance more than once. And one night it came to me number one that we could not give them back to Spain for that would be cowardly and dishonorable. Number two we could not turn them over to France or Germany our commercial rivals in the Orient that would be bad business. Number three that we could not lead them to themselves for they were unfit for government self-government it would soon have anarchy and misrule They’re not capable of governing themselves right. Number four right and you see where we’re going with this we have no choice that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate the Filipinos and uplift and civilize and Christianize them and by God’s grace to the very best we could with them and as for our fellow men for whom Christ also died and then I went to bed and slept soundly. We don’t want the Philippines there’s just no choice here after all when you are dealing with Orientals which again a racist term you are dealing with children these people are not fit for self-government right Now, Aguinaldo might have disagreed with that as he’s preparing to you know create this new constitution and independent Philippines. Interesting this term to Christianize them. Now remember what the other aspect of the new diplomacy is one its economics and two its missionary work. Where the problem is that the Philippines have been Christian for 400 years longer than the United States has been around. But what kind of Christian that bad Catholic stuff that’s Spain right remember its Protestant Christianity that’s important white Anglo-Saxon Protestantism right. So they don’t even recognize the fact that these people are Christian longer than the United States has existed okay. And as a McKinley goes on to say to tapping into that racism it was to educate and uplift as he said our brown, little brothers and you know they don’t even they don’t they don’t say something like that and think you know I just said something wrong right. Like we hopefully would say today there’s a problem saying but it just that’s just common accepted beliefs and attitudes of Anglo-Saxon superiority right. Now how do you deal with the an insurgency right how do you fight this war? Well this is not an easy thing to do

the Secretary of War that’d be the Secretary of Defense today. Sounds much better as Secretary of Defense than Secretary of War. Elihu Root was his name said the war in the Philippines has been conducted by the American army with scrupulous regard for the rules of civilized warfare with self-restraint and with humanity never surpassed. Okay that’s somebody from Washington how about somebody on the ground in the Philippines watching what the American army is doing to the Philippine people The report says the present war is no bloodless our men have been relentless had killed to exterminate men women children’s prisoners and captives active insurgents suspected people from lads of 10 up. The idea prevailing that the Filipino as such was little better than a dog our soldiers have pumped salt water into men to make them talk what we call a waterboarding that’s not a recent issue we’ve been doing that for a long time and have taken prisoners people who held up their hands and peacefully surrendered and an hour later without an atom of evidence to show that they were even insurrectos stood them on a bridge and shot them down one by one to drop into the water below and float down as examples to those who found their bullet loaded corpse. I’m not sure that that’s humanity unsurpassed to from the perspective of the Filipinos. Why do we not talk about this war because we acted badly and we don’t like to ruin history as the stories we tell ourselves about ourselves. We don’t want to talk about the insurgency and water boarding and the atrocities because what did we do to the Filipino people? We rounded them up, we put them in camps, we tortured them, we murdered them as a sound familiar the same thing that the Spanish did to the Cubans that justified our involvement in the war we turned around and did to the Philippines. Now what brings this to an end most of the time insurgencies are often held together by the personality of their leaders and (unintelligible) Emilio Aguinaldo was captured, executed and the insurgency fell apart right. So a very interesting cartoon here to kind of wrap up a little bit of what’s going on I’m sure you can see this or not but get a sense of this the American Empire here at the dawn of the 20th century right Take a look at this cartoon so here’s Uncle Sam right. Then I’m going to go tell everybody how it’s supposed to be I guess. I mean you know how professors can be Cuba right just look at these kids Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines right These are all the bad kids right Notice in the back white Anglo-Saxon Protestants. Native American right in the corner here not right look at the book is upside down and stop the Sony notary look at the color in the corner of our African Americans doing all this nice little labor we need them to do to keep things clean. Don’t even let the Chinese in I need them on ours. Again this kind of cartoon sometimes capture exactly what’s going on in a very succinct manner. In ways that you know hours of lecture about this stuff can’t do right This is a projection of power but notice the inherent superiority races of a religious superiority that is going on here right. This is the this is the you know aspects that of the foundation of American Empire here and we are projecting our power to the world we are primarily doing it against people we would consider to be inferior and weaker to us right. And that since we’re picking on smaller countries and in doing this the purpose is economic expansion, new diplomacy, access to these markets. Now one of the bigger questions that we want to think about that these are American soldiers in the filipino american war one of the things that was really interesting if you want to you know kind of bring this home in terms of the impact of racism there are a lot of african-american soldiers fighting in the American army in the Philippines and notice what they are experiencing As African-Americans they are completely segregated in the military they are continually called the N word over and over again and then they see the white soldiers and how they their attitude and actions and the way they’re talking about the Filipinos right. but Phil right it was a time of intense racism in the United States in

the years between 1889 and 1903 on the average every week two African-Americans were lynched by mobs. Now this is back in the United States Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina hang, burn,mutilate. The Filipinos were brown skin physically identifiable strange speaking strange looking to white Americans to the usual indiscriminate brutality of war was this added a factor of racial hostility. So when african-american soldiers fighting against brown little brothers they began to see that they have more in common with the Filipinos and the way that they’re being treated than they did with the white soldiers in the army to the point where african-american soldiers began to desert the American army and join the other side right. So again this racism is just ever-present through wherever we go right. Now one of the things we want to think about here just in terms of expansion and Empire Pacific and the Caribbean is okay so here’s the Philippines What was our real motivation for the Philippines it’s not even the Philippines what’s right next to the Philippines? China do you think that there are markets in Cuba and the Philippines you’re talking about 400 million people and early teens in 20th century China that’s the goal is China the Philippines are a stepping stone to China right. So we issued notice the timing of all of this in 1899 right as we are conducting warfare to take possession of the Philippines we send to China what’s called the two letters of diplomatic letters but it’s called the open-door policy. Now China was a very politically weak country at the turn of the century they are dominated by European empires particularly the Germans, the French less so by the Russians to the north the Japanese and to some degree in the British with places like Hong Kong right And amongst these European powers there is some discussion about maybe we should just break China up completely right. And create these what’s called spheres of influence areas that you control outside of your own territory that you can direct and control what goes on there Now remember what the purpose of colonies are or territorial possessions, it is about control so these are not open markets the whole point is to extract wealth and exploit the wealth there for your own country back home right. So China is in a really awkward and difficult situation because they have most no control or very little control about the political direction of their country. It is very close to literally being carved up and wiped off the map or tremendously reduced as these European powers begin to exert their power and influence. Here comes the United States, we issue what’s called the open door policy these are again diplomatic letters we have sent to the Chinese government but also to the European powers in China. And basically what we are saying and just notice how the language here is you never really say what your religion is now you have to make it much more open and inclusive of everybody. We are basically demanding that the markets in China be open, there should be open access to the market for all nations. Now by all nations we mean us okay. And here’s a very interesting aspect of the power of the United States economically. It’s not the Chinese that have to agree to this, they don’t have the choice it’s going to be the other European powers that have to respond to this and specifically England, Germany, France they are in an awkward position now too they can say no to this and keep their markets closed but if they do they risk disrupting trade patterns back to Germany back to Europe back to England from the United States. Remember at this point we are the largest industrialized economy in the world. It is economic pressure that we bring to bear in China here. And notice what else we get to say, we’re not in China we’re not occupying any of China we didn’t come in and take over any of this territory economically or politically or militarily but notice where we are right there on the Philippines so that we have our foot in the door and still get to take the moral high ground because after all we just want trade for everybody meaning us And what’s the result they back down these markets begin to allow the United States access all right. Remember for good or for bad industrialization forces

us to reach out in a very determined manner to the rest of the world in a way we’ve never done before. Now flash forward just a little bit, I wanted to talk at least from this perspective or this topic conclude with the Panama Canal situation. This issue begins in 1904 and the president this time is Theodore Roosevelt remember he was the vice president under McKinley and he McKinley was assassinated 1901 he became president then. And in 1904 he will run for election on his own and win a landslide election he’s a very popular president. Teddy Roosevelt is really the first president to what we would say usher in that the modern presidency where he made himself the center of attention the spotlight is now firmly on the president and in terms of national politics. remember that Gilded Age politics it was congress and the president’s tended to take a backseat right. Roosevelt doesn’t take a backseat to anybody okay and so he ushers in the modern presidency. And from that point forward of the 20th century presidents or the center of American politics at the national level all right. So he is going to now the thing about Roosevelt a very it’s a mixed bag in terms of trying to analyze this guy because on the one hand remember he’s a progressive president. Getting the government involved in regulation remember he’s the one that created the FDA the Food and Drug Administration for oversight of corporations particularly for consumer protection. He’s the one that broke up a few very important attempts at monopolies and trust northern securities with JP Morgan. He was the one that said it is better for the government to help a poor man make a living for his family than a rich man profits for his company or his corporation right. So in many ways Roosevelt is and remember he comes from elite society he comes from the very rich. He’s Republican but he’s really this this very interesting character because on the one hand he seems to have this rather you know progressive forward thinking you know compassion and expansion for the average person. But you put him in foreign policy and he is a completely different animal. Again as I said it was a crime against the white race right white people because we didn’t take Hawaii right. He’s down there getting his men killed not intentionally but you know rather reckless leave just so he can promote his own personality. So he gets involved in Panama now this is also one of the big issues in the Kinzer book that you read on overthrow here because the Panama Canal well it makes sense to us today why the canal would go there just in terms of geography the Narrows point the isthmus connecting North and South America it wasn’t the first choice Nicaragua was going to be another choice for a call a canal as well but the point is that it was about the Panama Canal really brings up an important aspect of American foreign policy called the Roosevelt Corollary right. And basically what is happening here in Panama is that at the time Panama is not an independent country. Panama was part of Colombia it’s a province of Columbia, the nation of Columbia. And Colombia is not interested in a canal because their fear was that this would allow the United States to have too much influence in their country Now as a result of that Roosevelt goes to the Panamanians, the people in Columbia but in Panama that are interested in independence from Colombia Now here’s what the Roosevelt Corollary is going to say. We say corollary it just means an addendum or an addition to something else. It’s an addendum to the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe Doctrine said that the United States will govern the affairs of countries in the Western Hemisphere who can’t govern them themselves. Well the Roosevelt Corollary says take that one step further that the United States and it’s important to get this down. The United States has the right to intervene in the internal struggles of foreign nations if it is in our interest. Now what is our interest? Our interest is a canal, what do we do, we go to the Panamanians and said if you will support our efforts to build a canal, we will support your efforts for independence. And Roosevelt helps foment a rebellion in Panama to liberate Panama from Colombia so that we can get our canal. It is in our interest so we intervene in the internal struggles of another country. And by the way that is the theme of the book “Overthrow” is time and time again how the

United States will intervene and with in local affairs where it is in our interest. Now again we always do this under the guise of liberating people or promoting democracy or winning (unintelligible), but really what it is about is promoting US interests right. And unfortunately time and time again we often will violate what we claim to be our own principles like democracy itself in these countries around the world to promote a and political advantage okay. So we are going to create or not create but encourage a rebellion in Panama because it is in our interest and what does Roosevelt say to justify this well this is in the interest of all nations here for expediting commercial travel through the Panama Canal and by all countries once again he means us okay. So the United States as a result of again big picture industrialization is going to force us to get out in the world in a way we’ve never done. And by the way, US right to intervene (unintelligible) but if it’s in our interest to I don’t know engage in pre-emptive strikes against the country because we think they might do something that would threaten us or threaten our security or threaten our economic hold over certain markets right This becomes a justification for a tremendous amount of violence that we’re going to see characterized most of the 20th century in very small little ways that unfortunately most Americans do not get told about. Because we don’t like to talk about those things if we did them here in the United States we would have people put in prison but we do it abroad and we turn a blind eye to it because we don’t know much about right. Okay this is a brief look then at the development of foreign policy new diplomacy and our involvement in the world in a way we hadn’t been before. Did anyone have any questions about it? yes. (Audience member – when we left off like last class either in 1898 don’t know why (unintelligible) by 1897 was the date of that cartoon that was the date of the cartoon because the point was this was it was pretty clear this was going to happen that’s all I was trying yeah the day itself its publication of the cartoon but we have a formally indicate an annex in 1898 ok Any other questions about the diplomacy no ok well I got that a little sooner than I thought I can’t let you go that early until that huh that’s why I want to shift gears and talk a little bit about US involvement in World War one okay. So again this handout is available I don’t know if you printed it off if you didn’t that’s okay. But I want to start this discussion because we’re going to spend quite a bit of time talking about World War One in the course okay. All right US involvement in the First World War This is going to be the again the culmination of what we’ve been talking about so far. This new diplomacy and foreign policy here this is the first this is the greatest foreign policy crisis of our history of the First World War So this is a complicated war in many regards and we need to sort of think about at first the political situation in Europe. There’s going to be a lot of European history in this particular lecture here because to understand the war we have to think about what’s going on in Europe at the time. The war begins in 1914 and will conclude in 1918 so for four years most of Europe as well as about a hundred countries around the world are going to get involved in this conflict right. It is the first great general conflict of the 20th century and the irony of this is that as we believe we are advancing civilization and becoming more and more civilized we actually become much more violent over over the course of the 20th century right. Now this is a look at the map of Europe at the beginning of the war in 1914. And the country that we’re going to spend most of the time on here two countries England and Germany. But Germany specifically we have to think about what’s going on there. So here’s Germany here a couple of things that we want to think about here Germany first of all what country is older Germany or the United States? (Audience – Germany) Wrong. Germany is a brand new country it was formed in 1870

about a hundred years after the United States right. Now German Central Europe, Germanic culture, Germanic states, those have been around for hundreds of years if not back to the Middle Ages thousands okay. But you can’t confuse all of this German culture with the nation of Germany all right. And this is going to bring up what we call nationalism as a major cause of this war nationalism right. Now Germany was created that’s Christopher here so no they’re mine so what see what’s going on I’m slide now I didn’t okay. Germany was was created in 1870-71 out of a war between several Germanic states notice most importantly the state of Prussia which is most of this part of Germany this is Prussia one of the German states like Texas. Against the war against France and they beat France pretty good all right. And when Germany declared its creation its existence right. It is born out of a war they do so not even in Germany but they did it in Paris actually they did it in Versailles all right. At the Palace of Versailles outside of Paris that is while they are on you know has their boots on the neck of the French they then declare now we are created as a new nation, Germany. Prior to that it was again places like Prussia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg, Bohemia These are all German states and they all united together to create this new nation and if you want to kind of boil down the base and oversimplification but still very accurate of what the principal cause of World War one was. It is Europe coming to terms with this new powerful Germany because Germany is absolutely the most powerful nation in all of Europe compared to any other one nation all right. It is again one of the most industrialized nations as the United States is industrialized in that late 19th century, Germany already was industrialized. They are going to go into tremendous expansion around the world again notice those conflicts that we were having in the Pacific Samoa involve the German Navy they have the number two Navy in the world. And the point is that this is a very powerful political entity, economic entity that Europe is trying to figure out how to deal with all right. So this is what the main cause of Germany that she’s (unintelligible) was how do you what do you do with this new powerful German all right now. This term nationalism what does that mean? Well nationalism is this idea that question I’m sorry nationalism is this idea that all of the people that share a common culture, language, identity, general religious uniformity tied to certain geography should all unite together right to form one political entity that’s what nationalism is. And you have all of these various German states independent of each other but all German culture coming together in 1870 to unite together to create this powerful Germany right. Now the problem with nationalism is it can be warped into a lot of different things like patriotism right. Again there’s nothing wrong with patriotism but when you talk about nationalism and patriotism loyalty we’re also begin to hear is how your country this is what nationalism does is better than other countries there becomes a certain sense of superiority here right. And this sort of push for nationalism and again Germany is the first real country to do this and in the late 19th century is going to encourage a lot of other cultures or what we would call nations groups of people same identity culture but not officially recognizes new countries they also want what Germany has now maybe again not in terms of power and economic development but recognition as independent nations right So Germany by creating itself the way it did unleashes a floodgate of other cultures wanting to do the same thing and the point it would make is that this map is going to look very different after World War one because all sorts of new countries are going to be created. Germany itself eventually is going to be broken up a little bit, Russia is going to lose territory so there this whole austro-hungarian Empire there in the middle will completely be broken up and

all of these various multi-ethnic political cultural groups are going to start forming together and clamoring for recognition. So this nationalism is a big drive here in the late 19th century that’s ultimately going to lead to war right. Now the other thing that we need to think about is what was the immediate trigger for World War one or the First World War. Well it has to do with this guy here, a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip. Now some people would call him a patriot, a freedom fighter others will call him a terrorist He’s still the same person right so those sort of categories are based upon perspective an opinion right. One person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter okay. And the reason that he is considered a terrorist and probably accurately so but perspective right is that he assassinated this guy okay. Now this guy here is the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Franz Ferdinand is the heir to the throne of this Austro-Hungarian empire right So you have these two very powerful political units in the middle of Europe Central Europe Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire and this guy is going to be the next Emperor and he is assassinated by Gavrilo Princip and a number of his friends as a statement because the Austro-Hungarian Empire is occupying, possessing territory that hundreds of thousands of Serbians are living in and they want to break away from the Austrian Empire and be part of their own nation Serbian nationalism but the Empire won’t allow it right. Now it this is important to keep in mind there is a country of Serbia at this time but the problem is this area right next to Serbia is also full Serbians but it’s under Austro-Hungarian control and in the city of Sarajevo right there in modern-day Bosnia, the Archduke visiting the city troops, inspections, that sort of thing was assassinated right. They throw a bomb in his car and killed him in his wife. So now this is what we call the trigger mechanism to start the war, but we have to keep in mind that this trigger mechanism really just sets off long-standing competition that was just building and building and building and it just needed a spark to start alright So the assassination of the Archduke is the trigger but the principal causes how do you deal with this new Germany and even more specifically this goes back to empire of industrial nations. Because what is happening in the late 19th century as the United States is engaging in Spanish American war, Philippines, Guam, Midway, Puerto Rico that is that we are acquiring territory again mostly islands. England again the great the Great Britain of the third the British Empire excuse me and Germany are in a tremendous sort of competitive struggle to acquire natural resources around the world. And the principal areas that they go to are Africa and Asia. Remember we were saying about them being in China right, remember the British are in India and particular in the late 19th century Africa is heavily colonized by the British and the Germans to some extent the French to some extent the Belgians but primarily the British. I want to think about that for just a moment this is called the Scramble for Africa and in 1878 roughly about that time of industrialization in the United States. Very few countries, very few territories in Africa just some of the coastal territories are possessed by the Europeans. By 1914 on the eve of this war every country in Africa is controlled by Europeans except for two, Liberia and Ethiopia so point is

in almost one generation the entire continent is taken over by Europeans the same basic principle is happening in Asia as well East Asia right. Now one of the things that we want to just go back to is this consequence of industrialization on the world it’s not just the United States here that it’s dealing with this England and Germany as industrial nations. There is a huge demand for natural resources to feed your industrial engines back home now that’s the problem here is that the United States kind of sits back and says now we’ll take Cuba, Philippines I mean we’re not taking over Africa well why are we not taking over Africa? Because we what they did to Africa we did to the Native Americans we have this massive real estate here. Notice England and Germany there’s small little countries right they don’t have the luxury of having the west of the United States with all that mining and natural resources out there. If we didn’t have that we would have found it someway somehow right. That’s what powerful nations do, powerful empires do. So again we kind of sit back with this now you bad Europeans but we’re basically have done it already by taking from Native American so we have most of those natural resources already but the English and the British excuse me and the Germans do not right. So this Scramble for Africa is really about competition for natural resources and why are they competing for resources because of industrialization they have to feed those engines back home right. So it is leading to more and more competition and that’s the sort of again this building block of World War one here that just simply needs a spark to start it off and that’s what the assassination did right. Because the assassination is the first domino to fall over and a chain of events that’s going to drag Europe into the First World War alright. So let’s think about this for just a moment the principal players in this war we have two groups or countries the Central Powers and this is again from a U.S. perspective the central powers and the Allied powers why do we call the Allied powers because eventually we join that side so they are our allies right. Well first of all one of the principal players here is Austro-Hungarian empire. When Serbia excuse me when Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian assassinated the Archduke the heir to the Empire what does austro-hungarian Empire one more than anything else now. Revenge. But it’s not just revenge what it really is is the pretext to expand your empire now they can claim justification and not just occupying this territory and southern Europe that Serbians live in, they can now justify an invasion of Serbia, the nation of Serbia itself and that’s exactly what they begin to do. They are gearing up for a war to punish Serbia and try to annex it into the Empire and they have just cause I mean get understandable just cause with this assassination attempt Now what this does when we say that’s the first domino that falls over is that it brings in all of these various alliances that the European nations have with themselves and everybody is not exactly sure who is on whom’s side here but you activate one of them it’s the trip wire that others then get pulled in. So the Austro-Hungarian Empire gears up for war they’re going to smash Serbia They did go to Germany and said do you guys have a problem with this? Germany says no go ahead but if you’re going to threaten Serbia that brings in people that nations that have alliances with Serbia Now remember this is Eastern European these are Slavic people. What big nation might have an issue with Germany excuse me with Austro-Hungarian flexing its muscles. Russia. Absolutely now here’s the problem with Russia, there are many One, it’s not an industrialized nation What what we do in the eighteen sixty, 70s and 80s they won’t be able to do that till the 1930s so that’s that’s later okay. So it’s an un-industrialized nation and here’s the problem from Russia’s perspective They’re not quite so concerned about Austro-Hungary although that’s an issue but they’re more concerned about Germany Again, as all of these nations are right. And they know that Austro-Hungary and Germany are buddies okay. So the problem here is that Germany

in a long story short Germany well at how to say this Germany has humiliated Russia time and time again over the last 30 years in small little regional conflicts in Eastern Europe, in the Balkans around Turkey parts of the Crimean War. And the point is that the Russians are just they’re fed up with them right and they want to stand up to this new powerful Germany right. Well but they’re not an industrialized country so the biggest problem that all of these countries are going to face but none more so than Russia is how long it takes to mobilize for war. When I say mobilize for it I mean get ready for war, draw up troops, build up your supplies, start getting equipment together you know draw up your war plans. All of these sorts of things that takes an incredible amount of time particularly for an un-industrialized country like Russia It takes a lot for all countries but more so for Russia and again they have a massive army they have a massive geography that they have to deal with right. So as austro-hungarian empires posturing for war against Serbia, the Russians are going to come to the aid of the Serbians and again not necessarily for Serbia but because they want to strike back against Germany after all these years of humiliation. So they call for a general mobilization of war right. That basically means they are preparing for war and when one country does that all the other countries are going to have to follow suit okay. Because one of the problems here for industrialized are un-industrialized the mobilizations a complicated process but the biggest sort of bottleneck here is transportation. The ability to get your troops to a battlefield get to a region of Europe that is something that is a very slow and cumbersome process. And the problem is that if one country begins to mobilize for war and you don’t then they may get ready and attack before you can defend yourself right. And you will be too late by the time you do it and that’s the problem and the Russians know that. They had better it started on this process but when they do other nations begin to do the same thing and that’s why Germany then comes in and prepares for war and they’re going to join obviously against Central Powers It’s a Central Europe Austro-Hungarian Empire and Germany. Now Germany is not terribly concerned with Russia, I mean they’ve got deal with them but they’re not a big threat Their big threat, not the British but the French.The French. It will be the British in a moment but not now. Because obviously they don’t share a border, but they’re very close and they know that as Russia is mobilizing for war, France is going to come to the aid of Russia Long-standing political ties with between France and Russia all right. So now France then has to mobilize for war okay. Now the other big nation that we haven’t talked and again there are hundreds of them involved I’m not talking about the United States we don’t get involved until 1917. We get in at the very end of this one But the other big nation is England right. Now the question is England they try to take a they try to take the high ground here in terms of why they’re going to war. And it has to do with Germany and their, Germany’s first move okay. Germany’s first move is not to concern themselves as much with Russia as the greater threat which is France but and again Germany and France they share a border Remember this long-standing hostility for the out of this war the Franco-Prussian war that the French were defeated in the 1870s Germany was traded. You know we tend to think of these Germans think about one more one World War two Franco prussian you know this very extreme militarism, punishing France conquering them. In many ways they’re just doing what France had done to them with this guy named Napoleon right who came in and wiped out you know and he threatened to wipe Russia completely off the map. So yeah it’s kind of a long-standing French-German conflict has been going on for a while there Germany figures okay the first thing we got to do is deal with France before we get too carried to too involved in the war here. And this border right there right they share a common border but this is the Rhineland right. This is the Rhine River very difficult terrain mountainous, rivers, very difficult to move soldiers and troops and equipment but look here’s the nice flat plane, easily cross into France but there’s a problem. Got to cut through Belgium to do it. Belgium is a neutral country and neutral countries are going to be the status of neutral countries in the first world war is very important what to pay attention that because we’re going to be a neutral country alright. So we’re going to be very concerned about what happens to neutral countries. But Belgium is a neutral country don’t want to get involved in this war but Germany invaded and ran invaded it ran through Belgium

because it made sense to get to France Well now this is when England steps in because England concerned about these poor neutral Belgians says we are going to declare war against Germany to come to the aid of a neutral country like Belgium. Now does anyone care about Belgium no they don’t care about Belgium it’s the pretext to justify going to war Nobody is more concerned about Germany than England nobody. Now the two and think about that for just a moment in terms of colonial empires Britain is number one the british empire but germany is right there with them that is their great colonial imperial rifles there are also industrial rivals they also have this naval rivalry going on and england is most concerned about germany’s colonial possessions and their name and the irony of this is at the very end of this what does England get? They get all of Germany’s possessions and they get the German Navy right that’s their agenda here right. But the pretext is poor defenseless Belgium we’re going to come to their aid no they’re not coming to their aid it’s a pretext. Okay let’s this basically is the main powers again there are many of them others we can talk about Italy Japan and obviously we can drag in a number of other countries but for now these are the main players what we need to focus on is the role of the United States and all this and that’s what we’ll start with next time