SCR CONNECTions – Mosquito Vector Control (February 13, 2019)

WELCOME TO THE FEBRUARY 2019, SCR CONNECTIONS WEBINAR THANK YOU FOR JOINING US I’M SO PLEASED TO INTRODUCE TODAY’S SPEAKER NINA DACKO SHE OBTAINED HER BACHELORS IN SCIENCE DEGREE IN ETYMOLOGY FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS IN 2006 AND A MASTERS OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY FROM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY IN 2011 SHE HAS STUDIED MOSQUITOS AND HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN MOSQUITO SURVEILLANCE IN ILLINOIS, CALIFORNIA AND TEXAS SINCE 2006 SHE IS CURRENTLY THE VECTOR CONTROL SUPERVISOR IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DIVISION AT TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH AND SERVES ON MULTIPLE COMMUNITIES IN THE MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION NAMELY THE CHEM SUBCOMMITTEE WITHIN THE LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE AND SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE AND SERVES AS SECOND VICE PRESIDENT OF THE TEXAS MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION AND CHAIR OF BOTH THE MEDIA AND ANNUAL MEETING PROGRAM COMMITTEES WITHIN THE ASSOCIATION HER CAREER GOALS ARE INFORMING ON MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROLS AND BUILDING PROGRAMS AND FURTHERING RESEARCH BEEN THE FIELD SHE’LL BE TALKING ABOUT SOME OF THOSE THINGS TODAY AND HERE IN THE ROOM WITH ME AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER GOOD MORNING, NINA >> GOOD MORNING, ALL THANK YOU FOR THAT WONDERFUL INTRODUCTION THAT WAS SWELL I DON’T NEED TO SAY ANYTHING MY ONLY THING IS TO SAY I AM AN ENTOMOLOGIST AND I DO LOVE BUGS WE’LL GET STARTED NOT TO READ THESE OFF BUT AS FAR AS THE OUTLINE IS CONCERNED, I’M BASICALLY GOING TO TAKE YOU THROUGH WHAT A MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROL DISTRICT IS AND WHAT IT DOES, WHY YOU GET IT AND THEN KIND OF THROUGH THE EYES OF TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH AND THROW IN A BUNCH OF FUN MOSQUITO FACTS AND LIFE CYCLES AND GREAT CYCLES YOU MAY FIND NOT AS INTERESTING AS I DO OR MAYBE YOU WILL MAYBE YOU’LL FALL IN LOVE WITH MOSQUITOS AFTER THEY WATCH THIS PRESENTATION THAT WOULD BE GREAT WHAT IS VECTOR CONTROL DIRECTOR THEY’RE ARTHROPODS AND TICKS AND SPIDERS AND MICE AND EVERYTHING ON THE SLIDE BUT I’LL POINT OUT THE BOTTOM RIGHT-HAND SIDE IS THE ONE I’M GOING TO BE MOST FOCUSSING ON THAT’S ACTUALLY A PICTURE OF A MOSQUITO YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT HER AS WE GO ALONG SO FIRST OFF, A VECTOR CONTROL DISTRICT IT’S A GOVERNMENT ENTITY USUALLY AN INDEPENDENT DISTRICT MEANING THERE’S TAX FUNDING THAT ONLY GOES TO THAT DISTRICT IT’S NOT DIVVIED OUT BY A GENERAL FUND WE HAVE TAX REVENUE MAY VARY BY STATE AND I GAVE EXAMPLES OF TEXAS, FLORIDA AND CALIFORNIA YOU SEE TEXAS .25 PER 100 WHAT THAT MEANS IS THE MAX AMOUNT A DISTRICT CAN POSSIBLY GET IS 25 CENT PER $100 OF PROPERTY TAX AND THAT’S ACTUALLY QUITE A LOT OF MONEY I THINK THE GOAL THERE WAS TEXAS ACTUALLY HAS A LOT OF COUNTIES WITH NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE SO THEY MIGHT NEED MORE FUNDING IF YOU’RE IN A PLACE LIKE FOR EXAMPLE GFW OR HARRIS COUNTY, SOMETHING LIKE THAT, YOU’D PROBABLY SEEK MORE OF LIKE .011 CENT PER $100 OF PROPERTY TAX USUALLY THERE’S A FIVE-MEMBER COMMITTEE THAT’S AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE OR BOARD OF TRUSTEES THAT OVERLOOKS THIS SPECIAL DISTRICT THOSE PEOPLE ARE ACTUALLY APPOINTED BY COMMISSIONERS OR THINGS OF THAT SORT AND THEN IT’S RUN BY A MOSQUITO ENGINEER OR DIRECTOR THAT PERSON IS USUALLY A PERSON WITH EXPERIENCE OR WELL VERSED TO BE ABLE TO RUN A DISTRICT I’M GOING GO THROUGH A FEW EXAMPLES BECAUSE THERE’S ALL SORTS OF TYPES OF MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICT ONE EXAMPLE I PUT UP HERE IS GREATER LOS ANGELES AREA IF YOU WERE TO LOOK AT LOS ANGELES COUNTY, I BELIEVE THIS IS ONE OF SOMETHING LIKE FIVE DISTRICTS WITHIN LOS ANGELES THIS COVERS MOST OF LOS ANGELES SO KEEP IN MIND THAT EVEN THOUGH SAY THIS IS THE GREATER LOS ANGELES MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICT, THERE MAY BE OTHER MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICTS ONLY ASSIGNED TO CERTAIN PORTIONS OF THAT COUNTY THE SECOND EXAMPLE I PLACED UP HERE IS METROPOLITAN MOSQUITO CONTROL AREA AND IT ENCOMPASSES

SEVEN COUNTIES THIS IS A GIANT ONE MOSQUITO DISTRICT TO RULE THEM ALL IN SOUTHERN COUNTY THE THIRD I HAVE IS FLORIDA KEYS FLORIDA KEYS AS PEOPLE CAN IMAGINE THERE’S A LOT OF MOSQUITO PROBLEMS DOWN THERE BUT THE THING THAT’S INTERESTING ABOUT FLORIDA KEYS IS THE KEYS ARE ISLANDS SO PEOPLE DON’T THINK OF ONE DISTRICT WITH THREE SATELLITE BUILDINGS FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE ISLANDS UP TO THE ACTUAL STATE OF FLORIDA THAT’S AN INTERESTING DIRECT YOU SEE A PICTURE OF A HELICOPTER WE’LL GET INTO DISCUSSING WHAT MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICTS WILL BE DOING BUT THEY CAN RANGE FROM SMALL ACTIVITIES TO SOMETHING LIKE RUNNING HELICOPTERS TO PERFORM CONTROLLED ACTIVITIES IT’S INTERESTING SO THERE’S ALSO A SERIES OF PLACES SUCH AS TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH THAT’S NOT A MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICT BUT THEY PERFORM ACTIVITIES THERE’S A WIDE RANGE OF DIFFERENT KNOWLEDGE BEHIND THAT I GAVE EXAMPLES WE’RE A PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT, ANIMAL CONTROL IN A CITY SOMETIMES EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT RESPONSE TO FIRE DEPARTMENTS SHERIFFS DEPARTMENTS IT DEPENDS ON WHAT THE LOCAL POLITICS IS THERE’S USUALLY A VERY WIDE RANGE OF PEOPLE SOME NOT HAVING THE ETYMOLOGY KNOWLEDGE RUNNING MOSQUITO CONTROL ACTIVITY WHY WOULD SOMEONE HAVE OR WANT MOSQUITO OR A VECTOR CONTROL DISTRICT WETLANDS AREAS THE PICTURE ON THE LEFT I BELIEVE IS A BRACKISH AREA THERE’S MOSQUITOS THAT CAN BREED IN SALT WATER AND THE SALT WATER RUNNING INTO FRESH WATER INLAND ARE TYPICALLY PLACES WITH A LOT OF PROBLEMS LIKE THERE’S TWO MOSQUITOS I CAN THINK OF OFF THE TOP OF MY HEAD THAT BREED IN BRACKISH WATER AND ARE EXTREMELY ANNOYING IT WILL MAKE RESIDENTS EITHER PLAIN SO THERE’S MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICTS IN THOSE AREAS ON THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE YOU CAN SEE A SWAMP COULD POTENTIALLY BE SOME TYPE OF PROBLEM AREA I SHOULD POINT OUT HERE BUT IF YOU HAVE A HEALTHY ECO SYSTEM AND THERE’S FISH AND DRAGON FLIES AND THINGS OF THAT SORT THAT ARE NATURAL PREDATORS OF MOSQUITOS YOU NORMALLY DON’T HAVE A PROBLEM HOWEVER, WHEN THERE’S A DROUGHT PORTION OF A SEASON AND YOU START GETTING ISOLATED POOLS, THAT’S WHEN YOU CAN RUN INTO TROUBLE IN A WETLAND TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT SO THE NEXT SLIDE IN AGRICULTURE, AGAIN, WE’RE TALKING ABOUT FLOOD PLANES BUT SOMETIMES PEOPLE DON’T THINK OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE SO SOMETHING LIKE A HURRICANE ROLLS IN AND YOU GET A BUNCH OF EMERGENCY RESPONDERS TRYING TO GO AND RESCUE PEOPLE THAT’S A PLACE THAT’S PROBABLY GOING TO NEED SOME KIND OF MOSQUITO CONTROL ACTIVITY OR DISTRICT FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN HURRICANE HARVEY CAME IN THEY FOUND THESE SUPER ANNOYING MOSQUITOS WERE IMPEDING THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE THAT’S A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A FLOOD PLANE OR AN AREA PRONE TO NATURAL DISASTER WHERE THEY NEED MOSQUITO OF CONTROL AND THIS IS RICE PADDIES ANY PLACE WITH RICE PA PADDIES WERE TO NEED MOSQUITO CONTROL AND IF I WERE TO BUY A HOUSE AND IT’S NEXT TO A RICE PADDY THERE’S MOSQUITO ISSUES DON’T BUY ONE NEAR A RICE PADDY AND PUBLIC HEALTH FOCUSES ON MOSQUITO-BORN DISEASES AND MOST PEOPLE ARE FAMILIAR WITH WEST NILE VIRUS YOU MAY BE FAMILIAR WITH EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS AND PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT HEARTWORM AND MALARIA IS A HUGE PROBLEM AND YOU HEARD OF OTHERS THAT POP UP IN THE NEWS LIKE DENGUE AND OTHERS AND WE’LL GET INTO SPECIFICS WHEN WE TALK ABOUT WHAT WE DO HOW DO THESE GET RESURRECTED OR EXIST? EITHER THERE’S A PETITION AND THE RESIDENTS RECOGNIZE THERE’S NEEDED FOR FUNDING FOR A MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICT TO HAVE REGULAR SERVICE ALSO IT COULD JUST BE SELF-EXPLANATORY LIKE A JUDGE OR COMMISSIONER OR BOARD OF TRUSTEES, WHATEVER, THEY SEE IT AS A NECESSARY ENTITY ESPECIALLY WHEN THERE’S DISEASE OUTBREAKS

THAT’S WHEN MOSQUITO CONTROL ACTIVITY STARTS POPPING UP USUALLY FOR EXAMPLE IN TARRANT OR TEXAS COUNTIES THERE’D BE A PETITION FOR 200 PEOPLE THEY WANT A MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICT THAT IS SENT OUT FOR A GENERAL VOTE AMONG REGISTERED VOTERS THAT COULD RESURRECT A DISTRICT I SHOULD ALSO MENTION A DISTRICT CAN ALSO BE DISSOLVE IF FOR SOME REASON THERE’S A TOURIST TYPE COMMUNITY AND THE TOURISM HAPPENS TO FALL OFF AND YOU DON’T SEE A NEED FOR A MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICT ALREADY RESURRECTED THEY CAN GET RID OF THAT BUT THAT’S NOT A COMMON OCCURRENCE ONCE PEOPLE START GETTING THE TREATMENT THEY WANT IT FOR THE REST OF TIME THAT’S GOOD FOR ME JOB SECURITY I LOVE TALKING ABOUT MOSQUITO FACTS SOME YOU MAY HAVE HEARD FROM OTHER PRESENTATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN GIVEN TO Y’ALL THERE’S OVER 3,000 MOSQUITO SPECIES WORLDWIDE, 176 IN NORTH AMERICA THAT’S THE RECORDED WE DON’T KNOW IF THAT’S 100% I WILL TELL YOU OF ALL THE DIFFERENT MOSQUITO SPECIES WHAT PEOPLE DON’T REALIZE IS THEY ALL OCCUPY DIFFERENT NICHES SOME LIVE IN TREE HOLES, SOME WILL LIVE ONLY IN CONTAINERS, SOME WILL ONLY BREED IN WETLANDS SOME LIKE BRACKISH WATER THEY MAY FEED ON DIFFERENT THINGS AT DIFFERENT TIMES OF NIGHT PEOPLE DON’T THINK ABOUT IT BUT I’LL SKIP AHEAD AND GO TO SOME SPECIES OF MOSQUITOS ONLY FEED ON REPTILE BLOOD OR MAMMALS THERE’S A MISCONCEPTION ON MOSQUITOS BUT IT’S A DIVERSE GROUP OF FEATURES ONLY THE FEMALE MOSQUITO WILL TAKE A BLOOD MEAL I KNOW IT WAS ON THE PRESENTATION A COUPLE WEEKS AGO THAT’S ACTUALLY TRUE THE FEMALE MOSQUITO NEEDS THE BLOOD MEAL AND IT WILL BE TRANSLATED TO THE MOSQUITO’S EGGS SO THAT’S WHY THE FEMALE TAKE THE BLOOD MEAL MALES THEIR ONLY PURPOSE IS TO MATE AND DIE SORRY SOME MOSQUITOS DON’T TAKE A BLOOD MEAL WE HAVE A BENEFICIAL GENUS OF MOSQUITO AND THOSE LARVAL MOSQUITOS WILL EAT OTHER LARVAL MOSQUITOS AND AS AN ADULT SHE WILL NOT TAKE A BLOOD MEAL I WAS EXCITED TO LEARN MOSQUITOS WILL FIND YOU THROUGH CHEMICALS AND THEY HAVE ANTENNA AND WILL FIND YOU THROUGH BREATH AND THEY’LL FOLLOW THE CARBON DIOXIDE AND THEY’LL FOLLOW THE TRAIL AND THERE’S PROBABLY OTHER CHEMICAL CUES OR WARMTH THEY FOL THE WORD MOSQUITO COMES FROM SPANISH FOR LITTLE FLY AND FOUND EVERY EXCEPT IN ANTARCTICA AND SOME LIKE TO HIBERNATE IN THE WINTER BECAUSE THERE’S DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES THEY UTILIZE TO OVER WINTER THEY’LL OVER WINTER AS EGGS OR AS ADULTS AND THEY CAN HIBERNATE AND PEOPLE THINK IT’S COLD AND MOSQUITOS WILL DIE BUT THAT’S NOT THE CASE THEY CAN PRODUCE WHAT YOU PUT IN YOUR CAR, ETHYLENE GLYCOL AND IT PREVENTS THEM FROM FREEZING AND THEY’LL WAKE UP IN THE SPRING AND GO OUT AND TAKE BLOOD MEALS AND CONTINUE ON THE CYCLE WHAT DO MOSQUITO CONTROL OR VECTOR CONTROL DISTRICTS DO? A BIG ONE IS DISEASE SURVEILLANCE WE HAVE SOME EXAMPLE PICTURES OF SOMEONE PERFORMING PCR OUT OF NORTH TEXAS REGIONAL LABORATORY IN THE MIDDLE WE HAVE A TRAP WHICH I’LL EXPLAIN LATER JUST KNOW WE HAVE TO SET TRAPS IN THE FIELD TO CAPTURE MOSQUITOS AND ON THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE IS ONE OF OUR STAFF PUTTING MOSQUITOS INTO A TUBE TO SENT TO NORTH TEXAS REGIONAL LAB MOSQUITO CONTROLS IS ALSO BASED ON SURVEILLANCE WE DON’T JUST PUT CHEMICALS IN A BODY OF WATER IF THERE’S NO MOSQUITOS PRESENT THAT’S THROWING MONEY AWAY YOU LOOK AND SEE HOW MANY MOSQUITO LARVAE ARE AROUND AND PUT IN A CHEMICAL IF IT’S

NEEDED MANY MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROL DISTRICTS FOLLOW INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND WE USE EVERY TOOL IN THE TOOLBOX TO TRY TO AVOID RESISTANCE AND WANT WHAT’S BEST FOR THE ENVIRONMENT THERE’S A LOT OF NATURAL THINGS FROM THE GROUND WE KNOW KILL MOSQUITOS SO WE CONCENTRATE IT I’LL TALK ABOUT THAT LATER ON THE TOP LEFT-HAND SIDE IS A PICTURE OF A BUFFALO TURBINE AND USED TO HAVE AN OVER NEIGHBORHOODS AND USED IN THE ZIKA RESPONSE AND WE HAVE A PLANE IN GALVESTON AND WE HAVE SOMEONE FOGGING A STORM BRAIN WHERE WINTERING ADULT MOSQUITOS MIGHT BE AND THEN THERE’S STAFF LOOKING FOR MOSQUITOS ON A ROAD SIDE DITCH WHEN YOU THINK OF ANTIBIOTICS AND THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS AND HOW THE BACTERIA CAN BECOME RESISTANT TO ANTIBIOTICS, MOSQUITOS CAN BE RESISTANT TO CERTAIN CHEMICALS IF THEY’RE UTILIZED OVER AND OVER AGAIN AND WE WANT MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICTS TO BE ABLE TO HAVE THE RESISTANCE BIOASSAYS WE PUT CHEMICAL IN A BOTTLE AND PUT IN MOSQUITOS AND SEE IF THEY DIE IF THEY DON’T WE HAVE TO SWITCH OUR CHEMICAL CLASS FOR ADULT CONTROL THERE’S ONLY TWO CLASS THIS IS A HUGE DEAL AND WE NEED TO PAY ATTENTION ON THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE IS A PICTURE OF FIBROUS MATERIALS AND COFFEE FILTER AND THE BLACK SPECS YOU SEE ARE MOSQUITO EGGS THAT HAVE BEEN LAID THAT’S COLLECTING OUT IN THE FIELD FOR A RESISTANCE STUDY THAT’S WHY THAT PICTURE’S UP THERE AND WE DO EDUCATION OUTREACH I PUT EXAMPLES FROM TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH AND WEST NILE PAMPHLETS AND ZIKA VIRUS PAMPHLETS AND I LIKE THE CATCH PHRASE BECAUSE IT GETS PEOPLE’S ATTENTION REMINDING PEOPLE TO WEAR EPA APPROVED REPELLANT AND CHECK THEIR WINDOW SCREENS ON THE RIGHT IS SOMETHING WE PREFER TO AS A BACKYARD CHECKLIST EVERY TIME IT RAINS, A HOME OWNER CAN DO THE CHECKLIST I DUMPED ALL MY CONTAINERS OUT AND DUMPED MY SCREENS AND WE CREATED SOME VIDEOS WE’RE JUST TRYING TO EDUCATE PEOPLE AND HOMEOWNERS HOW TO TAKE CARE OF MOSQUITOS IN THEIR YARD BECAUSE IT’S NOT ONLY A MOSQUITO AND CONTROL VECTOR JOB, EVERYBODY SHOULD KNOWS BECAUSE THEY CONTRIBUTE WHEN THEY LEAVE STANDING WATER AROUND THEN THERE’S RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT THE C.D.C PUT OUT $10 MILLION WORTH OF GRANTS OBTAINED BY CERTAIN UNIVERSITIES FOR THIS PURPOSE THE PURPOSE OF THESE REGIONAL CENTERS FOR EXCELLENCE IS WHAT THEY’RE CALLED AND VECTOR-BORN DISEASES IS TO WORK WITH SCHOOLS, LOCAL PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENTS TO TRAIN PEOPLE ON HOW TO DO MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROL AND FURTHER THE RESEARCH THAT’S GOING ON BECAUSE WE ARE ALWAYS LOOKING FOR NEW WAYS OR ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF TREATING MOSQUITOS SO I JUST HAD LISTED THE FIVE CENTERS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE I BELIEVE THEY’RE SEEKING ANOTHER ONE IN THE UNITED STATES THOSE ARE THERE AND AS VECTOR AND MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICTS WE WORK WITH THOSE CENTERS TO FURTHER ALONG RESEARCH I’M NOT GOING READ THE SLIDE SO DON’T WORRY MY PURPOSE WAS TO HAVE A LOT OF WORDS ON THE SLIDE SO PEOPLE CAN GET AN IDEA OF JUST HOW MUCH GOES INTO A MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROL DISTRICT SOME DON’T HAVE ALL THESE PORTIONS, FOR EXAMPLE, NOT EVERYONE HAS A LAB, NOT EVERYONE HAS PEOPLE TO GO OUT AND TREAT THOSE MIGHT INCLUDE COLLABORATORS AND CONTRACTORS BUT NOT EVERYONE THINK OF THE DISSECTING SCOPES TO IDENTIFY MOSQUITO SPECIES AND AND ALL THE BEAKERS USED AND IT CAN INCLUDE A FLEET OF PLANES AND ATVs AND THINGS TO GET IN HARD TO REACH AREAS WITH THE MOSQUITO ACTIVITY NOW I’LL SWITCH GEARS AND TAKE YOU TO TARRANT WHY THE IN VECTOR CONTROL ACTIVITIES AND LOCAL MUNICIPAL AREAS WILL PROBABLY DO SOMETHING SIMILAR I KNOW DALLAS COUNTY AND US WE TALK A LOT WE USUALLY SHARE IDEAS AND GO BACK AND FORTH AND WE HAVE PRETTY SIMILAR RESPONSES

PLANNED SO FIRST OFF FOR THOSE WHO DON’T KNOW, TARRANT COUNTY YOU PROBABLY NEVER HEARD OF BUT FORT WORTH YOU HAVE THERE’S APPROXIMATELY 2 MILLION PEOPLE AND URBAN, SUBURBAN AND RURAL AREAS WE HAVE A LOT OF TREES THERE’S ALSO PRAIRIE LAND IT’S KIND OF DIVERSE AND WE ARE TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH THAT PERFORMS MOSQUITO CONTROL ACTIVITIES IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE 41 MUNICIPALITY WE’RE NOT ACTUALLY A MOSQUITO CONTROL DISTRICT IT’S INTERESTING HOW THE MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROL ACTIVITIES POPPED UP I’LL GO THROUGH A TIME LINE WITH YOU IN 2002 THERE WAS FUNDING RECEIVED BY TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH THAT TRICKLED DOWN FROM THE C.D.C. AND THEY WANTED TO KNOW WHERE WEST NILE VIRUS WAS TRAVELLING TO AND IT ARRIVED IN THE FAR NORTHEAST IN 1999 AND STARTED WESTWARD IN 2002 WE STARTED OUR SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES BELOW THAT TIME LINE GOT THERE YOU CAN SEE A PERSON SUCKING UP MOSQUITOS FROM A STORM DRAIN FROM HIS MOUTH YOU JUST USE YOUR BREATH TO GET THEM INTO A CONTAINER THAT’S WHEN EVERYTHING STARTED AT THAT TIME, WE WERE ACTUALLY SENDING SAMPLES DOWN TO DEPARTMENT OF STATE HEALTH SERVICES WHICH IS THE TEXAS STATE LAB IN 2003, WE KIND OF WORKED OUT AN AGREEMENT WITH NORTH TEXAS REGIONAL LABORATORY THEY’RE LOCATED IN TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH BUT SERVICE 33 COUNTIES WITHIN THE AREA WITH LABORATORY SERVICES THEY HAVE A B.T SECTION THAT NEEDS TO UP KEEP THEIR EQUIPMENT PART IS PCR AND WE WORKED OUT AN AGREEMENT SAYING YOU NEED TO KEEP YOUR EQUIPMENT UP TO DATA SIDE FROM P.T.s YOU CAN RUN MOSQUITO SAMPLES WE KIND OF WORKED THAT OUT WE STARTED USING B.T.I. AND PUTTING THAT OUT INTO PLACES WE STARTED PUTTING STATIC MAPS ON OUR WEBSITE TO PEOPLE CAN SEE WHERE POSITIVE OR MOSQUITO SAMPLES THAT TEST FOR WEST NILE VIRUS SHOWED UP 2004, THEY SAID WE NEED TO ADD THIS AS A JOB DUTY BEFORE IT WAS AS NEEDED OR AS THEY FOUND TIME TO DO IT THEN IT BECAME A JOB DUTY AND SOMEONE WHO WORKED WITH SEWAGE FACILITIES AS A PART-TIME DISINFECTOR AND IN 2010 AND 2011 THERE WAS A LACK OF CASES IN THE NORTH TEXAS REGION AND IN 2011 THERE WAS A DECLINE IN SUBMISSION BEFOREHAND WE HAD AN AVERAGE OF 600 IN 2011 THERE WAS ONLY 88 SAMPLES AND CITIES WEREN’T INTERESTED ANYMORE IN 2012 THAT PROVED TO BE INCORRECT MULTIPLE COUNTIES WITHIN THE REGION WE HAD A GIANT WEST NILE VIRUS EPIDEMIC THERE WERE BASICALLY 1500 CASES THEY SAID, WOW, WE DEFINITELY NEED SOME KIND OF MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROL ACTIVITY AFTER THE SEC ASSESSED THERE WAS A LACK OF THAT IN 2013, THERE WAS THREE DEDICATED POSITIONS TO ADJUST MOSQUITO AND VECTOR CONTROL I STARTED IN 2013 BECAUSE OF THE OUTBREAK THAT SAMPLE INCREASED FROM 600 DOWN TO 88 AND THEN WE WENT UP TO OVER 5,000 IN 2013, 2012 THERE WERE SEVERAL HUNDRED SAMPLES IN THE LAB WE HAD TO INCREASE A LOT OF CAPACITY ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND LABORATORY SIDE WE ALSO PUT IN AERIAL SPRAY CONTRACT AND STARTED CALCULATING OUR INFECTION RATES AND THAT’S THE VI THAT STANDS FOR VECTOR INDEX THAT’S INFECTION RATE AND HOW MANY MOSQUITOS ARE OUT AND ABOUT IN 2015 WE START A NEW DATABASE YOU CAN ACCESS AN INTERACTIVE MAP DURING THE SEASON ON THE TARRANT COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH WEBSITE, IT WILL TELL YOU WHERE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE MOSQUITO TRAP LOCATIONS ARE ON A WEEKLY BASIS WE UPDATE THAT WITH ALL THE DAT WE GET WE STARTED A PLAN TO MONITOR FOR STEGOMYIA AND

WE STARTED MONITORING FOR THEM AND GOT SIGNAL TRAPS AND IN 2016 WE DISPERSED THOSE TO THE CITIES AND GOT A NEW RESPONSE PLAN FOR ZIKA BECAUSE IT BECAME A BIG THING AND ADDED THE FREEZER TO STORE THINGS LIKE DRY ICE AND KILL MOSQUITOS QUICKLY 2017 WE STARTED RECEIVING ZIKA GRANTS WE WERE ABLE TO BUY ITEMS WITH THE GRANTS AND CONTINUED ON THE GRANTS INTO 2018 AND 2019 WE’RE NOT OUT TO KILL EVERY MOSQUITO WE FIND IN IN TARRANT COUNTY BUT WE WANT TO STUDY AND UNDERSTAND ARTHROPOD DISEASE AND IT’S NOT ONLY MOSQUITO-BORN ILLNESSES BUT THERE’S OTHER BUGS THAT CARRY DISEASE WE ARE INTERESTED IN THOSE WE WANT TO SURVEY FOR WEST NILE AND ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN OUR POPULATION AND MONITOR WHERE OUR AEGYPTI AND AEDES MOSQUITOS ARE AND WE LOOK AT EPIDEMIOLOGY TO LOOK AT THE VIRAL RESPONSE PLANS WE WANT TO REDUCE THE HUMAN EXPOSURE THROUGH INTEGRATIVE PEST MANAGEMENT THAT’S WHERE CONTROL COMES IN AND YOU SEE A TRUCK SPRAYING THAT’S KIND OF THING WE ALSO WANT TO LOOK TO WHERE OUR MOSQUITO SOURCE S ARE TO TREAT THEM IN THE FUTURE SAY I WANT MY PEOPLE TO RECORD IF THEY KIND A MOSQUITO POOL THERE BECAUSE IF IT’S SOMETHING TEMPORARY LIKE A FIRE HYDRANT MALFUNCTIONING OPPOSED TO A VERNAL POOL THAT WILL ALWAYS BE THERE IN APRIL YOU KNOW TO TREAT IN ADVANCE AND WE WANT TO TREAT OUR MUNICIPALITY PEOPLE DOING VECTOR CONTROL AND PUBLIC ABOUT THE MOSQUITOS AND THE DISEASES THEY CARRY THE NUMBER ONE CONCERN OF MOST PEOPLE AROUND THE NATION WITH RESPECT TO MOSQUITO-BORN ILLNESSES IS WEST NILE VIRUS I’LL TALK ABOUT WEST NILE VIRUS AND ST LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS BECAUSE THEY’RE SIMILAR VIRUSES THEY’RE IN THE SAME FAMILY VIRUS AND THERE’S A MOSQUITO-BIRD TRANSMISSION CYCLE WHAT THIS MEANS YOU CAN SEE ON THE RIGHT-HAND PORTION OF THE CAPTION THERE’S A GREEN ARROW GOING FROM MOSQUITO TO A BIRD AND VICE VERSA SO THE BIRD ACTUALLY YOU CAN THINK OF IT LIKE A VIRUS AND A RESERVOIR AND REPLICATES THE VIRUS ENOUGH FOR THE MOSQUITO TO PICK IT UP AND PASS IT ON TO ANOTHER BIRD AND PEOPLE AND HORSES CAN ALSO FEEL SYMPTOMS IT DOESN’T MEAN OTHER ANIMALS CAN’T GET WEST NILE VIRUS, YOUR DOG AND CAT ARE JUST NOT EFFECTED PEOPLE ON HORSES CAN BE SICK AND CAN BE SYMPTOMATIC PEOPLE ON HORSES ARE CALLED DEAD ENDS BECAUSE THEY DON’T REPLICATE THE VIRUS ENOUGH IN THEIR BLOODSTREAM FOR A MOSQUITO TO PICK IT UP FROM THEM AND THERE’S A MOSQUITO-BIRD TRANSMISSION CYCLE AND WE CAN USUALLY FIND IT BEFORE IT’S GOING TO SHOW UP IN PEOPLE AND IN HORSES BIRDS CAN REPLICATE IT MORE THAN HORSES AND PEOPLE HORSES HAVE TENS IN THE THOUSANDS OF PARTICLES AND BIRDS HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS TO BILLIONS MANY TIMES MORE VIRAL PARTICLES AND MAINLY WHAT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT HERE IN THE DALLAS FORTH WORTH AREA IS THE FIRST LISTED AND WE HAVE OTHER MOSQUITOS LIKE TARSALIS IN THE WEST WE HAVEN’T FOUND IT TO BE CARRYING IN THIS AREA AND WE HAVE ONE I DID NOT PUT ON HERE WE TEST FOR THE PRESENCE OF THAT VIRUS VIA A POLYMERASE TIME REACTION AS A CHAIN REACTION THIS VIRUS IS AN RNA VIRUS TO KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT WEST NILE VIRUS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE CULEX LIFE CYCLE AND I’LL GO TO THE PICTURE ON THE RIGHT SIDE IT’S AN ADULT FEMALE AFTER MATING WITH THE MALE AND PICKS UP A PACKET AND SHE CAN PRODUCE

ALL THE EGGS IN HER LIFE TIME SHE’LL NEED TO SHE’LL LAY SURFACE OF STAGNANT WATER AND LAY A RAFT OF EGGS ALL STUCK TOGETHER THERE’S 50 TO 200 EGGS THAT WILL HATCH IN 24 HOURS MAYBE LONGER YOU’LL HAVE SOMETHING CALLED LARVAE THEY GO THROUGH FOUR DIFFERENT LIFE STIEJS TO WHERE THEY MALT AND GET BIGGER AND LOOK WORMY IN WATER AND THEN THEY’LL BECOME SOMETHING LIKE A PUPA IT’S THE IN BETWEEN STAGE FROM A CATERPILLAR TO BUTTERFLY AND THE MOSQUITO WILL STEP ON TOP OF THE WATER AND DRY, I’M PUTTING QUOTATION MARKS AS YOU CAN SEE IT EVENTUALLY THE FEMALES AND MALES WILL FLY OFF AND MATE AND THE WHOLE PROCESS WILL HAPPEN ALL OVER AGAIN I SHOULD SAY FROM EGG TO EMERGENCE OF ADULT MOSQUITO TYPICALLY TAKE AROUND 10 DAYS THAT’S ALSO TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THE COLDER IT IS THE LONGER IT TAKE AND THE WARMER IT IS THE SHORTER TIME IT TAKES IT CANNON TOO HOT AND TOO COLD FACTS ABOUT THIS CULEX MOSQUITO THEY SEEK BLOOD MEALS THEIR FLIGHT RANGE IS ONE TO TWO MILES CAN BE FURTHER THEY PREFER ORGANICALLY LADEN WATER IF THERE’S GRASS CLIPPING AND THEY’RE FERMENTED THAT’S WHAT THEY LIKE OR SEPTIC WATER AND THEY’LL GO AND SEEK OUT A COMFORTABLE PLACE, MAYBE AN ANIMAL BURROW OR IN SOMEONE’S BASEMENT AND HIBERNATE THROUGHOUT THE WINTER OR GO THROUGH A STAGE OF NOT TRUE HIBERNATION BUT A LOWER METABOLIC RATE THEY’RE MOSTLY BIRD EATING HOWEVER, IF WEST NILE VIRUS CAN BE HANDED DOWN TO PEOPLE AND HORSES THEY’LL ALSO GO FOR PEOPLE AS WELL WEST NILE VIRUS AND ST LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS ARE SIMILAR IN THEIR SYMPTOMOLOGY MOST ARE NON-SPECIFIC AND FLU LIKE, FEVER, VOMITING, RASH, PEOPLE DON’T EVEN KNOW THEY HAVE WEST NILE AND LESS COMMON AND 1% OF ALL PEOPLE WHO EXPERIENCE SYMPTOMS WILL GET A NEUROINVASIVE FORM AND STIFF NECK AND SWELLING OF THE BRAIN AND SWELLING OF THE BRAIN, STEM OR SPINAL CORD AND SWELLING THE MENINGES IN 80% OF PEOPLE THEY DON’T KNOW THEY HAVE IT WEST NILE SEEMED TO REPLACED ST LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS IN ’60s AND ’70s YOU’LL SEE A BUNCH BUT WEST NILE VIRUS HAS OCCUPIED THAT NICHE IT’S NOT TO SAY IT CAN’T MUTATE AND BECOME A THING AGAIN SO KEEP THAT IN MIND FOR SURVEILLANCE IN MOSQUITOS WE’LL GO OUT AND COLLECT THE TRAP THE BIN INCLUDES WATER THAT WE HAVE MADE ATTRACTIVE FOR THESE CULEX TYPE OF MOSQUITOS BECAUSE THEY LIKE THE SEPTIC LIKE WATER THE FEMALE MOSQUITOS THAT ARE EGG-LADEN WILL TRY TO LAND ON THE WATER TO LAY EGGS AND INSIDE THE BLACK TUBE THERE’S A FAN AND THE NEGATIVE PRESSURE DRAWS THE MOSQUITOS INTO THE NET THAT’S HOW WE GET THEM AND COME BACK AND KILL THEM IN OUR FREEZER AND IDENTIFY THEM DOWN TO SPECIES SO YOU ALL KNOW, I THINK WE’RE UP TO 45 SPECIES OF MOSQUITO IN TARRANT COUNTY AND HAVE TO LOOK FOR THEM IN CULEX WE WILL SEPARATE THEM AND PUT THEM IN TUBES AND SEND THEM TO NORTH TEXAS REGIONAL LAB WE FORM THE RTPCR INCLUDING MAKING A MOSQUITO MILK SHAKE, IF YOU WILL, AND ISOLATE THE RNA VIRUS AND REVERSE THAT TO LOOK AT THE POLYMERASE CHINE REACTION A WAY OF SAYING IF THE VIRUS IS HERE IT WILL REPLICATE ENOUGH TO DETECT IT AND THEY REPORT IT TO US AND WE REPORT TO OUR MUNICIPALITIES AND THEY PERFORM RESPONSES BASED ON

RECOMMENDATIONS WE MAKE AND THERE’S RISK ASSESSMENT SO WE’RE CALCULATING A LOT OF DIFFERENT THINGS AND TRYING TO RELATE THAT TO HUMAN DECEASE INCIDENTS WE’RE AT THE POINT WHERE WE HAVE ENOUGH ROBUST DATA TO LOOK INTO THAT AND THAT’S WHAT WE DO IN THE WINTER MONTHS RESPONSES TO WEST NILE AND ST LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS IF WE FIND A POSITIVE POOL WE TREAT AND WE’RE LOOKING FOR DISEASE SURVEILLANCE FOR CERTAIN DISTRICTS AND IF THERE’S HUMAN POSITIVES WE RECOMMEND SETTING ADDITIONAL TRAPS BECAUSE SOMETIMES THOSE PEOPLE WILL NOT GET SICK AT THEIR HOUSE IT MAY HAPPEN BECAUSE THE MOSQUITOS ARE NOCTURNAL BUT THEY COULD BE STAYING THE NIGHT AT SOMEONE’S HOUSE OR GOING OUT FOR A DUSK JOG WE ALWAYS RECOMMEND ESPECIALLY BECAUSE WE WANT TO AVOID THE HIPAA THING SET ADDITIONAL TRAPS AND DO YOUR TREATMENT AND RESPONSE TO MOSQUITO POSITIVES IF THERE’S MULTIPLE POSITIVES ELEVATE THE RESPONSE FOR CONSECUTIVE NIGHTS AND IF THERE’S AN OUTBREAK WE HAVE IN PLACE A CONTRACT FOR AERIAL ADULT FIGHTING IT HAPPENED IN DALLAS COUNTY IN THE 2012 OUTBREAK YEAR WE DO HAVE THOSE THINGS IN PLACE IN CASE WE NEED TO USE THEM OUR MUNICIPALITIES IT’S UP TO THEM WHAT MOSQUITO RESPONSE THEY DO AND A LOT OF THEM WILL CONTRACT WITH VENDORS AND THEY DON’T HAVE THEIR OWN TRUCKS SO THEY’LL CALL VECTOR DISEASE INTERNATIONAL OR ANOTHER COMPANY AND THEY’LL DO THE TREATMENT OF THE AREAS SWITCHING GEARS WE’LL TALK ABOUT ZIKA AND DENGUE AND THEY’RE NAMED SIMILAR BECAUSE THEY’RE CARRIED BY THE SAME TYPE OF MOSQUITO ZIKA AND DENGUE IS RELATED AND WHEN I TALKED ABOUT WEST NILE VIRUS SHOWING UP IN 20% OF PEOPLE, THE CHIKUNGUNYA WILL SHOW UP IN 80% OF PEOPLE THAT ACQUIRE THE VIRUS YOU’LL HAVE A BIG OUTCRY BECAUSE MORE PEOPLE WILL FEEL IT IT’S A HUMAN-MOSQUITO TRANSMISSION CYCLE THERE’S NOT ANY ANIMALS ASIDE FROM OTHER PRIMATES THAT MAY BE INVOLVED IN THIS WE DO NOT ACTUALLY TEST THE MOSQUITO FOR THESE VIRUSES THESE VIRUSES ARE NOT HERE WE KNOW THEY COULD POTENTIALLY BE HERE AT SOME POINT IN TIME IF WE HAVE IMPORTANT CASES AND THE BIRD WAS HOLDING IT AND PEOPLE AND FOR A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF TIME, ABOUT SEVEN DAYS AFTER YOU START EXPERIENCING SYMPTOMS THE MOSQUITOS CAN BITE YOU, PICK IT UP AND EVENTUALLY CARE IT TO ANOTHER PERSON AFTER THE EXTRINSIC INCUBATION PERIOD AND THERE’S A BIG COST OF RESOURCES WHEN YOU LOOK FOR MOSQUITO WE’LL PROBABLY FIND IT IN A PERSON FIRST THE STATE HAS RESOURCES IT’S NOT REALLY NEEDED TO RIGHT NOW IF THERE’S A LOCAL CASE AND YOU DON’T FIND THE ONE MOSQUITO THAT HAS IT, YOU STILL NEED TO CONSIDER TREATMENT SO NORTH TEXAS REGIONAL LABORATORY ACTUALLY TESTS THE SERUM OF THE BLOOD OF SUSPECTED PATIENTS SO WE’LL TALK ABOUT THAT IN A LITTLE BIT TOO AND THE LIFE CYCLE SIMILAR TO CULEX EXCEPT THE MOSQUITOS ARE NOT LAYING EGGS ON THE SURFACE OF WATER THEY’LL TYPICALLY LAND ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE WATER AND THEY’LL TAKE THEIR BACK LEGS AND FLIP THE EGGS RIGHT ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE WATER SO THEY STICK TO THE SIDE OF THE CONTAINER THOSE EGGS WILL THEN LIE DORMANT UNTIL THE NEXT FLOOD OR RAIN EVENT SCAREY TO SAY SOME EGGS CAN LAST A LONG TIME AT LEAST FIVE YEARS PROBABLY EVEN MORE THAN THAT THEY ALSO GO THROUGH FOUR LIFE STAGES WHERE THEY MALT AND BECOME BIGGER AND DO THE PUPA THING AND EMERGE AGAIN TAKING APPROXIMATELY 10 DAYS, MORE OR ELSE IF IT’S COLD THEY’RE A LITTLE DIFFERENT THAN

THE CULEX THEY’RE MOSTLY DIURNAL AND HAVE A SHORT FLIGHT RANGE THERE’S IN MOSQUITOS THAT CAN FLY HUNDREDS OF MILES I’M ONLY TALKING ABOUT THESE TWO SPECIES HERE THEY PREFER HUMAN CONTAINERS WHAT I MEAN BY HUMAN CONTAINERS IS ANYTHING MAN MADE LIKE A CUP, A BAG, EVEN A CAP THAT’S COMING OFF A WATER BOTTLE CAN ACTUALLY CONTAIN ENOUGH WATER TO BREED A MOSQUITO THEY OVER WINTER AS EGGS OPPOSED TO ADULTS AND THEY PREFER TO FEED ON PEOPLE THE ZIKA, DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUSES ARE SIMILAR WHEN IT COMES TO SYMPTOMOLOGY IF YOU SUSPECT ONE, TEST FOR ALL THREE BECAUSE THEY’RE SIMILAR IN THIS TABLE THE PLUSES REPRESENT HOW LIKELY YOU ARE TO GET ONE OF THOSE SYMPTOMS SYMPTOMS ARE ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE IF YOU’RE LOOKING AT FEVER, MOSTLY THAT WILL SHOW UP IN DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA AND PROBABLY IN ZIKA TOO BUT LIKELY IN THE OTHERS A RASH IS LIKELY TO SHOW UP IN ZIKA PROBABLY WITH CHIKUNGUNYA AND NOT LIKELY WITH DENGUE AND ZIKA YOU CAN GET PINK EYE AND YOU CAN GET JOINT PAIN WITH ZIKA AND MYALGIA AND THERE WAS A COINED PHRASE FROM AN OLD DIRECTOR WHICH IS A BRILLIANT WAY TO GET PEOPLE’S ATTENTION ZIKA MAY BE TRANSMITTED SEXUALLY IT’S THE ONLY ARTHROPOD-BORN DISEASE KNOWN TO DO THIS I’M SURE WE CAN DISCOVER MORE BUT TO THIS DAY ONLY ZIKA’S KNOWN TO DO THIS IN 20 16, DALLAS NEWS SAID THE FIRST SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED CASE THERE WAS ONE IN 2008 IT WAS A RESEARCHER HE WENT TO THE ZIKA FOREST AND CAME BACK AND INFECTED HIS WIFE MONTHS AFTER HE WAS THERE BUT SHE HAD THE SIMILAR SYMPTOMS SO MEN CAN HARBOR THE ZIKA VIRUS IN THEIR SEMEN FOR SIX MONTHS MAYBE GREATER WE HAVE A TRAVEL SUGGESTION IF THEY COME BACK FROM A ZIKA INFECTED COUNTRY THEY MAY WANT TO PROTECT THEMSELVES FOR SIX MONTHS TO NOT PASS IT ON TO THEIR PARTNER AND WE HAVE PROPHYLACTICS AND INFORMATION ABOUT MOSQUITOS AN MOSQUITO REPELLENT AND I LIKE TO CRACK THE JOKE THERE’S ONLY SIX PROPHYLACTICS SO YOU CAN ONLY HAVE SEX SIX TIMES WHICH IS NOT REALLY THE CASE BUT ANYWAY AND ZIKA AND MICROCEPHALY ZIKA NOT ONLY HAS BEEN LINKED TO MICROCEPHALY BUT CASES OF GUILLAM-BARRE SYNDROME AND THOSE RANGES CAN TAKE PLACE ROUGHLY 30% OF THOSE THAT ARE EXPOSED WHILE PREGNANT WILL HAVE A BABY BORN WITH THIS SYNDROME THIS COULD BE MICROCEPHALY AN UNDER DEVELOPED BRAIN AND A BABY BORN WITH A SMALLER HEAD RANGE FROM MILD TO SEVERE OF COURSE THAT DOES MEAN BRAIN DAMAGE IT COULD BE AS LITTLE AS A VISUAL DEFECT WHICH IS ON THE MILD SIDE TO THERE’S BEEN CASES WHERE A BABY HAS BEEN BORN IT’S A HORRIBLE DISEASE IT CAN RESTRICT THE BODY MOVEMENT BECAUSE IT’S DIFFERENT THERE’S JOINTS THAT ARE LIMITED MOVEMENT OR CLUB FOOT THINGS OF THAT SORT AND INCESSANT CRYING HAS BEEN DESCRIBED IN PLACE WHERE’S THERE’S OUTBREAKS BABIES INCESSANTLY CRY BUT I’M TALKING 24/7 IT’S INTENSE IT WAS FIRST NOTICED IN BRAZIL IN 2015 BECAUSE PRIOR TO THE BRAZIL OUTBREAK THEY WERE SMALL AND ISOLATED OUTBREAKS THEY DIDN’T HAVE A SUBPOPULATION

OF WOMEN TO STUDY OR BABIES THAT WERE BEING BORN EXPOSED TO ZIKA IT’S ALSO BEEN FOUND IN FETAL RELATED TISSUES SUCH AS THE UMBILICAL CORD AND PLACENTA THAT’S HOW THEY MADE THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TWO AND STEGOMYIA AND THIS SMELLS LIKE A DIRTY GYM BAG TO CAPTURE MOSQUITOS WITH THIS AND WE NEED TO IDENTIFY MOSQUITOS IN THAT TRAP AND THERE’S OTHERS MOSQUITOS BESIDE THE STEGOMYIA AND REPORT BACK TO THE CITY TO GET ON TOP OF AN OUTBREAK AND WE HAVE EYE TRUCK OF THIS BASED TREATMENT GOING ON AND IMPORTED CASES WE HAVE BREAK IT OUT INTO IMPORTED CASES WE WANT TO FIND OUT WHERE THE PATIENT HAS BEEN AND WHEN, ARE THEY STILL SYMPTOMATIC THAT PERSON CAN POTENTIALLY SPREAD THE VIRUS ON TO A MOSQUITO SEVEN DAYS FROM BEING INFECTED FROM THE VIRUS THAT’S WHAT IT’S FIGURED TO BE WE ALSO CHECK OUT THE PATIENT’S HOME FOR MOSQUITO-BORN PLACES AND SET TRAPS WHEN NEEDED THERE CAN STILL BE IMPORTED CASES IN THE MIDDLE OF JANUARY BUT WE WON’T HAVE MOSQUITO ACTIVITY IF THERE IS MOSQUITO ACTIVITY WE WANT TO KNOW WHAT MOSQUITO ACTIVITY BASED ON THE TRAPPED AND WE EDUCATE THE PATIENT AND COULD DO A BARRIER TREATMENT WHERE YOU SPRAY PLANT LIFE IN THE YARD OR PLACES WHERE THE MOSQUITOS LIKE TO HANG OUT AND WILL EVENTUALLY DIE IF THEY COME IN CONTACT AND LAST 20 DAYS OR SO AND CAN DO FOGGING IT’S A LITTLE MORE INTENSE AND PENETRATIVE THAN ULV WHICH IS ULTRA LOW VOLUME IS THE OTHER METHOD FROM THE TRUCK BASE JUST MORE INTENSE AND WE HAND OUT THE CARE PACKAGES I TALKED ABOUT FOR LOCALLY ACQUIRED CASES, WE’LL BASICALLY DO THE SAME THING BUT BE MORE INTENSE AND NOT ONLY DO THIS FOR THE PATIENT IN NEARBY HOUSES BUT FOR AN ENTIRE NEIGHBORHOOD EPIDEMIOLOGY WILL DO THEIR THING THEY’LL PROBABLY GO OUT AND INVESTIGATE AND ASK SURVEYS OF PEOPLE AND TRY TO LOCATE WHERE THE BARRIERS OF THIS ZIKA OUTBREAK ARE TO HELP DETERMINE WHERE WE NEED TO TREAT ADULTS WE DO POTENTIALLY HAVE AERIAL TREATMENT COMING IN ON THIS AS WELL FLORIDA ACTUALLY DID DO SOME TREATMENT FROM THE AIR AND THAT TURNED OUT TO BE EFFECTIVE FOR THEM BASICALLY WE’RE JUST ELEVATING THAT RESPONSE THIS IS ACTUALLY A PICTURE OF WHERE ALL OF OUR TRAPS ARE PLACED WITHIN TARRANT COUNTY THERE’S A COUPLE ENCOMPASSED OUTSIDE OF TARRANT COUNTY AND THAT’S THE SQUARE PORTION IF YOU SEE A LITTLE OUTSIDE THERE’S MULTIPLE COUNTIES BUT ALL THE MUNICIPALITIES ARE WITHIN TARRANT COUNTY THE GREEN TRIANGLES REPRESENT TRAPS AND THE BLACK SQUARES REPRESENT WHERE THE SENTINEL TRAPS ARE PLACED AND THE CITY OF ARLINGTON AND FORT WORTH SET THE TRAPS AND BRING US THE IDENTIFICATION AND ISSUE THE RESPONSE I’D LIKE TO REITERATE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TYPES OF MOSQUITOS AEDES VERSUS CULEX AEDES MAY BE THE CARRIERS OF ZIKA, DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA AND LAY EGGS ON THE SURFACE OF CONTAINERS AND NOT WATER AND SURVIVE THE WINTER AS EGGS AND MOSTLY BITE DURING THE DAY OR DIURNAL AND CULEX ARE AT NIGHT AND SO THE RESPONSE HAS TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION DURING DUSK AND DAWN, EVERY MOSQUITO WILL FEED ON YOU THAT’S WHY IT’S PROBABLY THE MOST IMPORTANT TIME TO GO OUT AND WEAR THE EPA-APPROVED REPELLANTS THE AEDES MOSQUITOS ARE BLACK AND WHITE STRIPES ON THEIR LEGS AND EASY TO PICK OUT CULEX ARE DRAB BROWN OR GOLD AND DON’T HAVE STRIPES OR ANYTHING

PRETTY AND CULEX WILL GENERALLY FEED ON BIRDS AND AEDES FEEDS ON MAMMALS AND WE CALCULATE THE VECTOR INDEX AND MINIMUM INFECTION RATE OF OUR MOSQUITOS WE’RE IN THE PROCESS OF RELATING THAT TO HUMAN INCIDENCE AND DISEASE AND WORK ON PREDICTIONS FOR HUMAN DISEASE AND WE DO EGG COLLECTION STUDY TO SEE IF THERE’S A BETTER WAY TO COLLECT EGGS THAN WE’RE DOING NOW FOR RESISTANCE WE’RE WORKING ON A LARVAL DATABASE SAYING AT THIS AREA IN THIS TIME OF YEAR WE FOUND THIS TYPE OF MOSQUITO WE ALSO HAVE A CONTROL ACTIVITIES DATABASE WE’RE WORKING ON EVERYONE WHO DOES ANY PESTICIDE IS IN A DATABASE AND IT’S EASY WHEN WE’RE BEING AUDITED IT’S EASY TO BRING THAT UP AND WE’RE ALWAYS DOING COMMUNITY OUTREACH I KNOW PEOPLE ARE MAYBE A LITTLE TIRED OF ME TALKING SO I’M GOING TO LET Y’ALL ASK QUESTIONS AND I BELIEVE SARAH WILL GO AHEAD AND READ THEM >> WE ALREADY GOT SOME GREAT QUESTIONS THAT HAVE COME INTO THE CHAT BOX FEEL FREE TO CONTINUE PUTTING THEM IN YOU MENTIONED TALKING ABOUT REPELLANT DURING DUSK AND DAWN WE HAD A QUESTION THAT RECOMMENDED INSECT REPELLANT HAS DEET AND IT’S BAD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT THE REPELLANTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH >> AS FAR AS DEET IS CONCERNED THERE’S NOT A HUGE ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN IN TERMS OF HARMING WILDLIFE BUT THERE’S PEOPLE WHO PREFER DIFFERENT THINGS THERE’S AN ENTIRE LIST OF EPA-APPROVED REPELLANTS GOOGLE THE EPA AND TYPE REPELLANTS INTO THEIR SEARCH AND THEY WILL GIVE YOU ALTERNATIVES TO DEET FOR THOSE WHO DON’T LIKE TO USE DEET, I KNOW THE OIL OF LEMON AND EUCALYPTUS IS IN THERE AND IT’S NOT AN ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEMON AND EUCALYPTUS IT’S A PARTICULAR PLANT CALLED LEMON EUCALYPTUS THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT IS IN THE PLANT CALLED METHANE DIOL AND THERE’S DIFFERENCES IN ESSENTIAL OILS AND WHAT THIS IS BUT IT’S MORE PREFERRED BY THE NATURAL PEOPLE WHO LIKE NATURAL REPELLANTS THERE’S ALSO WHAT IS USED TO TREAT CLOTHING AND IR3535 RUMORED TO BE AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT IN SKIN SO SOFT SO IT WAS INCIDENTALLY A NICE SCENT WHERE THEY NOTICED IT SEEMED TO TAKE CARE OF MOSQUITOS AS IT TURNED OUT THEY CONCENTRATED THAT THAT’S THE RUMOR I DON’T KNOW IF IT’S A TRUE STORY MY TOP RECOMMENDATION IS TO LOOK FOR ALTERNATIVES IF YOU’RE CONCERNED WITH THE ENVIRONMENT I HAVE NOT HEARD ANYTHING ABOUT THAT >> AND A RELATED QUESTION IS THE IMPACT OF FOGGING ON OUR HEALTH THE PERSON ASKED THE COMMUNITY IN WHICH THEY LIVE IF FOGGING WAS A COMMON PRACTICE BUT NO ONE TRUSTED IT BECAUSE OF THE SMELL AND THINGS LIKE THAT >> THERE’S A NUMBER OF THINGS THAT GO INTO THAT BECAUSE OF THE SMELL IT’S TELLING ME THEY’RE PROBABLY USING PHOSPHATE FIRST, I’D HAVE TO SAY THERE’S TWO CLASSES OF CHEMICALS THAT CAN BE USED FOR ADULT MOSQUITO CONTROLS AND I MUST POINT OUT THAT MOSQUITOS ARE VERY SMALL CREATURES AND SO SOMETHING THAT’S UTILIZED REGULARLY CALLED ULV OR ULTRA LOW VOLUME BAY BASICALLY WE ONLY WANT TO KILL THE MOSQUITOS I’M AN ENTOMOLOGIST, I DON’T WANT TO HARM BEES OR WILDLIFE WE ARE TALKING ABOUT SIX EXTRA STRENGTH TYLENOL SPREAD OUT OVER A FOOTBALL FIELD OR ONE ACRE THAT’S HOW TO VISUALIZE HOW LITTLE OF THE CHEMICAL AND WHAT YOU’RE WASHING YOUR DOG WITH IS PROBABLY MANY TIMES MORE POTENT THAN THAT CHEMICAL SINCE WE’RE ATTACKING A SMALL CREATURE WE’RE TARGETING THAT SMALL CREATURE AND NOT WANTING TO KILL ANYTHING ELSE AND SPRAYING AT NIGHTTIME THAT’S WHEN YOUR POLLINATORS ARE IN THEIR HIVES AND THINGS OF THAT SORT THOUGH THE GOAL IS TO KILL

SOMETHING, WE TRY TO AVOID KILLING NOT MOSQUITOS AND ALSO ENVIRONMENTALLY THEY’VE DONE STUDIES THAT ARE AROUND PLACES WHERE SPRAYED AND DID NOT SPRAY AND WHAT THEY DID AND THIS WAS THROUGH THE C.D.C THEY WENT OUT AND THEY ACTUALLY LOOKED AT THE METABOLITES IN URINE FOR FOLKS AND FOUND PLACES WITH MOSQUITO CONTROL VERSUS PLACES THAT DIDN’T HAVE MOSQUITO CONTROL DIDN’T HAVE A DIFFERENT AMOUNT OF METABOLITES FOR THE URINE IN THE PEOPLE AROUND THERE IT SHOWS IT’S REALLY NOT ENOUGH TO EFFECT PEOPLE AND CERTAINTY NOT YOUR ANIMALS >> IT’S SO GREAT TO HAVE SUCH AN EXPERT I THINK WE HAVE TIME FOR ONE MORE QUESTION AND WE HAD SOMEONE ASK ABOUT HOMEMADE MOSQUITO TRAPS CAN YOU SAY ANYTHING ABOUT WHY THEY DO OR DON’T WORK >> IT’S ONE MADE OF A TWO-LITER BOTTLE AND YOU FLIP IT OUTSIDE DOWN AND PUT IN YEAST WATER YOU’RE CREATING CARBON DIOXIDE AND IT WILL DRAW MOSQUITOS TO IT AND HERE’S THE KICKER, IF THE MOSQUITOS GET INTO THAT TRAP, THEY CAN POTENTIALLY DIE BUT YOU’RE ALSO TRIGGERING A LONG-RANGE KIND OF CHEMO RECEPTION, YOU’RE DRAWING IN EVERY MOSQUITO FROM A MILE AWAY IF YOU HAVE A LARGE PROPERTY, BUT IT AT THE EDGE OF YOUR PROPERTY NOT NEXT TO YOUR HOUSE YOU COULD POTENTIALLY DRAW THEM IN FROM LONG DISTANCE AND THEY’LL FIND YOU BEFORE THE TRAP I HOPE THAT ANSWERS THAT QUESTION >> GREAT THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR ALL OF THESE ANSWERS AND FOR ALL YOUR QUESTIONS I WANT TO GIVE A HUGE THANK YOU TO NINA THANK YOU AND I’LL ASK EVERYONE TO HANG AROUND A FEW MORE MINUTES AS I END THE RECORDING TO DO THE FINAL HOUSEKEEPING