Lecture 05: Synthesis of Architectural and Structural Form

Hello friends, welcome back to online course Structure, Form, and Architecture: The Synergy Today, we will talk about Lecture Number-5, that is Synthesis of Architectural and Structural Form. So, before I start today’s lecture so far whatever we have covered we have seen that structural forms, they helped to make architecture, to fulfill the concept and also bring some architectural visual qualities and also we discussed different kind of loads in our previous lectures, where we have seen like starting from the dead load, live load, then different lateral loads, seismic load etcetera So, in this lecture, we will basically focus on different structural forms and how they are making you know strong correlation with architectural form creation. So, we will pick up some of the major and predominant structural forms that being used to create some world class architecture and in the modern world So, gradually, we will also say like take some examples from the history, where other kind of structural forms being created to bring the architecture So, let us start todays lecture. Here, we again like previous lectures, we just look into the definitions. So, what is a form? Already we have discussed it. The form is basically the visible object and we define it with a shape. So, it is a definition given by Francis D K Ching. So, what exactly it is, let us have a look into this. Form is generally and primarily understood as shape or three-dimensional massing, ok? So, one object having three dimensions that will give a sensation to our eyes and we see that object as a form. But also encompasses additional architectural aspects. So, its not like very dull three-dimensional shape, but in order to make it and give a you know term called architectural form. So, it also have different aspects like space creation, then different arrangements including structural configuration and this is obvious after you know initial few lectures Now, we all agree that in order to give the form of architecture, structure is indispensable, means it is very much needed. Without structural stability, structural support, it cannot create the form the way we want, which may organize and unify architectural design. So, basically form by this definition, if we simplify this, So, it is three-dimensional object along with that it will have some architectural aspects It should have some space to live-in in order to you know maximize your utility and, also this should be supported with some structural configuration And finally, altogether it will basically create and unify an architectural design So, with that we move forward to the architectural form So, here it says Architectural form is an inclusive term that refers primarily to a building external outline. Here this is very important external outline or shape. So, whatever the form we normally say, so basically most commonly we referred to the outline of the building if a building is something like that So, we say it is a domical form of architecture What is inside the space essentially, we do not say about that and to a lesser degree reference is internal organization, as already I mentioned like in order to create architecture, we have to articulate spaces So, it will have a relationship between different spaces, their transitional spaces, how we connect to space. So, that is very important

for creating good architecture, so that our purpose to create will be achieved. But when we discussed about the form, so basically it is whatever the overall shape being created and basically the outline. But sometimes also we also observed the internal form; sometimes I have given one example of pantheon, where it is looking very beautiful from the inside that your domical form that we have seen So, one thing is very clear. It is giving a shape or outline. Now, this shape is basically creating a visual representation and that also having some property of the size, color, texture, position, orientation and visual inertia. So, these all are very important thing like whether my structure will be in human scale or in monumental scale. So, I guess that is like who have studied the history of architecture. So, earlier we have seen that like many examples which the architecture is in monumental scale, the huge structure So, size is something very huge and sometimes it is nowadays with the age of you know shortage of spaces and all, sometimes we actually optimize the space so with the minimalistic form and small size Now, to the color, definitely it will give a contrast to the background. So, whenever we see any image or who are having like some interest in photography, they also capture a frame. So, in the frame we have a background and one foreground and with different color, the contrast is created. So, sometimes the architectural form is very simple rectilinear, but the color used through the material or may be paint can create something different Textures; obviously, we have discussed that sometimes it may be rough; sometimes it may be very smooth like glass. So, this is important, the position of that. Now based on the position; how you place your form one after another, how you make composition, that will actually give you a different sense. Orientation; it is again very important not only for the aesthetic purpose, but also sometimes in order to tackle with the lateral load. If you can recall the wind load that we have seen that when we place you know this rectilinear form and this is a prevailing wind direction. So, this create thrust. In order to that if I just rotate a bit, so we can minimize it in that And visual inertia is very important that will give a visual sense of stability. We have seen some of the buildings in our previous lectures that where we have seen that the building is following the stability; visual stability is there and sometimes it is not So, it refers to the instability, visual instability to that. So, these are the properties of a form that will make one architecture from other Now, come to the structural form. So, form is shape. Now how to do we really distinguish between architectural form and structural form that is a question. So, here structural form is the primary or most visually dominant structural system of a building, ok. This statement is not really giving a very comprehensive answer to us. So, what exactly want to mean? So, so far, we discussed that the shape is the three-dimensional thing then, in order to make it architectural form it should have some you know some space and other thing to call it architecture and then, basically architecture is the outline of that architectural design This shape, this outline is your architectural form whether it is in rectilinear form or in any some curvature or something Now, structure is basically the backbone of the dominant structural system. Now, here we should be careful. So, when we say the dominant structure, what exactly like by looking at the building, you will just get to know that this structure system is of this kind; but sometimes even rather most of the cases

a building may have more than one structural system, one to just give the structure stability, other may to give some you know other facilities So, which system is visually dominant that is a question So, which form will take a building may have an arch form, some part of the building and somewhere it is just a you know beam column structure. So, there which form should we take? So, concept of structural form is unhelpfully simplistic. So, basically when we say structural form, its rather to say this is the structural system. So, when we say structural systems, then we have some category in to that So, we can classify our structural systems in many ways; so, one way of classifying it with the overall shape of three-dimensional shape and other thing. But structure systems can also be defined with other parameters like its nature whether it is like your compressive structure or it is your tensile structure or so on or else, we can also define it in other terms like your supporting structure or supported structure. But in this particular lecture, will not discuss those; will come to that in some you know future lectures But in this, primarily, we will focus on the structural form based system So, I will just make it clear with certain examples. Say for example, if you see a building making of such you know concrete or steel member and the form being created is simplifying or simply say it is an arch. So, this is basically the form, but again this system whether it is like your tensile or it is compressive or something will touch up on those issues, we will discuss one by one in our future lectures So, let us move on to the concept. Again, this is very important and very interesting slide. So, here the structure can be defined with 4S’s: Strength, Stiffness, Stability and Synergy. So, what is strength? So, basically strength is some property by which you can prevent breaking ok So, if I having a beam which is having good strength, may be made of good quality concrete; so, it will resist more load. So, it will stop from breaking, but at the same time say for example, I take this pen examples. So, it is made of some material having, some kind of strength; but not as compared to concrete So, if I put pressure on that it may break With pen, it may take some time; but if you do it with a chalk maybe as because of its you know brittle property, it will break even you know earlier than this one. So, strength is very important property of a structure So, depending on the load, also we have to you know be choosy about selecting material having the proper strength which will help to prevent from the breaking. You can see this you know schematic, where this is a beam and supported by two columns and when a load is applied showing by this arrow. So, it is breaking So, if you make it strong, then it will not But regarding this I just want to highlight, another important issue will also come to that later on. But as because now we are discussing this say for example, we make a slab resting on a column. So, basically if you know this is particular section. Now, in this case I just zoom it. So, suppose this is made of concrete and made of PCC. PCC stand for Plain Cement Concrete. So, there is no reinforcement

Now, because of the self weight and also some live load; load of furniture and then, people So, it will have some bending And what is happening here? So, if you want to see this one this section. So, the upper portion will have one type of load that is like they will have the compression ok. So, this particular portion will try to you know contracting to each other and this portion will try to expand. So, tension will be developed here Now, for that reason, it will collapse from the bottom. In this case because load is applied from the top if I apply load from the bottom So, it will first develop crack in the upper section and let me tell you one thing that like concrete like plain cement concrete So, basically the property of concrete, it is having good compressive strength. So, in compression, it will sustain. But not in tension, but tension developed at the bottom So, in order to overcome we have to support it we have to reinforce it with some material having higher tensile strength value and that is why we put reinforcement and the reason for this kind of slab, we put the reinforcement in the lower side of the section ok; so, that this will take care of the tension So, it will give a balance with tension, compression and finally, will have some equilibrium. So, we will come to that and we will discuss with some experiment also, but anyway. So, to make it sometime stronger having good strength, we may look for some combination of different structural material Now, come to stiffness; stiffness is a property which will prevent the excessive deformation Say for example, if it will not have this much of stiffness. So, it will deform and the time like if you create some structure having higher deformation which will not be really a good sign because then, your whole structure the you know the supporting structure or the supported structure on this column may act in a different manner. So, this is another property which is very important to select about the structure Now, come to stability; stability will depend on the arrangement of your structural element We have given one example like your pyramid and inverted pyramid ok. So, depending on the arrangement because of the lateral load and other thing; so, stability is basically you know prevent the collapse. So, if arrangement is something like that we make a composition; something like this is one, option number 1 and I just make option number 2 here ok So, when we arrange this you know cuboid one after another. So, this is option number 1; this is option number 2 Now, my question to you looking at these two and consider the same material and all which structure is considered to be more stable? So, I am sure that all of you agree that 1 is much more stable than 2, because of the mass and other thing and that is why those points, where it get connected is very crucial Now, we have discussed the you know activity during earthquake. So, there will be some lateral movement in both the direction, horizontal direction, left-right and you know upward-downward So, in that case basically those joints are very critical because here you just represent it in the real case. So, this is slab and this is a beam or there will be some column and also those joints will be casted adequately proper care should be taken so that during that movement this structure will act as a

monolithic structure; what is monolithic structure? Made of say in a single material. Sometime you know the cave we consider the rock cut cave and all they are monolithic structure; so, that all will have the motion. So, that this building will be stable But though we have good strength material having the stiffness, the property and also the arrangement and assured the stability, but then also there is something which is very important to bring the result as per our requirement that is the synergy and that the subject the whole course is all about the synergy between different structural element So, if you want something to be very strong, stiff and also stable. So, you must have a good synergy between those materials along with the design elements; so, that we cannot compromise our requirement. At the same time, we should not compromise the structural safety So, that my structure will be visually pleasant, structurally strong and having a good durability, it will stay for longer So, this is something is very important and looking into this concepts, sometimes you know we have to reject some of the structural form which may not be applicable for our design So, in upcoming slides what will see basically the synthesis between architectural form and structural form. So, looking at that basically it will give a sense of a shape three-dimensional shape, but at the same time it is being so well-designed, its giving the architecture, the way we want and also the structural form that support that to bring it into reality So, let us move forward So, here we have listed 8 such you know structural and architectural form synthesis and we will see by with some examples, some photographs from you know different parts of the world and specially the modern architecture. So, one is your Shell Structure; second one is Fabric Structure; Catenaries is one of them; then you have Ribbed Structure, then Arches, Folded Plate, Framed structure, and Walls This list can be further extended and will also do that and will discuss some other kind of structures like pneumatic structures and other form of you know shape that we use and structural element we use in architecture But before, we again proceed further; let us understand by the term what is shell. So, basically I can give you example of egg. So, what exactly it is the white outer shell is having enough strength and in some of the experiment, it has been shown that it may take up to even more than 20 to 22 kgs load So, this is very thin, very thin; it is so brittle and you know who are having eggs in their daily menu and all they know that when you break it for the omelet or something So, it is very thin, but it is able to carry certain load So, this thin shell will make your space spacious, at the same time it can also take the load So, what is the property basically? So, it will resist the load external load and self-weight through its thickness and proper geometry, that is very important. You know in order to achieve the result we should also look into the geometry, how the curvature to be drawn for the shell structure and all and we will get some example to that. Fabric is basically something related to the cloth or membrane kind of material So, sometimes in order to make structure very light, we use this kind of structure and you know already I have given one example of stadium, Munich stadium, there we have seen the huge structure. Though that example was taken for a light weight type structure, but here we can take the same example, where like with some you know steel members and all the whole area is being shaded with some translucent

you know fabric and there is so many applications of this fabric where it is basically act with a tension So, the tensioned fabric to be supported with some cables and yeah; obviously, there will be some support which will help to balance that and some comprehensive element structure to be fixed, where this membrane or the fabric are tied up. Then, catenaries is basically a form that we normally see that it is basically a member which is you know drape, means it is simply you can say hang on this two pole So, if you see the railway track over that all those you know electric poles and this transmission you know cable and other thing So, we have some portal kind of structures So, this is a catenaries structure. I can give you another example. We also call it catenaries that is the queue you know in station or some of the meeting place in order to manage the queue, we have certain posts like this and there is some elastic material which may be you know fixed at any direction. So, this is also called catenaries So, we will see this application in our architecture Then, ribbed is something like the skeleton ok. So, if you remember we started with the lecture, where we have seen like take example from the nature like the human body; though we have some muscles, we have some outer finish and with some clothing and all we take it in a different manner. So, depending on the color and other thing, but basically, we are stable or we are standing because of some support of the bone, the skeleton. So, as true for some structure where, it is very much predominant ok So, every building, they must have some you know structure or you know skeleton, but this kind of ribbed structure is very predominant We will look into that also. Then arches are very simple. So, different kind of arches may form the architecture. Folded plate, I explained with some paper right? So, if you have a paper and then, if you just fold it ok so, it may carry some load and when you make it in order. So, it can also take a huge load on it and why it is taking load and all; how it will balance the compression and tension, we will discuss in detail when we discuss about the folded plate structures separately in the class. So, here we will see like some examples under this category The framed structure is very simple, straight forward, beam column composition structure So, this is something normally we see in any house or something it has been practiced from so long. Then the walls, sometime you know we have also shown some example, where you have very you know opaque type of you know quality in your structure where you have some very less opening or no opening and walls are predominant to it. So, the walls some arrangement of walls will create some architecture So, let us move to each of these category and take some examples and try to understand clear what exactly how this synthesis is happening with architecture and structural form This is one example and this is very simple one a small one like the bus station ok. A shelter, you can see this is may be the office area like official thing and all and people can wait there. This is the bus. So, here you can see the thickness ok, very thin and this is giving a form of an arch. So, it is also known as surface structure. Because as of the thickness shells resist and transfer the load within the minimal thickness and that is the advantage of using it. The similar shell structure being used in Sydney Opera House even in or you know lotus temple in Delhi, from India Now, for that what is required two or three dimensional curved geometry and correct orientation So, to give the support where to support it, where it should be oriented, how it will counter

the weight transfer the weight that is very important in this shell structure. And what is the advantage if you see this, so this area is having no column. So, you can create some kind of interesting space, column free space wherever we require it. So, this is one example very beautiful example of shell structure Here, we take another two, this is one auditorium in MIT and this is already sometimes back, we have given this example of TWA Terminal and that time, we have taken this example as a like form like flying bird or something But here, we are taking this structural element which is very thin made of concrete; so, creating the shell structure So, they are being supported somewhere and it can create it. So, basically the shell structure if you just design it ok, with a proper geometry making the balance take care of the moment of inertia. So, you can create beautiful space with this and the material sometimes it may be made of concrete, sometimes you can also think of some other material without compromising that you know your strength, then stiffness and other thing and definitely the proper orientation and positioning of the support will give the stability to give you the synergy So, this 4S’s I have explained here how to get it. Now, come to the fabric structure So, again it is a cloth some like material made of some you know poly ethylene based material sometime high density poly ethylene So, different kind of material to be used in this and these are being very useful to create your you know reduce the load of the roof, where it is just a requirement to you know cover up the area, just to protect from the rain and the you know excessive light or heat. Then, we can propose this kind of structure So, we have seen one example from Munich, that is the stadium and here, it is ice skating ring and this is basically a sport center in Germany, where it has been used. So, you can see that how it is being placed. So, there are some supports and where this membrane is fixed and from inside also, there are some poles and there are some cables which will connect it So, it is the tension fabric that resist the self weight and wind load. Because you know for the wind load there is a problem of upliftment of the structure. So, if you have a pitch roof. So, there will be some you know wind, so this will create some pressure here and that can make some upliftment of structures We have to take care of this and now looking at the form, so when we discuss this fabric or membrane structure in detail; so, there we will see the different kind of you know membrane structure So, here it is basically a conical one and depending on that will also discuss about some you know property of the curve whether it will take the arch form or parabolic or hyperbolic form. So, will discuss this and here it is very beautifully designed, it will well take care of the tension as well as the light. So, through this one may have the light and you can see the people are enjoying the skating there. So, this is one application of the fabric structure So, let us move on to the next. It is in again in Arizona State University Campus. So, this is a structure, it is more clear than the previous one, where like different post are being used and cables are used to provide the adequate tension to the fabric So, it is creating very interesting you know shade and shadow and also some space to enjoy though it is very open in nature, but this is creating beautiful piece of architecture If you see from there, so these are all you know tensioned fabric and supported by some you know very lesser thickness cable, though they are having the strength to carry this

thing and you have some support, long pole to tie up to create that tension in adequate manner So, there also I can mention something about the cable suspended bridges. So, there are many examples in the world. So, that also act with certain principle, but here it is called fabric structure because of this fabric being used in this. So, it is again having the tensile structure in nature. There are some members which will take care of the compression, but overall it is under the fabric structure Now, move to the catenaries; already we have discussed that there will be some two poles and a member is just resting on that and it is giving a form of a portal. So, here this is the example of Dulles Airport, Washington DC. So, here you can see like this is a terminal building. As because terminal building should have some you know openness and you should not really obstruct it with regular number of columns and all So, here you can see that this is basically a series of such components being placed one after another and then there are some you know slabs. The catenaries which will rest on this to support ok. So, inclined piers support the catenary slab. So, this kind of structure is being seen in many cases. So, here the synthesis happened with the catenary with this. So, overall this is giving a sense of a portal, but as well as it will also create this particular space, column free So, whenever we require this column free kind of structure, we may think of that. So, what exactly happen there? Transfer load to the support through tension ok, roof self weight should exceed the wind load because of this kind of long span there will be if this free So, there will be a flow of wind and other thing. So, this should have the self weight adequately so that it will resist against the wind load Now, reinforced concrete is sometimes chosen as the material because of the property and again, you look into this, this is RCC. As because this will act with tension, so compression can well taken of by plane concrete; but in order to take care of the tension, we need some reinforcement as RCC does. And compared to the other example, the Dulles Airport this is again huge So, if you see this particular you know material having the thickness is very small and here what is happening? This is example of you know Pavilhao de Portugal. So, here these two buildings and their porticoes being connected with this canopy. So, here canopy drapes between two porticoes and it is again open. So, there will be you know wind blow and other thing and next with there is some water bodies also it is predominant. So, it should have the property to resist against that. So, it is allowed been to this So, sometimes this kind of structure is being created to give something like some openness to that you know span and considering the scale and you can consider this human being height. So, take standard height of 5 feet 4 inches. So, you can see the span is a huge span. So, it is possible it is stable, it is standing there and this huge span is being supported on and on this portico. So, this is again another example of catenaries Now, from catenaries we moved to ribbed structure Already the way I define that it is basically very visible that skeletons. So, here you can see look into the building. So, most predominant even this is the glass being used in this, but here if you see that there are some ring kind of structure and being supported with some ribs So, basically if you see this thing and we compared it with our globe. So, the latitude longitude, this is making a basically a skeleton to it and it is very well designed and here

it is not in a circular form. The inside structure is basically creating a ramp which will go up. So, this is another example where the structure is basically made of steel and it is visible So, predominant structure as we define the structural forms sometimes is basically the predominant structural element to the building Here it is very clear from the picture that it is the combination of ribs and like your circular the horizontal and vertical ribs to create this rib structure. So, where it is being useful? Like it depends on the concept how we want to show sometimes you may hide your structure within the building, you can only see the overall outcome or the form of the building or if you require to show the structural element, make it very open type So, you can do it So, even if you recall the example of Bangkok airport, there also something like that. So, they have multiple series of you know this kind of arch form and they connect it so that while sitting here you can see outside. So, from outside it can form this. So, the same example can be categorized as the open type of architecture in visually openness is there, but in terms of the structural thing, it is basically the ribbed structure Now, what exactly it is? Here there are few points that generate and define architectural form although their skeletal character often necessitates a separate enveloping system So, what exactly it is? Like to make it; so, it may have a separate system to you know to hold it to make it stable. So, which sometimes may be very pleasant, but sometimes you just do not want it, just some portion of that is of that kind. So, you want to show it or not it depends on the architecture; but in order to give the completeness, in order to you know get that particular clarity, so its sometimes creates its own structural envelope Ribbed stricture, generally enclose single volume rather than multi storey construction So, whenever you have multi storey building So, sometimes we just compromise it. So, we will simply go for a you know small kind of structure, not the high rise with the skeleton; but yeah, definitely in some of the high rise building we have used that with the ribbed structural form and we put it in grid; grid structure and all we will discuss that in the upcoming lectures. Take another example This is National Art Center in Tokyo, Japan And here, it is another example where you see that you have some vertical membrane structures and you have some wavy structure connecting So, from inside also if you see the openness is maintained, but it is giving ribbed like a skeleton kind of you know appearance from outside. So, it is very predominant to the building. So, I have taken this example under this category. So, vertical, but curved ribbed support and define the undulating facade So, here it is creating some undulating effect through the structural arrangement Now, come to arches. This is another beautiful example of a museum called Klee Museum in Switzerland, where beautiful use of arches and different size and all it is resembles with the mountain at the back; so, to bring that you know compatibility with the environment arch being used So, basically take this arch form can take various shape, it may be semicircular, it may be parabolic or pointed. So, in Islamic architecture we have seen some pointed arches and sometimes in later the Felix Candelas design that we have seen this kind of you know structure, where it is basically your parabolic or hyperbolic paraboloid structures and semicircle as very common In many of the you know domes we seen in Indian history, so there we use a semicircular thing even in Gol Gumbaz in South India. So, there also we have seen that domical structure and

usually meet the ground at an inclination to the horizontal. So, here it is meeting the ground, but sometimes when it is a combination that you have rectilinear form and then on top of this arches or something in a domical form the section being used So, here basically what we are talking about the example I have given for Gol Gumbaz that is not exactly the arch, that is the dome So, here we are more emphasizing on the arch form ok. So, depending on that how you create the arch as a door or entrance. So, that is being more predominant in this part So, let us take another example this is in Wales. So, Great Glass house; so, here if you see that it is basically a multiple arch in both the direction creating this kind of you know structure and most interestingly to support this, so they have a ring beam all along. So, if you see this is been hidden by the glass, but here you can see that here it is ring and then on top of that you have this thing And in order to support it in order to have the loads transfer of the load on top, they have some inclined you know vertical support a column which is basically the normal. So, they are making almost 90 degrees to this support. So, it is transferring the load in that sense. So, this is another example of arches; so, mainly predominant its arch, but definitely this being supported with some other format. So, as we have discussed at the beginning that in building, there may be some multiple kind of structural systems; but looking at the dominance we will say or we will take that in some category Now, come to the folded plate, if you recall that in some of my lectures, I have explained with a plane piece of a paper and then, I folded and create some origami. So, it is something like that So, this is US Air Force Academy Chapel. So, here you see that it is being created with some folded plate giving the adequate strength and also the column free spaces. So, in order to make this convention hall, assembly hall, you know space for huge gathering which require the space to be column free so that we can use it. So, here this is the interior of this you can see easily that it is something like you know with the fold like the origami. We create different kind of you know form some animals, birds, or some other form and this is the pretty similar The use of this structure is basically for the roof or sometimes in the wall and sometimes with some inclined truss, we can create the same. So, this is one example of the folded plate which is basically a structural form But that also create the architecture of this kind. So, it is making synthesis with architectural and structural form This is another example of a Tempodrom, it is in Germany. This is basically a multipurpose you know auditorium different activity is going on different functions and again, in order to have clear view and other thing, it was mandatory to make this space column free and for that the options one of the options was to create it with the folded plate So, it is giving the strength. So, the ridge and valley that will have different compression and tension, we will be talking to that also in detail. So, this is something we can see that instead of a plain surface or you know domical surface that we have seen in many of the historical buildings. Here, it is something which been created with the folded plate that been supported, these valleys are supported at the end and it is taking the load. It transfers the load to the members and solve our purpose to create the space as the way we want it to create And depending on the space, depending on the requirement, the volume, definitely design will change. So, this can be also used for the warehouse, there we can have this kind of structure and we support some of the areas

So, wherever we have this you know valley So, ridge is this top portion and valley is the down portion ok. For any mountain and this is pretty similar to that concrete can be used to it and some of the you know small gallery and all been made with wood. So, when we discuss about the structural materials, will again look back into this to create different kind of form what kind of material is suitable So, we are coming towards end of this lecture So, here we talk about the frame structure So, again it is a combination of the beam and column. This is one example the La Grande Arche in Paris. This is also called frame with in frame. This is very good building we all appreciate it, but basically the fundamental thing is it is being made with some orthogonal skeletal structure being beam column combination and it is sometime also very you know very easy to make But nowadays we should not say like easy or very tough to create; everything is possible with proper execution, proper selection of the material, technique and available technology But here this form is being created with a frame, where like you have a series of you know column and then, it being supported with the beam then top of that again it will go on. So, it is making a skeleton So, normal housing also we see those buildings are of this frame structure. But it has some limitation in terms of the height. So, when we discuss about the evolution of high rise building, there we will see that when height goes up. So, along with that gravity load; gravity load is the self weight acting towards the ground the center of the earth. And there is another called lateral load like wind and other thing So, the gravity load and other thing can be taken well care of this, but when you go vertical as we have seen in the load that with the increase of height wind load wind pressure will also increase. So, there we have to support it with some other advance technique. So, we move from framed structure to the tube structure, we can also add some structural bracing to give extra support. So, anyway we will not discuss it now in more detail, we will come to that how to get that thing to get the desired height of the structure So, move to the next example. This is example from India, Mumbai this is a hotel building again is very simple. So, made with some column and you can see the visible thing is also showing visually the grid form. So, this is also an example of frame structure Now, this is in the last category that is wall, where the wall or structural walls are capable of you know participating in the integration of architectural and structural forms. So, basically if you see that it is a series of walls mainly ok. So, that is very predominant here. Though some part of that we have some you know stilted column and all, but overall it is giving you that particular sense And looking into that if you see this kind of this side elevation, there is hardly any opening to that; there is a sleek opening there here and sometimes in this portion also, but it is not the case that all the time will have this opaqueness. Sometimes also we can achieve some degree of transparency with this wall. So, proper combination of that there are examples of Louis I Kahn and all, we will also discuss during that you know detail discussion on the wall and all So, move to the next example this is Saint-Ange Residency in France. Here, if you see this is somethings like looking at the building, it is basically the wall ok. The wall all the side, but as I mention that you can also create some transparency by creating or providing some of you know some transparent element to it because this is the opaque So, opaque transparency you all know; like opaque is something you cannot see through; transparent where you can see through. So, here we can see that this glass use of glass

can give you a visual connection for the people who are you know staying inside to the outside world, but here it is predominantly the structural form is the wall which is creating this architecture So, in this we are now to summarize and here like let us just the way we have discussed In this presentation, we know that what is the form? Your form is shape. So, 3D and then, further we discussed architectural form. So, not only this is basically outline of the building ok, but plus some other architectural aspect ok Now, next to that what we have also learned that structural form. So, here what we said that which is the predominant structural system of the building, we called that or considered that as structural form. So, from that we just come to a conclusion that it should be structural system rather than a structural form and then, after that we also discussed about 4S’s of structure which is very important Number 1 is not in particular order So, one is your you know Strength, then you have your Stiffness, then you have Stability and then, the Synergy. These four components are essential to create it and next to that the synergy the synthesis between architectural and structural form depending on the predominant structural system that is installed to the building So, based on that we have 8 categories; so, under 8 categories what are those. So, like if you can recall, the first we started with the structure just you know not in orders So, let us start with the fabric structure Then, you have shell structure that was the first one. Then, you have also discussed with the catenary ok. Then, framed; then, we have called ribbed which is skeleton type. Then, you have arches and then, you have folded plate and then last, but not the least we also called discuss with the walls So, with all these, we create a particular predominant structural form which is visible in our architectural buildings, we have seen many examples and there are more many more So, I advise you all like I have only given you few examples. So, depending on that you also try to you know explore more examples and you know in some forum, we will also discuss it like how to define it which is the predominant of that building So, I love to see those you know questions and those you know discussion, looking forward to that. But you know all these things like sometimes it is predominant, but at the beginning of the lecture, we start that a building may consist of multiple structural systems right So, they may create sometimes something different like not coming into the category. It will just create some contrast ok Out of that, we may have a building like this, where it is very tough to define or put it in the category. Somewhere it is in a combination on the frame or sometimes it may be the shell structure, some part of that folded structure So, it creates beauty. Overall we appreciate it, not a particular dominant structure, but overall composition creating a contrast creating something very beautiful So, definitely we are really interested to look into that and with that the upcoming 2 lectures the basically the single topic that will you know discus that is connecting structure and architecture. So, here we will see different kind of where sometimes structure is predominant or sometimes your architecture is predominant, sometimes it followed, sometimes it is some unorthodox or something you know not orthogonal. So, we will see that So, that will be our lecture number 6 and 7, connecting structure and architecture and

these are the reference. I have added one more example that is a book written by D K. Ching, Architecture: Form, Space, and Order You can go through it and I have also given the references for all the image sources, you can go and get more detail. And again, I would like to thank you all to take part in this course and till the next lecture, bye, bye Thank you