Phelps Stokes demining palaver hut pt1

p Foster and I were twelve steps and welcome to the blob aha just a little footnote on the idea for those of you who lived and work in West Africa you have seen over the years the institution of the pallava pod as a as a vehicle and an arena for establishing peace by technically it’s where you go to talk and while in general it’s mostly men who go there to talk generally men who get into fights you talk and tell you have consensus and you can call that a process of consultation or torture but it has a way of mitigating some of the usual conscience and often emerge in communities undergoing stress and change conflicts that can easily with new weapons become devastating and I don’t need to tell our our colleagues here from Halo that when you start creating minds that has enormous consequences for people with quality of life in the community so the idea of a falafel hut it would be a place where you could come at least talk about differences but most importantly in the process of talking about differences two things happen one you begin to make explicit hopefully to yourself but to other people your own theories of causation how do you think the world works okay and you’d be amazed that we don’t question our questions we don’t question are thinking whether in public policy or whether its private initiative you’d be amazed at the decisions that are made on unquestioned assumptions okay and messes that are created because no one bothers can really say why are we posing this question what are the assumptions behind the question what are the values how did you come to know that and of course what we’re learning is that in fact the pistol Balaji has something to do with living where you grew up and what time the childhood you had that has as much effect on how you interpret reality as where you got your degree what that says is that the more you get to know somebody and how they think and feel the easier is going to be for you to resolve conflict and find points of collaboration and that’s really what a Bulava hug should be the question for the twenty-first centuries of how do you make that electronic virtual but it begins in rooms like this where human beings sit down and take a topic and have a discussion that is respectful that is candid that is courageous the value of these conversations are at least in two areas one hopefully one of you will meet somebody that you have met before or you may get to know somebody you thought you knew now you get to know them a little bit more the second value is beginning to develop networks and unfortunately today we may be talking about demining tomorrow baby malaria day after tomorrow it may be some other catastrophe no problem we will have those problems but the question will be can we develop the spirit of sharing the spirit of working together that allows us to make some progress towards resolving the issues and I think that is what larger number for quite frankly that’s where our institutions and leads for failing us because they’re not providing simple ways by which every day people can engage in palava so with that sort of whip up speech what we want to do is to listen carefully to the issues embedded in the demining of communities and its implications for education we’ve assembled some very very smart people here in the spirit of bulava hot all of this happens because everybody brings something somebody brought ideas some people brought food whatever certainly felissa and the staff who did the organizing of this we thank them but the whole spirit is that if we can quietly sort of bring it together no burden falls on any one individual and as we

like to say it Phelps tokes everybody knows something and nobody knows everything and everybody knows somebody and nobody knows everybody so if we can find some way in the space of the next hour or so to create an ambience a sentiment of sharing we’ll all be much richer for it as human beings but more importantly in terms of the issues that we are going to be discussing so as we get into the question answer period discussion if you have ideas about things that are going to be pursued related to the topic and toss them out nobody’s going to know them there unless you toss them out and then we’ll harvest them and we’ll see which ones we can we can work with so on that note I let me turn this over to our mistress of ceremonies our boss I’m glad to see some friends I’ve got senior fellows here that are in Legion exo-k’s is well represented and I’m eager to meet our friends from Halo and other organizations I will now turn this over to Edwina lift that you guys okay I only thank everyone and welcome everyone for coming today I’m Edwina and the program coordinator with halo halo is a humanitarian demining organization we’re the largest at the first of its kind and my purpose for bringing us together today is a to discuss dividing but also for my experiences on the field we’ve noticed that a disproportionate amount of the accident victims happen to be children they’re the ones who are more interesting than adults than they’re the ones that are going to see something shiny and pick it up and as such an accident may occur we have enter lines from halo miss Bethany winter and also Chi Minh Sonia with us today and they’re going to speak to the expertise and we will discuss demining for everyone here with Bethany will carry out on the education platform and mr. so he was here to represent the young and truly transatlantic african-american citizens of today and how we can use the skills and assets that leave Adam Atlantic to affect change and lasting change on the other side we begin with Amber lions and underlines the vice president of arrow trust it was spaceman field on halo operations for four years before transferring to the u.s. in Afghanistan he was senior operations officer in charge of 2,800 dividing able dividing and weapons disposal staff from 2005 to 2007 and in Angola he was programmed finance officer from 2003-2005 although formerly basically us expect much of 2008-2009 starting up hitting program in Colombia as well as helping to relaunch when Clarence in Kosovo prior to joining pillow he was a financial analyst in Chicago and a Peace Corps volunteer in Lithuania and Bosnia and ripples of being in economics from the University of Chicago and is currently pursuing a master’s in finance from University and reflection on white lines Afghanistan security and favorite color is blue miss Bethany Dickerson winter one winder 13 re miss wonder is the director of the ralph gard society that fellow stokes a nonprofit organization located in washington DC winders responsibilities include developing and supporting welfare societies at colleges and universities throughout the United States and abroad the ralph bunche societies are our extracurricular undergraduate student led association dedicated to developing globally aware seasons from all fields of study the societies encourage students to embrace the life force legacy and values of dr bunch by emphasizing scholarly excellence language proficiency cultural awareness community service and activism as well as professional and leadership development prior to joining Bob Stokes binder winder builds and maintain relationships with representatives of private foundations while working as a grant writer in the development fund raising division of the New York Public Library 13 wnet New York and the District of Columbia Public Schools in addition winders friends for years as a public advisor with the United States

Senate Democratic policy committee while at GPC she worked on a range of domestic policy station winder earned her master’s of Public Policy degree from Georgetown University and a Bachelor of Arts degree in government from the University of Virginia she also has participated in numerous professional and leadership development workshops and conferences that have focused on enhancing fundraising skills winer is studied abroad in Japan in Great Britain she and her family have hosted exchange students from japan paraguay and liberia in addition to living in in japan and braker and whiners travel to canada colombia costa rica france ireland jamaica spain st. Thomas Petula the virtual and Virgin Gorda when is taking courses in Spanish a language in which she hopes to become fluent she’s an active member of the Ron Brown Scholar Program steering committee inroads alumni association in Delta Sigma Theta Sorority winder also serves as a volunteer for the breakthrough Cambridge an education on profit organization massachusetts and last but not least we 19 is Sonja she is oniel Chicago Illinois is a program assistant for Uganda Zimbabwe in South Africa portfolio in the Africa division of the International Republican Institute a court Institute of the National Endowment for democracy iri is a government-funded nonpartisan organization working to support and strengthen democratic institutions worldwide with IRA chores facilitated the advocacy transparency and Human Rights panel at Obama’s at President Obama’s forum with young African leaders and is currently an election observers of the southern Sudanese independence referendum in the diaspora in the past mr. M Sonia has worked an interval with the United States Agency for the national development development alternatives permanent mission of Nigeria to the United Nations and House Subcommittee on Africa on local and global health estonia received a bachelor’s degree in political science and philosophy from the University of Illinois at urbana-champaign there who was elected as a student member on the University of Illinois Board of Trustees and granted as a transfer scholar the governor of Illinois gave Estonia the executive appointments have an official legal dope to have an official legal vote on the board having a strong academic debate background is sunny losing an all-american debater 7 by the cross-examination debate association and presently serves on the youth professional leadership board of the National Association for orbit urban debate week so without further ado I give you and Reliance thank you very much in me welcome in early 2000 to just under nine years ago in angola joseph Savimbi the head of units it was shot and killed by a PLA soldiers shortly thereafter his key lieutenants materialized and surrendered and less than three months later the war was brought to a formal clothes the civil war had lasted 27 years so an entire generation I know nothing but the war but now it was over sort of because in the following year what happened was that 287 deaths were recorded or casualties recorded from these things from land mines is after the war those were the official statistics unofficial to statistics or estimates go you know double or triple that these are the culprits more these than these in Angola these are anti-tank mines and but the plain old car will set them off and you’ll always at multiple casualties certainly a truck will set these off these are anti-personnel mines which will take out one person or one person’s like what we know from the official statistics for that sixty-eight percent of those casualties in in 2002 were civilian and twenty-six percent were children so in one sense the war ended for the soldiers only and it kept going on for the civilians so what happened at the end of the war well peace broke out

everywhere people were very happy that was the the national mood was very very high commerce restarted people started to return to their homes that they hadn’t been for years about their families back commercial activity restarted people start driving on roads that hadn’t been used for decades because of the front lines and divided them and then all these accidents started happening there particularly on the roads with trucks trying to move products from one place to another it became a crisis crisis proportions international aid had swarmed on the country after the war and by by late two thousand two by the rainy season september-october November aid agencies had brought to a halt aight activities in parts of angola that were in the most need of aid and they basically said we can’t go any further when you know seeing accidents happen all the time a major international aid agency lost six staff in an accident that was sort of the trigger event now that’s when they kind of hold halo trust into a meeting and surrounded our senior management team and said you have to solve this problem and you have to sell it fast because we’re not going to deliberate it don’t do it so what we did that at the beginning of this this period of peace was to try to come up with some way to solve the problem of these by the way these are plastic lee these aren’t the exact my tactics found in angola but but close enough they’re made out of plastic very very hard to find with a metal detector which is the normal way we find things and we’re talking about tens of thousands of miles with a low density it’s plastic aunty my anti-tank mine threat how do you find them and how do you how do you prioritize where do you start how do you deal with safer to incur if you could throw up the first slide here’s a sort of solution that we came up with which is not perfect we don’t call it full clearance suit it’s not a way to assure one hundred percent that the mines are gone but it’s systematic search at a reasonable speed and we was basically improvised that year in 2002 and you can see this vehicle on the top on the front of it it’s got a large metal detector which you can see better in the shadow that it casts on the ground and the vehicle itself is a heavy vehicle but it’s got those very thick tires which spread its ground pressure down so that any given square inch there’s not enough ground pressure to initiate in it to take nine in theory in case the theory doesn’t hold well true there’s also armoring underneath in a v-shape to deflect suffice Logan would be the vehicle now that’s to get metal anti-tank mines but a lot of these were plastic so there’s a rear view and if everyone can see it but the rear view it’s dragging heavy trailers with weights stepped on top of them basically for anything that was missed any plastic lies to sort of just drag over and you can initiate them into these wheels are called sacrificial they have a sheer affiliate blow one wheel off it doesn’t destroy the vehicle you can replace it this solution or it’s a way to address the problem not really salted but as you can see the results over the next few years covered a lot of ground a year later the next rainy season we’d only complete only started that was my first rainy season by my my counter sort of keeping horrified counts what was going on there was about one a week inter major accident on anti-tank mines somewhere in the country and they all have multiple casualties was a crisis it’s like the warrant so the broader picture of mines that that’s how mines continue to fight the war after the war is over mines impact on every single aspect of reconstruction and development in the country people first of all returning to their homes where they haven’t been now they’ve reminds threat they don’t know where the mines are because they they’ve been displaced by the war so simply going back to their homes but a little rebuilding our motors poses a threat agriculture subsistence agriculture is what most people in Angola depend in hole in part for their subsistence and that is an activity it’s horribly from danger in an area in the country that’s mine isn’t go latest education schools come back to schools in a bit but going to get water becomes a very dangerous exercise so mines are pervasive everywhere or they in turn to their they’re impacting they are permissible country but their impact is pervasive like all these aspects but reconstruct

development now I’m not an education expert I will defer to Bethany and she dates talk about education teams later but i will say two things about my education one is specific to angola and that is it’s a country of 12 million people to spread out over a huge in theory spread over huge country twice the size of Texas and but currently a third of those 12 million people live in the water and that’s just because the war became the safest place so many internally displaced persons went to move to the capital city which was never to stay more than and so the sort of by rose and slums that built up in and around with Rwanda simply don’t have the infrastructure very many children don’t go to school and the schools that do exist are over overcrowded under-resourced the second point on vines and education is more general that we find in most post-war that we work in schools make really good military posts and so they very often our use of military posts the reason they make the military posts is because they have a big building with one or two large rooms in it that can house many soldiers and the edge of a flat area from the playground which can be used apartment military vehicles so during the word many countries you will find schools get taken over by soldiers and then landlines are laid around the school to protect the post war is over usually the soldiers don’t come back and dig up their minds so make that makes schools particularly hazardous area the news isn’t all bad in Angola fast forward to 2009 there were 28 casualties 287 officially reported once in 2002 28 casualties of 2009 tremendous progress surface with there’s good news and bad news to that the good news is that people are getting a lot more savvy about avoiding the minefields they know where they are still a lot of mines in Angola making progress in removing them halo and other agencies making progress in removing them but a lot of and casualties those two people learning the hard way about where the money’s our history the bad news is a lot of money to still remain in Angola and they’re having a socio-economic in fact they’re dragging recovery every aspect to recover still people can farm their land and safety people can’t drive bring the product to market on the road safety people can’t rebuild infrastructure but they are making great progress rose and water but but the mines are always there dragon progress down that’s the story in Angola on its way if you go across the continent to the east to Mozambique they are ten years ahead and they got a ten year head start and they are definitely ten years ahead in their progress the blue area they’re the four northern provinces are completely mine in factory and they have been since 2007 1994 to 2007 13 years and 30 million dollars that’s that’s the cost to make a problem sin head over hundred thousand one hundred thousand minds but the upshot is every single community has been visited every single community has pointed out whatever many dangers dangerous areas that dr. work and they dealt with and they’re all feel completely safe and getting out of their lives and they arguing on their lives although it’s still a very poor region in general if you there lots of economic activities happening in particular tourism is returning and it’s on its way southern north end because also on its way economically good unfortunate still has a big problem we closed our operation in 2007 in the north we moved it down to the south and we’re working there a couple other agencies working there to shockingly within an hour’s drive to the capital you can still in those a week these are more macabre it show the next slide kernel of anti-personnel mines which threaten individuals so up the phone on the left is electricity pylon as a whole strength pylons that go across a big swamp country to deliver electricity and they were all mine by the government to protect them during the war protector from sabotage now for those communities

that built up around these these pylons and minds off needs to be removed and their process occurred around these areas and certainly there blockages over the right is much more inland is called province where there are still very very densely laid my belts ahora pasa dam which are acting 11 communities and really bisecting the communities and including pass to water etc so is the poorest of the poor awesome order with some babwe curfew show the next slide is in Bob way is a place we started starting to look at recently and it’s got one of the turns out one of the largest my fields remaining in the world and the impact that was a bob lee side is the greater the impact of the Mo’s a big cycle colleague Kurt productive just can’t talk about this enough to my colleague hurt there who actually want the entire order doing the survey so correct me if I season so butts in Bob way is a huge impact and this is where this is people’s homes and outhouses let a little agriculture our budding the minefields and impacting every game they ask them to their lives next slide somaliland somaliland is back to these chain points it’s a big desert would be politically incorrect as a country but state ‘let region whatever whatever you want to call it Sebastian of stability in the Horn of Africa but it’s that it has had a very large anti-tank mine problem and the sandy trax throughout the somaliland sort of shift over time and nobody really knows where some of these roads original roads were therefore nobody really knows where the original minefields were however made great making great progress and we think in about certainly five years we hope fingers crossed we’re going to be done and it’s like this perfectly the upshot is one happy story very near to heart geisa where an area that we clear UNICEF then came in school and this is exactly the type of partnerships we clear or something and that somebody else comes in and adds value other African countries have money problems too for that I just sort of highlighted or probably the four biggest Eritrea still hasn’t seemed if you get millions problem Sudan has a mouse problem yet to be quantified probably much smaller than these other countries Sudan certainly has other other issues going on right now but if a Mormon information name bridge over time there are many countries in Africa that are touched by my mind yields and landlines but to a very very actually Senegal custom months would be an example in place that we don’t have any organizational experience with its future in general in all cases mines are just sort of stubborn dependents everything else that want to do to rebuild a country after after war including education in no case with clearing the mines none of these development problems and other development problems will be solved without carrying by clearing the minefields on the other hand none of it about the problems we fully solved without their my fields that’s where and sort of an overview brief addendum again a Dickerson wine during the former director of Ralph Bunche societies of Pulp Stokes and I’m currently working at City Year headquarters in Boston which is an education and service on your mouth proper organization a lot of the work that I was doing at Phelps stove is really an extension in terms of the work that I’m doing now and I just wanted to thank you Phelps tokes and the hail of trust for inviting me to present on the impact of dividing on children’s education in Africa I’m honored to be here with all of you and to engage in an important discussion on human rights a

very important human rights topic and I’m especially pleased to be here today because of my personal mission to engage in work that creates greater education leadership and service learning opportunities for people in African Diaspora so that is the spirit in which I come to me first I’d like to address the distortions caused by de-mining to the education of children according to the mine action Information Center due to numerous internal conflicts and really earlier the crises and wars that several the nations in Africa face the region is one of the places the world that has been significantly impacted by landmines and more specifically landline have disrupted the education of youth and young adults as we all know and as with any societal disruption the need to rebuild committee is great so I am not here today to drill down education statistics however I would like to share some ideas about ways to empower emerging and seasoned leaders in Africa to enhance life through the formation of learning community building on the spirit of dr. Foster mentioned the spirit of sharing now this juncture a definition of learning communities may be helpful Peter and semi author of the fifth discipline our practice of learning organization defines a learning community or learning organization as a community that is continually expanding its capacity and its ability to create its future for such a community is not enough to merely survive sandy is clear that he is not talking about learning mere early in terms of survival in the context of bed and learning communities were concerned with creating a culture of generative learning a culture generative learning is one where we’re focused on enhancing our capacity to create and I think it’s probably relevant to turn to learning communities as an important way to foster community building said he would probably recommend that emerging leaders pursue disciplines and by that I mean developmental paths for acquiring certain skills or competencies that enhance their capacity to realize their highest aspirations he focuses on key five key components systems thinking personal mastery mental malas building shared vision and team sisters thank them is essentially this holistic integrated approach to understanding the world around you one can only understand the system of a rain storm by contemplating the whole not any individual part of the pattern personal mastery is this whole idea of the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision of focusing our energies of developing patients and of seeing reality objectively a learning communities spiritual foundation third mental models deeply ingrained assumptions generalizations where pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action along those lines working with mental models includes the ability to engage in conversations that balance inquiry and advocacy where people expose their own thinking effectively and make that thinking open to the influence of others building a shared vision this is the act of binding people together around a common identity and sense of identity when there is a genuine vision people that sell and learn not because they’re told to do so but because they generally want to and fifth team learning and this is this whole idea of the discipline of team earning starting with dialogue dr Foster alluded to that earlier today the capacity of members of a team suspend assumptions and enter into a genuine thinking together while I mentioned this was thinking first it really is the fifth discipline because it is the discipline that integrates with disciplines fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice he makes understandable thoughtless aspect of learning organization or community the new way individuals perceive themselves and their world and at the heart of the learning organization or learning community is a shift of mind from seeing ourselves a sucker from the world to connect it to the world from seeing problems is caused by someone or something out there to seeing how our own actions create the problems that we experience and a learning organization or community is a place where people are continually

discovering how they create their reality and how they can change it the learning community approach can be used to foster community and ongoing learning in multiple contexts it is also helpful because it creates the capacity to develop a leadership pipeline in communities learning is an important component of leading and I think that many of us often forget that and the learning community frame helps to promote group learning and individual mastery in the context of enhance the community building at this point is important to turn to this idea of learning as a way of learning sorry learning as a way of leading and according to Stephen press Ville and Stephen D Brookfield for the authors of learning as a way of leading lessons from the struggle for social justice many actual community and organizational leaders share committed to leading through learning their success in learning leaders is dependent on a number of dispositions capacities and public practices and the nine learning tasks of leadership include learning how to be open to the contributions of others learning how to reflect critically on one’s practice a social learning process in which perceptions and interpretations of others are crucial only if one is open to the contributions of others can one gather their perspectives needed to practice critical reflection third learning how to support the growth of others in terms of what we wish whom we serve the enhanced capacity for them to learn is paramount fourth learning how to develop collective leadership collective leadership flows from a culture in which engagement in and sharing of learning is an expectation and a priority once we see that the collective is the source of so much of our learning our strength and our identity it is but a stepped realizing that leadership also resides in the collective when our perception of learning as an individual phenomenon changes to what I’m learning as a group process than the idea that leadership is like learning something that moves around the community and is dependent on the involvement of others becomes commonplace fifth learning how to analyze experience and I think that one of the most difficult dimensions of this task and the authors who argue is that when it’s practice leads us to challenge old assumptions and then to reconfigure accepted practices six learning how to question oneself and others what is learned one day is use the nets as a bridge to considering a new set of understandings and challenges seventh learning democracy iron diversity louth with the partial functioning of the democratic ideal and develop collective forms of social and economic planning and the last two learning to sustain hope in the face of struggle and learning to create community emerging leaders can seek to build community and teach the value of community-based making and leadership building communities in which the members of those communities are authentically empowered to make important decisions for themselves and their neighbors remains a cheap objective of the work of leaders who learn and now I’d like to focus a bit on the ethics and moral leadership which I believe are often overlooked when it comes to farming learning communities and I think this ethical component of fostering the environment for building communities such as what we’re doing right now with groups that we work with and ongoing learning is often again missing or overlooked professor Cornell making is helpful in thinking through the ethical component and the six elements of the conceptual framework of moral leadership include belief in the essential mobility of human nature service-oriented leadership the purpose of leadership personal and social transformation the more responsibility of investigating and applying truth transcendence and finally the development of capabilities or concept skills attitudes and qualities and I’d like to introduce a model for consideration and toss it out on the table and this is the folk Stokes Ralph Bunche societies and this is specifically one example of combining aspects of learning community leading while learning and moral leadership and as you heard earlier the Ralph Bunche societies are an example of a learning community on college campuses folk Stokes has engaged not only in building societies for these student-led organizations but more importantly the societies are learning communities many students faculty community activists have come together in different spaces and identify issues of concern activities of importance to them in their network and in their context and

collaborated on a variety of different projects to essentially impact on the world and all their college campuses they’ve engaged in dialogue of different policy issues participated in hands-on projects and participated in conferences and as engaged in this work they form learning communities these activities can take place beyond the college campus such as in civic spaces where do mining is taking place for example churches men’s and women’s clubs and maybe organizations that serve children second I’d like to highlight Phelps Stokes’s experience with Ralph Bunche societies and how they inform us about how we should use our resources with regard to the education of youth and young adults you know a portion of resources should be invest in the development of leadership societies or programs that would do five things identify nurture and develop emerging leaders to advance social justice through excellence in education leadership development and service learning three increase global awareness and orientation or facilitate global networking opportunities to strengthen networks of leaders and five transparent communities through partnerships and based on what I’ve just shared with all of you there are some program assumptions that I think would be helpful to point out and that would be that leadership development is critical for the Advancement of minority working class emerging leaders throughout the African Diaspora emerging leaders we move skills and competencies to effectively respond to new global realities and challenges capacity building and expansion of new generations and networks of leaders are critical factors for community transformation and that’s essentially we’re talking about here is community transformation and how can we rebuild community after experiencing and managing this whole issue around denying moral and ethical leadership training models are needed to sufficiently equip emerging leaders in the Americas and Africa for transformational community change in different contexts and institutional partnerships are critical to long-term sustainability of leadership societies or programs and Ralph Bunche societies often use their resources to implement global leadership activities which might have included personal and moral and ethical leadership development workshops webinars blogs intergroup leadership seminars community building and Reconciliation workshops global education and leadership conferences and service learning and third and finally I would like to submit to all of you as other considerations question you know how how would what should be done to strengthen whatever educational capacities are present by our emerging leaders and community and I do get paid to say this but I’m going to share an idea from dr. foster and I can recall dr. foster suggesting that Tanzania represents an impressive collective effort by leaders from all sectors to dramatically increase their capacity for social and economic growth by fashioning a broad and comprehensive strategy for massive investments in the universal education of its use it’s a recent five-year goal to build three thousand new schools with accomplish within three years by the engagement of community and civil society sectors the project rejected shortage of some 100,000 secondary school tea sures has led to the design of an awe-inspiring teacher training strategy that leverages information communication technologies via elearning the adoption of a national education strategy by all government ministries signals the broad support of leaders in all segments and sectors of society this in turn has provided a platform for linking donor assistance to domestic goals established by Tanzanians in an open transparent and accountable manner another idea engage in co-production again the source of languages from dr. foster and Edgar Khan pioneering work with the concept of co-production and its application via time banks provides a clear strategy for linking the monetary and for economies in the service of social and economic progress that honors all participants and the elements of co-production include treating the individuals an asset rather than a burden in the development process using peer support networks along with professionals as the best means of transferring knowledge and capabilities cloud the distinctions between producers and consumers of service so that people get to act in both roles and by that I mean as providers as well as recipients and

presenting those involved with the range of the gorge which helped embed the key elements of reciprocity mutuality there’s a decline of social capital in countries that have experienced Civil War or ethnic tribal conflict constitutes a barrier to social progress peace and stability what is the source of social capital social capital is rooted in a social economy whose centers are the household the neighborhood the community and civil society the core economy is rebuilt and revitalized the practice of co-production co-production is an antidote to the commodification of life by all sectors of the monetary economy it dramatically supplements the public law or deliveries still seeing the community building from 9am to 5pm on weekdays and the development of core economies by a co-production throughout and will avoid the tendency to restrict development assistance to pay professionals or two volunteers functioning as free labor with the silos of non-government organizations and this choice strategy this choice a strategy dr. Foster would say it’s more likely to honor rather than humiliate all those who seek to build a future where relationships mutuality trust and engagement are built upon speaking listening caring and authentic respect by contrast of the distribution and access to public benefits generated by Development Assistance are grounded upon negatives and deficiencies for example what run laps with disability when they have what misfortune has befallen and the more likely that the development assistance will contribute to the eventual humiliation of its stakeholders and in the first instance the choices to be to be made in Africa by Africans and for Africans those who care deeply will look to Africa’s leaders to point the way an in conclusion while landlines continue to have a devastating effect on people decades after they were planted healthy alternatives do exist to minimize the negative impact of landlines and promote educational opportunities fostering learning communities with facilitate forging effective and sustainable thank you thank you very much thank you again with Julia Sonia I arrived at halo society also my colleague Lorne Langford company be here from IRA and also like to thank dr. foster because I can tell you every happiness and Chicago missed I don’t you think everybody here I appreciate that I i think that they what you said is very important in terms of this being the space for questions values and how we come to know certain issues and I I bring my perspective on landmines and education not as part of our organization but really as a member of the best board thinking through how I can tackle some of these issues so this this is really interesting for me opportunity to have this thought experiment for one of these challenging issues that currently confront us last night I went home and I talked to my roommate who’s also like me young guy we went to college together I said I was going to be up on a panel landmines and he said to land mines what are those I was like what borrow one dearie because I didn’t have the demonstration the piece but I said there you know things anti-personnel mines that blow up that blow up kill people and he said those things really just still exist and this isn’t this is a smart guy right now if you guys know he’s not here so not disparaging anybody but smart guy but this is really I think that this is the mindset right now or youth and young people when we’re thinking about these issues we don’t even know that land mines exist and I my conception of why we don’t know is we think that the challenges that currently confront think that are that are very important right now are connected to the idea of extinction or apocalypse this is my and I’ll explain when we we think that the important challenges of our day are things like nuclear war nuclear threats we think about the enough project and genocide and you can see right now it was being debated in Congress to start treaty that was a big thing mutually assured destruction between Russia and etc you think about AIDS PEPFAR and the kind of like the idea the

representations of pandemics I think this is where we think about apartheid and this is where we this is where we captured that these are the things I kind of capture our public imagination especially for young individuals landmines we don’t think about because we don’t really connect it to that you lose tension we we understand that may be it may hurt rebuilding and reconstruction efforts but we don’t think about it in the context of some of these other larger challenges and but i think that land mines is something that we should focus on and we should care about and the first region why is systemic bets and i think that this was gone in gone into earlier today steve madden and any corner right in there 2006 article land mines injuries in overview that every 20 minutes land mines claims another victim eighty and ninety percent of them are non-combatants aalto 26,000 to 28,000 people are killed or maimed and as that has not really declined in years so every 20 minutes in this 2006 are going every a person is dying izle there’s a landline victim and also according to the international committee of the red cross every 25 minutes someone around the world steps on a landmine this statistics are really bad but the problem as talked about earlier is unique for Africans and the dial Cora and African should be uniquely concerned Africa remains one of the most heavily mined continents and there continues to be devastation and a daily reality of violence in many sub-saharan African countries by one source 22 sub-saharan African countries still lack resources to combat this and which is a product of result of wars that are still going on and product called proxy wars like the two Core Worlds before and but if you compare this to other continents 15 countries in Asia 11 in Europe line in Latin America we can see Africa is one of the most heavily mined continents so when we’re thinking about the terms of the debate and why we should care about it it’s important but I think that another reason is neglected Lisa V some of these other issues like nuclear war genocide etc is because of how we view the problem in the first place and how especially people in diaspora when we think about landmines we think about it in the context of national security discourse when you when people think about why the United States Russia South Korea etc haven’t signed on to international treaties and accords the rationale that’s given has to do a national security well we need it for anti personal defense we need it for to protect our detect our troops we needed for it’s an important strategic tool mattress and when when I come when mad mine is the issue is being connected and discussed in within this national security of lens it’s never going to win in terms of activating the public imaginary for citizens and dysport because they’re competing again with nuclear war we’re competing with other new conventional weapons like drones attacks and competing with regional hotbeds the Korean Peninsula Afghanistan Iraq so 1 to N and even the way we think about aids etc as this ongoing pandemic and the synchronized rhetoric of biological and nuclear weapons we’re never going to think about it we’re always land mines is always going to lose a national security debate so eat with this being the case I still think it’s important to separate vacuum fiction and the facts are land mines proper not wild knowledge of land mines will actually show that it outweighs so many security threats Oh Tom Joseph upon who is a professor in North Texas and Ezekiel cow penny which is actually associate professor of my alma mater university of illinois right in there 96 article called the geography of land mines in the implications for health and disease in africa that most of these victims are civilians killed or injured after hostilities a vineyard of the 65 countries reported new landline counties from january 2002 through 2000 2003 40 warnock were at peace net at war and eighty-five percent of reported casualties were civilians between 1941 between 1941 and 1996 land mines caused more deaths and injuries nuclear biological and chemical weapons combine two things are important to note there one in the context of nuclear war biological threats that continued perpetuation zor word that was mentioned

before perpetuate violence against the communities but also landlines is not just landmine continued landline use and the destruction is also a perpetuation of the war and that’s something I’m actually going to come back to later so reinventing the debate outside of nuclear war nuclear discourse in security rationale I think one of the key ways and we can reorient this in a pro diaspora and african community and young individuals should talk about what we are advocating for these issues is not just a strict security rationale but instead in other things like public health landmines are a major public health concern both directly and indirectly 140 million africans hour on the threat of injury due to land mines which is higher very high as mentioned before the effects of water agriculture development help and health campaigns and socio-economic emotional state for many inhabitants it affects the entire well-being of African societies it also affects other critical resources such as safe drinking water arable land and severely obstructs healthcare delivery the same professor that talked before from the University of Illinois also goes on how it impacts health care systems landline injury victims require nearly three times as many units of blood four times as many surgical procedures and longer hospital stays than patrons with other than other war related entries the increased frequency of blood transfusion so facilitates other types of diseases like syphilis hepatitis malaria and HIV there’s also the ecological dimension of land my debate it affects soil flora fauna and different levels of the ecological system whether my land mines have been detonated or not just because they’re laying there and continuing to impact the land it also affects other broad categories of the ecological environment like access to now loss of biodiversity chemical contamination loss of productivity etc then another way to frame it outside of ecological and public health concerns is going to the topic at hand which is education in the way that young people in Africa view themselves and the body the impact of land mines is not just death but is social authorization and dehumanization because of course disabilities and the way children and young people consider themselves on their way to class and the way they treated in class and I think that this is important going back to what was talking about about learning communities and the way learning communities engage one each other and for those communities in which they can share information the social perception of the disabled persons is more pernicious in Africa especially especially because people who have disabilities are forced with sexual violence disease physical abuse and we have little recourse available to them than other types of society also we have the issue of how people perceive of themselves and their communities when they are constantly existing in a state of fear forced to the side between starvation or risking that caused by the denial of resources creating perpetual conflicts and struggles and when we have children trying to learn trying to educate themselves this is not the most conducive environment for learning all of these things have it on education and always to frame the debate from that spora and as a young individual when we are approaching policymakers one we’re approaching the abyss community and when we’re making our case now I believe young people are the key to success and I’m talking about everybody in the room who consider themselves a man and I skoura and wants to make change here and I think we should consider the testimony of a 13 year old boy from cosa vuoi whose story is told in Richard Norton Taylor’s article cluster bombs the hidden 12 here norton rights i went with my I mean the child rights were counted narrative saying I went with my cousins to see the place where NATO was bombed as we walked I saw something yellow someone told us it was a cluster bomb one of us took it and put it into a well nothing happened we began talking about taking the bomb and playing with it and then I just put it somewhere and exploded the boy near me died and I was thrown a meter into the air the boy who died was 14 his head was cut off not the 13 year old who

recounts the story both his hands and his legs were amputated and when when we think about some of these specs the common response is that well it’s war and these are the casualties of war and that in a war people die and things are broken but in this case of landmines where it’s affects children more specifically it is a 14 year old who dies and at 13 year old who gets broken so young people when we think about African the African continent and young people especially on the client twenty percent of the population is between 15 and 24 years old sixty-five percent of the population is under the age of 30 and this is continuing to grow as much and we think about not only those resources but the emerging Apple paula tins in the Diaspora and how we can get engaged in dissipate and the key thing for me is reframing the terms and I talked about some of the ways above that we can do this we have to go look beyond the death folks thinking about landmine cavities in purely statistical terms in terms of body counts is always misleading and people in dice for when we’re advocating for change will never win ever baby the mere threat of landmines makes daily life and exercise and paralyzing fear it renders land roads and public buildings useless and that’s something that some of these other things cannot compete with so how should we frame our message the first one is one of empowerment and I think this is a really easy suggestion and that is if roads and fields can be used Africa compete itself and this is something that a lot of these other campaigns in the international discourse can’t claim when you have millions when you have millions of acres that can’t be supplied or used to supply markets because of the fighting and you have new roles that can be that it can be utilized then we can get Africa tipping this up and I think Angola is a great example when before the war and prior to independence and goal was actually the fourth largest coffee exporter one of the largest staple food exporters in sub-saharan Africa but during the war fields became empty they were neglected to destroyed and now Angola imports approximately half of a tooth through to blood stopping landline use will help provide this industry and with this huge farms is fishing potential and create jobs for a bunch middle-class also as the intention to structural violence the tragic consequences of structural violence and poverty that’s caused by landline use because we can’t rebuild infrastructure as hidden beneath the layers of culture and media’s fascination with similar events of violence when I was talking earlier like the spectacle nuclear war or destruction based on other types of warfare every year more than 15 million across the world died from malnutrition preventable disease and violence is a direct result of psychological and behavioral effects of poverty Chris Coulomb who is an associate professor philosophy and a member of the Women’s Studies program at universities at Cincinnati I goes into this a little bit more they write the deadliest form of violence is poverty an approach to a period of violence needs to take a look at the structural violence the lethal effects of structural violence operates continuously whereas wars and other forms of behavioral violence in person at one time 14 to 18 million deaths a year are caused by structural violence compared with about 100,000 deaths per year from armed conflicts we cannot continue to get it compare structural violence which continues year after year our current approaches to violence and the way we think about challenging these issues is always treating war as an event or violence as an outbreak of with special boundaries and peace as the absence of formal declaration of conflict and this framework actively de-emphasizes the constant warfare against the periphery in the society and I actually think that the conversation earlier is an example of that because what was said was there were still disruptions even those peace but when we think about structural violence is thinking about it outside of

just pure here’s peace and a declaration of war of the violence of the war continuing land land lines are modern manifestation of warfare the poverty they create and the massive number of civilian casualties they cause to go ignored because the violence day in flip occurs during what policymakers call peace time but right now we’re not seeing large-scale conventional war we’re seeing other things like dirty wars we’re seeing low intensity wars and here we actually see the most civilian violence ninety-five percent of civilian casualties by some estimates so going into positive peace I believe for our young individuals as we frame our approaches need to concentrate on a message of positive peace to avert annihilation peace shouldn’t be conceived as violence the absent of violence in all its forms physical social psychological structural pieces the mirror absence of war and the controlling of violence has a negative idea of peace that does not deal with the causes of violence but only is manifestations positive peace and contrast involves a search for positive conditions which can resolve underlying causes of conflict that produce violence also the stories we tell and the new social media allows