Summer School 2012 – From sketch to airplane – complexity of design process

so my name is greater I’m researching registered company producer of flight aircraft and I will be talking about the design process in our company namely the design process from the idea that you’re making a complete aeroplane and I will talk about the complexity of such a process because it involves a group of engineers and other people required to really execute the successful design stuff whether you are designing whether an engineer whether you’re a marketing person you should be able to make a glimpse of what such a process entails and this figure out how what your role in such a process might be I mean there are lessons learned movie from our spacing I nevertheless I think most of these can be applied to similar industries such as automotive or reacting whichever industry is related to evidence in detecting women this is the law of our company where I work as I said and research there are in the Department of about eleven engineers plus five people working in wherever electric department otherwise we’d like to set the University of Nova Corps each time in physical education so I page theoretical physics but now currently i am doing other than any design posted what is what are our main products history is right now manufacture of light-sport aircraft or right depending on the region or country you are living in different regulations but these are called in the u.s. these are light sport aircraft in Europe with a router light aircraft what I’m showing here is the virus SW which is almost so product we sell about 70 to 80 of these per year and it is a high-performance ultralight cruising ever played the success of people serozha company started in the 90s when the ultralight category was mostly composed of airplanes made for on top and trusses and hipster came with glider technology namely composite materials mostly carbon fiber glass fiber or camera in order to produce aircraft in the same second meaning very low weight but really the performance jump remain sleep mainly because of the clean designs that are allowed by converse materials we started with a slightly different note about this was actually this is the evolution of the first model it was built in the pistol using composite technology and this is P by far the most sold aircraft from our range what is interesting is that we further develop this effort into a glider name we taking the wings and control surfaces from the sea no senator but making it to the side by side by the fuselage so towers is an evolution the seamless design but where the engine itself as you can see can be extracted or stole the way in flight even so if you can use the engine from climbing and then you can go sorry amor gliding whenever you desire or if you lose altitude again extend the engine climb and continue sorry i am showing here is in this corner top right is the first electric to seek an aircraft in the world even so we build the first electric aircraft to see the incident all the time top right and this is also on the market was the first two seater electric aircraft on the market right now you can get couple of others but this was the pioneering result in 2007 however both of these designs were conflicted before my time mr. I joined in 2007 what I will be talking about most and always two aircraft namely the first one is a tortoise g4 does anybody know this ain’t enough as anybody stealing a razor and it’s okay one person this is a very particular design as you can see the future design essentially obtained by taking two of the aircraft is you’ve seen before in the previous slide and making them with an extra wing a special design being in the middle and putting the engine in the middle and this design was really a single point design in the sense that it was designed for a very single particular purpose namely competing in the so-called green flight challenge sponsored by google 2011 its official name but this was a competition sponsored by nasa too good for this was a competition between the world’s most efficient aircraft and i will be talking about this project mostly about this project because this is the first project that our engineering team which is stuck it to be built in 2007 engineering and design team actually followed her own idea to complete

execution this is a closed project right now soupy soupy I would note most Angeles another era between designs during the same time is the Pantera again of course you can every round five you see aircraft but a complete different plane namely this is much more complex project simply because this has to appeal to customers if the previous era music Indonesian aircraft this aircraft has to appeal to customers this increases the complexity of design quite a bit namely our this took about five to six times more fun to develop into tributes to Sonny and we will return to it so this is a this is the first exit of our company from the ultralight or light sport aircraft market into the fully 75 private pilot territory name is a generation aircraft four-seat aircraft designed for fire and anemic efficiency and also designed to appeal I will focus in the end I’ll focus also miss design but this continued will fly it is just that prototype built but right now it is in the structural testing phase we expect the first slice begin later this year the design is finished the era casinos but receive instruction ok this is a design can share all the designers this is such a cliche that I will look even go into it but it’s attributed to Louis Sullivan a modernist architect who says that foreign fruits follow function and lots I swear sir so whenever you design a product or building or whatever the for loop truth follow whatever the purpose of the object is and this is according to wikipedia if you can trust random strangers editing things then assistant what was interesting is that in the same on the same page you can find the following sentence name is another disbelieved perhaps incorrectly that airplane design not involve any aesthetic decisions by the airplane designers so every design at that time in northern this time was considered this the most beautiful in design because aircraft designers to perform its function and it’s for follows from the function so Hector designs interesting from that point of view however what these aircraft is and what are we talking about here is it the styling of the aircraft is it the engineering of the aircraft this is something I want to give you a glimpse in so what does it mean to design an aircraft however this would be no Stan engineers engineer a true scientist engineer so we coming mostly from this perspective however we do our work with designers and I have a pretty good grasp on other aspects of such a desire so hopefully it will be a complete feature so this is a picture of one very famous aircraft designer unfortunately keyword most in the military fields of his designs were I’d say not so good from the ethical point of view but they were a very successful structure a dynamically so they were quite a few very important platform seen during these times this is clarence kelly johnson the leader of skunk works and lock his company so some of you might recognize the designs top left is the YouTube aircraft was shot down or the Soviet Union top varieties distill the fastest jet aircraft in the world in SF 71 spy plane and then you have the Starfighter and low key lighting from the Second World War and these are the designs that he surprised however he was not a designer birthday and usually the function with his island existed at the time when he was entering his studies namely he was a mechanical engineer of course but clearly a genius it would bring together a lot of people to work on a single idea and to pull out pull off a successful in design but right now an aircraft is an industry just like any other so let’s consider it from the point of view of industrial design how to view it from the points of industrial designer comparing two similar industries so clearly in ever design emphasis is on Chanel obviously we won’t be aircraft to fly well style is usually just a secondary consideration what I’m giving below is two aircraft that were designed in roughly the same error and that will product it for design drop in the same air on the left is the moon ii aircraft and the drive is one of the carotenoids so once when you consider the biggest difference between the design in terms of styling and whose so what was the impression the thing on the left in the little Drive who the designer in the streets like I

studied us redesign okay give us your comments just comment on what you think that presents etc I don’t need to send your work what is your expectation large rotation just a salami but relatively for me this the front fold the function then it’s some videos are they choose some let’s say the truth the design choice for example the ferias ng right and and this is money it’s also part moody fish was his son quiet edition plane and he’s a quite fine so yes then yeah technical cultures shaping the baby after who can discuss what this graph isn’t my Nadia nozzle interested in nature graphical design all on the right pizza quite important the point is really that both of these products are presented let’s see the pinnacle of the era when they were designed to be still probably the fastest piston aircraft in the world but what but that’s exactly the point that was getting to this was 30 years ago but if you look in the market now you will see essentially the same era of still being sold as being the best and craft in the market but is nobody to sell their thing on the right anymore unless you are looking into both parts but there’s a new car or this shade with no points yeah that’s the main thing goes in the market as absolutely but it’s changing so that’s the phone right now the market was totally different so everybody really required complete functionality from aircraft but right now the line is changing aircraft up again more and more lifestyle equipment so the mark is also shooting in we followed it’s the ideal so what is the aircraft design learn how two approaches so I put this slide and we can split it horizontally so in order to build an aircraft which we need a lot of disciplines different disciplines to be able to pull off a successful design and they you have to be able to work in unison in all these disciplines clearly there is an aerodynamics necessary because the external shape of the aircraft is directly what determines how the aircraft will fly up it will perform how it will handle of the handling qualities will be and the aerodynamics is clearly a very important part but maybe not even the most important structural design is just as much you know if you look even more important because if you can support the loads experienced by the aircraft properly so that the aircraft breaks you mid-flight this is a purse not desired but if you really have two strong name if you are very conservative in terms of structural design you will create an Arab it is too heavy and weight is the pillar for a proper performance so structural design optimization structures is just as important as aerodynamic optimization and then you need experts from propulsion technology right now electric and after being a lot of attention but piston engines turbine engines are still domain market still the main engines in the market so you need experts on propulsion from controls and do not forget the marketing aspect of any design so if you cannot sell the aircraft you just have to start all over again usually we never designed each project is so expensive and takes such a long time that if you if you do not have a clearly defined market and expectations for your design on the market then you can really kill the company with a single project so this is very commonly represented big companies like Boeing so if they would fail with the Dreamliner and knowledge didn’t get off to the best start you can quickly value the company with a single wrong project so this is the old knowledge that you require but how do I apply this knowledge what are you following now here is just standard textbook same directory physics textbooks on a drug design and typically the process is split in two stages so you start with the top with the idea and then you sighs the end this is the first step first you figure out based on very simplified models on holiday drop would perform you

get such a wing and if it has such a long fuselage etc etc you estimate how the eyedropper performing and then iterate the shape of the aircraft from the general shape the layout is this is on the level of helping the wing movie how large the wingspan would be how long the future it would be then you estimate the weight etc and then you’re so to get an idea of how being the aircraft will be and all of its surfaces however given at this stage you need from all the other disciplines I mention in the aerodynamicists retainer hoping to win is not to be to carry such a structure the structural engineer will tell how heavily aircraft would be estimated when you draw a shape etc etc so already at the first stage you need a complex team of people working together a clock on the design from the very start so if you listen to your aerodynamicist or just the real structural engineer adjust it to a propulsion guy you will just talk with the design in some aspect and you might span picture because they all the aspects of design in the beginning after you are quite happy with the sizing this is an example of the sizing of their different sketches right Breaking and this is a very good process so London course what I draft in a month or so then you go to preliminary design when you take is general geometry of the aircraft and you actually start building proper services for youth name it you will set the aerodynamics we are gonna choose the wing sections through the basically designed general shape or just have a general structural concept of the aircraft but you do not go to the finest leaders like every bulb and it is said that this is something left for the last stage detail design so in the sizing stage you have a couple of engineers working then in the preliminary design the team expands and then when you go to detail design where you go for example this is an example of an engine mount where you would have to mounting points etc this is where a unit in the end the biggest thing and when we went to the detail design phase you better be sure that the preliminary design will work as expected because going back to revise the design of this stage is very very expensive and time-consuming but in temples so you do revise these I so just have to be careful not to do it too often here I’m showing some study of what I do look really so sometimes we just take over only parts of the design so I will just tell you how complex the design in the end how different fields may be in this point it was marketing versus aerodynamicist can work out a problem this was a project that was given to us by an Italian company who designed this general shape as you can see it’s a canard meaning that the elevator is on the front surface for those of you who like aircraft and the wing is in the back not a very good configuration if you ask people marketing likes it so they said okay what we likely they said we like about fifty percent leaf of what we need for the aircraft’s to perform the minimum flying speed and of course we would say well then because it chews it cannot design but let’s say might be thing said okay you have to work with this okay they’re marking the button ups and they said okay you can work on the external shape but do not change the aesthetics so pumping into that is a shame personal changes ethics sometimes in aerodynamics you can do just minor things minor details that can help the talk is their original design the bottom is musikdesign and we gained about fifty percent of live with the bottom and it’s quite hard to distinguish any difference between top and bottom what we did was change over the airfoils redesign the front flap but the general status in the aircraft remains the same okay we did have to introduce the main Indian by ten percent but still within fifty percent you just might change it so you have to play between two aspects sometimes to optimize design and then you can get both teams happy just as long as you listen to each other very well and you can really optimize the design in different ways than just in a single single direction but this is very important you have to communicate well and us really what is required and not set hard constraints designs when there is none so this is how I review the design courses design is not engineering design is no styling design is not the research or whatever design is across history of taking all of these aspects together and coming up with the product this of course doesn’t apply to us to aircraft but this is where I was coming from but really to follow the successful design it’s all so much about being a good stylist or reading a good engineer battalion but about getting people to work together especially on complex products to bring all the aspects together in a unified way such that everybody’s Indian happy but most importantly the customer is happy in the

end okay this was let’s say an introduction as to how we perceive the design process for aircraft hopefully you get the Crimson it’s probably flies from other industries for this is just really our philosophy what I will talk about now is the moon fine challenge and the tone of G for air which thing that I showed you before and talk to you about this project from the general idea all the way to the competition itself so we will see a complete project come with me how it was handled and further successfully can execute some green Bachelet was a competition prizes were provided by nasa american space agency google was the sponsor of the organization of the competition and it was directly requirements i just made a small excerpt of the requirements for the aircraft okay who can see clear your units I look this is this better so in more common units these were the requirements okay the booklet was about 50 pages thick of the regulations but this one really the requirements which fixed our design let’s at least at the sizing stage and then later on we had to of course the other estic seem to come but these are the constraints are here namely the aircraft had to spend less than 1.7 meters per candidate kilometers per passenger so if you have four passengers and you can spend for fuel or not fuel but energy equivalent of regular gasoline so clearly because of the energy converters efficiency electric aircraft in your favor from this competition you can get the energy efficiency conversion of about forty percent for a piston engine electrical energy conversion from batteries to a propeller is about ninety two percent in our case so there is a difference however we have to have this efficiency at speeds over 160 km/h so this was no easy task and at the same time being able to power more than 300 kilometres of range with half an hour reserve energy left on board after landing furthermore the minion speed had to be below 83 km/h another very critical issue and the type of Disqus get to be less than 600 meters and at the same time this was further remedies was most on the front page but then later if you go through the regulations and you see what the course was like in the competition you realized you had to climb to the first Waypoint which was 24 kilometres away from the airport the 100 metres so you require the certain climb rate to be able to reach this altitude quick clean up so the computation service originally scheduled for july two thousand eleven and was comprised of two flights name you have two days or flying one on one fight you had to fly the post maximum possible efficiency of your aircraft and the second able to fly the maximum possible speed that your elephant reach however there were hard constraints to both during both flights you get to fulfill all the requirements i said before its name your efficiency have to be good enough anyway to being faster than 160 km/h and further than one of the competition state entities will not allow to change battery packs on your area if you get only like the character of the bed reconfiguration was frozen at the moment you to go for the first slice or the second fight you get to have the same factory configuration and these are the requirements and really meet you what is the problem that is the vector configuration of rows of you work with batteries no batteries work once the biggest problem with messages forever sorry they’re very very having this so if you have to if you want to fly fast then yours of course but more energy so if you want to fly really fast any more and more on up veterus either however if you want to fly efficiency if you should take a little weight so then you have to reduce the better so you have to have a compromising already been to the other to get the best result and then the total score was taken from two flights and if you take imperial units that is the fortress of speed in miles per hour mileage was in passenger miles per gallon and when we get some results from both nights okay so what do we do we wanted to compete in this competition but there was simply when the competition regulations were published they were simply no aircraft that will fulfill them it’s in between these so we said okay we have to design something in you and we started of course with the two-seater aircraft this is what we can’t and then the concept study however the problem was we wanted to have a new fish epic about a retractable undercarriage and only the power of the glider from our range as a retractable undercarriage and the problem was going to put the engine if the engine was put on the mass

is you seen before when you get such a forward pitching moment that you whatever issues you gain in putting the earth the engine away you lose because you have to trim the aircraft you have to pull really hard back on this kit Lambert right so it was really not such a good idea so we were looking whether you can put it on the knowledge whatever and then the colleague of ours who actually was the project leader for this said why don’t we need to use images I mean the regulations state that you can you have to have consumption boulogne in per passenger North total consumption so we can do the bigger aircraft and still reach a similar result however there is no such an issue with placing the engine anymore so if you think to fuselage is separate them put the next air wing in the middle then you can put also the engine there in the middle propeller and you have a good concept so when we first saw the sketch we said it’s stupid I mean why would you build such an era well then the more you think about the idea the more obsessive night and in the end very eyes in this way we can use a lot of standard components diffuser which established the taste and external really standard what we can do design was the thing in the middle between two villages and then there was the question of course if all these parts are standard how far apart with fuselage is so of course you people to fizzle it is further apart this decreases your flight efficiency however it decreases so how many aircraft behaves when you roll it or when you view it and there was the compromise between these placements so I was sent you should not separate a few switches by more than four meters so we separated by five and never talking about it so in solution because we wanted to go further forward and was actually defined on designer diversity gave us probably same way this section is much it’s well it’s the depth of the section really especially this part is calling thickness for those of you who are not in aeronautics and if you have such a distribution of surfaces in the users and problems in when generating value and diversities issues occur and how we successfully solve them in here I mean the total what I forgot to tell you is in the total area of the wing is fixed namely because for certain amount of you to fly the low-speed use a certain area over wing so if you want to bring the diffuser edges together then you have to introduce the this court of this wing so it’s the total area remains the same so you can see as you make such a configuration so you make such a configuration in the end we have a compromise as usual so in December 2010 remember to july two thousand eleven was the competition schedule we finalized the sizing of the aircraft so this was the sizing process so call being the center wing section will be estimated the weights and the structural concept what is really important in such a to infusers design is that structure is such a design as much like button if you had the single beach the center and Heather very lovely because if you have a very long-winded you can diffuse into the center the very long bang you would have a lot of bending moment in the center so to end this bending moment you need a shame massive structure that points to carry these lows but if you distribute the loads even more even if Chris to spend in the structure structural weight of the aircraft goes down and this was one of the key reasons why were successful in competition with such a design we estimated the Mexican tank of mass to be 1500 kilos and in the end it turned out that when we feel the aircraft put it all together together with passengers the competition mess was costs alone and then there is the splitting of the ways that were split between different parts of the air I mean the empty aircraft weight if you take the better result you through the dense few were 632 Chris was including the engine I love the structure but without violence and batteries and there was almost exactly half a pound of batteries on board so wonderful the way to adjust the batteries and they were there for standard passengers on board so the end up never flew is for messages but you have to carry ballast instead of the passengers if you didn’t forget it for what is interesting is also the power requirements Chris power college education was estimated with a little clothes necessary and this is a very small engine however if you wanted to take off in 600 witness you need at least other than power so even though you would require much smaller engine to be the most efficient you’ll be the big engine to take off in the 600 users required and furthermore the engine required the continuous power of 85 pillow was just to climb to the first grade point the least the drag ratio finesse of the

aircraft was about 30 and the energy capacity top-level you better give all methods was fun with kilowatt hours this is the work I think that I we come from or about for the my aspects of general best they me I was in trying to design a gear and lenox pierre design on the external surfaces that would new design a new propeller and the work with the team of engineers from structures and from electrical 5,000 just to get everything right sized correctly so I think the sizing first what you said determine water surfaces the sizes of the service connection designing will the surface is so what we have to do is design for the center and wing this was the most important part this would be slapped so we need with I designed the special air for the sake of a low moment Air Force which we do streaming drag for those of you pour into aircraft and an effort which has quite a lot of laminar flows on the bottom side up to this point approximately in the topside up to this complaint airflow means there is much less dragon you could have if the lowest earned run what I mean by laminar turbulent flow so you cannot dynamics when you are air passes near the surface it first passes lets it cleanly but at some point you to instability in the area stuff to get to work the system and this is causing drag parody so we want to design your services such that you have as much clean flow around it and is little turbulence course possible and then we design the sockets flat for the center wing sections of use computational fluid and every schools just from the very start so just when you are still designing the aircraft you can use computer tools just to design a certain aerodynamic devices that help you then optimized design even further and we designed the special slots in this area which helps with the airflow and the CL max was estimated to be 2.6 and in France’s actually was proven to be the case one of the key causes of drags no just turbulent flow or a skin friction but also the mixing of air because of the link generation so any anger of the generates lift also generates drag because it creates these work pieces in the flow so all of these vortices carry energy so when you create if they also create drag and this is called the lift induced drag however to have as little induced drag as possible you need to have the leaf distributed in a very uniform way along the span of the aircraft so each section of the week should carry roughly the same amount of lift except for the tips so ok the solution is elliptical but let’s say in this area where we’re looking for you’re most interested in this position the lib distribution should be as uniform as possible however the self is distinguished such a design which is a compromise is not uniform right so you see this is a much thicker surface than this one and then we had to somehow figure out how to match the lift of these two sections so that we would not stir the air too much and other suggestion was in our our implementation was it follow these wings have some trailing edge devices flaps so on so when deflecting the flag on the outboard wing what I’m showing here is the leaf distribution flu is the central green and the red and purple are the outward wings for two different flap settings and this is the angle of the text or call this week is coming onto the airflow and when changing the flap and here you can match the leaf distribution at the certain angle of attack or if you deflect the flap further you can latch to leave mr Griffith another angle so that way even we have a compromised design in terms of surface distribution we can still Taylor there then am excited if you can show the aircraft is good and here you can see the Spanish the efficiency of such an approach namely this is one is the theoretical best efficiency of such a disk of any wing of certain span and by changing the flexican flap setting you can get a clear efficiency at different angles or protectors net effect in flames different this was a many and so the new idea but it was implemented successfully and then it sounds propeller design again we take a develop some computer tools just to design propellers it’s called the lifting line theory view in dynamics and it’s a it’s a theory which allows you to calculate the power demands and respect propellers and what we did was create computer problems which automatically optimize the shape of the propeller where you can just say okay I was sort of power and I prepare and I want the best frustrated in the dispute I want that power so I need a three-point design for the propeller and this is a real art of computer optimization so this is a lot of computer said is there a dealer shake in

the edge so this is the shape apparently we went deliberately for a fixed pitch propeller some providers you can change the angle we went for a fixed pitch propeller signal because it’s a simple thing to build one less system to edit care about and making the aircraft Lori life we had a very limited time frame so we wanted to make a simple design as possible and how was the propeller design okay I thought my computer program this is the map of the electric motor of the best diffusion suit electric motor kit is the speed in revolutions per minute changes the power in kilowatts and what is an either / strong is that is the efficiency I soakers so this is the island of the best efficiency for the engine and you want to your propeller to be spinning at such a speed that you are always as close as possible to this base a few tools area so this point he represents in in the final design the take-off voice for the propeller this is the client point this is the coolest toy and when I told the computer work with this and this is the resultant was all business it’s not a nice way to look at it to us so people people in line since unless you get very interesting designs just from that is a mathematical procedure and then in the end it looks almost something that has like a web we again it’s seven CFD analysis of the total shape when I first told what is shown here is the main wing and this is the engine coming within a cell and we just the first iteration was of course take all the components and put a smaller shape as possible around their disagreeable is correct but when we put into the CFD calls you will really surprised to get flow separation here in the area of taking everything so then just by using very simple interracial to know no more than an hour to change the shape to bring namely just abolish the area it’s just a bit but not so much looking business if you say you have too much then you can get nice clean air flow and this is all done in the school in the preliminary design stage so this is not in flight pasting work you don’t even have to move into a wind tunnel right now with when you have see everything lettuces of course it will be moving tunnel analysis it was nothing the timeframe we have fun project the design is external shape was frozen by this point and then we went into building the first pieces what was interesting is that this design was not completed totally before going into production so we just defined the external shape and the basic structure and started building components in the controls would then design on top of that in center etc so then we stood design going on while prototyping was already place is because of time constraints so these are not the first part is being good this is the closing to repurpose it for a wing section we see these components later on so this is no just some composite work so we are going to carbon fiber these are the two facilities which are standard and this is them the main spot of the same grooming for example also made of carbon and this is already supportive partner to be here in a mode also made from carbon carbon fiber is carbon is short in for carbon fibers reference verify the boxing or there are different names this is the spot again these are the ribs that shown is the first part bottom part of the week and now the top part of the mold is coming on top and then you glue it all together with box and thank you very solid piece like this you can already see the controlling it is also this was very important because your design all the controls from one side of the airplane have to be carried on to the other side so these are the control linkages and one to switch to another once we also have carries on the top is a provision for the ballistic parachute the requirement of the competition was at the end of a ballistic parachute which allows the whole aircraft to be rescued in case of emergency so you fired attention to the whole aircraft in this ends with this benefit so we have to have provisions for your article the strips of camera which gave structure in them so on second of a second match the aircraft started to take shape so this was starting to build this is in a salad showing you this is this area which was then you can see pashtu part of interest optimized center wing fuselage and the problem was it almost wasn’t didn’t it into the typing button so we had to go diagonally and the 26 of much we depended is delivered so we order them so this was very fight project and then we need to started to make better effects you can see we sealed it off very nicely because there is a lot of energy density if you make a short but he will just burn the whole

Factory so this is dangerous stuff so it didn’t help that this was also the taimen in either shimoga narrative we can war against from borrow Vincent we were doing this during the deficit of analytic km/h wind outside so the whole building was shaking so they didn’t doubt either and you see this weather impacts know being puts on to the elder we had three by three packs and we distributed them one in each user rich and one in the center of myself at this stupid the way you as evenly as possible across the span and this gives the era in the efficiency because the structure can be like that so this is one such a battery pack of nine Methodists and in the front this is the engine mount and the engines this is the texting of the edge involved this was also Cano as the engine on was optimized before being built using finite element methods to analyze the structure so we really sighs the thickness and diameter of the body tubes to get the right structural requirements so we follow the standard testing procedures for aircraft and when we present this optimized design to already taken technical guys who actually built in a sense when they will carry the loads but then we think all the texts and it was doing just fine so it was really interesting I mean it was really informative is design methods were in a miracle on the computer already has to make all the loads window certain of course margin of safety because computer and other is never good enough but Fergus purposes we’re just perfectly and a little March this is interesting we also didn’t adjust the engine model for the whole bean was not destined structure this is the most important structural member of the air traffic all week assembly so we have a center ring and to each side you have the external wings as well you will see now how we proceeded so now you see the central me here and in the external beam oh and then we put all comfy nothing particularly sophisticated just have to get the loads all right so you will see enough imagine parents without grating peniche you have to do for each other so fly safely and if it doesn’t work if it’s something breaks then you have to redesign of course if something broke here we will stop the project because so important when we thought we were flying so this is not the completed prototype so we think about it in the center was the idea in May we are photo may we are on their front is in sylvania getting ready for flight we need some has a taxi tests provider is actually quite loud just because it’s a fixed pitch propeller and it’s not ideally suited for a very slow speeds but this was never the design points it’s very good to be the world along design we had managed to make the one half a take-off just on one side it was a cop because of a gust of wind but then we had some electronics issues so its software Indian so with battery management system so which is the call the system shutdown and some point it was important on the testing and then was now time is running out so we just shoot the aircraft to the US lucky none of the other competitors would agree any more successful than we were so the whole competition was responding to the September so this is good we should care of their being tested but before flying the coop addition we had to have really two full fly the best 40 hours of planning so on photo bogus we finally received the improved battery management systems and then we slowly this was in Oshkosh and some nice aircraft also sharing the hangar so you will remain electronics guide and vigorously replace of the systems reprogram them this is a test pilot Dave Morss who they make sure they mean we have a test pilot so here process in which is the biggest event for general essence as I want to fly this plane is a professional test pilot when he saw exercises so we were sure why not and I’m not where the focus was the first successful i felt absolutely no technical issues after the first value we would not believe such a strange after the first five against a quite a few issues before the first slide in electronics but after the first flight it were just like you wouldn’t believe that one believed it work so well if somebody halloween true and then you

immediately proceeded to fight pests in here whether it’s and so for those of you in aircraft design we are not based in the stability of the area with respect to the long period of sedation the favorite mode you see this again stable this is something violent and compensate for insulting way you will put in a regular aircraft can be solid stable was for an experimental publication erica it was okay of course we had a test for whether this works are not fret I mean is in full flight testing then we can test whether this I do you worked or not so I put some cuffs on the airplane with the camera here and we checked whether the flow it is regular or not which was a good thing that we did this the floor what happened was that this was structurally very life and the call came from the pressure coming from the cooling I survived so what his secret is actually some airflow exhibit to the sides so this part was okay but there was a headlock from the descent going outwards and his landing big things we one season even seen from the aircraft itself with the hemorrhoid we fix this issue is causing my total drag and then we had some problems with me even speak of course what happens is when you fly very slowly let’s enter a section especially with this habit which we design which getting the olive leaf causes all these vortices when you have to work this is around the fuselage itself so what was happening is that there is the local air flow is not like coming straight to the wing but because of the center ring is great eager to live the logo game flow here is going upwards this is the graph how much is going upwards along to spend so this is the part of the cruiser legend when the outward span you have a lot of up up flow on this part of the way what is happening is that this part of the wing is not generating any any lift anymore installed and we install some more things change microwave generators to break of this and it’s also worked brilliantly minimum flights we do something we have to win we try this in every move that I can give you the proper beam of light speed before Oliver so this is now the corrections in the design which you can get from the evaluation of the design I also can head to the sunlight we cannot see that it’s a nice picture i like because within five days quite enjoyable it is a landing it’s a very efficient aircraft so we had to make it very inefficient for landon somehow but we remove the hand brakes or the spoilers because they’re carrying weight we did some different design namely for landing whickering we put the same web down and outward flex off this is very standard for the competition team remote control blighters but it’s not in such a huge scale it worked perfectly so very lightly muscle film on one what is really interesting though is that the pilots do any pirate stories for the first time alignment they have rocks along with visible of Alliance on the center line after line slightly to the right so you can see the patch down soon in a few seconds the left is additionally touchdown on the rise to such as cancer flying like this and now there is a drastic works this is nice electric motor you can dramatically person you can stop much more quickly this way without using brakes state pilot related for a stimulation this is what the aircraft looks like from the ground it’s really weird inside of a space shuttle I love me and on 24 no she tell you where the competition begin so there are 12 entrance to the computations only four teams managed to build the aircraft in the pants it was I mean after what we saw happen I mean in the process it was very clear doesn’t know the other people will manage especially with you and you kept it was really fun hearing word on the field of electric aircraft and only a few teams managed and from the steeps only two were actually electric place so one was the genius from University sugar with the engine gone to the top so which is very good from clean break point of view and it was us we notice any similarity between here indeed this was weekend project University of 2 30 years ago for viewing the first fuel cell I think you get up so collagen feeling better using hydrogen fuel however I didn’t produce the future of this project so it was a pendant but then this decision internet

class is converted to electric light and then no seeders competitors at the competition but it was good otherwise they will be really no proper competition that was okay it was it was nice sporting event a lot of fun together so it was and this would have been very similar to a two-seater design we would produce anywhere so it was interesting to see how the two concepts actually compared so the way in process started so this was all meticulously the root locus follows okay with everything on the aircraft and then take off begins on photos it is take off and then competition we were just looking at here a fascinating force her to some about the air and what about 1,000 liters this is one of the photos from the time you can see the circuit here so i’ll also the consistency of our pilots is following the racetrack and then the finish ocotillo this year is quite high up finish line and you can see the aircraft on giving this fights and take off music is awful and you can see the right hands usage going in quick clip on the left hand side and future gender care it’s going to quickly but the left hand side is going much more slowly because the right hand side is made and operate life is elective course because you cater two regions so but you can see also how small the aircraft is really from the backs of the aerodynamic efficiency comes from this so it’s quite a big thing but looks from from the back is almost invisible now a landing note how the Android bounces and then just rose own one cycle if you search this was a characteristic of all of our pilots always then select research the other one is okay finally and these are our pilots after the competition as you notice the company logo our company logo is it bad so we had twin beds and why they were actually given these shirts is because the main pilot was the ignorance but the copilot was Rabinowitz oh it was purely the day after Batman and Robin 20 usage design and is the the Col team really the design the aircraft more or less and then also ended in potential presence of pilots news myself and with learning the main structural engineer angles are advisor from University of Pennsylvania was actually team leader because of the formalities our two files they’ve Robin you were a selective sky France is the front row style in which chief mechanic Antilles the project leader and the systems guy so that’s really the design team one lies missing was left shoe salesman we did win the competition so that’s the in the NASA Ames center that this is their future one of the wing 1.3 million dollars which about was about 2.5 times as much as we stand in project so at least we got the money back it was wasn’t so Methodist what are the results we actually did weed in both categories we were the best in efficiency we were twice as good as required in terms of energy conversion if the mileage was required added passenger master get on with it 400 the next one was the genius of course with 375 and the speed was also the best tommaso hundred and thirteen verses condition seven of course the aircraft will go faster but not on this battery pack it’s clear so that’s the fastest people go you cannot see the weights here but this is the main differentiate between our ever finding each genius the a genius wait about 900 kilos for two passengers we wait 1500 kilos 44 passengers so that’s whether we can gain the most namely about 70 kilos less the passenger not mostly because between designer so for a while we featured on the main las our home page so that was quite nice and this was also important for those of you in aviation we were nominated for the coliaro paperwork for 2011 which is the biggest of what we were in for achievement in the u.s. we had space shuttle things before etc is we understand this year the bottom line and one what we want to see this and of course at the end you want to know how well is performed here

so it’s very engineering quad Club we did have a model are all for the aircraft we didn’t know how much exactly drag is on the aircraft what’s the total drag of the airplane service with the only collaboration parameter weekend in the model so then we just fit to this surface of the data points what is shown here is on one explicitly required the power demand on the motor here is the speed of the aircraft that hit is the vertical climb or descent speed and this a graphical model at the certain latitude disposal super surface the red points are the name of data log points from the competition flights speed competition flight and the green is the efficiency competition flight data log points and you can see that the model works quite well what we were surprised how is the high speeds it’s more efficient than we predicted with no idea why we didn’t fight often competition really properly to evaluate it but we were not very fun of starting from the initial design a situation to final design so the total leaves the drag ratio and the competition screen which was confident 60 kilometers power but people just per hour is in its maximum so the three straight could lift great so this is a design then just the speedy require an asylum and this is an interesting is out there we went use our modern it said okay what if we use less phantom is on board batteries for the competition so what is the problem if you use less right that is what happens again if you should see in the efficiency flight but you lose speed in the speed competition but on the other hand if you put more weather is in then you use efficiency but you gain speed because you have more capacity so the red point determines what’s the minimum amount of metal is it boots with reason we could fulfill the requirements maybe about 400 kilos this is our actual battery must drink and you can see that whichever way we would maybe it would be better so this is fine we ended this we will be close but in the end when we calibrated everything for the data we were quite surprised you were so close to the opinion so that’s the end of just to have a more of an impression just a few shots just to have an idea and so much for this project so do you have any questions about this project site know what chirality right this is a standard of the sheriff really motor slightly modified for our needs it comes from the automotive industry having supplied to the automotive industry and its Valerie hello what instantaneous or 85 pillow with constant power motor thus we loved meeting enemy there is simply not available in the market so we just for this kind of a group they simply was not the proper motor I mean otherwise for what are our other electric projects we use the women voters but for this competition there was none available there was not bad what do you there’s no competition rules they just wanted lots of is giving away a way to expel I should get the most of the US 1 X we do not variety yes absolutely i mean what we chose was a better is it best suited on me I mean you can have batteries which discharge fast but they were all capacity but you can have badly the discharge slowly but a very hot Pacific this was living polymer which is filled by far the highest energy density can get from the line of course research shows different disabilities but on the market what is available and what is reliable is this we use the comp batteries for real months and in the end it turned out that they are really high-end about to contribute what hours Phillip which is a lot for those people for business still is very high-dimensional but the company actually did taylor lane thousand easily single entity sense is possible we asked them for these dimensions usually do it they deliver them for us where’s the experience mr. California where we need flight nesting in this fellow the base of our best pilots all right now it’s still the tender but we won’t manage to find wood museum for it so we’ll see where it ends up no no this aircraft it’s a finished project I mean it’s in such a single point design and so useless for anything else apart from this competition there is no point in developing it further it’s what we will develop further is and we are around already developing these electrical

systems whether this is something we’re doing of the airframe itself and some swimming and you no we’re looking at the Smithsonian or things like it’s a cosmos form this ah that’s a very good question I wouldn’t but because I mean I mean unless it’s a test pilot have anybody piloting this thing I tried flying intimate with its it’s okay but it’s not for a regular pilot project leader is looming batteries I mean we are following but I mean what we need is a reliable veteran packs video it produced it as so many in so many cycles and we are not the battery company so what we are doing is finished products really sir we are following developments with no thank you being able to be resources to be in both insertions what is NASA planning to be the concept whatever they desire I mean they have the rights to actually purchase if you if they want to it’s not a unique aircraft in the sense i mean there is the white knight which is carrying the spaceships the commercial space flights is too similar concept so it’s not particularly no but I mean it’s interesting from the point of view of love distribution centers maybe suddenly become free ourselves from the service is it was allowed it will be possible to just too complex in the time frame for us to buildable inner surface with this and the game minimal effort along and you gain some weight but you don’t need quite empowering you I mean each square meter want to be 300 watts in good conditions and then 22 moves magnetars of surface area is not a lot compared to the power to apply there were a few there were some lighting designs hello we competed in previous competitions similar ones meant to be shooting where you could compete the regulars compared like our standard view something and then when the competition was out looking for affection this is a question with every game full of the design until the same way we waited until all the components are available that we can sell get the engine will be this method is only that and when we set projects finalized positive only if the this town dressed in departmental market wasn’t examples in irrigation in this day so then the same is really big openness and sting we still really felt ready to put the name giving us this big market so they okay then I will continue with changes let’s say a different project not this will be much shorter of course i will talk so much about this name because all the things that i presented for military for also holds true for the pantera it’s still a composite aircraft still a high-efficiency machine using CLE tools designed the shapes and Air Force and etc etc whatever emphasize is really where it differs what what’s different about designing some additional graphical design and really market product if you want to sell me first of all the design is finalized to a much greater extent before being committed to building a computer in the CAT design so what we really have is almost a complete English design on the computer and see any tools before building the first component so not just the external shape we do require to do the mouths and etc for the composite parts but really all the controlling it is engine positioning engine cooling on the undercarriage design because it said it’s quite the contracts part of the aircraft and this was all finalized recording given committing to the first piece and we use a little gravitation quick links here followed on the project so what you see on the Left we have an around a Texas milling machine which is based on an robot arm what you see on the left is a block of styrofoam being built with the internal cockpit components of the aircraft to build a mock-up of the interior what we did was

go to mock up of the interior the economy of the you can see it’s other structural things are already produced design so the CID modulus not completed because it was changed later based on these nests but we build the whole garlic model and then we set in different areas where we need more room where we can go with less put some components which is something you cannot do that’s important with her cousins everything’s so this was also this was also a few guys in the field on during the building of the the assembly face of the aircraft namely however send will the controls how you can access with different tools is something is very hard to now some research is being performed or to do the assembly actual virtual assembly with gloves etc system high-end research not only something practical clickable so then you have to go and redesign some things one because you figure out that you guys you simply will be able to build it the way you designed it but still try to do it before kind of the computer business calculated and then a lot of care was taken it is the wing modern boot what we did was merely shape of the way from styrofoam then we put a glass fiber on top and then we finish the surface screen and what we use with templates with efforts every using different nations to get the twist and shape of the Air Force correct mrs such a daily process that you cannot rely on the mute parts to be really what you require because once you will please increase it can then so what we did was just beauty then by hand check with the pen with templates in chair for you whether it has the right shape and the rest twist so that the wing wasn’t really a nice piece from which you can then do the most for composite parts so leave a lot more care was taken in the competition ever here you can see call the undercarriage the main strut and wheel and the shock absorber were designed for being built so there is a main titanium here at some aluminum parts we’re using actually just really simple autodesk inventor 3d world is fun weekend in the design such as this and then the leg is exactly the same shape is of course design what was really nice was the guys name people if it’s in that we use the technology guys were used to old-school designs just testing so when once we put this into the hair of the whole system of interactive another game which is really complex in december because low 2 x’s other line segments really some special mckenzie it just fitted perfectly soon that was quite an achievement especially from the point of view of the skeptic advising technology by design because in july stage this year this was most able to work on now this is really most about Stein not so much about functional it anymore and now we are talking about styling and this is when a lot of emphasis was pointing towards and we did work with the dead & design advice to Milano future is going well for many projects before but none is complex is this one so far so what we wanted was to present the very professional environment the skill in an automotive styling works of the people feel comfortable in it so this was the land that we were going to a Cayenne technical design of the dashboard so this white spy anywhere but the parts which are made for comforts are very much softer in design and more conflict in some sort of way so this there was a conference between technical parts and let’s say human parts so what you see here is to design is working on some lines and outs of this which is a testing of this line and public streets in the generous a dimensional design menu from different points so what we did was a no cup of the Dead foot which is styrofoam block exactly the same shakers we are there fortunately little design Rangers Kim is the real expert already in place up there is too worried engineers looking at whether we will everything if this design in high for the my exhibition in April which will enable this year you can see someone is here already in place and this is the interior design of the aircraft finish chickenstein leather seats unrest etcetera etcetera so of course when it’s one I mean we were in a hurry so we didn’t really mention the materials quite as nice as we would like in some parts but it’s our colors but for the first iteration was really good because we built it in a couple of months in the whole interior design places you can see this line of here

between color designer in later correct central controls sticks it in the end it’s it’s a designer quite proud of and already the design where we see lot of room for improvement once you see it in place this is still sort of not the final design as close as possible for the exhibition but we were talking a lot about different aspects never forget it is all in the team so what you need for the pull of a successful design is to have a few the chair deviation of the project so whether you have engineers whether you have marketing people with a bigger stylist’s all the people have to have a really good at here but what what the project is about what the aims of the projects and they have to embrace the aims of the project it’s so variable if people have different ideas about these aircrafts which represent and everybody tries to push it in the direction then your loss this is probably too about the whole design projects so what you really need is be really good coherence of the team so the people know what is to be achieved and they embrace the idea so they really this is what we want and this is what we will do and I think mr. projects you are quite successful in achieving that we will see I’m in the pantera status to fly it would be as painless as it was with the total support but they’re always last the surprises in store what we’re hoping for the best so I think with this have included really the part of the presentation I we’ve been or other discuss with questions etc but the design process itself and so on all of the questions were already asked but terrified no we don’t know I see my future month yes I mean it was like the fire button solution the flying booth by the station so would it would be as fast as we expected to be I mean what we are aiming for with this aircraft is to have zagged on what we are aiming for is to have fifty percent less father Alexei two-thirds of the power of the competing aircraft using having the same performance so listen then I DAC you compare it to an apartment seem alive interior I mean the interior was the bench one was the CEO said Buffalo so you know it we might be the same internal puppies area but what we did was just put all the bonuses close together as possible use the minimum surface area around components to achieve the desired so if you put this in the zeros 1 2 next knew each other this one if stellar is very very small it looks like a really small African peoples are lighter aircraft for this and the smaller aircraft but the interior comfort is the same in the performance of the same so this is what we’re aiming for you whether we are successful we hope to be but if we are not then we know how to proceed to include the design so that’s important ting so frightened valuation women tell us how to improve the design with contractions say one thing then we have decided that we have an alice is likely to see what’s wrong with the design it doesn’t work is you saw the station right we are aiming for the cruise people to come to the notes on 200 horsepower and the range is over 1,000 nautical miles in Iceland work so this is really comparable to competition however what we are doing in the competition is not that we want to have this arrangement for passengers on board usually on most aircraft you have to sacrifice passengers for full range for cultivation Symphony lightweight construction still the maximum takeoff price of one thousand two hundred kilos Israeli with four passengers a full fuel and baggage of course there is Denver is a good notion of extra fuel tanks for the extra long range but for 1000 optical mouse you can do it with full set of passengers on WordPress target that is what differentiates us from verification SSP hope is good first the first one will be local here for the of experimental flying too painful to the flight tests but the first customer will take picture we will deliver this photo to his Australian that the reason is really a company company pregnant because the reason is filled with

experience minutes from handling in hair there any point of view and I think the market acceptance is much bigger no because diamonds which is a big competitor of us all of that designs are also detail and the life of exceptions right now is ok it didn’t use to be mostly because of the talk accidents etc which a healthy can but it was on the reason for their excellence yeah it’s really to keep it in line with our usual sex bus what we like about it is the camping does not depend on the third I think so if you have the elevator and lower down when you push the throttle you have a lot of authority but if online you can decrease the throw to give a clue so sorry it’s a really bad idea so we don’t like it very much incident that fly-by-wire systems sure I mean this is something for the future of the problem is fly-by-wire systems this certification yeah there are certification procedures which are in place for like ever and of course you can do the fly by wire loop and we will be cable will do an engineer doing a PhD exactly controls of that sort however market acceptance is a problem and the bigger problem is implication procedures which movie sort of aircraft would have to be done on you so when you go to our site you can agency for this sort of thing you would have to think of a procedure to test all of these things which is something even we have to do with the more conservative design you will have extra tests which will delay and delay on you mean a certified model to the market even the right now we can start the simplification in forever we will send sell the first aircraft as experimental switch in the US is okay however the certification process right now let’s say non complex aircraft such as this takes three years minimum so in traditional year then use your money little bit I mean what is good is it fly by wire to be headed only so a lot of exceptions can also be better and we will do it as a sacrament now this is something like it will develop it that’s almost certain what’s the future my fear of nineteen twenty years depends on what Marcus will go into line with divine this probably bigger planes of course like 60 but not really really big planes instead we will see what what we aim for is really efficient planes and we were one of the five years in the market where vacation plans are required in kitchens you’re such a big issue before but now with composite materials you can really have huge case that support through that was person really demonstrated is in practice and now we are trying to get this idea issues to the market then continue with it what you want also to be the first three producer of electric and hybrid a graph like a certified ever and we want to bring these new propulsion systems in the market so this is one of the major goals in the first two these markets because and it’s also easy to think they the certification requirements and safer ended so we are talking out together also with your ability to modify achievements in the next week ever Kylie’s propulsion for leasing throughout everything about one week range without usage or family we can sir we started such a design for settings very rare is a company then in company producing well mostly weapons but whatever it is is unmanned vehicles so with multiple vehicles and we did the design study with a exactly of a flying wing airplane but it’s aurelia compromise a fine whenever I theoretically has the advantage of not having extra control surfaces sixth-ranked etcetera one way to figure out what you mean to sacrifice for you maybe you can highlight assist in such a network it’s very hard to get the correct leave distribution it was the spin so in use direct kills you in the end the flying the single wing aircraft are only sensible if you can handle unstable design where you have flattered wire designs then they become sensible again otherwise you have just too much sacrifices in other areas so this is a this is something to consider in all the shapes are considered in me2 design aside from cannot fly away to standard configuration anyway whether if the design from different viewpoints in all the people give the comments what I think will happen some of them were of course just aesthetics and some people doesn’t like the wave loads but usually it was not the thing that you simply cannot achieve the performance those with whichever shape and the classical design is actually still by far the most efficient one in this segment location is not

screen the inside out it works you mean okay we’ll go to the actual pictures just take so well yeah what we have is Garmin 500 instruments and left and right implicated and then there is a visual valve in a mother you have yonex guys so I have no idea what it’s called really but they are different systems on the plane so what you have is all the main instruments such as altitude speed etc i replicated here or here depends how to switch it and engine controls all the instruments if you have tires that are replicated on this screens plus you have additional features such as education view outside google type of thing but they really think mostly this into account pacifica lightens so you know the experience it’s not a good thing what we do have is back up instruments informant so just if this fails it used to have backup for the lanes from its altitude speed etc but really they replace is heather instruments and some of them have been all the violence in them inside her so he’s using yeah it is you need to deny the size your generators for the person that’s quite a quite a great I mean not in this aircraft this is a such problem another standard line sport aircraft people really want huge displays and then what we have is an issue right now we will be to all tomatoes and motor for example because of that but let’s imagine once you 30 you take off that’s a good one for designing first cave used again then computer the what we use for the surface design is mostly idea but what we use for a general sketchy for simple sketching we just simply start with Ryan familiar with it it’s a simple in our program but most of all I know is that all of the surface designer can be imported into other SEO software which is known to most other desires of so Ryan is most amazing designer those surfaces can be directly used in see the model so for all these inclinations and for this is for the air flow what we use is open forum which is an open source package for computational fluid dynamics it was developed in imperial college but a guy from the socket as well what we was a little bit o project is really good so some of the Formula One teams i use it as well is free so you cannot beat the price it’s only difficult to use program streets instead of having nice little security for structure analysis because our focus like this is nice too much because then we have someone around holds the design hair for both what are you in the future right in the interior design I mean first of all we have to bring it closer to the automotive interior design to reduce the pinnacle right now but then again you cannot do it properly because it’s just too expensive the amount of units sold simply does not allow for techniques used in automotive industry or modes for plastic parts are simply too expensive it’s cheaper to build condos is poisonous to build molds for plastics which say you know what we then do is look at the high end automotive design interior where you can use leather etcetera to Cabo surfaces which is what I mean cars this becomes expensive but they have already are expensive so then that’s easier to sew in Syria involved interior comfort disability economics that’s important which is what we started quite a bit so you see the cushioning other bracket is wrong also positioning some controls but what is also important in the aircraft is procedures so how to position switches that you have a nice flow you take off then you know the switches you were going to do over to say from left to right so it will hunt the work but when you take off your get much time to things everything is happening quickly so fragile ego stage by stage in the north or just prescribe an example so

such workflow design is also design reference so and then of course information so right now you can see because the ancient technology is so interested in this segment this is the engine controls the three levers and you have separate from rose to mixture for throttle and footprint better so when the development is going in the direction of single control of frozen so go faster go slower than just 33 Napa’s and then check RPM in temperature so this has to be also means but it is following weather of the automotive industry is you’re doing does it it’s with more complex so there’s more work to do and also a fly-by-wire was a question this is being introduced online then officer program under / wire assistant control so you have still a mechanical linkages but you have actuators which resists you for stability reasons etcetera so they would work together with you a little regular all the policy solution was same or the pilot is just innately to control rods so that it can fly for you but what time it is not doing there is some research into augmenting the controls in a way that they fly because you not a lot of people can not all people can learn to fly this not all the people can learn to drive this is a compromise except for this way basically everybody can get the license but with crazies with more dangerous but then you have to make flight museum apartment you can see the state yeah it’s the movie but then you can override if you override it with these hispanics what was the difference between experimental father friends feliz 0 technically none I mean that this is from design to you there is no difference it’s exactly the same airplane just the thing is the specification reasons you have to prove certain demands from testing from structures pending aerodynamics it’s a paragraph to just prove by doing that it refused certain criteria I mean in the experimental chemical you can do crazy things right so but for this address regional differences just remember before you get a certificate it’s a way to celebrate in a cake for so you sell them opponents and people can assemble it themselves that’s the the way it works all those factory usually helps them that’s the standard procedure if anything is for the palace hold a lot to not in the US but in your case so it’s mostly US market but what people tend to do sometimes which is register it in the USA right starting slowly first ones introduction am Soundwave is working what to country resist when the secret production begins the story more because the biggest players get more than that we want to be wanted to bigger players you order the price crisis four hundred thousand euro more or less but it’s going up slightly not because we see the market connected this was the price at the area exposition official people produced in is just the first few ones experimental emits the variable serial production with Stephanie there is this aspect s it’s unfortunately you cannot do much for it I mean you can recycle person who complains but the gist effective like this isn’t something that we really like but the problem is also even worse that the northern epoxy components are much more environmentally friendly than the other ones however when you are willing to certify their graphic fo you certify the material and then you are forced to use materials which are not ideal the main point of view just because if occasionally want it or you can simplify around the theater but then the resources are huge to do this so you just cannot afford it really there is evil in here where can I it is no there is a closer to the mark it doesn’t have the iphone dock it has an eye patch pockets because all the maps are seriously fighters ipad is a simplified flight instruments for of maps etc so all of the pilot will use for max so instead of having a bunch of times you just get the ipad and me to

take it off in check so it has a yeah certainly with this project is different products what we expect is too heavily what 100 people he should at least and then we’re working on the path there so we expect to grow but not immediate because it’s a production right so this is this is whether off to lie in this so let’s say your companies like a France because with flow rate and Industry new part of course of these ideas before with we just have the resources to this because this is taking most time filling it’s an idea for a bit but not really serious you know we don’t have IDs help improve packages as you’re smoking it’s really about getting along with having the right people in place capable community so the communication mostly so the newest have like a project leader to change the technical aspects it said that our citizens of the focus thing what I need to do is just kind of conflict where they needed / of course which is capital realize where they’re coming from ended they are not very personally actually they don’t accomplish because I don’t usually handle it as a technical issue of the personal vision so we have like 45 email how you work we have a regular picture we think of the design department and then the rest is really really go around and check on how the designs are progressing individually but there is a weekly thing really reviewing but the whole project stand about each project and has its own individual miles beneath programs and such no we do accept in terms from time to time I mean it’s a dream and resources on so much financial but the review about any students cetera but we do take good applications sometimes is but maybe one maybe two anyone okay thanks for listening