The Magic of Growing Microgreens

so welcome to the webinar uh the magic of growing microgreens my name is Laurie George and i am a small farms local foods educator out of the Mount Vernon area in Illinois. i also have james Theuri. James would you like to say hi? hi everyone my name is James Theuri i’m an extension educator just like Laurie George and we are both small farms and local foods educators and thank you everyone for coming. You’re located in kankakee is that correct? Kankakee, Will and Grundy counties these are collar counties around cook county area of Chicago so they’re kind of close to that yep yes so uh we’ll go ahead and get started. James if you want to take it okay go on to the next slide so let’s start by defining what micro greens are and i’m sure most of you are familiar with micro greens and micro greens are young and tender and edible greens that are produced by sprouting the seeds of a variety of vegetable species and herbaceous plants and as we shall see even some cereals can also be part of this group and we can also include aromatic herbs and wild edible species and the big deal with micro greens is they are loaded with vitamins minerals and proteins they truly are a superfood used to boost boost color enhance flavor and add texture to any dish while delivering a nutritional boost as well indeed when i teach about lawns i always tell people who are throwing away the the blades of grass that they cut which are the tips of the grass that’s what we know you’re throwing away the best part of the grass which should be food for the grass that’s always the loaded part of the plant when it comes to nutrition same thing with these micro greens but let’s go on to the next slide why do we want to grow a micro green greenstone they are fun and easy to grow even children you can involve your children or any kids or youth schools you can involve younger people doing this because it’s a very easy to grow it is a plant to grow and then beyond that they are quick to grow you harvest in 10 to 14 days later on i’ll show you an example of something i grew ten days ago is ready to eat and they require small spaces so if you’re an arbonite if you are living in a an apartment and all you have is a balcony or a windowsill you can grow these microgreens and then um they have very simple requirements in terms of equipment and we’ll be seeing that in a little bit later they’re suitable for climates you can grow them anywhere in the world and then you can grow them year round as long as you have suitable facilities and we’ll talk about that as well and then the minimum cost if you actually you can keep the costs really low and we’ll talk about that as well and require very little time and effort as long as you have the sound management then they will just do it do do right so you have an incredible number of plants that are in a very tiny area and that gives you a high yield to space ratio and finally they are highly edible they’re highly chewable they are digestible because they are tender they have not developed any fibrous tissue or lignin so so forth the things that are difficult to digest and being very nutritious they are also a very versatile superfood which is nutrient dense and you can use it in a variety of ways and then as we shall also see later you have fantastic value if you’re getting a dollar an ounce on the minimum i mean that’s usually the low end of the cost a dollar an ounce announce is not a whole lot of it but if you can get that it’s high value crop next

so i included this slide here to show you that micro greens have mega nutrients just to emphasize the point in a research study done in 2012 microgreens were found to contain considerably higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids compared to the mature to their mature relatives or parts of the plant and the one example he given here on the left hand side is that if you buy your one pound and four ounces of broccoli you could as well have just found yourself an ounce of broccoli sprouts they say sprouts there could very well have been micro greens same thing they are nutrient dense that’s what that indicates look at the red cabbage over there vitamin e in micro greens is 40 times over compared to the the grown up red cabbage and so forth i mean it’s anywhere from 4 to 40 times with various crops next so again people kind of mix up microgreens and sprouts and we are going to be emphasizing this over and over again so if you hear this again bear with us but microgreens generally are grown in some sort of a medium you know that that medium could be soil it could be soil less as well and we’ll talk about that later as well then you need that container to hold the medium of course you eat both the leaves and the stems in microgreens that would be the shoot anything above the soil line would be what we eat and then they take a little bit longer the microgreens to grow compared to sprouts sprouts you see them quite a bit in you know if you go to jimmy john’s they have this sandwich they always put sprouts in and those don’t don’t uh they know they don’t allow them to grow longer than a week they are ready to be eaten at that point in time microgreens are packed with flavor and they are used as garnishes and they are generally more flavorful compared to sprouts which have mild flavor and they are used for their textural appeal they’re crunchy and later on i’ll be talking about radishes which are my favorite okay next slide okay let’s talk a little bit about equipment so you’re going to be a small grower you if you are a commercial grower you probably have more equipment more trays more light more seeds but generally for a homeowner it’s very easy very simple to get set up so let’s talk first about the trays in the lids so shallow trays they want something it’s going to be shallow you don’t need something that’s deep black plastic works well if you have a wooden container that will work the only problem with a wooden container is if you get disease in the root system of your plants it’ll be very hard to get that disease pathogens out of the wood without really cleaning and sanitizing it between each use so wood can work but there’s some potential concerns with that old baking containers with holes something like a small maybe a pan that’s maybe a half inch thick half inch high something like that but you want something that’s going to have holes it’s going to be shallow it’s going to be lightweight and it should be movable a lot of those things that you see on that slide there as far as those plastic containers on the right that you generally get the strawberries or blueberries in when you buy them at the grocery stores anything that you can buy at a retail store that has the tray plus the plastic lid covers work really well as well as clay pots uh so you want to be able to use wide shallow clay pots if possible the clay will dry out quicker than plastic so keep that in mind depending on which one you want to use you want to use choose the wide containers over the tall containers the wide containers are going to maximize the surface area and minimize any unnecessary extra soil

usage drainage is important so no drainage will result in stunted growth rot and mold in your microgreens and we’ll see that a little bit later on the lids you want to be able to create some sort of a greenhouse effect which keeps the moisture and the temperature constant as opposed to leaving the seeds open to the environment make sure the lid fits onto your container or is if you have a container that you want to use that doesn’t have a lid make sure you have something that can be placed fully over the germination container to make sure it keeps those moistures in if using a pot you can place the pot in a plastic bag and seal or cover it with a plastic sheet or piece of glass whichever works but using these techniques will help maintain a good environment for the plant unfortunately when you keep a container like that that’s moist has a lot of moisture in it and you keep it covered for long periods of time you can invite disease concerns and we’ll talk about some of these a little bit later once you have them covered make sure you keep them out of the direct sun so store it in the shade they don’t need sunlight at this point until they start germinating and producing their cotyledons or their first leaves so you can store it in the shade the lids again clear black do your research what will be needed in order for your seeds to germinate so each seed or each variety is going to be a little bit different if the seeds need darkness flip a black tray over the top of the seeded flat or place a board over it other things you may see on the internet when you start doing your research are using paper towels or cloth towels to cover your trays these can be used the cloth towels should be washed and cleaned and sanitized after every use so you don’t have the potential of having those pathogens uh be present on a new crop the paper towels themselves you’re gonna go ahead you’ll see pictures later but you’ll see the the paper towels laid on the soil and then you miss the paper towels and then you put those plastic covers on top of that so those are going to work the soil and felt pads which you’re going to see are going to be things like well actually the soil and felt pads the plants draw all of the nutrients from the soil and the water and since the crop will be growing closely packed together the quality of the soil is going to be important you need to choose a mix that has some sort of organic matter if possible that’s incorporated into it such as compost or earthworm castings or kelp or something like that that will help benefit the growth and the health of the plants especially if you’re looking to grow microgreens as a commercial endeavor if using felt pads that you see on the right can be used but they can be expensive but if you’re using them put water into the tray that had does not have holes on it put the pad in there to wet it flip it over and wet the other side and then what you’re going to do is sprinkle the seeds on top and then mist it you can take a second tray spray the inside of the second tray and invert it over your seated tray and that will help keep the moisture in if you don’t have a second tray use a cloth towel or unbleached paper towels if you have those remember if you’re using paper towels keep it moist until the towels start to rise above the soil about an inch so as the cotyledons as these seedlings start to grow the paper towel will start to rise off the seed bed itself so about an inch you can go ahead and look at under the paper towels and see what your germination is on that but once the cotyledons uh leaves the merge or the first type of leaves emerge then remove the lids and then place them in light and then you probably go ahead and mist them twice a day this is a example of university of florida that they had between soil and the pads that you just saw so they had i wanted to show you this because you can really see a difference after the same amount of growth time between the soil and those that are grown on the pads themselves remember those pads can be a little bit more expensive but you do have some sort of difference and you can really see the growth difference on those james growing media okay let’s look at some of the thoughts that go with growing media what kind of medium should one use and there are a few of you that ask questions related to a choice of media and yes like i said earlier you can use soil or soil less medium i mean peat and coconut core

all those are soilless media and can be used and the reason is because the seed itself has lots of food that is stored and that and that is usually used for up to two weeks i have a picture of of a seed a bean seed top right here corner which is just starting to germinate and you can see the leaf starting to form and pretty soon the radical will be forming the root that will anchor this new plant but you’d also see the cotyledon or the the part labored cotyledon will be the endosperm and that endosperm can feed that little micro plant for anything up to two weeks so really you don’t need medium that is got lots of nutrients he need you just saw a previous slide there where soil and pods were compared the soil appears to give the plants better anchorage that’s one but of course these these new seedlings would also acquire a little bit of nutrient nutrients from that soil which has it’s a potting mix if it’s a potting mix then it will have some food in it so there’s some advantage there and we’ll see we’ll talk a little bit later also about what you can save by making your own soil if you can come up with your own soil mix you will be saving yourself quite a bit of money and as you see there it could be soil the media could cost anywhere between one dollar and fifty cents up to four dollars per 10 23 and the 10 20 tray is the picture you see down below there which i think is 10 inches by 20 inches wide i say why they call it 10 20 that’s that’s what i’ll be calling it from now onwards so of course especially if you’re a commercial grower you always want to go for highest quality media at the lowest price so if you can make your own better even better what i grew myself the last 10 days was done importing mix of course there’s an expense there but as a homeowner maybe i can just get away with that okay so um then we’ve got to remember that some of these microgreens weed them out of their cotyledon leaves once those are formed cotyledon leaves are the fourth leaves the the leaves that come after the cotyledons open are the first true pair of leaves with the other microgreens we want to wait till the first true pair of leaves appear so again there is a difference if you’re doing things hydroponically we’ll talk about that in a second you may also not need any post-planning post-planting fertilization just because like i said this seed here has the endosperm which is full of nutrients that can be used by the micro plant the micro uh green and there is advice that if you use smelly fertilizers like facial motion it’s desirable because some people have sensory issues maybe the smell isn’t too good for them and a lot of people advocate that we can reuse the media if you’re using so if if you have like potting mix and you have all these roots that have been left behind you can just mix that with new protein mix and reuse but as we shall see later because of concerns with potential disease spread maybe it’s just better to throw that away or recompose it and once it’s recomposed use it after that rather than using it immediately thereafter next okay some of the other equipment that you’re going to need let’s talk about watering so if you’re growing your microgreens outside you can use a food grade hose and potable water the sprayer should be gentle enough to water the tray or the trays but not blow the seeds out of the tray by the force of the water

coming out of the hose so you want to be able to get some sort of a handle or a sprayer that has a missed uh portion or being able to gently mist and then during the germination phase once the cotyledons and the seedlings have started to form and the germination phase is is has progressed then you can change to a medium spray a watering can will work as well as with the late seedling stage as well overhead watering can cause disease concerns so if you are going to overhead water your plants make sure you have good air circulation so the disease does not form another method of watering would be to water from below put the growing trays in a container that doesn’t have holes put water in there put enough water in so the tray can wick up the water into the seedling root system this will eliminate the potential of getting the cotyledons wet which where the disease is going to progress another concern with water is that municipal water sources generally have chlorine in it uh which plants uh negatively react to depending on the species so try and use some sort of filter water or rain water when we talk about the ph of the plant i mean the ph of the soil and the water itself ph is going to be important to keep an eye on it tells you how acidic uh or how alkaline soil is acidic think something like vinegar or lemon juice and when i say alkaline think something like ammonia the range for most of the soil uh ph is from 0 to 14 with seven being in the middle so with the uh plants most plants are grown outside in the fields have a ph sweet range between 6.3 and 7.4 depending on the plant variety and that’s in between those two red lines and you notice with those boxes you have more of those nutrients available to you because it’s a wider box in those areas as opposed to the left hand side or the right hand side where they tend to dis decrease as the ph goes up and down with microgreens since the production cycle is only about two to three weeks it’s going to be important to keep track of your water ph and this will determine how well your microgreens are able to access the nutrients in the soil if it’s too low or too high then the nutrients will not be available to your seedlings which can show up with yellowing cotyledons poor growth or rot keeping the ph of the water at the requirement for your specific crop is going to be about generally 6 to 6.5 so generally where that blue line is at on the screen you’ll need to do your research to determine what that is there are a lot of good books and internet has a lot of information on this so take a few moments to get a good handle in this area there are also many options as to how to raise and lower your ph one of which is buying products at your local retail store and the products are like ph up or ph down and these are generally found in the aquatic section where they sell the fish fish tanks things like that other products are lowering the ph to make it more acidic can be incorporating a little bit of lemon juice or to raise the ph you can use a little bit of baking soda or powdered lime will work as well just make sure if you’re going to use a powdered product that is completely dissolved before you test for your ph so heat mats or what they call propagation mats are also used a lot of commercial growers use this but if you’re growing your microgreens in a cool environment having a heat mat underneath the root system is going to be beneficial this generally is used to maintain a higher temperature in the soil environment to help promote germination they are generally not needed unless you are trying to germinate in colder environments like i mentioned before or during the winter months temperatures of 65 to 75 degrees will promote the rooting but once your rooting has occurred then you need to remove the heat because if that the heat stays on to the root system as the plants start to grow then it will prevent root elongation other things that you’ll need are your harvesting tools and harvesting equipment so a good pair of sharp scissors or a sharp knife will be able to work well

to cut those micro greens cleanly make sure you treat your harvested micro greens like you would any delicate salad green keep it in the fridge you can keep it up for about a week if it’s stored properly if you have potential of drying out during this time can place a damp paper towel in the plastic bag along with the micro greens and then put it in the fridge the bag itself should remain open but the cool temperatures will help reduce any type of decomposition that’s going to occur the damp paper towel will maintain the high humidity around the cuttings just be careful that if it’s too wet it will promote growth of fungus and molds within the bag itself all right let’s talk a little bit about light sources and their uses so lights growing outside you can keep the seeds and the germination trays in a dark location until germination occurs and then move it out into the sunlight if you’re growing inside the type of lighting system you’re going to choose is going to depend on how many trays you are going to grow and what your budget is most common lighting systems is with fluorescent lights like the shop light systems light systems should be on for about four to nine hours fluorescent lights are better for the plants than incandescent bulbs if you remember those incandescent bulbs those are the old light bulbs that are being phased out and so the fluorescent lights that you see now are going to be cooler and they can have a better color range for the plants than incandescent bulbs and those examples in the upper right hand corner of the screen are just some indications of the type of bulbs that are available for growers but when you’re choosing your fluorescent lights there are many to choose from the color temperature is a way to describe the light appearance provided by a light bulb so it’s measured in degrees of kelvin and for most light systems growers are going to look for light temperatures of at least 4000 k but preferably to up to 5000 or 6500 k the higher the number the closer it is to sunlight or natural light so what i have here is just a picture of one of the light bulbs and so when you look in the light bulb itself it’s going to tell you specifically it’s a 14 watt bulb with 3000 k so as the uh kelvin goes up like the five or the 6400 uh the 6400 k is going to be 125 watts the or 55 watts so it’s going to change and it will go up the wattage will go up as the kelvins go up but you can see how it’s used here in this commercial micro propagation business here where they have it though sets up uh all on the counters uh two rows with those shop light systems set up on that just to give you an idea of what it looks like you can also use led lights now these led lights um work by having the current pass through a conducting material and these tend to cast light when electricity is supplied and it’s going to cast different colored lights this technology doesn’t rely on heat to produce the light and has greater efficiency energy efficiency than incandescent bulbs these leds have low energy usage there’s low heat given off just like the fluorescence so the fluorescence can stay anywhere from two to four inches above the plants these leds can be anywhere from 10 to 16 inches from the plants they last a lot a long time uh if you have an existing shop light system these lights are available to fit fit into the ballasts but it you may need to modify your your ballast system a little bit so make sure you do a little bit of research on that the nice thing about this is that these led lights generally are no wiring is going to be required so it makes it easy just to go ahead and buy it and put it up and the nice thing about the leds is that there’s no glass to break if the fluorescent bulbs break those are going to have glass all over the place and so you may have a problem so these leds are really nice sourcing your seeds or getting your seeds so make sure you use quality seeds factors that go into these quality seeds if you’re saving seeds from year to year are going to be storage conditions the handling how they were handled the age and the source of the seed itself having quality seeds with a high germination rate will ensure that you have a higher yield than if you’re only using a lower one

high germination rate of about 95 percent it’s going to be a lot better than one that has a 50 germination rate you don’t need to use just the packets of seeds that are specifically labeled for microgreens seed packets from the store can be used to grow micro greens although there are several varieties that do better than others and we’ll talk about that in a moment vegetable and herb plants are the most common seeds grown as microgreens there are several companies that sell microgreen mixes and these mixes are especially good for beginners because they’re mixed so they know when they’re going to be coming up all at the same time the seed packets themselves are going to have some information and so one of the things with these seed packets and the sourcing of the seeds is to make sure that when you buy these seeds you want to buy them untreated now the picture on the right is going to show you some seeds the corn on the top is natural seeds the corn on the bottom that are pink has some sort of fungicide on them so and the one on the left where you see those cucumber seeds uh they’re treated blue so again there’s some sort of a chemical on those seeds but if you’re doing microgreens you need to have untreated seeds if at all possible so on the coats themselves so you want to be able to look at the germination rates all the seed packets should have a germination rate on there um the other thing is that if you have a lower germination rate on your seeds not all the seeds are going to germinate at the same time so you may plant a tray of seeds but with a 50 or 60 70 percent germination you may have some that germinate early you may have some that germinate later so trying to get a really good batch of seeds with high germination rate is going to be important so again if you’re going to do it commercially that’s going to be a big thing but you know if you’re kind of doing it for yourself you’re just beginning you know just test it out and see what you have so all of this generally boils down to the seed quality in making sure that you have a good germination rate on those seeds so let’s talk about seeding rates the density of seeding is going to vary depending on the seeds that you’re planting generally 10 to 12 seeds per square inch for the smaller seeds or six to eight seeds for the larger seeds depending on how you want it to go there’s no set blueprint for this it all depends on what you are looking for you can broadcast the seeds or you can plant them in row it doesn’t matter most people broadcast once the seeds are on the soil then you’re going to press them into your medium with your hand to make sure that there is good contact between the seed and the medium itself you need that contact in order for them to germinate once you’ve done this then you’re going to mist them and then you’re going to cover them with the clear clear lids or the board or the towels or the paper towels okay keep them in the dark for the first few days when the seeds start to germinate you’ll notice that the paper towel will become elevated as i mentioned before if you take the paper towel off too soon some of the seedlings or seeds will be attached to the paper towel and if that happens then it’s not quite ready to remove that towel put the towel back down make sure that you still have good contact with the soil and then wait a couple of days and try again the thing is is that you want those seedlings to be able to root into the soil and because they’re attached to the paper towel that means that the rooting has not done has not completed properly james thank you um let’s one other question that a few of you asked was what are the best seeds to plant for microgreens and of course the answer is it depends it all depends on your taste and what you want to grow if you are lazy like me go with something like radish which requires very little effort that’s what i like best and i like the test as well so it all depends but from this list you can see that the choice of microgreens to grow is diverse across several families and some of the examples i have the brassi quesi which is the broccoli family includes broccoli cauliflower cabbage radish alugula and watercress the asteriski family or which is the sunflower family has sunflower radicchio chicory and lettuce

the aster where that’s the asterisk is the sunflower family the api she which is the carrot family has carrots dill fennel and sarali the amarilli desi and you don’t need to know this from this biological names here the onion family has onion itself leek and garlic can also be grown as microgreens the amaranthesia includes it has the amaranth family which includes amaranth seed quinoa swiss chard beet and spinach the cucabites here which you can tell is the cucumber family has cucumber squash melon and then we have the grasses the graminessi which includes the cereals rice oats wheat corn barley and others that we we haven’t mentioned here that that can be grown legumes we didn’t even talk about the beans the bean family quite a number of beans can be grown for microgreens lentils chickpeas and it all depends on the individual if you have the time to wait for three weeks as opposed to one week or ten days uh if the if the taste is too sour or better for one and not the other go for it if you have if you want neutral taste as opposed to spicy yeah like spicy then go for whatever it’s all it all depends on you and if your commercial grower maybe you’ve been asked to grow marigold and as we shall see later on marigold seed is pretty expensive so you’ll have to charge very expensively too if your client is okay with that why just go for it next slide so micro green seeds are same as the larger version but you need a lot of seed i know laurie just said you could actually go to the stores and buy the seed packets but for the kind of densities we grow and if you’re going to continually grow throughout the year then don’t just buy this small few gram seed packets go ahead and go to a seed shop ensure that what you’re buying is good for consumption as micro greens we just saw that some seeds get treated with pesticides to protect them against fungi and insects so make sure that they are labeled for microgreen production and then one of you in the audience was frustrated when they tried to grow a seed mix for microgreens because there was lack of uniformity in growth yeah that would be frustrating now was this seed meant for you to cook or actually grow for microgreens make sure that you’re buying the right seed for the right purpose so i’m not saying you made a mistake that it was for cooking and you did that but uh these mixes are available and if you go with a reputable seed supplier they’ll have done their research to know which seeds germinate at about the same rate before mixing them up like that and then with a reputable company you will get clean seed clean as in being pathogen free there are so many seedborne pathogens out there that could attach on seeds and you grow them and your seedlings start to fall over that’s not a desirable and this is where organic seed is therefore greater than most other seeds because chemicals are really avoided so get the information on the seed packet whether this is consumable directly or not directly and i would urge you to buy those that are labeled for microgreen use seeds when they are allowed to pre-soak especially the larger seed it helps in hastening the growth of the particular crop that you’re growing growing when you pre-soak what happens is the seeds imbibe water and means absorbing water

and that breaks the dormancy dormancy is the quiescence in the seeds seeds are not dead they’re just waiting for water or for that germination signal or stimulation mostly it’s usually water and that starts a cascade of biochemical events which lead to germination so with the larger seeds like the beans and peas if you generally if you pre-soak them and i would say overnight before you go to bed let them soak for six to eight hours if you’re planning to do them to plant them the following morning so um that helps can you sanitize my microgreen seed yes you can if you are if you’ve been keeping your own seed and you think maybe you have had contamination with some microbial organisms you can take four tablespoons of teaspoons of of white vinegar and four teaspoons of food grade hydrogen peroxide in one quart of water soak for 10 minutes then if they are the larger seeds then soak them again in water for the six or eight hours if you don’t want to make your own uh disinfectant by something like tsunamis it’s indicated on this slide tsunami is a mix of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid that’s why it’s called peroxyacetic acid and it will do the same job of disinfecting your seed it’s organic so it’s a omri organic materials research institute has labeled it as organic so it’s usable on those consumable seeds next so again we go to again this is just a slide i added there six suggested peaks on the right hand side my favorite is still radish i see it again and there are several radish varieties by the way there is the daikon radish and other types of radishes as an individual just experiment with ones that you find and pick on your best and like i said i like the spicy flavor now i should point out that different microgreens have different benefits they had some more you know endowed with beta carotenes others have more vitamin c or vitamin a or folic acid or other minerals like manganese so if you have a few a few mixes of different types of microgreens they’ll supplement each other and give you even more nutrient um rich food and then as you can see also from the right hand side even with all the advantages there’s always the other side of the coin most microgreens need to be eaten as almost as soon as they’re harvested and we’ll talk about storage later although it’s been mentioned but if you’re going to store them you can place them in a bag place them in the fridge and they store for one week or a few days and a few days more or a few days over one week so micro greens just like sprouts need to be harvested in a timely manner you let them go too long and then you’re losing their nutrient value and they become laggy and so forth even better suggestions to give you an indication of ease of growing maybe also earliness is given on the left-hand side of this slide and radish as you can see is one of the fast and easy ones and in addition to its flavor is it’s a great it’s a great one to grow it’s just quite fast and your choice all depends on you i said and if your commercial what are your clients asking you to grow for them and so forth for instance even though peas have been indicated that to be more challenging and supposedly harder to grow if you grow them successfully by the time you are ready to harvest them to eat you get a lot more biomass that is too chewy and flavorful remember that i said when you wait too long you’re starting to develop lignins and pectins and fibers that may not be

digestible but the peas still retain their goodness even when they’re a little bit bigger you get more biomass next slide so growing microgreens is and this is a personal bias dead easy for me it’s a dead easy thing to do all things considered equal and that is that is if you see this viable termination is pretty good you don’t have disease you have the proper environment and you have the proper management you are not under watering or overwatering and all those bad things all things are equal they are very easy to grow the roots of microgreens don’t go that deep and that’s why you are not wasting your good soil or potting mix like i used to more than 1.5 inches just using a little bit and when you saw like claudia said so thickly and evenly then give water and most often the recommendation is you missed and sub subsequently if you have holes in the bottom of your container you can just put water in the secondary container so that water can go up by cathedral reaction to the plants and rory also showed how you harvest commercial growers like to use a very sharp knife so that it goes clean through the seedlings when you hold them and two inches most often some of them you wait you’re there three inches okay and like i said then your nutrient loss is low because one you’re not cooking your micro new microgreens and secondly you eat them quickly remember that when you harvest any produce that you harvest it is still undergoing metabolism and metabolism means it’s using some of the stored energy or nutrients and so the longer you wait the more that metabolism takes place and you’re losing on the quality of your nutrients so um i when it comes to watering them myself i have maybe i i’m lazy again but i just water them from the top and i watch that i’m not over watering them okay so let’s go to before we go to the next slide i wrote there that where somebody also said asked if hydroponics can be used and yes it can be done except now if you start growing hydroponically you’re probably getting more of sprouts than microgreens as shown in that picture over there lots of roots they’re not in any medium they’re just in water and if you don’t let them grow too big as to become unchewable and digestible you can eat the whole thing and that’s what sprouts are you know we eat everything okay let’s go to the next slide again there was a question about growing microgreens outdoors and that is possible no question about it the lady gardener you see there is growing house in summertime outside but of obviously these are not micro greens so what is the deal with microgreens here she densely planted whatever she has planted in those three uh box beds there thickly in rows and then what she did was when it came to time for thinning she started pulling out everything that was that she wanted to remove to thin out and those were her micro greens so she is going to let everything else grow to maturity but she did eat quite a bit of what she planted in the beginning so that’s one way of doing it the other one is next slide uh if you grow them outdoors just like you grow them indoors like about this time and which one which is what i did with mine which i’m going to show you in a short while make observations that you are not exposing them to too much sunlight do it in the shade okay if that’s if you’re doing it in a container that you can move around so if you’re going to plant in the ground maybe you have a raised bed

watch out for other challenges like disease because there you have you have a lot of soil borne disease disease pathogens in the ground so watch out do not over water see when you see when you get the fast signs of disease do something about it as well there’s also slowness to break dormancy in the ground and then if there is any stress variations in temperature and water the plant senses those stresses and decides to mature earlier and you find them turning green when they are even shorter you know they’re like maturing too quickly so environment being too variable outside is is an issue now at the bottom there i say you could grow in high tunnels which are those those are plastic houses if you have a small glass house or screen house let’s put it that way you could also use that that’s also a nice place to do it outdoors next slide so so we already said that microgreens are can be grown throughout the year now in winter in the northern climates we have shorter day lengths so you have to take care of that and i think already somehow i mentioned that you need to do up to nine hours of light and if you don’t have access to a south facing window you need to do the supplementary light and that has been talked about in a previous slide quite a bit remember that some some some microgreen varieties will do better than others indoors um do some research find out which ones you want to grow and before you grow it is it going to do very well indoors i find like the radish again do okay indoors so again my bias is always really strong on that particular species okay keep keep your fro keep your lights cheap for those of us who are homeowners just buy the fluorescent lights if you want to invest a little bit more in the led lights do so because they last longer and if you want to be doing the next so many years hey why not circulate airwell because when air is not circulated well in this very dense densely planted crops you might create a microclimate that may encourage disease okay and then water appropriately as we’ve always said next slide okay let’s talk a little bit about harvesting and storing so we’ve been talking a lot about the seedling and the cotyledons and the leaf stages the truly stages and and i wanted to show a picture of that so in the middle you see that little seedling there that has two rounded leaves and two leaves with uh serrated edges so when we talk about the cotyledon stage it’s those the cotyledons are the first leaves that come out of the seedling that help start producing or sugars through photosynthesis and so it’s these cotyledons that get that give that germinating seed or that germinating embryo the sugars and the nutrients that it’s needed because it’s really using up all those nutrients in the endosperm that was stored in the seed itself so when the plants first come out those cotyledons appear and then after those cotyledons appear the first set of true leaves appear and those true leaves are the ones that are have the serrated edges so you can really tell the difference between the cotyledons and the first true leaves so when we talk about when they reach a first stage or true leaf stage that’s the stage i’m that you’re going to be looking for so when you’re harvesting your seedlings your microgreens you want them to reach the first true leaf stage and depending on the variety that you have you’re going to have anywhere from two to three inches tall the time between when this occurs can be

anywhere from seven days to 21 days so there’s a big difference on that and again it’s going to depend on the variety that you have we talked about the harvesting scissors or the knives making sure they’re they’re sharp and you can see in the lower right hand corner where how you going to go ahead and harvest that and then store it in the bag so harvesting is going to be real easy to do storing we talked about already as far as stored in the refrigerator in a uh or you can put it in a clam shell like you see on the bottom itself though the bottom one are radishes in the left hand side and the right hand side are p micro greens so there’s a big difference you can use those a lot of the commercial growers use those clam shells so whatever you use is is going to be based on you let’s talk a little bit about micro greens and food safety so when we talk about when you see the the news issues with sprouts and people the sprouts making people sick as james mentioned earlier there’s a difference between sprouts and microgreens okay so sprouts are soaked in water they’re sprouted in jars or bins without any type of light in high humidity warm conditions and most of the time they’re going to be using recirculated water and it’s this water source or the type of water that if you get a disease in a water source and you reuse that water for another crop then you can have potential cross contamination between those two crops but generally the sprout seeds have been found to be the main source of food borne illnesses and outbreaks on those those sprouts generally can be harvested with the seed coat and so when these sprout growers commercial sprout growers they have to make sure that they’re using a certified seed and you notice in the diagram that those sprouts are harvested in about five six seven days when we start talking about microgreens the microgreens the seeds are placed on the soil the red system grows into the medium and the plants are exposed to light and air movement which helps reduce the incidences of any type of diseases and it also helps to reduce any type of humidity in there the water is generally not recirculated so you don’t have a problem with that you’re not eating the root system or the shoots themselves or the seed coat okay so you’re harvesting the plants above by cutting the stems above the root system when the first true leaves appear so these are going to be generally safer than sprouts and they generally about seven to fourteen days depending on your variety and what talked a little bit also about water and the water usage water is probably one of the the most important things when you are watering the vegetables in your garden whether you are watering these microgreens in your house or outside the water source should be potable if you have a greenhouse frost free water is going to be a must potable water is going to be important you do not want to water with groundwater or surface water like ponds or lakes or streams or rivers or anything that’s exposed to the surface because you’re going to have instances of micro bacterial contaminants such as e coli that can be in the water you water on your micro greens or your vegetables then what’s going to happen is that there’s a potential of the that e coli or whatever’s in the water that comes in contact with what you’re trying to eat or the harvestable portion of that crop so when commercial growers they generally get their water tested and they test tested for e coli because that’s what they’re looking for city water you’re not going to have that problem so municipal water potable water that’s going to be great the only thing you’re concerned about it would be the chlorine so use any type of potable water if at all possible if in your growing areas or your growing spaces most of the commercial growers follow this but sometimes if you are a homeowner it’s going to be important as well make sure the water is not pooling in your growing space because you can still have some contaminants that are in that area and can produce spores or anything else that may contaminate your crop hand watering over headwater system if possible i would probably do bottom watering commercial growers it’s a lot harder for them to bottom water so they do it as a sprinkle system but as a homeowner do it from the bottom and then each variety is going to be different

depending on the watering requirements so do your research on that the other thing that you’re going to have a problem with on your microgreens when you start seeing conditions like mold or the plants are starting to die or you know they get to a stage where they’re ready to go and then boom all of a sudden they just kind of fall over and turn brown a big part of that is your equipment sanitation if you have equipment that you’ve used in the past like a plastic tray and you wash it out with water and or you rinse it out with water and then you put a fresh crop or fresh soil in there whatever is attached to that plastic tray has the potential of going back into that soil and contaminate your new crop so equipment sanitation is going to be a very important part you may not see this concern if you are growing two or three crops but if you’re growing crop after crop after crop after crop using the same pan you’re not cleaning it you’re going to have a problem so keep them the harvesting tools your knives and your your scissors and your trays make sure that you have a four-step cleaning process where you’re going to pre-rinse or remove the debris from the tray itself and then you’re going to wash it with soap and water potable water and soap use a brush whatever it’s going to require rinse it out and then send it sanitize those trays and tools you can use a bleach solution of one a tablespoon per gallon of water or the hydrogen peroxide that you buy at the store is generally a three percent uh it’s generally should be food grade uh the ones that you see at the store generally are some of the commercial growers by a six percent hydrogen peroxide and then water it down or cut it in half to make a three percent so after you clean and rinse spray those trays and those utensils with the hydrogen peroxide or the bleach and then do a final rinse and air dry and that’s going to help reduce some of the problems that you’re going to have so some of the good agricultural practices for microgreens is you’re going to have good air circulation we’ve talked about that because it’s going to be important to reduce the incidences of disease maintain good worker hygiene wash your hands before harvesting we hear a lot of that today wash your hands good equipment washing and sanitation minimize injury to the microgreens when harvesting so if you use a dull knife you’re going to be smashing those stems instead of cutting them cleanly when you smash them you’re going to have a greater deterioration of the plant tissue and it may not last as long in storage and again use the potable water source don’t use gray water don’t use surface water or untreated well water some of the potential challenges that you’re going to have uh some of the things that that people have written in or i have seen seeds are not germinating okay so the problem may be that you have seed viability problems maybe the age of the storage conditions or the germination percentage is not correct or it’s you haven’t really paid attention to that are your trays drying out during the day are you keeping them moist that’s going to be important loss of crop due to lack of water is a major concern and soil and seed moist in the beginning stages of germination is going to be important maybe the temperature is uh too hot or too cold which would result in your seeds not germinating 55 to 75 degrees is good for germination and it’s going to base on the variety of your seed itself so we mentioned also about if you do use paper towels and you lift them up and the seeds are still sticking to it then what you need to do is to wait till the seedlings start to push up the towel about an inch and they’re showing their cotyledons about two to five days depending on the variety so we’ve talked about that thick stand or thin stand uneven germination you should focus on spreading the seed evenly on the medium the poor quality soil will promote poor germination so when we talked about the soil and we spent a little bit of time on that that’s going to be important to make sure you take a look at that and keep that in mind seed quality is also going to be a concern poor quality may germinate at different time frames uh and for a crop that’s only growing one to two weeks this can make a difference so it’s not a problem if you’re growing for home use but if you’re trying to do it to sell to retail sales this can be a big problem

tall spindly growth that means that you’re going to have a lot of problems with not enough light on it healthy growth should be stout and it should be green with a good amount of light on that seedlings tend to bend or fall over or lighter in color or generally not looking good is this a problem with the light source itself adding natural light or supplemental fluorescent led lights would benefit be careful if you’re moving your micro greens into sunlight from the low light situation because it can burn leaves so kind of adjust them gradually into a full sunlight if that’s what you’re trying to do the micro creams become limp don’t let them sit in the air after harvest some people wash their microgreens you don’t have to generally they’re not touching the soil you don’t really have a problem with that but if you buy the greens from the store generally people say to wash them use cool water put in a container a bag and keep it close keep it in the refrigerator and they can last about a week or so so if you’ve ever grown microgreens and you’ve seen this problem this is called damping off and damping off is a seed or seedling disease in which decay occurs before the emergence through the soil surface or after the seeds have emerged or the seedlings have emerged the seedling stem itself collapses near the soil surface it starts at a certain point in the tray and you can see the seedlings are dying this is a soil borne disease it will spread to other areas of the tray with each watering that you do so when you look at something like that this is telling me that you are over watering your your soil or your media base and you’re going to see this more in the soil base than you are in a felt pants once this starts it’s going to be almost impossible to try and get rid of so this is a disease that if you throw the soil away and put fresh soil in without cleaning and sanitizing this stamping off will be seen in future plantings as well so cleaning and sanitizing is going to be important in this but this is called damping off and it’s caused because you are over watering other problems that you’re going to see are mold versus root hairs and so when your seedlings start to grow if you start to see mold on the soil that’s going to tell you that the water there’s too much water in the soil base itself it doesn’t have to be soaking wet when you have a damp soil if you take a handful of soil and you start to squeeze it and you get water dripping out of it it’s too wet you want to be able to have it maybe form a ball in your fist and when you open it up it maybe crumbles a little bit but it still has some form of a ball that’s what you’re looking for so any type of mold you’re going to see is going to form on the surface of the soil and on the seedlings themselves and it’s going to be a fungal hyphy it’s going to be like having a spider’s web that’s occurring on your seedlings when you compare the mold to root hairs sometimes the root hairs as you see on the right are going to look like mold because you have so many seeds together but that’s not going to be the case so it’s going to take maybe a hand lens for you to really take a look and see whether that is mold growing from all over or whether it’s just those root hairs that are extending out from the root of themselves themselves so the mold versus root hairs if you really see the mold it’s going to be because of damp too damp soil too much of a damp soil okay so let’s consider some economics and this is not we are not very strong on economics so um we won’t spend too much time on the economic aspects of it i’m going to open up my video just because i might show some things here uh can you open my video um rory if you can uh you’re gonna have to do it okay it’s not it’s not working okay okay don’t worry about it if you can find so um for a 10 20 growing tray remember that tray that we showed earlier on maybe the cost is a dollar uh

maybe up to two dollars but if you buy in bulk if you are much you grow you may bring down the price because of the wholesale price and then um for a homeowner why is spending the money when we have all this and i wanted to show you all these things we buy food items in whether it’s that baked bread or cake or chinese food or salads that we buy in containers keep those containers indeed one of the containers that really showed there has a cover so that when you grow your microgreens there you can cover it the first few days it’s like a mini greenhouse it keeps the moisture in it keeps some warmth in it helps kick start the process the seed costs vary again you note from that uh chart there that the seeds are a third of the cost of production they vary and i was looking online and seeing that if you’re going to buy one pound of parsley you’re going to pay 15 if you buy one pound of baso you’re going to pay 45 and if you buy one pound of marigold you’re going to pay 350 dollars so again how deep is your pocket and what test are you going for so depending on the seed type and seed supply you will have to make your choice we still emphasize that you need to buy from reputable suppliers for better quality seed so you have better germination and they’ll tell you whether it’s treated or not treated soil is another big big input in microgreen production if you do your own soil i said earlier on if you experiment or talk to other people doing it i’ll let you know how they’re doing it you can save big by doing your own soil if you’re a homeowner just buy some potting mix all right the growing pads are expensive they are unsustainable and they are less productive you remember seeing that earlier on and even then the soil less media coconut coir in peat moss are examples coconut coir is more expensive than peat moss basically because we can produce our own people we can get peat moss locally whereas we can’t get coconut core that easily we have to get it from where florida or somewhere else water and energy provide some variable costs energy you know you’re probably spending some money on light some pump maybe a fan maybe a humidifier all this costs add up and then finally there is labor transport insurance and taxes next fine so pricing micro greens again maybe this is for the commercial growers i will want you to read this more for yourself one more quick yeah how to sell your micro greens are you in the farmer’s market and i people coming along and saying i need four ounces and you have your price at a dollar fifty or two dollars whatever or do you have them in clam shells that go for five dollars per clam so that probably equal to five ounces is equal to five dollars an ounce so it all depends on how you want to sell it some people wash them when they package them others leave them unwashed because customers want to wash them themselves they become messed up a little bit sometimes when you wash them so depending on how you are selling you’re marketing them you set the price find out the prices from other people i walk around kankakee farmers market and i see somebody selling there i have some pictures which i can’t find but um i got the prices some of them it’s three dollars per ounce because they’re just more expensive to produce so keep your prices more or less even in the market keep track track of costs of production all the inputs you um you’re getting into production and because it’s a simple crop to grow it’s easy to follow what uh what you’re spending okay and if you’re getting expenses of around two to four dollars by trace probably you’re within the range of expenses that most other people are going through the more you can reduce that the better your profit and the better your profitability then we put it that way

next slide okay so this is something i tried on july 27th which is exactly 10 days ago i got myself the potting mix i saved myself the container you see here and all these others this one not on the top there has a cover that’s that’s the one which i said behaves like a little greenhouse which you see on the right hand side and which i planted with broccoli now you notice they are yellow just coming through that’s what they look like when they are coming through so you just have to wait a little bit they hit the sun and they become different and you see another picture very soon next slide so hit the first one stop there so july july 27th when i planted i tried on the round tray an experiment and i got myself some garden beans which are the white ones and i ran out of the quantity that i wanted they would have been dense i would have planted them denser than that if i had more on the left hand side i had enough of radish and i planted as density as i could and that’s the most dense i could get to i i think i had enough that i was doing an experiment and down there you see i’ve indicated that round radishes provide it’s a power pack when it comes to nutritional benefits down there you see all those next next click ones so in five days the radishes came through and you can tell they just came through because most of them are yellow and the beans were still down there and i thought what a waste of a tree then i waited one more day and next next click they started coming through the beans that is meanwhile the raw dishes were pretty densely populated on their side and coming up pretty good so next slide so this is august for one week after seven days after and you can see the top left hand corner there is the beans coming through even more and the radishes have come through and the broccoli have come through in the what i’m calling a greenhouse like or glass house like container so they’re coming through as well but they’re slower they’re shorter than the radishes click ones and then i decided i was going to harvest a few of the radishes just to sample and the next one slide the ball that you see there just had some and i saw one question in the chat box there asking how do you keep them clean i just couldn’t keep them clean enough i had to wash them all you see the specks of dirt in there i just had to clean them up before i consume them so this is one week i was hoping to show you 10 days thereafter they’re just going strong now what you’re seeing on the radishes the leaves are actually cotyledons meanwhile on the beans what you’re seeing is the first pair of true leaves but below the true leaves you see the cotyledons now chewing those cotyledons is not that easy unless you cook the leaf and the coated lemons but chewing the leaves that’s pretty easy so from that point of view i don’t think i would want to go with the garden beans that much i would go more with the radishes as as i said before and i don’t know if there is one more slide well yeah i think that’s my presentation yep that we’ve used yeah and some of the questions go ahead i bought a well-reviewed packet of mixed bean seeds and found that they sprouted on such different schedules that they were worthless is it better to just sprout one type of bean at a time or is there a trick or missing answer is for me is yes go with one and if you want another type go to a different container and you want a third one go to a different container unless you’re buying from a very reputable supplier who tells you i’ve done my research and all these the the variation in germination and maturation is a day or so if i’m not being told that i probably wouldn’t try

what do you what do you think probably yeah those the packet of mixed bean seeds the the key word there is mixed right so you don’t know what kind of beans were in there unless they really list them out and each variety is going to germinate at different times just like it would if you’re planting in the garden so these mixed bean seeds you know you find that you you find a bag or a company that you like and you try it out and sometimes it does work and sometimes it doesn’t most of those micro green seed mixes that you find at the store are generally combined with different varieties that will germinate at the same time so that that’s not going to be a problem but sometimes you may find a mix that doesn’t so again this would be hard to determine seed sources and that was well addressed by rolly and then ways to safely avoid the diseases of the microgreens i think we you know the major issue here is water water and air circulation any circulation and also get some high quality seed so that the supply has already made sure they are not packaging things that are already contaminated with disease causing organisms right can you can you grow micro greens organically we did our best the answer is yes and we did our best here to even recommend chemicals that are not well chemicals no um ingredients that are not chemicals hydrogen peroxide is something that is safe for us to use um acetic acid is safe for us to use we actually eat vinegar which has acetic acid in it so yes you can first of all you can get organic seed it’s available and then secondly you can start doing it in the kind of media that you want that has no added fertilizers and stuff like that so yes you can do it organically no question about it okay the type of equipment you need to start a micro garden affordable places to purchase supplies if i’m doing it the only thing i’m going to buy is seed and potting mix that’s the only thing i’m going to buy as a homeowner everything else i mean i save all these containers and what i mean it’s just easy to get the supplies okay how many varieties of micro greens are there we attended to that and they are just all over the place there are so many of them is there special equipment needed to grow microgreens special would have to be like the led lights maybe that’s where a specialty comes in otherwise everything else is ordinary i don’t think there’s anything that is really out of the ordinary your highest most is going to be the soil yes and the soil yeah how can they be grown in the winter successfully as long as you’re providing light warmth and then your management is up to date you should be able to eat micro greens every 10 days or every two weeks or every week you have something coming up that you can sprinkle on your salads you should have enough best soil for microgreens again you either do your research and do your own combination or just try everything else just remember that if you’re using a a soil-based mix that has peat moss in it peat moss is going to hold water a lot and so some soil mixes that you buy at the store read what’s in that mix if you have sphagnum peat moss or canadian peat moss or something like that you know that it’s going to hold more water than if you use something like sand or a mix of perlite vermiculite or something that’s going to be a little bit different so any type of potting soil will work that you buy at the store just keep in mind uh the watering aspects of it actually it reminded me something else ensure that you are not adding more than zero point no five percent organic matter if you have too much of organic matter you might now encourage disease causing organisms to thrive so keep it between three and five percent uh always that’s defined

and then light sources we talked about that you can use the sunlight that’s the number one source that everybody would like to use it’s free and then other types of lights as well then growing microgreens outdoors i think i’ll discuss that in a few slides in two slides and i think maybe there’s one other that’s good probably you might want to see some of the questions okay so in the chat box we have a couple of questions here it says um why don’t clay containers have the same problem as wood containers they they can uh wood containers tend to hold or the problem with the wood containers is that they may have some grooves or they may have scratches or something where those microorganisms can hold into those grooves and it’d be very hard to get out of clay pots also are porous and they do have those concerns as well so cleaning and sanitizing is going to be a major problem for that um to make sure that you get them clean and sanitized so if you’re using clay or wood uh go ahead and clean and sanitize between the crops themselves you have anything you want to add and i don’t i don’t know if you mentioned it clay is actually soil clay pot is clay it’s made from clay soil therefore it takes up a whole lot of water you have to watch out for that yeah okay um i have one from concerned with getting soil mix in the greens when harvesting any tips on how to collect them after cutting while keeping them clean you want to address that james since you did oh okay i had said i had a replied there and said you know even when i harvested the radishes that i grew which you see over there i thought first of all they look clean but once they were in the pot i mean the bowl yes like no i got a lot of soil with that i had to wash them and i don’t know how else you can keep them dart free or soil free when you harvesting first of all the container that i used by the way i should say was too deep so even harvesting was a bit of an issue i had to go like in there is you know because i didn’t want to put too much potting mix to the level of the height of the container because that would be a waste i only wanted to do one one and a half inches so harvesting was a little bit of an issue and you still pull up some of those seedlings anyway they bring some soil you just have to wash them i don’t know what else to say yeah it’s going to be hard especially if you use a soil base or cut them a little bit higher from the soil line instead of right at the soil line but every time you water there’s a potential of getting soil on top of that especially if you have a little bit harder water force that’s hitting the soil itself i have a person that is waiting for a freeze dryer system that they’ve ordered and they are want to try and freeze drying to keep the nutrients in them do you know anything james about freeze drying micro greens i do not but we could just use logic here and since we do do that with hubs hubs i don’t know if you say abs or hubs but we do that we do freeze dry those i do not see why we can’t do the same with this freeze drying simply is simply remove of water in the micro greens or in the tissue that is being freeze-dried my my guest mission is that it would work yeah um i don’t know i’ve never tried it so robin if you ever get it and you try it let us know how it works be interested to find out we do have another question um does the seed starting mix need to be different than what we use for starting non-microgreens no the seed starting mix can be any type of a potting soil but there is a product on the market it’s called seedling mix um you buy them at your local retail box store uh and it will say germination or seedling mix that would be a good one it may be a little bit finer type of soil it may not have enough or a lot of peat moss in there because it’s that peat moss that’s going to cause the damping off or the holding of the moisture so there are some out there that i have seen and i have used in the past so either one of those will work and you know i don’t know why people don’t haven’t tried using sand

because all you want is support for the plant it’s got its own food the microgreen has its own food for the first 10 days 10 to 14 days it has its own food sand isn’t very great at holding water and it doesn’t have a whole lot of nutrients that’s for sure but if you’re watering it from a secondary container another tray or something and water can go up by cathedral and they can pull up some water at an inch i mean an inch of sand that should be able they should be able to pool water that might work the mixes that we use otherwise we always think long term this plant will be there for two three weeks maybe before we transplant it so we need some food in there that’s part of the reason why there’s so much wastage because your microgreens don’t really need a whole lot of food from the mix that you’re buying and maybe what i’ll do one of these days just to keep things real cheap is to buy potting mix like you saw and an equal amount of sand and just mix those i have nothing to lose because i don’t really need the nutrients from the potting mix okay i have a question concerning growing pad in the soil and whether you should add any fertilizer when watering or at any stage of the growing system so um the fertilizers or let’s let’s start with the soil and the pads so either one or you don’t really need to add fertilizer to your micro greens the greens are going to be there for anywhere from two to three weeks maximum the seedlings when they start to emerge they have their own food source when they start coming up and they start developing the cotyledons and the first set of true leaves they’re making sugars as well so generally a fertilizer is not needed now if you’re going to go past that 14 day or 21 days anywhere from 15 to 21 days you may want to use a quarter strength regular fertilizer 10 10 10 or something like that but generally you don’t need to use any how long can you store the seeds looking to buy bulk seeds and how long to to store them so if you have proper storage time humidity i’m sorry the humidity and the temperature are going to be based on how long it’s going to be kept and i do have a program tomorrow a webinar tomorrow on seed saving and i talk about that but storing seeds themselves if you buy them in bulk and you keep them in a cool damp and uh cool dry environment they should last a good uh year or so depending on the variety anything you want it’s another one of those questions where the best answer is to us it depends on how you’re doing it in in india for instance the himalayan mountains there is a seed storage way up there in those mountains and those seeds store for years as long as they’re not dehydrating or being you know well cold temperature can dehydrate seed but they have some storage way up there and that seed stores for years and years in colorado there is a seed what is it called the code um seed uh storage something involved the seed vault yeah the seed wall but they store seed there and it lasts for many many years i have stored seed in a ziploc bag because i didn’t want it to get dehydrated or hit by that cold temperature freezer for many many many years well five years maximum it was it was still good the germination was still good in the ninety percent and so so it depends on how you hold it in the free in the fridge to hold for quite a number of months may even go for a year in the fridge so viability is highly dependent on the choice of storage and the type of seed if we talk about some of these weed seed species in the soil have we talked about some that last 40 years in the soil they’re just waiting for the right conditions so it all depends on the variety and the holding condition i believe that was the last question that we had there were some questions up there like where do you buy food grade hydrogen peroxide because i talked about that and i quickly googled and found that if you go to walmart or walmart was

there with food grade hydrogen peroxide or you can go online like you go there you can find something you find what you need and somebody also asked if we need the video are we going to share it and i believe we will all you have to do is write to us you have our emails showing here the correct logic yes and i will be sending out a evaluation of the program for today if you would it take less than a minute to finish please please please we asking you to do that yeah so we’ll send that out today as well oh there’s something else yeah would vacuum sealing help for the seats you’ve talked about that tomorrow right uh vacuum ceiling uh no i i do not i will not be talking about vacuum sealing tomorrow i don’t even okay vacuum sealing you want to be able to keep your seeds in a container that is going to be to maintain the environment for the seed you don’t want it to lose more moisture you don’t want it to gain more moisture so you’re looking at cool and dry so if you can do a vacuum sealing in a container or or a plastic bag that’s fine but generally we say that you should probably use a glass container for storage rather than any type of a paper bag or something like that so again i’m not that familiar with the vacuum ceiling but i will definitely be willing to hear from you if you uh do it and finally i figured how to do the video and you can see me and over here put an example of poor germination actually i had this outside why as all of the all of the containers i had were outside including what you’ve seen previously why a squirrel decided to come and dig in this one and i tried to kind of even the soil again later i don’t know whether that’s what messed it up again planting too deep can be an issue some of these seedlings here are really coming up now so they must have been real deep or maybe even the viability of the seed was poor this is today and this is uh the broccoli i guess they should be ready to eat in another few days because they’re still rather small and this is what i started them off on this greenhouse effect or glass house effect which i now don’t cover because i don’t want them to get moldy i don’t want them to be getting too much of moisture and this is this is what i’m enjoying so this is my best and this is today you can see how big the the beans are and like i said nobody wants to eat the cotyledons here because they are really tough to eat unless now i stir fry cook this stuff fry this meanwhile these radishes are showing the collector this is this is the first pair of sea off of leaves and that’s what they are showing and they are ready to eat because they are approximately two inches long i don’t know if that is showing that well yes pretty to eat and once you cut they’re not going to regrow that’s one and then if i was because i live alone if i had this tray and i was doing radishes i would do an eighth of it today another eighth tomorrow another eighth the other day and so forth so that by the time i come back to the fast maybe i’ll be maybe when i harvest the fast portion you know uh if i want to experiment replant there and see how it’s going to grow whether there is any disease that will come up and stuff like that those are all things i would try now and i wanted to share that with you okay i think that’s it no more questions so thank you very much for joining us today we uh appreciate uh any comments that you have again i’ll be sending out the evaluation uh please fill it out and thank you for joining us i hope it was helpful for you have a good day everyone bye everyone