Management of Food Safety Risks in Canning and Preserving

you regulations associated with tanning booths and all of the recommendations associated and so you’re going to hear me talk about our courage microorganism throughout the next hour and a half at length so cool cat get back with that so you know really in order to start start off the talk what I like to do is just talk about what bacteria need in order to grow because the goal of food preservation is to prevent and control so if there’s bacteria on the product you want to prevent that that bacteria from multiply because what it does is there’s one cell and they divided the two cells for cells they just you know multiply so fast so so the goal of food preservation is either to kill the bacteria is there or to prevent it from growing so in order to do that really need to know how what they mean in order to grow okay so we have a little acronym that we like to say that time this pretty much is what Mike organisms nika noir grow food acidity temperature time oxygen and moisture on top of edible assembly and the way that we preserve foods is we control those different aspects of what they need to grow in order to prevent them from growing or ultimately kill them so that they don’t spoil with food or cause us to become Hill first one this is you know the most obvious one would have X rating will ad food and their food is the same that we need so they require the same kind of nutrients they require carbohydrates proteins all the things that are in foods that we so they’re happy on food you know they’re just going to continue to multiply Row because they really enjoy all the nutrients that that our food the week provides it up so you can’t really control that unless you know any so can’t control food but that’s what they need right so ultimately if you’re talking about food product it’s probably a really good environment for my builders bro you keep coming in the second one is probably the most important one and when we talk about handing you’ll sort of understand why this is the most important one acidity okay they be a certain level of the city in order to grow so baby typically bacteria don’t grow there if the product is acidic okay so if you’re talking about things like I have scale your life orange juice vinegar lemon juice those are things that are very acidic okay bacteria don’t like things are very acidic in general so they’re usually not going to multiply rapidly in those types and conditions once they get into higher higher pH or lower it gets confusing higher pH the lower amount of acid to the front then bacteria start saying oh great you know it’s not so acidic anymore we can multiply we can grow okay so this is this on keep coming back to acidity as we we go through the talk but the most important ph which is the measurement of the acidity of a product the most important ph that we talked about 4.6 okay so for the most part microorganisms are not crazy about pH is below 4.6 once you get a product is above 4.6 Mike we’re going to love it and there they grow up now I mentioned that there was one my organism that we were going to really focus on that really is the key for all of food processing and cannon and that’s Clostridium botulinum and this organism called smashing if you get botulism there are treatments for it if you get botulism it’s pretty much a death sentence unless you get to the hospital if you get the antitoxin that’s why it’s so so important to make sure that you don’t have that orders in your food okay again I want to come back to this stuff much more later in the talk so well how do I know how acidic your food is right we test you test the key that’s ultimately how you tell me testing stage but in general here’s a chart of types of examples of my acid so so who’s the hello page and it was that our low acid or foods that have high peak okay I know it’s confusing yep sure yeah I’m going to get these days there’s so much it does is all they were consultants sitter they’re

not in fact that the recommendation is tomatoes and I’m going to talk a little bit more but the recommendation of tomatoes is that if you’re going to can tomatoes with the pressure canner you need to acidify no I’m sorry let me go better you’re going to can it with the water bath sorry I apologize if you’re going to can it with a water bath which is a which is a lower bras melt or process you have to assist with a bitter lemon juice so sometimes it to to lower the pH so in general includes they’re acidic fruits apples of your class applesauce fairy cucumbers should not be oh yeah sorry I don’t you know yeah okay scratch off base error something GM salience fruit juices plums pickles pears peaches half Toyota’s on the general they do generally have ph less than 1.6 so they’re generally considered city however there are recommendations for how he handles failure is a kind of separate special case will top out at one separately low acid foods a foods that have that ph that my car is loved austrian botulinum loves and is great for sorrow things like meats all that two meats and vegetables asparagus beans beets carrots corn no mushrooms peas potatoes pumpkin you know all of those types of products all have a ph that’s higher than 4.6 and it’s conducive to bacteria world okay sorry sorry the confusion with the cucumbers not sure how that would suck um okay the next one is temperature okay so one way we all know one way we control so we order for bacteria to grow and happy at the right time okay so pathogens and most spoilage organisms grow rapidly with it within will be considered a temperature name of the a which is between 40 and I’m 40 rune down okay so there’s a lot of things you only got room temperature visit pathogen or or solid organism could grow so we use refrigeration and freezing to control that now refrigeration freezing doesn’t kill microorganisms it just slows the world okay so because i think the freezer it’s not killing what was on it it’s just me just being to this to take a year for that for that vector with a reading longer you got me really really slow in that room um then 4gb of into coding temperatures and obviously or then destroying whatever bacterium Sonia I put here I never get this question so i put here the temperature danger zone is between 2840 okay easy remember 340 great all of the publications have come from us the FDA say that the temperature gauge reserves before 140 and all the consumer based materials that’s just cuz it’s an easy number to remember now if you’re in food service the ages of us between 4135 you see that’s a whole lot more difficult to remember you know if you’re Oh television well I know your skin can’t recall 3500 104 I’m sorry 4135 alright see ya all that quickly or easily so you know I always cast right people there in food service and gone through that type of training you’re wrong you don’t have to write down your name is oh well it just kind of end on on what I’m sure if you look at all this kind of in general that that is really you know we’re like pedorthist what else they need any time so at the right conditions they’re going to grow very fast when I say very fast right conditions I mean six to twelve hours right so they’re going to get out to levels that are getting that are really high enough to make music so my organisms if you’re worried about packages they only need to be in the depth temperature danger zone or pick up information they only need to be at an optimum growth temperature for a couple hours and then they’re gonna be high enough to make you sick ok so they 20 minutes you have to a double every 20 minutes 22 22 22 42 to 0 for 4 hours you have four thousand eight hours and 17 million bacteria right so so they go very fast or faster than 100 off again we control things like acidity and temperature we’re creating conditions that bacteria don’t like to grow so

they’re not going to grow that right sir just controlling that burrows second last requirement oxygen it’s a different different kind of my organisms require different oxygen observations in order okay so aerobic growth which is atmospheric conditions those types of organisms so sure call arrows so type of organisms grow at regular oxygen atmosphere conditions okay these are things like moles and swallow these organisms right so then you take a little bit of oxygen away and you get a condition it’s called anaerobic I’m sorry I’ve got things wrong you get all the oxygen way can that be an early I was going not read inside quickly Andrew okay so that means you take all the oxygen out of out of our products and that’s not what you can okay so you take all the oxygen of God scraper penny you can kill organisms you’ve any kind of slowly tourism at my wife canning process from growing as the dog but what we do is you create the best possible condition for clustering my friend which can be organism that causes bottles okay so that’s my homie and foods are are are so preserve so risky because of that specific work right other situations are vacuum packaged foods so if you vacuum Happy’s your food at home or you buy some things in that compact there’s no oxygen okay that’s great they take oxygen out slowly going she’ll like foods which is fantastic the concern of that is again this was pretty much light which again we’re talking more and more length about that works um and if you have a sure to talk about it with you take some oxygen out and you have kind of a low oxygen concentration alee I was an oxygen you have what’s called facultatively anaerobic organisms and those are most of the super packages so like bagged salads everybody heard about spinach outbreak bags finished at hashtag 2006 right those goes goes bad cop student taking out of that the reason they ought to think of it they’re back she was called modify an extra packing and that adage as low oxygen to control spoilage organisms which are co Coco Romanian conservative in terms of extending our lettuce show up like them our legs but what happened was there was ecoli on that on that legs just happened there was e.coli there and then created the perfect condition freako lights camera right so you’ve entered all these holy organisms now you’ve got this one organism is left you’ve given it pretty good pretty good condition you can’t thats that’s the scary thing is boot or packages and it’s on your produce you can’t wash it the only thing you do is cook it come get away right so that’s kind of the ingredients so there’s a lot of things it gets confusing there’s a lot of things that that might organisms require in terms of growing and depending on how you control those things determines how you how you preserve that food we’re still talking about oxygen ok major issue in oxygen is called rating botulinum which is responsible for watches ok hand through what did I tell you before right I told you before that foods that have a low pH ok foods like vegetables meats things like that have a low pH our Park have optimum conditions starting again seems like it’s confusing lo hacen canned foods right low acid foods that have a low pH hi babe sorry high pH low acid sorry um so he h is greater than 4.6 right they have i’ll get i’ll get to whitewater excuse but they have a lot of water a lot of moisture vegetables meats they have a lot of water in them and they’re not graduated okay so that’s kind of the major issue with canned foods is australian wash line right so in order to if you’re in a can your foods in order to make us pretty much i am not an issue you acidify to decrease your ph ok a less than 4.6 you lower you increase the acid by lowering the pH right like Blue Tigers videos in order to make Austria macho I’m not an issue fossil is not an issue the other issue major issue for her

austrian botulinum anything is connecting up okay we order to have a spam much line inner products there has to be no oxygen okay so right now when we talk about ahsha listen we’re not worried about botulism on our fresh lettuce or on our fresh tomatoes or you know fresh meat they’ve let that we’re mainly worried about about foods that we have modified to take away Austin okay last one Moisture lasting that vector you eat our moisture we call moisture water activity okay which is basically what is the amount of available water in that product for microorganisms to grow okay so there are products that have lots of water with the water is bound it’s bound up with like sugar or salt and then those those types of products would not necessarily be conducive to microorganisms grown but if it has a high amount of available water so here’s a just a list of kind of the water activities for common foods if you’re talking about here water we call that a water activity of one okay that’s purely fresh meat milk fruits bread’s all have high water activity of 95 okay so you’re getting a little bit lower some cheeses and cured meats have a pH of a a water activity at point nine one and sort of as you go down and you look like you’ve got things that are fruit juices and Suren so does have a lot of sugar those have reduced the water activities available water its products jams marmalade rolled oats molasses nuts and now you’re going to foods that have been dehydrated or are dry so those are kind of obvious you know crackers are going to have a low a low water activity thanks you have dropped dry pasta right things like that are going to have low water activities typically when we talk about food microbiology are our water activity cut off when we’re concerned about pathogens is about here because most pathogens are not going to grow below below below point five okay so here I’ve got bacteria bacteria bacteria and now we’re going to end the yeast and mold and those are spoilers yep they’re everywhere yeah again I’ll get more into botulism botulism for the organism glossary botulinum is everywhere and we eat the Clostridium botulinum spores we eat them all the time right but they’re that doesn’t make us sick I’ll talk about what what is the reason existing um so how do you control water activity we do things like dehydrate foods to take water out so that then prevents growth of microorganisms we do things like bind the water with the addition of salt or sugar right like you know you think back to like salt cured hams and things like that you cover the outside of that ham of salt and then you cure you know that’s all done from the microbiological standpoint in terms of preventing bacterial growth oh so these activities can take a product that was once risky and now make it not risky at all if you if you add salt sugar or you drive things like beef jerky so beef jerky you can out this now considered shelf stable you can now leave it out of the refrigerator you can leave it out of the counter because it’s now taking you’ve taken so much water out of that meat product that now the risk of having bacteria grow on it is pretty much nil right jam there’s so much sugar in jam that now you’re not worried about about you can and process that but you’re not worried about it is it has such a little water exit right mainly with jams the only time you’ve seen anything go bad with jams and after you open it here when you put it in the refrigerator for however many months and you go to open it back up in there mold on top that’s a spoilage spoilage issue it’s not you know not considered a path is jammed low enough activity that you can leave it on a counter after you open it you can the issue is that the reason why they act they recommend refrigerators because now you can open it right you’ve now let in all the you know mold or yeast or bacteria that’s in your house which everybody has you know you’ve now yeah now I’ll put something on top of it so it’s going to spoil a lot there so if you put in the refrigerator than that just extend so that’s that’s the primary reason so it foods which have a water activity of

point eight five or less which I told you is kind of a cut-off are typically considered shelf stable right unless you open them and then refrigeration might be recommended like I just mentioned right and that’s mainly because there’s not enough moisture in the product to support growth of your hands so now I think I’ve see if I’m still talking about before no so now I’ve given you all of the different components in a food that you can control in order to make it less risky right and I know it’s very confusing as you know people call me all the time and say I’ve got XYZ products what do i do we need okay ph water activity you know you just start going going-out list to figure out what’s the best way to control that that product for either extending its shelf life or for safety reasons oh there’s there’s a category of foods that are called potentially hazardous foods okay now these are all foods that that I all of all the things that I just described like acidity water activity and Sydney white white assassinating water activity you can control potentially hazardous foods the only thing you can control in order with those foods in order to prevent microorganisms from growing is time and temperature okay so these are gonna be foods like vegetables fresh cooked cooked fresh vegetables cut melons milk things that you just typically store in your refrigerator and the reason you storm your refrigerators because that’s that’s the reason that you are able to extend their shelf life if you prevent growth the organism right oh but sometimes people hear those listed is potentially hazardous foods and that just means that those are foods that you can’t take something away from that product or add something to play you know that product innately to for its safety you have to actually use refrigeration yes good questions and now we’re getting back into the Clostridium botulinum okay because you take garlic okay and garlic is a low acid product okay so and something that’s that we you know is out and we grow in our bargain right we take it we chop it up and we put it in oil when you put it in oil you have taken that bar lick and put it into a into an anaerobic you’ve taken all the oxygen away so you’ve put it into an anaerobic situation and there have actually been outbreaks of botulism for people that have taken garlic and put just in oil and then sealed up because that oil doesn’t allow to move through that product and then people have consumed it not sick that’s a real popular popular products and what people typically recommend is that you acidify your oil you add some sort of an acidic or you or instead of making oil and garlic you make like vinegar and garlic or vinegar and herb type type mixes yep that’s a really good question and I’m not sure the answer to that because if you dehydrate it you are going to be taking away all of the ability for that to grow but then you’re putting it in oil and so I don’t know if that then rehydrates it in any way no yeah I guess not with water so you know I don’t know that’s that’s a good question I don’t know the answer to okay so now you know the goal for any food preservation which I’ve talked about is primarily to control my new growth and and or destroy microorganisms 5 either high temperature where you or you’re killing whatever’s there at low temperature where you’re putting it into a refrigerator or freezer take away oxygen lower the pH or lower the water activity okay so those are those are most of you know anything painting it’s recommended in terms of extending the shelf life of a product is going to be one of those things one of those key ways a methods of home food preservation are going to be heat processing canning done done using either a boiling water bath or a pressure canner we’ll talk about why you versus the other and then freezing and drying so I’m going to kind of go through all those not in as much detail as you all know probably like but i am going to but i’m going to go through all this and i’m one of the things i want to do is make sure that you all know about some of the resources that are out there this this is called the complete guide to home canning put out by the usda fantastic well you can

purchase the book through ohio state they actually have a website you can go to and you can purchase the book but we have to purchase the book you can go to in the websites on in the slides it’s the national center for home food preservation and that is how is that the universe Georgia and you can actually click on this and download the PDF of this and print it out which here appears when i purchase i purchased this but i also have it downloaded and just put it in a in a binder so you can kind of do your duty girls that one’s free and was not anything yeah it’s it’s the National Center for home preservation the link is in the slides if you didn’t get the slides but the link is in the slides and that is a fantastic resource they have all kinds of stuff you can influence it’s the University of Georgia yep they received a grant gosh I’m gonna win now maybe 10 years ago and they develop this National Center and so they they really are sort of the Guru on home canning and they have published this is I think that this might be like the 5th edition yeah 5th edition of this book which is called so easy to preserve which is a book that would then you can purchase from the University of Georgia website the one that I just holding the National Center and it’s finished fantastic it’s got all kinds of you hows and whys and recipes ha this is also need to preserve affecting other good other resources and these you can purchase probably at the grocery store or walmart or is ball which is sort of the you know the main canning company they the Baltimore so this is the most and this is a major addition and they you know have very much detailed descriptions for how to I’m not sure you can see this very well but this is this this figure is actually in all of the materials that I’ve just shown you but this is sort of the temperatures important temperatures for home food preservation right so we’ve got the danger zone mccrory 2140 refrigeration and frozen foods but when you get to the top 212 is written up there 212 Fahrenheit that’s the temperature water please depending on where you live differ depending on your application but 212 is generally the temperature which wat water was so if you’re processing something in a boiling water bath you’re processing it at 212 ok this is the canning temperature that’s used to destroy most bacteria yeasts and molds in acid high acid boots ok foods that have a low pH right if you have a food that has a high pH it’s a low it’s considered well as food you have to have to process that food at a much higher temperature so you process those under pressure I mean when you have pressure and the temperature higher and that’s typically between 240 and 250 Fahrenheit if you’re processing okay and the reason for that is all because of the clustered in modular that’s kind of how you determine counting process so when you can using heat you’re destroying the microorganisms you’re in activating enzymes and you’re sealing the container so all that happens you can all those things is three things occurring right you can’t you can’t destroy although my qualities it’s kind of an important thing to say but you’re destroying all of the microorganisms that could potentially spoil that food and just about any of them that can make you sick under the conditions in which weekend okay so if you go to to the Middle East you go to Egypt or somewhere where it’s a lot hotter than it is here then then there are bacteria that are in canned foods that actually can grow at some of those higher temperatures right so if their store held at a higher temperature those bacteria can grow they’re not destroyed so we we had a call one time someone had handed us food and put it in their trunk hot summer day right next thing you know cans were exploding so we could call you know what happens what happened well you’ve now making a product that’s shelf stable if you put it in your you know in your cupboard at home but if you put it in your trouble your car and it gets to temperatures 140 right now the bacteria that are in there can grow and they cost the cancer

so so I just want to just mention that when you can your foods not everything’s destroyed it’s not actually sterile but you’re doing a pretty good job get rid of anything that could make you sick I got the condition sure are you keeping when you you can’t yeah yeah yeah you are who are able to maintain a lot of them there are studies in which I cannot sponsor right now without opposition estoy I don’t have those in my brain but they’re having quite a few studies that look at the the nutrients nutrient deprivation and freezing nutrient deprivation and canning there is more variation in canning then there isn’t freezing then if you need something that’s fresh so there is various decoration but getting root for the most part you know most of what you you know you’re not making vegetables with your only interest denied vegetables or canned vegetables yeah you know you can touch me so or you know if you’re trying to preserve foods which are we when fresh vegetables aren’t harmed red card game you know so that’s sort of the issue fresh is always to have that magic for year I’m on for something there’s no magical yeah I mean it’s not like a year you know it’s not really like that the recommendation is for for commercially canned foods the recommendation is two years for home campus the recommendation is a year commercially canned foods get more of a heat treatment than what you’re giving it what you’re giving your products at home oh and the recommendation is there in terms of research studies that have said you know at this point time it grows I think it’s more of a quality standpoint it’s not really from fun issue that’s going to make you sick it’s just sort of like you know over to get over time the product can start to degrade I get calls from people that oh I’ve had this canned in my country for ten years yeah well yeah that’s a big for you probably not going to taste very good you know um those kinds of things with it’s not magic you know after a year happens now someone called me and asked me how longs for their home canned foods I would say the recommendation is in here because that’s you know because I’m recommending that somebody now if you know are you gonna get sick probably not okay now we’re going to talk a little more in detail about Clostridium botulinum approach should have brought that in first or earlier but um ok so the deal with foster a botulinum is that it is it is present in the environment in a score form okay and all that means is it’s some bacteria can sort of make themselves more environmentally resistance by forming spores ok so the conditions in the environment are not are not perfect you know there’s lots of oxygen and and there’s not very much moisture of those kinds of things and so that bacteria said hey I’m not getting everything I want so it can then seal itself off and form sport coat around and that makes it resistant to die right so that man that makes it much more resistant when we talk about trying to kill right scores are ever we consume like instant all time right and sports not make a stick and the reason is force don’t like a stick is because when we consume them our study is acidic right so so the sports maintains its coat it stays in its environmentally resistant situation can we just you know just passes who is waste right so so you know doesn’t doesn’t harm us I know you probably heard that it’s not suggested and recommended to give babies honey right well the reason it’s not suggested to give babies honey because honey is notoriously known for containing high levels of fostering bashed by the scores right so we eats for all time honey and so problem but babies under one year old their gastrointestinal system has not developed enough for them to be able to handle the scores that they HS right so their stomachs not quite as a city and then what we’re happy to skip that score right we consume it scores not happy that it doesn’t ever grow into a normal cell right so if that score comes under conditions that are perfect right it breaks open and grows into a 72 of the vegetative stuff we call those vegetative cells that can then multiply okay in a baby’s gut they are big city and the study is not high enough to prevent that from happening so when they

consume us for the scores like wow very condition who it can open up it can grow and then those vegetative cells produce toxic and that’s what causes Watchers is the topic okay so once those develops like you and i confuse you honey and consume for and that’s not a problem yep so only honor no oxygen conditions okay conditions where you take you can or you take away all of the air by vacuum packaging something can any of us stores on that product then grow into vegetative cells and if they’re given the opportunity to grow into the vegetative cells then they produce toxic okay so if the food is acidic so if you have you know jellies jams or fruit products that have high levels of acid in it you can process those at a lower temperature because the acid in the product is going to never let that score grow into a regular cell okay but we quit vegetables and meat if you process that as you take the oxygen away you those products don’t have high pison acidity and you’ve now created a situation taking all the oxygen way there’s no high there’s no acid they’re in control that that that’s for from growing and it’s a most perfect system circle right so that’s why we have to can our low exit foods like vegetables and meats under pressure because we have to get it to a high enough temperature that it’s going to destroy the score altogether questions and it’s kind of confusing it’s like but that’s that’s the whole reason why we process things in the way that we do um so like I said we can consume sports all day long we’re not going to be sick the only thing that causes botulism for being a gesture of the toxin that’s been produced okay and it’s a neurotoxin causes paralysis and death and medical attention is not bad so it’s you know it’s very very serious there’s lots of other foodborne pathogens and then talk about but none of them are serious is this one right and we pretty much only use quotations your eradicated botulism to an extent when we started thermally processing commercially thermally processing vegetables things like that because now there’s standards for companies to use in order to process their food so that they you know they will not process a food that could watch so most all botulism cases are associated with improperly home canned foods so it’s just someone who didn’t know or for the process went wrong and things like that the tent across botulism so botulism is not very common it’s pretty rare but the reason we process all of our food the way we do primary is not only yes if the food is contaminated well we know it no no it doesn’t smell any different different you never know that’s what’s scary you could be that they would say the canyon good was damaged or swollen that was a good chance at with some botulism okay all’s well it’s not so much that the reason they say that is because if they can swells it means that the process wasn’t good so there’s another back nun or some other bacteria in there that are producing gas that caused that back then that can divulge clustering botulinum just typically cause the canvas swell but if you’re can stolen there’s a good chance that’s probably watch ilysm in there if there’s an organism that’s going to cause the can swap something that make sense oh so that’s kind of that’s kind of recent they say yeah holes you can throw it out you know crap can anything like that you know it’s good to prevent to not consume those okay so we’re back to you high acid foods I don’t think you comes on this list come on out remember but our largest peaches strawberries pairs sauerkraut and pickles so so you know not cabbage and cucumbers but if you’ve acidify those aforementioned those to make them sit then then they’re considered high seafoods blueberries rhubarb figs plums cherries in those kinds and the next slide I know it says low acid food so again you know your typical list of low-mass apiece and this is just kind of a graph that sort of shows you here we have the 4.6 cut off and so all foods above that are considered acidic foods and Kenny process with a water bath canner and all foods below that like meats milk vegetables are considered low acid foods and should be processed using the

pressure here again that’s just because you’re trying to get rid of that score tomatoes tomatoes are special case and it used to be I don’t know at least why maybe someone else which one does but it used to be the tomatoes were considered in a city they will always lower than 4.6 now we have a lot of heirloom tomatoes and okay so it’s the way that bread the tomatoes okay so so the way they translators have have changed their ph right so now we are either right on the line or they can sometimes you can low acid right so you can you can process a tomato with a boiling water bath or you can process it under pressure cooker the process it with a precious book group if you don’t do anything to it you’re processing them as applicable as food if you process it in a boiling water bath because they’re sort of right on the cusp he just add a teaspoon of lemon juice or something some type of the sigil into that you’re a lower the pH enough to where now you can process it with a lot of lower heat treatment either process a little in a woman water bath so all let’s talk about tomatoes because they inevitably someone asks me about it because it’s kind of a new one so and our sort of getting into a little bit of lingo whose are tied up to start from our regulations I said I wasn’t really talk about regulations you just follow the recipe so depending what it depends on is it depends on the size jar that your needs if you’re going to use a pint jar or courtyard and you just have to have a recipe that says you know this I don’t know what it is off the top of my head so when we have regulating foods right it’s really three different categories of foods there’s what’s considered low acid foods okay which are what I what I told you all have a low acid pH greater than 4.6 there’s high acid foods that are have a pH lower than 4.6 and in terms of regulating usually what they say is that a product doesn’t have to be inspected if all of the ingredients for most of the ingredients in that product favre acidic great so if you’re making jams or jellies for things that are where all of the brought all of the ingredients are sitting strawberry jam grape jam where we get into an issue is when we start talking about making pepper jelly things like that because peppers are not are not citic so those would be considered high acid foods jellies and jams and then there’s a category called acidified foods so those are foods that you have added you’ve done something to in order to lower the pH you’ve added some type of NASA oh and those can be processed into boiling water bath but I just want to point out that the regulations break those break those categories of those three different categories it’s ok click here I could hurt yeah why yeah yeah that’s I’m going to be that fermentation process also yeah all right those those are considered acidified foods okay so you can still use yes yes exactly so in fact you know a lot of times people say well why do I have to if I got my product to a low pH you know really looking for jams and jellies why do I you have to ignore you are back and the reason you do that is just just from spoilers table it’s just you know like five minute quick process it to get rid of you know that the meditative cells are there because good qualities their photos are usually very very quick processes kept the method of thinking I hear people doing that well yeah and I don’t think from a safety standpoint then there’s an issue with doing that um I still would recommend doing that process just because you know are you trying to after the process was it instead of week instead of doing a bit more day at the Jamz and putting your right okay right right right and I always I always

recommend that you still put it in a process to get rid of you know to be sure you’ve got rid of the vegetative cells that well it can cause well I can allow your your canvas seal it still could not get rid of but you have to put in the boiling water you know you’ve got friends everywhere is not old for bread can but it’s this USDA food that is working I don’t think that they do I know that there are and now getting the things that I don’t know but I know that there are types of packing that you can do as someone who wants to sell abroad there are types of like hot ipad pole fillable processes that you can use that are acceptable but i don’t know what they are so for home canning date they say you know and the reason for is to make sure to give oh yeah they don’t recommend that the reason I don’t recommend is because they fake there’s been research studies have shown that actually the heat penetration is not as good so when they put like a thermocouple or something down into the jar and measure you know the heat penetration it’s not as good and it’s inconsistent and so that’s why they don’t they don’t recommend that i have selected talks about what’s not recommended and it’s it’s because of those types of things there’s just not consistently good vegetables where you at yeah if you pickle them and you have lower the pH enough to where it’s considered cynic that should be what about natural fermentation like sauerkraut great we’re meeting with cultures as long as you’ve done it using an approved method you know as long as you’ve done it and you know that that pH has gotten low enough then it’s been it’s perfectly acceptable you still you still use a heat treatment like again like I said you is recommended that you still use a heat treatment like I said to get rid of any vegetative cells and to help with spoilage organisms that chris boyle that i get my project beach for example i can get at the age of three point five meter okay i think whether there are things again yeah but you know and that’s what that’s my heroes how are you miss and it’s you know it’s just the recommendation is that you know you kill any of the vegetative cells that could still be there because there could still be mold spores things like that there on there that would not have that would have survived you know and then you process it edge flavor hey I’m not gonna argue with you thank you would you probably can sell you just be careful as well boots because the older ones raima do you are right because I had some other moons in them a lot of new one I was made yeah exactly exactly the ones i have our only time you know to agree yeah you’re right make the change recommendations all the eyewear right yep you get all packing I don’t now this is where I I don’t know I don’t know what you intend to sell that product I don’t have the answer typically what you do is you you know when you feel a jar you just add you know a teaspoon or whatever empiricism and then you put it in the processor but you know you don’t necessarily have to hear hear stewing worse videos goes up before you pop back but I don’t know who sell it I don’t know where I don’t know how Oh this is just a quick slide that sort of I like you have it in your packet just because you would have talked about phn these are these are items that are consumed I acid and it’s really sort of start getting around the cuts of 4.6 leaving in a little acid and here you have your bacteria you’ve gotten support so so with these high acid foods the acid controls the score and prevents it from germinating but when you consuming process with the lower back and if you are using thermal process or higher thermal process of the pressure canner you’re actually eliminating story actually viewing a process that kills

the sport so he’s got the asset that’s controlling here and there you’ve gotta sleep go oh so spores are very difficult to destroy it boiling temperatures now you can destroy us for at boiling temperatures but you have to put that in that boiling water bath for 7 in 12 hours right so that’s not realistic so so you can put it in a pressure canner with the temperature of 240 250 and you can kill that in depending on tomato product that you’re drying pan but you know you should have processable so it’s just it’s just a factor of the amount of time that that’s for us being has to be subjective that’s the process of which you you process your foods is poop is all dependent on the type of food whether it has it’s a acidic salt sugar or stretched back like what are the components of the food the size of the pieces that you’re happy so if you have like whole Tomatoes versus diced tomatoes that process to be different the consistent you products in fact their 30s three recommendations on how I can things like summer squash and pumpkin and they’ve actually retracted all good now not recommended to to canvas products because the heat penetration because those those products are dense and they’ve done studies where they found that the penetration is not very good with this product so they’ve actually come back said we really are not comfortable painting process for this for those types of products that’s in a home kitchen oh yeah that’d be a whole jump to another beautiful I think oh yeah I mean you could commercially the commercially processed pocket that home can pop pumpkin you know there’s just too much reason yet with you from you freeze freezing snow problem one of the things that I was telling people i get ain’t calls all the time about how i can x y and z and this is problem in and I’m always like you know I freeze it I that’s my preferred method of dealing things my husband he have steer and heat it it was in public before Thanksgiving would be very happy you know hospital people all my stuff and he sort of like judgmental oh you I can you know need to give this little things he thinks I get work all day or something so you call get wirkkala Davison so that’s not gonna scare me he said how was your steak you working not to take your gear me to work you can I got it but I’m not going to so I said I liked agrees it’s put in a freaky ass freeze it so yeah we end up freezing it but it’s like that’s so much ease so I always recommend freezing whenever there’s thanks Compton complicated Oh again you know all the time and temperature that they recommend is all depend on a combination of both the fullness of the pack the way the way back is it charges it isn’t long pieces the container size are you using thanks for ports or half price for doing a jelly some people do that the initial temperature of the food are you HOT are you putting that food and then hot packing it into the jar is that process is any different when you put it into your pant fitting bra hats okay um and you know the types of microorganisms that could be present and that’s the same thing because I was talking about working with me is acidic foods versus low ask food the Texas oh this is this is what I’m going to stress and I know that probably you know some of you all to roll your eyes we can always use a recipe from a reputable source yes the most important thing that I think is all those recipes and tested and they you know trying to recipes I say a reputable source is the usdm Canyon guide being I’m so easy to preserve the ball books those types of things we call all the time for people that say oh I’ve got this great product and I’m gonna camp well you know I can’t get the recommendation and I can’t tell you how to pan that because I don’t know so much about it really you have a product that you’ve created at home if you watch can you really have to go through to have a thorough study done in order to it’s safe enough in terms of Clostridium botulinum good question i floated in probably four or five like candy books that I our older yeah and it seems like a long time ago they recommend one thing

years to change and then so they’re all reputable but you’re not yeah no they’re not yeah you know my recommendation is to use the most you know the most recent you know things that you can I know I I understand and that’s why I say if I can you use a reputable source you know when the USDA and the Soviet reserve books those recipes have been tested in a kitchen somewhere yeah a lot kitchen right so to those have you tested and you know with heats thermal heat studies all these kinds of things and so you know very comfortable and giving someone a recipe for they’re recommending recipe / yes sometimes versatile thinking that because it’s not popular anymore and I have to make soup recipe from curve one thing like Wallace now and I call and I made it for 4 30 years okay I called Extension Office one-pound problems it’s not in the book because I was concerned sure it’s not a book anymore the dunya is not safe now she said that it was probably some taken out of their carnival because it’s just not popular it something out with the typical pattern start the recipes that’s why there’s nothing wrong it’s not like our book because it’s not something people wanted to write hey and I think that you know I took a look at the recipe it sort of just depends on the ingredients you know I mean if you see the ingredients and you say oh here’s another recipe for tomato sauce it’s pretty similar you know there’s there’s no like certain things it would significantly change that recipe probably you know so I’ll try to find something that’s very similar and you know if you have questions you certainly you can contact me about no is there something different in this that would make me wish you a concern to me the other is if you’ve been doing it for that long it was a recipe that was that was you know recommend is I mean it’s probably fine you know you know its nature is probably going to tell you not to do it because early just said you know it unless you if you talk so much more knowledgeable not now that the extension agents are knowledgeable because they are but they’ve sort of been trained you know don’t they’ll take me and risky you know baby talk to a scientist then we could probably oh what do you one thing that we mentioned in it I don’t think had on slides but figured that a lot of us didn’t sell the product we have a position in our apartment that was their entire position was health small processors create recipes and sell food products right and this was a free service that we had and it’s fantastic but she got so overwhelmed because to you nowadays are more people want to do that so overwhelmed in any way she did so on the position we were trying to be higher that position but with toxic like us also are so many thanks great want to then you know develop process and make try to sell it you have to go through what’s called a process of writing this is some eight if you have to granted knows enough about processing that they can take a look at your process in your recipe and then demon as a stick whatever you know there’s calculations that you and it needs and things like that in order to say yes this process for your salsa or whatever is is a safe process those texts and so we who steps on that position we’re going to rehire that position so that that is something we try to offer as now reach there are other universities I know there’s a friend of a guy at NC State he does that so there’s resources out there you can contact and ask if there are products and you want to talk to somebody making process I got a process story so I can’t share w place in some communities they are it just kind of depends on community I know that the person is a position I was telling you about as worthless several community kitchens across Virginia to get them up and running I mean she was having somebody that is knowledgeable enough panting to be able to you know reputably can add foods like that you know and so the USDA a meat ax at our time until somebody shows they have knowledge didn’t the issue is all because it can be risky you know so that’s there are some some communication magnetism just has all the right people at the right time other questions i love i love this to

interactive group process groups yes yes sir can okay and then give any any at seized from Tennessee of Liam exactly exactly and if you go that that’s what the guy at NC State does we go to this Lloyd is better process control schools you end up with a process or they’ll go go through it and give you a schedule process for your products we did not do that in the position the person was here but some places do that so that’s a fantastic opportunity going in most cases those people actually go through the process of filing your product for you with the actor who ever lead America market see what that good that’s that’s fantastic see I asked I’m glad I mean that’s still about 15 okay I knew that’s what was going on I didn’t know I’m glad here and he’s doing that yes going back to the garlic what how would you you know I don’t know I know they have garlic and oil commercially and they do have commercial acidulous that they’ve added they don’t know as far as at home process I always recommend that instead of music doing garlic and oil canned products that you would I always recommend you do you like the garlic and vinegar or something like that or you can do a garlic and oil and either and refrigerate it but you have to make sure that your refrigerator was at the right temperatures you know you can’t take relations with that move also controls not sure I get your my whole presentation I know times oh yeah we got so much for 30 okay good so what are unequal sources oh the these are the links to the folks that i just talked about the usda complete guide dome candy was revised in 2009 and that’s where you can get that if you go to the so easy to preserve or the National Center for preservation if you go to that site you can download that that entire file I don’t think the USDA has and I think the USDA has essentially put the Sharks arson oh yes I just hit sorry about that absolutely i’m happy to send you the powerpoint or whatever if you got my card don’t hesitate spot there’s a few part good I didn’t expect it quite a big crowd this is fantastic oh yeah yeah I will I will on me it might be in there but my email is RR be on white are at VP sure are are you know why you are at dte are you giving this talk in the number of attorneys I’ll tell you what we’ve done what we’ve done is I personally have not gone out and given this talk what we have done is we’ve educated all of our extension agents and the extension agents are are going out and doing this in their community so so maybe some of you have seen that I know they’re out working farmers markets and things like that and some of them are actually doing hands-on payment rates and things like that I have gone to West Virginia and I have trade all their extension agents and I’m going to a a training of extension agents in North Carolina and in Virginia again on this exact same stuff when we were going to meet two day workshop with hands on everything and we’re doing that next month so so you know that’s sort of the approach that you’ve taken is that I’m educating them to go out and do it as I can’t travel as much but they they are outdoor skating your community so please don’t hesitate to contact your extension agents and if if they are comfortable with banning you know most of them are giving workshops if they’re not they’ll send you to me that’s that’s what happens is yeah they are yeah we did a training of our agents in 2008 and we did a training of our agents in 2008 that I did that for hands-on training and we’re essentially doing the exact same training again next month for new agents and anyone else that wants to come the other thing we started doing these in extension we started at masterfoods program faster from volunteer program or any individuals in the community that are interested in volunteering for attention which were

always happy to have but but we’re starting to do Master food preservation so we have a several volunteer to they’re interested in working in the communities that are coming to my workshop next month as well so so there’s there’s quite a few people that are getting trained and our training is duel with with the extension specialists in north carolina NC State and I are going to training together so we can have all those days vision first semester yes it is for everyone what carrier King you know I don’t think you might not have reached you yet yeah reviews accounting which is not that far and kitchen right I think that’s one of the good ones you know that measures yeah that’s one of the real took really good ones if i remember correctly normal together the Northern District and extension has done this master food for food volunteers and the food preserver programs and I know they’re working on extending it into central and south southeast and southwest if you give me your contact information any packages if you’re interested I can try to put you in contact somebody that’s doing yeah well you know in 34 years in glory well exactly and that’s not that’s not what we’re always looking for people that are doing that concept we’re trying to model you know ultimately I guess after the master and I know a lot of states have a very successful master food program we just haven’t had a mistake ok okay um methods of handing that are not recommended open kettle canning processing in huggins microwaves or dishwashers steam canards handy at pressures greater than 15 psi use of glass caps or one piece zinc porcelain lines caps because they don’t seal as well so those are just some quick things that are not recommended oh it’s it’s um can I think it’s what they mean by that is is like you know pressure canning type type situation but you’ve got a little bit not sure exactly when jar put lid on it and open it seals oh yeah okay Oh what was the Apple butters okay these are older method instance anything you’ve got you I had anybody ask me about open cocaine those okay yeah everybody’s like you know yeah i don’t i don’t know about those believe you’ll see them very often so i’m not sure i was here his present I I didn’t I didn’t know that I know that a lot of the line cans that the queer days is it’s in a lot of like tomato cans and leave like that where the commercial cans are lined little bit us up all can boot that’s all have in other countries right is an estrogenic the stronger starting in German sure to not have that yeah I didn’t know that in fact with

and that’s a big company lost packages materials so would water bath canning this is just a couple of quick figures essentially most of you probably notice I’m using a large a large cooking pot with a rack the water must be deep enough to cover at least an inch above the jar so it has to be large enough can it’s only for acid and acidified foods which hopefully I’ve driven home today and it just always destroys them I organist at school spoil the food’s here you’ve got the rack down here and you want to make sure if you want their 30 space underneath the cans of this the boiling water can circulate very you know to fall out good heat transfer throughout entire jar and you want to have at least an inch above and hopefully an additional this is just a larger a larger picture for you for you to look at with the rack boiling water cover in the you know headspace you can purchase a boiling water bath canner or you can sort of create your own if you have a large enough a large enough pot pressure canner is a very heavy pot where the lid to be sealed and there’s a vent on it you can vent the scheme and it has either a pressure or a dile dile weighted gauge I have another picture with the different types of gauges yet seal with latches on the side because they the kettle is going to actually create lots of pressure in order to get the temperature up so you want to make sure it’s sealed up very well and this is the only way to put to safeway to process lo hacen will tell you what they we ran into they do not recommend that you can with pressure a pressure canner on any of those glass top stoves because they’re so heavy and the glass top just out of this would see in as well so we do workshops and so we have to use different types of skills depending so here’s a bigger picture so you only put a little bit of water in the bottom and the steam that’s created it helps to create the pressure this is a picture of the there’s the gauge on the top and this is a safety week so as as the steam built up and starts hits the correct correct pressure that little weight starts to rock you know you think so but they’re so the pressure canners are so heavy and starting they’re they’re heavier than a water bath Hannibal before you put anything in I know it seems crazy but yeah what happened you have a okay so far yeah kitchen that I use are not mine so I like oh you know but someone’s so so you know I could really careful about doing it so I have tried but I know it’s not recommended by the manufacturer so oh so water boils at lower temperatures as the altitude increases so I mentioned before the water boils at 212 well in blacksburg water boils at 210 so it was a lower temperature so the lower temperatures are less effective right they’re not getting high so with a boiling water bath process if you’re at a higher elevation your processing time increases and it with a pressure canner your pressure increases in order to get to that temperature right because if it will is a lower temperature that’s that’s all well and good if you want the temperature in the water to get higher or you want that process to be extended what did you ever see is that yes so it should be yeah usually they’re usually there between 10 and 12 PSI is the recommendation oh so just an example you know Virginia the altitude range very much so so in Blacksburg were at over 2,000 feet Virginia feature on sea level so you know having aware of that process they do I do thank you most of them have

them and I know this because I bought their can WH testers for them Oh years ago so most offices have a dial gauge tester and if you call them they’ll test it for you and some agents do like a workshop you know a couple times a year Dulce we have coming the office someone have a pressure gauge testing the way in love I actually prefer the weighted ones because there’s there’s nothing you know it’s a way it’s a weighted age that goes on there and there’s nothing that could ever go wrong with it you know the dials no no because what creates the way Jesus it’s actually it’s a series of weight yeah so it’s 5 10 and 15 and depending on the only problem with that is that you have to if you go up if you increase your pressure you have to increase it by adding the weight which is not doesn’t always mean you just increase it by 1 psi you might increase it by tuna tsx you might be getting even an even higher technically you know it’s not as controlled but i like it because you always know that it’s right its memory say the blackbird temperature in time my to Greece oh oh oh the top you mean the pressure in time you have to increase by 1 psi and expert and i think i’m not sure what the boiling water bath process is i was processed there so i don’t i’m not sure exactly it might be an increased couple minutes yeah there is parasitology has to it like i said i was process there so I it’s just in my mind so for example right there you go up a pound right for your ok so wait at gage is just here so this this little guy is five pounds and then you have two more five pounds dial is to set on top of that and depending on how you if you do it at 10 or 15 pounds right so you don’t wanna go over 15 pounds which you can with a dial but you can add up to 15 pounds with the weight engage and when you do that the way to gauge just kind of rocks back and forth so you sort of always know it says the right pressure because it’s the right pressure that’s rockin Joe and the dial gauges you have to get tested so people go and have their down just um okay so ensuring quality you know use only high quality foods you know the canning is not a way to add value to something that’s already starting to deteriorate some people think you know um so you know always use type of high quality foods and it’s always best to can or preserve within 6 to 12 hours harvests just that’s the freshest that it is highest text quality it also helps to hot packs some people don’t like top hat because it’s easier to cold pack but hot packing actually drives a lot of the oxygen out of out of the product when you hot pack it so the quality actually is better it’s been processed so there’s less oxygen in there if you if you draw packed tomatoes a lot of times when you take the tomatoes out of a pressure canner they’ll sort of float folk a lot of water in the bottom but if you hot pack them that’s what they’ve already been condensed the oxygen in there it’s already been been convinced so it just looks better and if you hop pack the color stays better as well so yeah bruises your group song it’s not for quality importance of head space for jams and jellies you need to have about a quarter inch fruits and tomatoes in a boiling water bath about a half inch and for low acid about an inch to an inch and a quarter and the reason for that is the bees are going to boil so much they prove to expand the product needs more just to expand jams and jellies are processed for about five minutes my bad candidates generally the process most everything else in a water bath canner or pressure canners process for a lot much longer time so there’s any room to room to expand and then the vacuum is sealed the headspace is important also his health support vacuum the jars this is where someone has to be about the the sealing compound they want to know if they can reuse their jars and you can’t reuse the jars but you have to get it do a new lid every time not the ring you if I can buy the Rings and then the lid separate but you need to have a new lid and the reason for that is because there’s a sealing compound around it which apparently BPA but they’re sealing compound is what is what actually causes that seal which will allow that seal so you can’t reuse them because once the seals been broken and that compounds that kind of cracked up its size as you spin important note about fruits is some recipes call for a formic acid dip or

like lemon juice or you know vitamin C take a dip and the reason for that is is to prevent the fruit from browning you know you take a cut an apple and it starts to brown those things it just prevents that enzymatic reaction that’s occurring in time for you to get them in the jar and they make commercially commercial fruit saver they make commercial products you can use and dip it all really is is you know like one juice or something like that just to keep that enzyme from degrading pickled foods are acidifies so they can be processed in a world war mainly like I mentioned before to prevent spoilage organisms and activating enzymes that are there fermentation you know just depends on the process dill pickles and sauerkraut are typically fermented for about three weeks refrigerated dill pickles are fermented for about a week they don’t have to be fermented as long and then some people do a quick process that they add vinegar and do that stuff you’re talking about fermenting for a good thing yeah yeah the fermentation process what it does is it breaks down tissues and create acid on some super from from the product you have some sugar and they create the acid on your own zone you add vinegar Europe you’re adding me yeah Oh level of acidity should not be altered and you should recipe you should follow a recipe you know to ensure that you get that that correct acidity from the recipe another important important note is is to use canning or pickling salt not to just use the regular salt table salt if you have because regular salt has a non Katie additive to it it just kind of makes the Brian kind of cloudy just kind of you know I calls all the time over the process these pickles in the bride’s cloudy no it doesn’t look very good wife in your wife troubleshooting oh yes he saw should be fine because sea salt probably you know it’s just salt doesn’t have the the additive but like you know if you go by Morton’s table salt it has oh okay I can keep going oh but if you could you guys want to go okay okay okay Oh jams and jellies basically for jims and jellies the ingredients are fruit pectin and acted in a sugar pretty simple the pectins there would help form a gel some fruits don’t require you had acted because they haven’t affected in them already that they can actually create that gel when you add the sugar and the acid you should always use fully ripened fully ripened fruit no wait fully ripened fruit has less pectin so okay sorry I always use fully ripen food when I’m add hectic but if you are not a detective you need to make sure that that product has inspected for its solidified its the strawberry the jam that I think there’s a there’s a recipe in the so easy preservatives called strawberry jam it’s fantastic really really good anyway you gotta text into that but fully ripened fruit has less pectin so you want to make sure you have half unbreak Oh acidity jams and jellies are finicky so if you have too much acid then the gel old set if you have too little and the gels liquid so it’s really important that you follow the recipe inevitable inevitably people have issues with getting their their jellies to set up anything that slowed acids might must have a lemon juice added or something to get a little bit of extra acid to it because the acidity is important and gelling and commercial pectins sometimes contain acid so you don’t have to actually add now there are you can increase sugar jams and jellies but you want to make sure you use low methoxy pectin which you can buy the grocery store because it has to have the calcium which is added to the pectin in order for if you’re using like a sugar substitute you’re not going to get the gel that you’re going to get you real sugar unless you use this calcium added there so you can get the right gel and they typically process well jams and jellies and mold I mentioned before and beginning and typically with jams and jellies what you run into is mold and a picture right there and that’s primarily why you process it is to get rid of any kind of mold that could be there and put in the refrigerator from growing on mycotoxins have been found in jellies and jams which have surface mold growth so if someone calls me and says I’ve got mold on my jam and jelly what should i do i always talk with program because the mold spores and the bowl can

actually kind of dig down into the jelly and it can contaminate more than just if you scrape it off so i always tell people especially nowadays whenever was really worried about molded we’re learning more and more about you know both causing cancers and things like that I’m always like went out just throw it out because you just really don’t know same thing with cheese you know I always drop she’s still just like a lot we can do that and it’s fine which makes me nervous anyways that’s why we process our jams is mainly to get rid of last longer freezing freezing the easiest most convenient way so i always recommend people to do it’s the safest method but it might not produce the best quality we’d save this method the reason i say that is it’s not very complicated you know you blanch your product put it in a bag throw in the freezer you can’t really too much quite sure crystals are formed yeah yeah maybe maybe use if it’s something that’s like a berry that’s kind of hard even styled it maybe use like a salad spinner or something that had you know spin off the water and it’s really difficult because we freeze in a regular you know your regular freezer ice crystals in every form they can’t get that safe at frozen consistency that you can with commercial unfortunately but yeah you could land out on a tray and yeah they don’t clump together Oh doesn’t sterilize the food you know it before it just slows down the growth so much that you don’t really have to worry about it and it also slows down the chemical changes that would affect those well so you know just kind of slows everything out for that’s it from deteriorating enzymes are slowed considerably but not eliminated and so in order to get high-quality frozen food bland bland chick is just simply a very quick topwater hood to diplomat hot and blue and water for a minute to an experienced dependent upon fighting products and then you take him around like she said give the water off yes that is that blanching process all that does is it can activate the enzymes and that just makes this declaration slows the data region that product on so much that’s really helpful you know I’ve never thought being was doing oven blanching and I’m not ever seen anything about double glazing okay you know I guess it work because you’re trying to get rid of that you know reduce anodized there might be a tissue with heat transfer you know getting enough heat transferred into the product fast enough so I it’s not not only actually recommended okay biggest issues with freezing is water so the water is what freezes is food you know it’s not the sugars and everything else it’s the water that freezes and expands and the ice crystals that form can cause the cells of the product to rupture so you know you freeze your strawberries in there they’re a little bit mushy they don’t come out the same all of that is because of that the freezing and expansion of what freezing expanding the quicker the freeze so if you use a blast freezer which is these commercial freezer that like Frieda products within it that’s results in a much higher quality product so if you freeze your food in your refrigerator it’s going to take a lot longer for it to actually free and that that causes a less quality product just because of the expansion of the water so if you do a rapid for you soaking lots of very small ice crystals to form if you do a slow freezers learn or ice crystals which result in more cellular disruption of the product most most commercial products are frozen very very rapidly high quality higher frozen food should be stored at zero degrees to prevent deterioration in the product and improve quality and I just

put this up there just to sort of you know an example of the importance of temperature so if you have something that you are storing in your refrigerator its shelf life might be five days this is just sort of a genuine guy but its shelf life might be fracked five days if you put it at 30 degrees then its shelf life would expand the three weeks if you put it at 20 degrees its shelf life would expand to three months but if you put it out you know the recommended you know why it’s really important to make sure your freezers is working correctly then its storage like as a year but just kind of goes to show how every 10 degrees difference in temperature has such a vast difference on the shelf life foods that don’t freeze very well are things that have a lot of water because its water with the community bound so tomatoes lettuce celery potatoes sour cream fried foods you know some of those kind of things you don’t want things very well vegetables all fries gravy needs very dry there’s a via when you stop dry preserves the food like I mentioned before by removing the moisture to prevent microbial growth okay it slows down the enzyme because you also that’s also a dependent on the moisture so you take it all well most of the moisture out of the product eighty to ninety five percent moisture which then lowers the water activity and makes that shelf stable to the inner shell stable the drying process to slow down at the committee’s high so it might take you longer in the summer you know in Virginia a dry product that can take somewhere else that’s not about unemployed greaser there’s a couple of different methods recommended for drawing on one method that’s Fitz recommended it’s not really done so much here I don’t think so wat in the southwest is drying outdoors this is only really recommended for fruits and that’s mainly to preserve their high acid foods and so we’re really pretty safe um but you know you dress something outside you’ve got flies on and you know those kind of things and so anything must then be treated for insects after the dryness so when I say sweet prince put in freezer you know in case there’s fly larvae things I mean I know true so you don’t freezer it’s all acting drawing so yeah so you know it just seems like to me that’s kind of a do that that you know how would I because if you can’t control those situations but you have to do something to your on and do it I there’s my girl pears and the first time they were chased and incredible yours expand into four jars and you know I check-ins periodic officially the drunk and i see little meagan I don’t know briar road or anyway so I threw away their our freezers but I guess have a straight line yeah yeah that’s just one of the things they try to try to control Oh what is it Pete pair that is good maybe I didn’t solve some tree or do anything else okay I don’t know yeah in normally recommendations that you is it you doing ascorbic acid dip with you know dehydration foods too will that killed into larvae eggs and how you know I don’t know I mean to keep English day if it was there before you put it in the dehydrator they probably would do a pretty good job but if it was either drying outside and you’ll give it and then put it up put it outside is poison yeah cruising yeah yes that’s it indoors the best methods with a dehydrator you know commercially purchased dehydrator you can also use the oven and you’ve got a prop the oven open and a crack cracking two to six inches and a lot of times you can put a fan there to help with the circulation or if you have one of those collection of ovens to keep the air circulating in order to you know get the air I keep it your web 2014 you typically you’re into a fruit dip with a you know sulfite or ascorbic acid which is hunting something that’s you know my acid is going to prevent your enzymes from from degrading the products and vegetables you’re typically Blanche on so the same thing and you’re even typically do a quick hot water blanch meat is really is really important you

guys lunch yeah I would pork or wild and we should be frozen for 30 days to kill trannyth which is a parasite that can be in wild game not even not so much commercial pork be more because they really test for all that but but any kind of being slaughtered on your own here’s they don’t really test that mean for that so that’s parasite it could be there Trichinella is the organism trichinosis is the and you should if you’re going to use a marinade you should keep heated in the marinade or something like that before you dry it as you want regardless of whether or not you’re going to dehydrate that products you can titrate that product which is going to prevent my orders from growing but me is such a risky product because it has a potential for having so many micro distance and you really can’t safely do that without kind of cooking it before or after heat in the oven afterwards you know to get that pathogen field and that’s mainly because you coli and some of those other pathogens that can give me which we should normally don’t we don’t normally have issue it could be cooker cook our meeting so here you’re not cooking something that should have a coat this is the last slide pretty sure um new technologies that may or may not help consumers that talks a little bit about this home back in packaging so clustering botulinum loves they’re not spending oxygens if you take a product and you vacuum packaging you’ve now taken all the oxygen out of the product right so you want to make sure that if you’ve a compacted something that could be risky for clostridium botulinum you they either freeze it or put it in a refrigerator right so vegetables me things like that you know so that second anyway but mention because you know i could call some people that want to vacuum-pack germany you know we got into this novel it’s fun and you know but you have to at least kind of understand that there is a risk associated with pulling oxygen you take oxygen because it can make perishable foods unsafe save for free so we frozen no problem who’s a refrigerator you know all that kind of stuff there’s another control mechanism there but the other thing I always tell people is that they should be thawed using safe practices so if you take that vacuum packaged meat and you throw it out on the counter and leave it all day while you’re at work that that makes me nervous is now you’ve taken something could have Clostridium botulinum spores in it no oxygen put it at the right temperature you could add communication so I saw people cut the back and packaged out open it up and then oh I thought outside refrigerator or what to put a go for iterator Moneyball just makes me nervous you know with it when that lack of oxygen so I’m pretty sure that’s it house I had a lot say to thank you shirt for the interest yeah I think about that Rebecca stand was