Creating an Empire Chapter 22 OCC

creating a Empire chapter 22 you know even after the first landing in Jamestown employment way back when the settlers were pushing westward and they questioned the trans Appalachian region and they pushed into the Louisiana territory which at the Florida and Texas California in Mexico and most of these lands they were going into or existing territories and joining us and most of them weren’t in for settlement music a Greek ulcer with the plan of it later becoming part of the United States but the expansion of the 1890s was a little bit different we sought to gain island possessions and most of them were already very much populated but the new territories were going to be needed for settlement then we needed as naval bases and trading outpost in commercial centers on the major trade routes these would be viewed as colonies not estates in the making and most people have a tendency to look inward inward and after the Civil War it was no different we wanted to get back to the business of business of living moving westward we were focused on reconstruction but we took very seriously George Washington’s farewell address to steer clear of foreign entanglements and throughout the 19th century sheltered by two great oceans and the British Navy can of course the Monroe Doctrine which tell you know Europe to stay out of the Western Hemisphere we were virtually impregnable to any kind of foreign attack so there was no reason for a foreign service but all of a sudden we had some new innovations and we begin to take an interest in events going on overseas and we mean to see a growing sense of internationalism which then from these new telegram telegrams and telephones and undersea cables which kept us very much informed about what’s going on many were interested in expansionism but never imperialism because imperialism is moving on to joining land our moving on to land that’s occupied using financial political or military support never to become part of the US but not expansionism as you move on to the adjoining man and you’re going to settle it and grow stuff and it’s fun it is to become part of the US and we can handle expansionism but imperialism has a kind of a dirty word in our vocabulary so why did the public opinion change well in all honesty we Americans had reached the end of the frontier and we go into California as far as we could go we go into Mexico when under the Canadian border where else is there for us to go we reach the end and there’s a growing fear of lessening opportunities for us and our children meanwhile the farmers and the manufacturers they’re producing more than we can use and they need markets but I actually become a victim of our own success so we start looking at Latin America in Asia Africa but well the last part of the 19th century three of our European nations Great Britain and France in Germany and got together two big old meeting and divided up Africa and begin looking toward Asia and they’re expressing this philosophy did not defit need to be developed and the unfit meet eliminated Wow that’s kind of harsh it’s even worse than Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution but this is heckles biogenic long primitive peoples were seen as being in an arrested state of childhood and they needed supervision and protection so in comes the theory of the anglo-saxon racial superiority white anglo-saxon Protestant wast congressional Minister Reverend Josiah strong wrote a book urging at the world needed to be civilized by the anglo-saxon race he also argued for expanding American tree and domination because trade was important and in his book he said because of desire for material things was the one of the hallmarks of a civilized people so I guess on guys out there they’d have a pickup truck but step in the back you’re more sterilized than I am and so we could also you know introduce some Shadid religion we could civilize them and make them Christians because after all we were in God favored race and we were destined to lead the world now taking together the new developments in the social political economic thought it’s kind of preparing Americans for a larger role in the world the change would be gradual it didn’t happen in one day when people woke up with a sudden

realization oh we need overseas colonies but change there was going to be and we were ready to reach out to the world and for the almost the first time we began thinking well maybe we need a foreign policy Oh foreign policy that’s one thing America never pink and assisted in and the day we reached the first Shores to today we have different ways of dealing with different people for instance in Europe we promoted trade and avoided any kind of entanglement in the South America we used the Monroe Doctrine New York stay out because we always had this dream of annexing Canada but what we really want to do is trade and the Pacific we really want in Hawaii in 1867 just two years after the civil war Ian we had annexed big wait islands and we purchased Alaska stewards folly as it was called and then we made trade treaties with Central American countries to try to keep European out and persuade them they didn’t need to deal with Europe now I know this is not a really good map but I thought it was pretty like the colors and and basically what I want to do to show you how much justice there is between the United States in Asia and you’ve got all these islands through here these are what we want to use we sail down here the islands refuel and sail with Asia and of course the Pacific Hawaiian Islands they are actually gorgeous my daughter and her husband just got back from celebrating their 25th wedding anniversary they went to Hawaii beautiful but Hawaii’s a crossroads the Pacific in so many many nations their ships stopped there now American missionaries have been to arrive back in the 1820s and their children I actually grew up to dominate the Hawaiian political and economic life and of course we had businessmen there and after 1865 the United States when injured agreed with Hawaii and they allowed their shirts into the United States to be free and we also bound the Hawaiian monarchy make no territorial or territorial or economic concessions to any other nation in 1887 we managed to persuade the monarch to give us exclusive use of that beautiful Harbor Pearl Harbor but three years later we’ve got a new president in McKinley tariff act ends a duty-free sugar and actually gives the American a bounty for brewing sugar well all of a sudden Hawaiian sugar production drops unemployment rises property values fall and in 1891 a very strong willed nationalistic new queen came to power and she was very very resentful of the white minority rule in one greater power to should go to the negev alliance Lily Oh Kalani so she comes up with an idea to construct a new constitution giving all the power back to the monarchy but there was a group called annexation as food the white businessmen there in Hawaii who one of the United States to Penix Hawaii these businessmen they were a bit sanctimonious and they did not think that Hawaiians were capable of self-government and they knew that the monarch was way to enact to safeguard the interests of the American business and profits so when Lily Kalani announced her intention to have this new constitution the annexation esteemed a committee of safety I took it from themselves to even perform to create a provisional government and a militia yeah the Queen could have declared martial law and arrested the conspirators there weren’t all that many of them but she felt that this would being an armed conflict which results in the loss of a lot of innocent Hawaiian lives then the Committee of Safety made its move and there aren’t companies and militia took over the government offices and buildings they contacted the United States Navy and before you know it sailors and Marines from the USS Boston were landed and the Queen was Paris January 17th 1893 the Queen face the inevitable and surrendered at a protest the provisional government and his Advisory Council raised the US flag of Hawaii and they thought that you know the annexation was just going to be a formality but President Cleveland surprised them he had made some inquiries and he said you know this was not an honest takeover yours the monarchy was overthrown by force there’s not going to be any annexation there were two brief unfortunate ripples staged by clean supporters it was very soon crushed genic lee was arrested and put under house arrest in an apartment in her own palace she was also forced to relinquish any claim to the throne as a condition to obtain amnesty for her

rebels President McKinley found the resolution of annexation on July the 17th 7th May 1898 yes it was a happy day for the American businessman but it was a very sad day for the Native Hawaiians if you look at this picture this is a picture of the palace of the queen or the Monarchs of Hawaii and I think probably most of you were surprised to think that they actually dressed they visited they had diplomats the other nations visiting they were a real monarchy it’s sad thing is is right after the Queen was forced to relinquish her rule the American businessmen went in there and stripped the castle and they sold off all the beautiful furniture and everything else and in the last two decades there’s been a concerted effort to try to reclaim some of the furniture and they managed to get some of it but if you’re interested you can go online and ask for the who I am palace and you’ll see that some of the rooms have been restored but not all of them then there’s a Samoan Islands and I’m reading I’ve got this that gird mean here’s Hawaii you know right and here’s Samoa you get a straight shot wonder how you look at it by the way this is Australia three hundred miles due south of Hawaii now the irony is a Great Britain Germany and the United States all wanted the islands in 1889 warships from all three countries were gathering and it looked like we’re going to have a major confrontation and then enter the hand of the Almighty perhaps we don’t know for sure but all of a sudden and unexpected typhoon strikes and destroy it sweets will agreeing that this was probably a sign from above they get it an agreement in Germany in the u.s. divided Samoa and they paid Britain off with giving her some islands elsewhere in the Pacific and Germany claimed it to larger islands and the u.s. kept the harbor of Pago Pago we believed it was one of the most perfect landlocked harbours in the Pacific and I personally think I love to say it Pago Pago she sounds so Polynesian but it wouldn’t be until 1899 that the islands were made official colonies of the two countries and nobody asked what Samoan people what do you think about this mm-hmm jingoism jingoism is word that simply means belligerent collison bolivian foreign policy like gunboat diplomacy there’s an example of President Theodore Roosevelt sitting our great American White Fleet around the world on diplomatic missions but it was a war fleet and even though you’re only diplomatic admission when you look out and you see a bunch of worship sit in your harbor it makes you go hmm okay that incident with Chile would be amusing if it if people hadn’t died but okay there’s a government in Chile and power that the United States government does not approve that and well you know we’re not happy so we sent down a worship to discuss the situation and then something happened that it’s very unusual the worship you know a couple hundred sailors go on shore leave and these sailors actually went out to the bar and get drunk and they got into a fight and who were killed 15 were wounded and the rest were arrested by the Chilean authorities well we were outraged of course we protested and demand an apology and full monetary reparations the Chilean government refused and President Harrison himself a former Army officer threatened to break off diplomatic relations and or something worse unless there was an immediate apology and release well aren’t secretary state tried to calm the crisis down but he wasn’t listening he had his full hit esteem and he wasn’t gonna say anything to anybody well I guess it was you know the threat of something else that the Chilean government released him in and paid a seventy five thousand dollars in damages not to me I want to know why did they pay us it was our sailors who destroyed their bar I guess it’s because I’m not a diplomat I don’t understand these things then there’s a little bit of a disagreement with Great Britain over the boundary of speech she was having with Venezuela and of course we saw he was Venezuela cos Venezuela’s in our hemisphere you know it’s like our little buddy and Britain showed a great deal of restraint and I guess the word would be what’s what I’m looking for adults she decided that you know they really didn’t need to be a disruption between the

United States and Great Britain we were getting along pretty good so let’s arbitrate which was the intelligent thing to do but my question is were we really trying to protect Venezuela from Big Brother Great Britain or we we trying to advance our own control over the area hmm FYI I remember the Civil War all energy is I said recorded reconstruction and westward movement and domestic issues and in 1865 the Navy had 971 vessels in less than nine months later they’re down to 29 and they didn’t convert those 29 to steam they stayed with the old sailing ships 1865 the Army’s 1 million year later we’re down to eleven thousand know that eleven thousand the greatest majority them was overage overweight and should be retired army officers but then you know we didn’t need the military we didn’t need a navy we were friends with Great Britain she’s got a great Navy to Texas you’ve got those two huge oceans on his side I mean we don’t need it all of a sudden hmm we see Great Britain France and Germany we’re rebuilding their faith they’ve converted to steam steel ships hmm a man called Alfred Thayer Mahan who happened to be in charge of the Newport Naval War College he had a very good argument simple and very persuasive industrialism he argues produces vast surpluses of agriculture and manufactured goods for which markets must be found markets involve distant courts reaching them requires over the large merchant marine and a powerful navy to protect it navies in turn ecoan stations and repair yards and kolya stations mean colonies and colonies would become strategic basis which is the foundation of a nation’s wealth and power hmm he also called attention to the fact that in 1889 the United States ranked well among the industrialized world navies yeah by the end of the century we were up 2/3 only behind England and Germany hmm so we’re going to become a world power and being a world power means well you’re able to manage other people’s businesses when you think your national interest requires it as a distinction the United States achieved in 1899 when she clashed with Spain and with Secretary of State John Hay called a splendid little war here’s a picture to Cuba Tywin’s I will point out to you we already know here’s Florida nearly 90 miles from our continent coast and just one big ol island I’ve never been there have no desire to go there but thus far is Spain and Cuba are concerned Spain exercised sovereignty over Cuba and it was pretty critical again crowing and Caribbean but by the 1890s American businessman had invested huge amount in Cuba sugar industry and the Cuban people were sporadically rebelling against Spain and it’s always attracted the attention of a nation itself born of revolution against a European monarchy right well in February 1895 the Cubans revolted once again and Spain resorted a very harsh depression she brought in someone called General ballarino Wyler the American Chris has been able to butcher he put hundreds of thousands of Cubans of Cuban civilians tongue got twisted put him behind mob were almost like concentration camps and there were atrocities committed you know I want to see by both sides but at this point in time we have a newspaper war going on in the United States between New York world publisher Joseph Pulitzer a New York Journal New York Journal publisher Randolph Hearst and a circulation were can be quite demanding it sometimes they didn’t always verify their information I know that when I was doing graduate work I worked for a newspaper and for something as simple as my where we had to have three verifications and so you just couldn’t just call the paper and say you know someone’s own eye but they didn’t worry about it they didn’t have any newspaper we used to print they can make it up it’s called yellow journalism or yellow press and was named after a cartoon of a little yellow kid well President McKinley American businesses in spain didn’t want to go to war they wanted a peaceful resolution song but the newspaper keeps praying all these horrible stories about things going on

over there like women being stripped and surged and it’s just really bad but we’re still working for a peaceful solution that in February of 89 a a letter was stolen from the minister a Spanish Minister can you guess any foundation had very unflattering remarks about the president was it Americans off of course the newspapers played a button big six days later battleship Maine was ordered to go in it’s one of these new vessels it’s supposed to modernize the American Navy we’ve converted into steam and it went down to vana Harbor and it blew up 260 American sailors dead remember the Maine it’s a headline in all the papers and the explosion of course is blamed on the Spanish but the question remains who did it did the Cuban rebels do it to draw us into their rebellion into Spanish do it what happened and we didn’t find out so in the middle of the twentieth century what really happened and it seems like when you courageous team they had these big rooms underneath the ship that where you carry your coal and an empty coal room had exploded when they finally managed to get the ship down they could tell the explosion came from inside the ship not outside of but that’s okay so war is declared against spam April twenty-fifth 1898 just six days before we’d sign something called a teller amendment would you pledge that we would acquire no Cuban territory as a result of this war it’s gonna be a war fought on principle well Spain didn’t have much resistance or enthusiasm and you know honesty am attrition American forces not gonna be nothing regular but in the Philippines commander George snowy destroyed four Spanish fleet at Walla Bay didn’t lose a single mentorship became a then dispatched an army of 11,000 soldiers in cooperating with the Navy and insurgents under Amedeo we all know they copied the city of Manila and few Americans knew precisely but the Philippines were even located but they were all happy to celebrate such a quick resounding victory they all have ROM mistaken incoming book fashion because it Spanish didn’t even know there was a war and when the American Cruiser arrived and fired my fort the Markman ship I met was so bad that instead of hitting anyone on the island they they their cannons went over the island and we won’t even thought they were firing a salute at him till they surrendered without a battle but in the Caribbean war follow a similar pattern the American troops were equipped ill-trained and ill-managed of course they were even that way we’re still superior to the Spanish army as a result of this war we had 5000 plus casualties and most of them were from the seizure spoiled food I think we had listened well over 300 actually died in battle both sides fought bravely but there were just too many Americans there is Colonel Teddy Roosevelt leads a charge of San Juan Hill it says but in reality it was the hill next to it called kettle Hill yeah the red friars which was a Khepri regiment was brought about by Teddy Roosevelt him I’ll explain a little bit more about that in the next lesson plus the fact we’ve got a young YouTube about the war it was called the Rough Riders nu it was just so glamorous it caught the public’s attention of course Teddy had been in the in the nation’s news for years but the US Navy’s was decisive they destroyed the Spanish fleet at Santiago Harbor and in less than ten weeks the war’s over so as you can see was Secretary of John Hagee called it it’s splendid to the war but what about the problems getting ready well there were problems with equipment supplies the National Guard which had been called up because we didn’t have a you know didn’t have a standing army they were very easygoing there was an oxygen grab too much authority they call every one of their first thing they thought the unit should stay together instead of being separated there was no censorship of news and the guys in the war we’d been writing letters home and these little small podunk towns and no it’s the coda we know more what’s going on sometimes and what they we know in New York because they got a letter from the kidman in the military the American troops had to battle Jim Crow laws on the south because this is where most of the training took place and it’s traditional you have your training bases in the south it’s close to transportation and you don’t have to worry about snow but the Jim Crow laws on the South were really bad and if it hadn’t been for the Rough Riders we might not have had President Teddy Roosevelt because these are the only ones they called Buffalo Soldiers brought in from the West who had any experience in anything that being in the military these National Guard’s were not really military if you know what I mean they kind of saved Rough Riders their year so the Treaty of Paris well it doesn’t look too bad

Spain gives cheaper hurry dependence and because we are the victors we have the spoils and she sees Puerto Rico in Guam to the US well everybody wanted the Philippines you got Japan Great Britain Germany Russia everybody wants the Philippines because it’s so close to the Asia mainland well we got it so to speak I’m in are there we took it the President McKinley considered independence and then he was talked out of it this annex instead showed the u.s. paid twenty million dollars in reparations to Spain for the islands now the fights on back home the expansionists people in their country they call expansionist they wanted the islands to make coming but the labor leaders said that no we don’t want the Philippines because it’s been to have an influx of cheap labor and many you thought the Philippines should have their independence so which were you going to go what Congress has split they wanted Hawaii and Puerto Rico but they wanted nothing to do with them why but the Philippines some just said we don’t want any colonies at all some said just ratify the dams reading in the war but what if the Filipinos what did they want but the one thing they did not want to do was trade one imperialistic power for another one so they resisted and for two years they fought guerilla fashion maybe know anything about world war two have you ever watched Hogan’s Heroes how they were always threatening essentials to the aggression front which was akin to a death warrant that’s pretty much what would it was when you get sense in the Philippines it was common some death warrant 4,000 Americans were killed 20,000 Filipinos they all the forty thousand four thousand twenty thousand died in combat but an estimated six hundred thousand civilians died of disease or starvation are tortured night Rossi’s were committed on both sides there was a water torture which we had back then they would dig pits in the ground and put stakes and I’m in here I’m rub them with either human or cattle it’s treatment and then cover him up so that when you’d follow you didn’t hail yourself and of course you would die they wouldn’t be trapped dead bodies all kinds of terrible things and in reality this is pretty much a foreshadow at the Vietnam War but we didn’t learn by it but the war cost in dollars was four hundred million now this is nineteen hundred dollars multiply that but about fourteen 1902 the leaders of replicas captured and it’s the same guy that he helped us kick out the Spanish so the war is over but President McKinley sends William Howard Taft a politician but had never been elected to an office I did more like government diplomatic history calling he was to established a civil governor government and be governor of Philippine Islands and he did do some good stuff he built roads he built bridges or not he himself and he had them built he performed a judiciary he restructured their tax system he introduced sanitation and vaccination programs he established local governments to build um built on from the Filipino tradition he didn’t try to do an American style but it’s going to be fifty years before they have true independence because we’re not in any hurry to leave okay we now have colonies so how’d you’re going to govern them dude these people have the same rights as a United States citizen do they have constitutional privileges like the Americans do could they vote in our elections and can we tax them one of theirs citizens run for president questions questions questions every time you turn around there’s a question it’s going to take a series of court cases through 1901 1904 to decide that being a territory did not grant automatically all the privileges of u.s. citizen there were four dependencies Hawaii Alaska Guam and Puerto Rico and they were organized very quickly in 1900 Owyhee had been granted territorial statuses had American citizenship granted to all of its citizens and Alaska became a territory in 1912 and well why me just put under the control of the Navy but what about Cuba well the American troops stayed in Cuba 1903 which wasn’t too bad it certainly compared to the Philippines and then the u.s. finally recognized her independence but it was a limited independence and between 1898 and 1902 we had worked pretty hard for the economic and political revival of the islands we repaired the civil war damage we helped rebuild roads and schools and you have to establish order there was a public health campaign led by dr. Walter Reed yeah the famous doctor Walter Reed

Hospital the wiped out yellow fever they held elections and they even wrote a new constitution but this Constitution it was cool the Cuba could make no treaties with other powers it might impair their independence they would not be allowed to acquire any debts he could not pay they leased one time and obeyed to us for ever and they had to maintain an orderly government well now what can we talk about the Platt Amendment hmm didn’t mention the Platt Amendment I should have that was the part of their Constitution who gave us the authority to intervene in case there was we thought that you need to be they settle down so I apologize for not having them there but you do remember need to remember Platt phtt amendment okay now what we have colonies and we’ve got a good road to Asia well China had been shall we say weakened over the years because of internal fighting and she couldn’t resist any fun in confluence in Japan and England and France Germany and Russia all of them had gone in there and divided up areas into what we called spheres of influence and it was 14 China took grant concessions to give them exclusive rights which is going to keep the Americans out the President McKinley outlined a policy called the open door policy and it actually urged three agreements the nations possessing spheres of influence there were to respect the other spheres of influence well that makes sense be polite be nice the Chinese government would be allowed to collect tariffs from all the suvir’s no wait a minute they’re you getting in my hip pocket and nations would not discriminate against other nations well it makes sense if they did all these things we would have some commercially penny just but Russia says yet Great Britain’s oh boy I’ll tell you what I’ll think about it and everyone else agreed I would also so nothing is really settled then June 1900 backs of rebellion which is a translation the righteous of harmonious fist the over ran paid King which is now in Beijing they were pretty bloody and then they managed to scare the heck out of all these spheres of influence and they were confined to the legations and if you look at the map I’m you where in China it’s kind of hard to get anything from Russia or France or Germany me you got a sail all the way around South American come back up you too far to go overland through Russia so what are we going to do Oh in the Philippines United States Army oh please send help sure while we’re waiting ready to send your help how about we discuss that open-door policy again cool huh I think it’s called diplomatic blackmail and we did take care of it in a big fashion get back on the homefront war with Spain’s over the soldiers are saving home they received huge parades the black soldiers win medals and in recognition for their service but unfortunately they’re the first burst of segregation and lynching in the south meanwhile McKinley and the Republican Party soar to new heights because of the successful war short war the kind of wars Americans like not that many Americans died and it was over within less than two months but a little more than a hundred years the United States had grown from thirteen colonies stretching all along the Atlantic coastline into a world power we’re dominating our hemisphere and we’re on equal terms with all the major European powers we have grown up fast meanwhile Russia and Japan go to war and of course our sympathies are with Japan well President Roosevelt gets in the middle of it he mediates an end of the war from the Russian jet though brusho Japanese war sir to my tongue today he actually received a medal for that himself but California meanwhile started segregating the Asian and white schoolchildren and Japan is just screaming no prejudice this is wrong and we don’t really want to mess up our trade ties with Japan we’ve been on pretty good terms with her so president ministers persuade the city to rescind the order and Japan USA enter inches of trade agreements but there’s meeting to be a crack in our relationship it’s gonna not really show up an awful lot for about another no 15 20 years but then all of a sudden is gonna become quite obvious you know the Roosevelt color re and the big stickin dollar diplomacy I’m gonna

discuss next lesson because what I want to do is open the chapter up next week with a brief bio of McKinley and Teddy Roosevelt who built are interesting in their own right but to give you a little background of the presidential policies and the mood of the country at the time we’ve just come out of a very successful war things are looking good the Progressive Era is doing great things I mean we’re into the 20th century things are booming and then we’re gonna get into the World War one all the Great War the war to end all wars chapter xxiii so thank you for listening