The First Balkan War – The Alliance Against The Ottomans

the first balkan war Turkish Byron see Balkan solvers Bulgarian commerce Serbian pre bull Kinski rat Greek kama which lasted from October 1912 to may nine teen 13 comprised actions of the bull can League Serbia Greece Montenegro in Bulgaria against the Ottoman Empire the combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success as a result of the war the Allies captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state despite its success bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the Spoils in Macedonia which provoked the start of the second Balkan war tensions among the Balkan states over their rival aspirations to the provinces of ottoman controlled romelia namely Eastern Amelia Thrace and Macedonia subsided somewhat following intervention by the great powers in the mid-19th century aimed at securing both more complete protection for the provinces Christian majority and protection of the status quo by 1867 Serbia and Montenegro had both secured independence which was confirmed by the treaty of berlin a decade later but the question of the viability of Ottoman rule was revived after the young turk revolution of july 1908 which compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman Constitution and the significant developments in the years nineteen oh nine to eleven Serbia’s aspirations to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Austrian annexation of the province in October 1908 the Serbs directed their expansionist attentions to the south following the austro-hungarian annexation the Young Turks tried to induce the Muslim population of Bosnia to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire those who took up the offer were resettled by the Ottoman authorities in those districts of northern Macedonia where the Muslim population was limited in number the experiment proved to be a trophy for the Empire since the immigrants readily united with the existing population of Albanian Muslims they participated in the series of Albanian uprisings before and during the spring of nineteen twelve some government troops who were ethnic Albanians switched sides joining with the revolutionaries in May 1912 the Albanian revolutionaries drove the Ottomans out of Skopje and pressed south towards monaster present-day by tola forcing the Ottomans to grant effective autonomy over large regions in june nineteen twelve Serbia which had helped arm the Albanian rebels and sent secret agents to some of the prominent leaders took the revolt as a pretext for war Serbia Montenegro Greece and Bulgaria had all been in talks about possible offensives against the Ottoman Empire before the Albanian revolt of 1912 broke out a formal agreement between Serbia and Montenegro had been signed on 7 march on the 18th of october 1912 peter the first of serbia issued a declaration to the Serbian people which appeared to support Albanians as well as Serbs the Turkish government’s showed no interest in their duties towards their citizens and turned a deaf ear to all complaints and suggestions things got so far out of hand that no one was satisfied with the situation in Turkey in Europe it became unbearable for the Serbs the Greeks and for the Albanians too by the grace of God I have therefore ordered my brave army to join in the holy water free our brethren and to ensure a better future in old Serbia my army will meet not only upon Christian Serbs but also upon Muslim Serbs who are equally dear to us and in addition to them upon Christian and Muslim Albanians with whom our people have shared joy and sorrow for 13th centuries now to all them we bring freedom Brotherhood and equality in a search for allies Serbia was ready to negotiate a contract with Bulgaria the agreement provided that in the event of victory against the Ottomans Bulgaria would receive all of Macedonia south of the craver palanca or red line Serbia’s expansion accepted by Bulgaria as being to the north of the Shah mountains that is Kosovo the intervening area was agreed to be disputed it would be arbitrated by the Czar of Russia in the event of a successful war against the Ottoman Empire during the course of the war it became apparent that the Albanians did not consider Serbia as a liberator as suggested by King Peter the first nor did the Serbian forces observe his declaration of Amity toward Albanians after the successful coup d’etat for unification with Eastern romelia

Bulgaria began to dream that its national unification would be realized for that purpose it developed a large army and identified as the prussia of the balkans but bulgaria could not win a war alone against the ottomans in greece army officers had revolted in august 1909 and secured the appointment of a progressive government under ill theories Venizelos which they hoped would resolve the greetin issue ingresses favor they also wanted to reverse their defeat of 1897 at the hands of the Ottomans an emergency military reorganisation led by a French military mission had been started for that purpose but its work was interrupted by the outbreak of war in the Balkans in the discussions that led Greece to join the Balkan League Bulgaria refused to commit to any agreement on the distribution of territorial gains unlike its deal with Serbia over Macedonia Bulgaria’s diplomatic policy was to push Serbia into an agreement limiting its access to Macedonia while at the same time refusing any such agreement with Greece Bulgaria belief that its army would be able to occupy the larger part of a GM Macedonia and the important port city of Salonika Thessaloniki before the Greeks in 1911 Italy had launched an invasion of tripolitania in present-day Libya which was quickly followed by the occupation of the dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea the Italians decisive military victories over the Ottoman Empire encouraged the Balkan states to imagine they might win a war against the Ottomans by the spring and summer of nineteen twelve the various Christian Balkan nations had created an work of military alliances which became known as the ball can League the great powers most notably France and Austria Hungary reacted to the formation of these alliances by trying to dissuade the league from going to war but failed in late-september both the league in the Ottoman Empire mobilized their armies Montenegro was the first to declare war on 25 sep tember OS / 8 october after issuing an impossible ultimatum to the party on 13 October Bulgaria Serbia and Greece declared war on the Empire on 17 October order of battle and plans the Ottoman order of battle when the war broke out constituted a total of twelve thousand and twenty four officers 320 4718 men 47 thousand nine hundred and sixty animals 2318 artillery pieces and 388 machine guns from these a total 920 offices and 40 2607 men had been assigned in non divisional units and services the remaining 290 3206 officers and men were assigned into four armies opposing them and in continuation of their secret pre-war settlements of expansion the three Slavic allies Bulgarian Serbs and Montenegrins had extensive plans to coordinate their war efforts the Serbs and Montenegrins in the theatre of sand sack the Bulgarians and Serbs in the Macedonian and Thrace and theatres the bulk of the Bulgarian forces 340 6180 two men was to attack Thrace pitted against the Thracian Ottoman army of ninety six thousand two hundred and seventy three men and about 26,000 garrison troops or about 115,000 in total according to both halls Erickson’s and the Turkish gen staffs 1993 study the remaining Ottoman army of about 200,000 was located in Macedonia pitted against the Serbian 234,000 Serbs and 48,000 Bulgarians under the Serbians or and Greek 115,000 men armies it was divided into the vardar and macedonian ottoman armies with independent static guts around the fortress cities of io a Nina against the greeks in e pires and skoda against the Montenegrins in North Albania Bulgaria Bulgaria was militarily the most powerful of the four Balkan states with a large well-trained and well-equipped army Bulgaria mobilized a total of five hundred and ninety-nine thousand eight hundred and seventy eight men out of a population of 4.3 million the Bulgarian field army counted 49 infantry divisions one cavalry division and 1116 artillery units the commander-in-chief was our Ferdinand while the operating command was in the hands of his deputy general Mike Hale serveth the Bulgarian also possessed a small Navy of six torpedo boats which were restricted to operations along the country’s Black Sea coast bulgaria was focused on actions in Thrace and

Macedonia it deployed its main force in Thrace forming three armies the first army 70 9370 men under general razzle cute in chief with three infantry divisions was deployed to the south of the ambil with direction of operations along the tons a river the second army 120 2748 men under general Nicola of vanaf with two infantry divisions and one infantry brigade was deployed west of the first and was assigned to capture the strong fortress of adrianople II turn according to the plans the Third Army 90 4884 men and a general radko dimitroff was deployed east of and behind the first and was covered by the cavalry division hiding it from the Turkish view the Third Army had three infantry divisions and was assigned to cross the stronger mountain and to take the fortress of Kirk keyless plurally the second 49,000 180 and 740 8523 men divisions were assigned into pendant rolls operating in Western Thrace and East and Macedonia respectively serbia serbia called upon about two hundred and fifty five thousand men out of the population of two million nine hundred and twelve thousand people with about two hundred and twenty eight guns grouped in ten infantry divisions to independent brigades and a cavalry division under the effective command of the former war minister Adama putt Nick the Serbian High Command in its pre-war war games had concluded that the likeliest site of the decisive battle against the Ottoman vardar army would be on the off spall plateau before Skopje hence the main forces were formed in three armies from the advance towards Skopje while a division and an independent brigade were to cooperate with the Montenegrins in the sanjak of novi pazar the first army 132,000 men was commanded by general / tabo javac and was the strongest in number and force forming the center of the drive towards Skopje the second army 74,000 men was commanded by general stepper Stepanovitch and consisted of one serbian and one Bulgarian 73 la division it formed the left wing of the army and advanced towards strace in the inclusion of the Bulgarian division was according to a pre-war arrangement between Serbian and Bulgarian armies but that division ceased to obey orders of gin Stepanovich as soon as the war began followed only the orders of the Bulgarian High Command the Third Army 76,000 men was commanded by General bozidar jankovic and being the right wing army had the task to take Kosovo it would then join the other armies in the expected battle at the off spall there were two other concentrations in northwestern Serbia across the servo austro-hungarian borders the ibar army 25,000 men under general Morello zivkovic and the jiva Brigade 12,000 men under left-tenant curl melava anvil Kovac greece greece at the time estate of two million six hundred and sixty-six thousand people was considered the weakest of the three main ally since it fielded the smallest army and had suffered a defeat against the Ottoman 16 years before in the greco-turkish war of eighteen ninety seven a British consular dispatch from 1910 expresses the common perception of the Greek Army’s capabilities at the time if there is war we shall probably see that the only thing Greek officers can do besides talking is to run away however Greece was the only Balkan country to possess a substantial Navy this was vital to the league as it could prevent Ottoman reinforcements from being rapidly transferred by ship from Asia to Europe this fact was readily appreciated by the Serbs and Bulgarians and was the chief factor in initiating the process of Greece’s inclusion in their alliance as the Greek ambassador to Sofia put it during the negotiations that led to Greece’s entry into the league Greece can provide 600,000 men for the war effort 200,000 men in the field and the fleet will be able to stop 400,000 men being landed by Turkey between Salonika and Gallipoli the Greek army was still undergoing reorganization by a French military mission cooled in 1911 one year before the war under French supervision the Greeks had adopted the triangular infantry division as their main formation but more importantly the overhaul of the mobilization system allowed the country to field and equip a far greater number of troops than it had in 1897 while foreign observers estimated Greece would mobilize a force of approximately 50,000

men the Greek army fielded 125,000 with another 140,000 in the National Guard and reserves upon mobilization as in 1897 this force was grouped in two field armies reflecting the geographic division between the two operational theaters open to the Greeks thessaly Andy pires the army of Thessaly comma was placed under Crown Prince Constantine with left Hannant general panagiotis tagless as his chief of staff it fielded the bulk of the Greek forces seven infantry divisions a Cavalry Regiment and four independent f light mountain infantry battalions roughly 100,000 men it was expected to overcome the fortified Ottoman border positions and advance towards south and central macedonia aiming to take thessaloniki and by tola the remaining 10,000 to 13,000 men in eight battalions were assigned to the army of e pires comma under left Hannant general konstantinos say pound sakis as it had no hope of capturing ioana ena the heavily fortified capital of e pires its initial mission was to pin down the Ottoman forces there until sufficient reinforcements could be sent from the Army of Thessaly after its successful conclusion of operations the Greek Navy was relatively modern strengthened by the recent purchase of numerous new units and undergoing reforms under the supervision of a British mission invited by Prime Minister Venizelos in 1910 the mission began its work upon its arrival in May 1911 granted extraordinary powers and led by Vice Admiral Lionel grant tough now it thoroughly reorganized the Navy ministry and dramatically improved the number and quality of exercises in gunnery and fleet maneuvers in 1912 the core unit of the fleet was the first armored Cruiser Greek Cruiser giorgos of rough completed in 1910 and at that time the fastest and the most modern ship of the line in the combatant navies it was complemented by three rather antiquated battleships of the hydra class there were also eight destroyers built in nineteen oh six to nineteen oh seven and six new destroyers that were hastily bought in summer 1912 as the imminence of war became apparent nevertheless at the outbreak of the war the Greek fleet was far from ready the Ottoman battle fleet retained a clear advantage a number of ships speed of the main surface units and more importantly in the number and caliber of the ships guns in addition as the war caught the fleet in the middle of its expansion and reorganization fully a third of the fleet the six new destroyers and the submarine dolphin only reached Greece after hostile had started forcing the Navy to reshuffle crews who consequently suffered from lacking familiarization and training time Col stockpiles and other war stores were also in short supply while the george joseph roof had arrived with barely any ammunition and would remain so until late november montenegro montenegro was also considered as one of the weakest nations in the Balkan Peninsula but in recent years before the war with support from Russia and Serbia it had improved its military skills even so due to montenegro being the smallest member of the league it didn’t have much influence on the Ottoman Empire despite this it was advantageous for montenegro because when the Ottoman Empire was trying to counter the actions of Serbia Bulgaria and Greece Montenegro had enough time to prepare even so before the war most of the Montenegrin army still depended on Serbia Ottoman Empire in 1912 the Ottomans had a difficult position they had a large population 26 million but just over 6.1 million of them lived in the European part of the Empire of these only 2.3 million were Muslims the rest being Christians who were considered unfit for conscription the very poor transport network especially in the Asian part dictated that the only reliable way for a mass transfer of troops to the European theater was by sea but that was at risk due to the Greek fleet in the Aegean Sea in addition the Ottomans were still engaged in a protracted war against the Italians in Libya and by now in the dodecanese islands of the Aegean which had dominated the Ottoman military effort for over a year the conflict lasted until 15 octobre a few days after the outbreak of hostilities in the Balkans the Ottomans were unable to significantly reinforce their positions in the Balkans as their relations with the Balkan states deteriorated over the course of the year the Ottomans military capabilities were hampered by a number of factors beginning with domestic strife caused by the young turk revolution and the counter-revolutionary

coup several months later see counter coupe 1909 and 31 March incident this resulted in different groups competing for influence within the military a German mission had tried to reorganize the army but its recommendations had not been completed the Ottoman army was caught in the midst of reform and reorganization in addition several of the Army’s best battalions had been transferred to Yemen to face the ongoing rebellion there in the summer of nineteen twelve the Ottoman High Command made the disastrous decision to dismiss some 70,000 mobilized troops the Regular Army knives am was composed of well equipped and trained active divisions but the reserve units rediff that reinforced it were ill-equipped especially in artillery and badly trained the Ottomans strategic situation was difficult as their borders were almost impossible to defend against a coordinated attack by the Balkan states the Ottoman leadership decided to defend the entirety of their territory as a result the available forces which could not be easily reinforced from Asia due to Greek control of the sea and the inadequacy of the Ottoman railway system were dispersed too thinly across the region they failed to stand up to the rapidly mobilized ball kaname ‘he’s the Ottomans had three armies in Europe the Macedonian vardar in Thrace on armies with 1203 pieces of mobile and 1115 fixed artillery on fortified areas the Ottoman High Command repeated its error of previous wars in neglecting the established command structure and creating new superior commands the eastern army and Western army reflecting the division of the operational theater between the Thracian against the Bulgarians and macedonian against Greeks Serbs and Montenegrins France the Western army fielded at least 200,000 men while the East nommy fielded 115,000 men against the Bulgarian army the eastern army was commanded by Nats Empire and numbered seven core of eleven regular infantry 13 rediff and 1 plus cavalry division’s I call with three divisions 2nd Infantry minus regiment 3rd infantry and first provisional divisions to call with three divisions fourth- regiment and 5th infantry and use our Creed of divisions three core with four divisions 7th 8th and 9th Infantry Division’s all- a regiment and the f ankara hi sorry daph division for core with three divisions 12th infantry division minus regiment ismat and bursa rediff divisions 17 core with three divisions Samson early and is Marie diff divisions Eden fortified area with 6 plus divisions 10th and 11th infantry II turn babeski and Gumi sign reader and the fortress division 4th rifle and 12th cavalry regiments truly detachment with 2 plus divisions [ __ ] rediff colima stets division and 36th Infantry Regiment and independent cavalry division in the 5th light cavalry Brigade the Western army Macedonian and via dorami was composed of 10 core with 32 infantry and two cavalry division’s against Serbia the Ottomans deployed the vardar Army HQ in Skopje under hail please keep Asha with five core of 18 infantry divisions one cavalry division and two independent cavalry brigades under the vcore with four divisions 13th 15th 16th infantry and the estate pre divisions vicor with four divisions 17th 18th infantry and the men astron drum rediff divisions seven core with three division 19th infantry and use cap and pristine rediff divisions to cope with three divisions usac denizli and is married if divisions sands act core with four divisions 20th infantry minus regiment 60th infantry metro visa rediff division tassel carryduff regiment furs vacant [ __ ] detachments an independent cavalry division in the seventh and eighth cavalry brigades the Macedonian army HQ in Thessalonica and relieves a Pasha was composed of 14 divisions in five core detailed against Greece Bulgaria and Montenegro against Greece 7 plus divisions were deployed eight provisional core with three divisions 22nd infantry and nathless and aid rediff divisions janiak or with three divisions 23rd infantry yeah Nia rediff and bassani fortress divisions Selena Creed of division and caribou run detachment as independent units against

Bulgaria in southeast and Macedonia two divisions forming the Struma Corps 14th infantry and sarahs reader divisions plus the never copped attachment were deployed against Montenegro 4 plus divisions were deployed a squad recor with 2 plus divisions 24th infantry alberson rediff asked adre fortified area I pegged attachment with two divisions 21st infantry and Prizren read of divisions according to the organizational plan the men of the Western group had a number 598 thousand but slow mobilization and the poor railroad efficiency reduced drastically the available men according to the Western army staff when war began they had only 200,000 men available although during the next period more men reached the unit’s due to the war casualties the western group never came near its nominal strength in time of war the Ottomans had planned to bring more troops in from Syria both neither my eye and read if Greek naval supremacy prevented those reinforcements from arriving instead those soldiers had to deploy via the land route and most never made it to the Balkans the Ottoman General Staff assisted by the German military mission developed 12 war plans designed to counter various combinations of opponents work on plan number 5 which was against a combination of Bulgaria Greece serbia and montenegro was very advanced and had been sent to the army staffs for them to develop local plans the Ottoman fleet had performed abysmal II in the greco-turkish war of eighteen ninety seven forcing the Ottoman government to begin a drastic overhaul older ships were retired and newer ones acquired chiefly from France and Germany in addition in 1907 the Ottomans called in a British naval mission to update their training and doctrine in the event the British mission headed by Admiral Sir Douglas Campbell would find its task almost impossible to a large extent this was due to the political upheaval in the aftermath of the young turk revolution between 1908 and 1911 the office of navy minister changed hands nine times inter departmental infighting and the entrenched interests of the bloated and over aged officer corps many of whom occupied their positions as a quazy cynic your further obstructed drastic reform in addition British attempts to control the Navy’s construction program were met with suspicion by the ottoman ministers and funds for Gamble’s ambitious plans for new ships were not available to counter the Greek acquisition of the george joseph Roth the Ottomans initially tried to buy the new German armored Cruiser SMS Pletcher or the battle cruiser SMS mult not able to afford the ship’s high cost the Ottomans acquired two old Brandenburg class pre-dreadnought battleships which became Barbaro’s hey read in and Turgut race along with the cruisers Hamid iin masa de a these two ships were to form the relatively modern core of the Ottoman battle fleet by the summer of nineteen twelve however they were already in poor condition due to chronic neglect the range finders and ammunition hoists had been removed the telephones were not working the pumps were corroded and most of the watertight doors could no longer be closed operations Montenegro started the first balkan war by declaring war against the ottomans on 8 october OS 25 sep tember 1912 the western region of the balkans including albania kosovo and macedonia was less important to the resolution of the war and the survival of the Ottoman Empire than the Thracian theater where the Bulgarians fought major battles against the Ottoman forces but although the geography dictated that case would be the major battlefield in a war with the Ottoman Empire the position of the Ottoman army there was jeopardized by erroneous intelligence estimates of their opponents order of battle unaware of the secret pre-war political and military settlement over Macedonia between Bulgaria and Serbia the Ottoman leadership has signed the bulk of their forces there the German ambassador hands baron von wangenheim one of the most influential people in the Ottoman capital had reported to Berlin on 21 October that the Ottoman forces believed that the bulk of the Bulgarian army would be deployed in Macedonia with the Serbs subsequently the Ottoman HQ under Abdullah Pasha expected to meet only three Bulgarian infantry divisions accompanied by cavalry east of adrianople according to ej ericsson this assumption possibly resulted from their analysis of the objectives of the ball compact but it a deadly consequences for the Ottoman army in Thrace which would have to defend the area against the bulk of the Bulgarian

army against impossible odds this miss appraisal was also the reason of the catastrophic aggressive Ottoman strategy at the start of the campaign in Thrace in the Thrace in front the Bulgarian army had placed 340 6180 two men against the Ottoman 1st army with 105,000 men in East and Thrace and the kirkley detachment of 24,000 men in Western Thrace the Bulgarian forces were divided into the first leftenant general Rason cute in chief second left tenant general Nicola of vanaf and third left henan general radko Dimitrov bulgarian armies of 297 thousand and two men in the eastern part and forty 9180 33,000 180 regulars and 16,000 de regulars under the second Bulgarian division general Stiliyan kovachev in the western part the first large-scale battle occurred against the eda and chlorella defensive line where the Bulgarian first and third armies together 174,000 254 men defeated the Ottoman East army of 96 thousand two hundred and seventy-three combatants near jet coonley Celine went Petra the Ottoman 15 Corps urgently left the area to defend the gallipoli peninsula against an expected Greek amphibious assault which in the event never materialized the absence of this core created an immediate vacuum between Adrianople and demote occur and the 11th infantry division from the eastern armies for core was moved that a replace it thus one complete army corps was removed from the eastern armies order of battle as a consequence of the insufficient intelligence on the invading forces the ottoman offensive plan failed completely in the face of bulgarian superiority forcing kuhlman abdullah pasha to abandon Gert keyless which was taken without resistance by the bulgarian 3rd army the fortress of Adrianople with some 60 1,250 men was isolated and besieged by the bulgarian second army although for the time being no assault was possible due to the lack of siege equipment in the Bulgarian inventory another consequence of the Greek naval supremacy in the Aegean was the D Ottoman forces did not receive the reinforcements projected in the war plans consisting of a further core to be transferred by sea from Syria and Palestine thus the Greek Navy played a crucial albeit indirect role in the Thracian campaign by a neutralizing three core a significant portion of the Ottoman army in the all-important opening round of the war another more direct role was the emergency transportation of the Bulgarian 7-3 lead division from the macedonian to the Thracian front after the termination of operations there after the Battle of Kirk keyless the Bulgarian High Command decided to wait a few days a decision which allowed the Ottoman forces to occupy a new defensive position on the Leo burgers carrigana hyzaar line despite this the Bulgarian attack by the first and third army which together accounted for 107,000 386 riflemen 3115 cavalry 116 machine guns and 360 artillery pieces defeated the forced ottoman army consisting of 126,000 riflemen 3,500 cavalry 96 machine guns and 342 artillery pieces and reached the Sea of Marmara in terms of forces engaged it was the largest battle fought in Europe between the end of the franco-prussian war and the beginning of the First World War as a result of it the Ottoman forces were pushed to their final defensive position across the sate alkaline protecting the peninsula on which Constantinople is located that they succeeded in stabilizing the front with the help of fresh reinforcements from the Asian provinces the line had been constructed during the russo-turkish war of 1870 78 under the directions of a German engineer an ottoman service von blon pasha but was considered obsolete by 1912 meanwhile the forces of the Bulgarian second Thrace and division 49,000 180 men divided into the house Kovu and rhodope detachments advanced toward the Aegean Sea the Ottoman kirkley detachment Kirkley rediff and kirkley mustapha’s divisions and 36th regiment with 24,000 men tasked with defending of 400 kilometres front across the Thessaloniki Alexandra Poli railroad failed to offer serious resistance and on 26 November their commander yay for pacha was captured together with 10,000 131 officers and men by Macedonian Adrianople it involuntary Corps after the occupation of Thessaloniki by the

Greek army his surrender completed the isolation of the Ottoman forces in Macedonia from those in Thrace on 17 November os4 November 1912 the offensive against the sate alkaline began despite clear warnings from Russia that if the Bulgarians occupied Constantinople it would attack them the Bulgarians launched their attack along the defensive line with 170 6351 men and 462 artillery pieces against the Ottomans 140,000 571 men and 316 artillery pieces but despite Bulgarian superiority the Ottoman succeeded in repulsing them an armistice was consequently agreed on 3 December OS 20 November 1912 between the Ottomans and Bulgaria the latter also representing Serbia and Montenegro and peace negotiations began in London Greece also participated in the conference but refused to agree to a truce continuing its operations in the e pires sector the negotiations were interrupted on 23 January OS 10 january nineteen thirteen when a young turk coup d’etat in constantinople under anvil pasha overthrew the government of Kamil Pasha upon expiration of the armistice on 3 februari OS 21 january nineteen thirteen hostilities recommenced ottoman counter-offensive on 20 februari ottoman forces began their attack both in SE telco and south at Gallipoli there the Ottoman Xcor with nineteen thousand eight hundred and fifty eight men and forty eight guns landed at Sequoia at the same time as an attack of around 15,000 men supported by 36 guns part of the thirty comma 0 0 0 strong Ottoman army isolated in the gallipoli peninsula at Bouley further south both attacks were supported by far from Ottoman warships and were intended in the long term to relieve pressure on Edirne confronting them were about 10,000 men with 78 guns the Ottomans were probably unaware of the presence in the area of the newly formed fourth Bulgarian army of 90 2289 men under general stallion kovachev the Ottoman attack in the thinnest mess with a front of just 1,800 meters was hampered by thick fog and strong Bulgarian artillery and machine gun fire as a result the attack stalled and was repulsed by a Bulgarian counter-attack by the end of the day both armies had returned to their original positions meanwhile the Ottoman X Corps which had landed at Sequoia advanced until by 23 februari os10 februari 1913 reinforcements sent by General Kovac F succeeded in halting them casualties on both sides were light after the failure of the frontal attack in bula the Ottoman forces at sequoyah re embarked into their ships on 11 februari and were transported to Gallipoli the Ottoman attack could say telka directed against the powerful Bulgarian 1st and 3rd armies was initially launched only as a diversion from the Gallipoli sequoia operation pinning down the Bulgarian forces in city nevertheless it resulted in unexpected success the Bulgarians who were weakened by cholera and concern that an ottoman amphibious invasion might endanger their armies deliberately withdrew about 15 kilometres and to the south over 20 kilometres to their secondary defensive positions on higher ground to the west with the end of the attack in Gallipoli the Ottomans cancel the operation reluctant to leave the sate alkaline but several days passed before the Bulgarians realized that the offensive was over by 15 februari the front head again stabilized but the fighting along the static lines continued until the Armistice the battle which resulted in heavy Bulgarian casualties could be characterized as an ottoman victory at the tactical level but strategically it was a failure since it did nothing to prevent the failure of the Gallipoli sequoia operation or relieve the pressure on edirne the failure of the sequoia boule operation and the deployment of the second serbian army together with its much-needed heavy siege artillery sealed Adrian opals fate on 11 March after a two weeks bombardment which destroyed many of the fortified structures around the city the final assault started with Allied forces enjoying a crushing superiority over the Ottoman garrison under the command of general Nicola vanaf the Bulgarian Second Army with 100 6425 men and to serve divisions with 40 7275 men conquered the city with the Bulgarian suffering 8090 3 and the Serbs 1462

casualties the Ottoman casualties for the entire adrianople campaign reached 23,000 guild the number of prisoners is less clear the Ottoman Empire began the war with 60 1,250 men in the adrianople fortress Richard hall that notes that 60,000 men were captured adding to the 33,000 guild the modern Turkish General Staff history notes back 28,500 man survived captivity leaving only 10,000 men unaccounted for as possibly captured including the unspecified number of wounded Bulgarian losses for the entire adrianople campaign amounted to 7680 to this was the last and decisive battle that was necessary for a quick end to the war even though it is speculated that the fortress would have fallen eventually due to starvation the most important result was that now the Ottoman command lost all hopes of regaining the initiative which made any further fighting pointless the battle had major and key results in scerbo Bulgarian relations planting the seeds of the two countries confrontation some months later the bulgarian sensor rigorously cut any references about the serbian participation in the operation in the telegrams of the foreign correspondence public opinion in sofia thus failed to realize the crucial services serbia rendered in the battle accordingly the Serbs claimed that their troops of the 20th regiment were those who captured the Ottoman commander of the city and that Colonel gavrilov ‘ok was the allied officer who accepted Chakri’s official surrender of the garrison a statement that the Bulgarians disputed subsequently the Serbs officially protested pointing at that although they had sent their troops to adrianople to win for Bulgaria territory whose acquisition had never been foreseen by their mutual treaty the Bulgarians had never fulfilled the clause of the treaty requiring Bulgaria to send 100,000 men to help the Serbians on their vardar front the Bulgarians answered that their staff had informed the Serbs about that on 23 August the friction escalated some weeks later when the Bulgarian delegates in London bluntly warned the Serbs that they must not expect Bulgarian support on their Adriatic claim the Serbs angrily replied that that was a clear withdrawal from the pre-war agreement of mutual understanding according to the cry for palanca adriatic line of expansion but the Bulgarians insisted that in their view the vada Macedonian part of the agreement remained active and the Serbs were still obliged to surrender the area as agreed the Serbs answered by accusing the Bulgarians of maximalism pointing out that if they lost both northern albania and Vardar Macedonia their participation in the common war would have been virtually for nothing the tension soon was expressed in a series of hostile incidents between the two armies along their common line of occupation across the Verde Valley the developments essentially ended the scerbo bulgarian alliance and made a future war between the two countries inevitable Ottoman intelligence had also disastrously miss read Greek military intentions in retrospect it would appear that the Ottoman staffs believed that the Greek attack would be shared equally between the two major avenues of approach macedonia and deep iris the 2nd Army Staff had therefore evenly balanced the combat strength of the seven Ottoman divisions between the janiak or and eight core any pires and southern Macedonia respectively the Greek army also fielded seven divisions but having the initiative concentrated all seven against eight core leaving only a number of independent battalions of scarcely divisional strength in the e pires front this had fatal consequences for the western group of armies since it led to the early loss of the strategic center of all three Macedonian fronts the city of Thessaloniki a fact that sealed their fate in an unexpectedly brilliant and rapid campaign the army of Thessaly sees the city in the absence of security lines of communications the retention of the Thessaloniki Constantinople corridor was essential to the overall strategic posture of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans once this was gone the defeat of the Ottoman army became inevitable to be sure the Bulgarians and the Serbs played an important role in the defeat of the main Ottoman armies their great victories at kurkle I lubar gasps kumanovo and monaster shattered the eastern and VAR daha armies however these victories were not decisive in the sense that they ended the war the ottoman field armies survived and in Thrace they actually grew stronger day by day in the strategic point of view these victories were enabled partially by the weakened condition of the Ottoman armies brought about by the active presence of the Greek army and fleet with the declaration of war the Greek army of

Thessaly under Crown Prince Constantine advanced to the north successfully overcoming Ottoman opposition in the fortified straits of saron de pura after another victory agile its Iran to November OS 20 octobre 1912 the Ottoman commander Hasan tarsan Pasha surrendered Thessaloniki and its garrison of 26,000 men to the Greeks on 9 November OS 27 October 1912 two cor h qs used trumer and 82 noise oh my i divisions 14 and 20 second and for Edith divisions Salonika drama nass lick and sarahs were thus lost to the ottoman order of battle additionally the Ottoman forces lost 70 artillery pieces 30 machine guns and 70,000 rifles Thessaloniki was the central arms depot for the Western armies the Ottoman forces estimated that 15,000 officers and men had been killed during the campaign in South Macedonia bringing total losses up to forty one thousand soldiers another direct consequence was that the destruction of the Macedonian army sealed the fate of the Ottoman varda rami which was fighting the Serbs to the north the fall of thessaloniki left it strategically isolated without logistical supply and depth to maneuver ensuring its destruction upon learning of the outcome of the battle of yen ‘add the Bulgarian High Command urgently dispatched their seventh thriller Division from the north in the direction of the city the division arrived that a week later the day after its surrender to the Greeks until 10 November the Greek occupied zone had been expanded to the line from Lake Torin to the pangaean Hills two Kevlar in western Macedonia however the lack of coordination between the Greek and Serbian h qs cost the greeks a setback in the Battle of very on 15 November os2 November 1912 when the Greek fifth Infantry Division crossed its way with the vyatta man Corps a part of the vardar army consisting of the sixteenth seventeenth and eighteenth nozomi I divisions retreating to Albania following the battle of prilep against the Serbs the Greek division surprised by the presence of the Ottoman Corps isolated from the rest of Greek army and outnumbered by the now counter-attacking Ottomans centered on by tola was forced to retreat as a result the Serbs beat the Greeks to buy tola eep iris front in the e pires front the Greek army was initially heavily outnumbered but due to the passive attitude of the Ottomans succeeded in conquering provider the 21st of October 1912 and pushing north to the direction of Io and nina on 5 November major Spyro Spyro milios led a revolt in the coastal area of him air and expelled the Ottoman garrison without facing significant resistance while on 20 November Greek troops from western macedonia entered course however Greek forces in the EP a– brought front had not the numbers to initiate an offensive against the german design defensive positions of bizarre knee that protected the city of io a Nina and therefore had to wait for reinforcements from the Macedonian front after the campaign in Macedonia was over a large part of the army was redeployed to eat pires where Crown Prince Constantine himself assumed command in the Battle of bassani the Ottoman positions were breached and I owe a Nina taken on 6 March OS 22 februari 1913 during the siege on the eighth of februari 1913 the Russian pilot 10 de sac off flying for the Greeks became the first pilot ever shot down in combat when his by plane was hit by ground fire following a bomb run on the walls of thought basani he came down near small town of previa on the coast north of the ione island of laughs cares secured local Greek assistance repaired his plane and resumed flight back to base the fall bio a Nina allowed the Greek army to continue its advance into northern II pires the southern part of modern Albania which had occupied there its advanced stopped although the Serbian line of control was very close to the north naval operations in the Aegean and Ionian seized on the outbreak of hostilities on 18 October the Greek fleet placed under the newly promoted Rear Admiral pavlos counter at ease sailed for the island of Lemnos occupying it three days later although fighting continued on the island until 27 October and establishing an anchorage at mod Rose Bay this move was of major strategic importance as it provided the Greeks with a forward base in close distance to the Dardanelles straits the Ottoman fleet’s main anchorage and refuge in view of the Ottoman fleets superiority in speed and broadside wait

the Greek plan is expected it to sortie from the Straits early in the war given the Greek fleets unprepared nests resulting from the premature outbreak of the war such an early Ottoman attack might well have been able to achieve a crucial victory instead the ottoman navy spent the first two months of the war in operations against the Bulgarians in the Black Sea giving the Greeks valuable time to complete their preparations and allowing them to consolidate their control of the Aegean by mid-november Greek naval detachments had seized the islands of Imbros faso’s ages f stray she owes samothrace Sarah and I carrier while landings were undertaken on the larger islands of lesbos and Kairos only on 21 and 27 November respectively substantial Ottoman Garrison’s were present on the latter and their resistance was fierce they withdrew into the mountainous interior and were not subdued until 22 December and 3 January respectively Samos officially an autonomous principality was not attacked until the 13th of March 1913 out of a desire not to upset the Italians in the near by dou DET con the clash is there were short-lived as the Ottoman forces withdrew to the Anatolian mainland so that the island was securely in Greek hands by 16 March at the same time with the aid of numerous merchant ships converted to auxiliary cruisers a loose naval blockade on the Ottoman coasts from the Dardanelles to Suez was instituted which disrupted the Ottomans flow of supplies only the black sea routes to Romania remained open and left some 250,000 Ottoman troops immobilized in Asia in the Ionian Sea the Greek fleet operated without opposition ferrying supplies for the army units in the e pires front furthermore the Greeks bombarded and then blockaded the port of law in Albania on three December and does on 27 februari a naval blockade extending from the pre-war Greek Baudette of law was also instituted on 3 December isolating the newly established provisional government of Albania based there from any outside support leftenant Nicholas Watsa scored a major success for Greek morale on 31 October he sailed his torpedo boat number 11 under the cover of night into the harbor Thessaloniki sank the old Ottoman ironclad battleship faith I balland and escaped unharmed on the same day Greek troops of the e pires army seized the Ottoman naval base of pre vesa the Ottomans scuttled the four ships present there but the Greeks were able to salvage the Italian built torpedo boats and talia and tokat which were commissioned into the greek navy as no coppola seeeeee and tattoo respectively a few days later on 9 November the would not to menards Dima Trabzon was intercepted and sunk by the Greek torpedo boat number 14 and a left Hannant perilous argyropoulos off a Valk the main Ottoman fleet remained inside the Dardanelles for the early part of the war while the Greek destroyers continuously patrolled the Straits exit to report on a possible sortie counter it is suggested mining the streets but was not taken up for fear of international reactions on 7 December the head of the Ottoman fleet a here bay was replaced by rameez bay the leader of the hawkish faction among the officer corps a new strategy was agreed we’re by the Ottomans were to take advantage of any absence of giorgos of rough to attack the other Greek ships the Ottoman staff formulated a plan to lure a number of the Greek destroyers on patrol into a trap a first such effort on 12 December failed due to boilie trouble but the second try two days later resulted in an indecisive engagement between the Greek destroyers and the cruiser mehsud IA the war’s first major fleet action the Battle of Le was for two days later on 16 December os3 December 1912 the Ottoman fleet with four battleships nine destroyers and six torpedo boats sailed to the entrance of the Straits the lighter Ottoman vessels remain behind but the battleships squadron moved on north under cover of the fort’s it come kyland engaged the Greek fleet coming from Imbros at nine-forty leaving the older battleships to follow their original course counter at ease led the of rough into independent action utilizing her superior speed she cut across the Ottoman fleets bow and a far from two sides the Ottomans were quickly forced to withdraw to the Dardanelles the whole engagement lasted less than an hour in which the Ottomans suffered heavy damage to the Barbaro’s hey read in and 18 dead and 41 wounded most during their disorderly retreat and the Greeks one dead and seven wounded in the aftermath of Le on 20 December the energetic

lieutenant commander Wolffe Bay was placed in effective command of the Ottoman fleet two days later he led his forces out hoping again to trap the patrolling Greek destroyers between two divisions of the Ottoman fleet one heading for Ambrose and the other waiting at the entrance of the Straits the plan failed as the Greek ships quickly broke contact at the same time the method I I came under attack by the Greek submarine dolphin which launched a torpedo against it but missed the first such attack in history during this period the Ottoman army continued to press upon a reluctant navier– plan for the Ryoka patient of tomatoes which the Greek destroyers used as a base by an amphibious operation the operation was scheduled for four January on that day weather conditions were ideal and the fleet was ready but the yeah nahan regiment earmarked for the operation failed to arrive on time the naval staff nevertheless ordered the fleet to sortie and an engagement developed with the Greek fleet without any significant results on either side similar sorties followed on 10 and 11 January but the results of these cat-and-mouse operations were always the same the Greek destroyers always managed to remain outside the Ottoman warships range and each time the cruisers fired a few rounds before breaking off the chase in preparation for the next attempt to break the Greek blockade the Ottoman Admiralty decided to create a diversion by sending the light cruiser hamada a captained by Rolf BAE to read Greek merchant shipping in the Aegean it was hoped that the giorgos of rough the only major Greek unit fast enough to catch the Hamid IA would be drawn in pursuit and leave the remainder of the Greek fleet weakened in the event Hamid I I slipped through the Greek patrols on the night of 14 to 15 January and bombarded the harbour of the greek island of Siros sinking the Greek auxiliary cruiser makedonia which lay in anchor there it was later raised and repaired the hammer died I then left the Aegean for the eastern Mediterranean making stops at beirut and port said before entering the Red Sea although providing a major morale boost for the Ottomans the operation failed to achieve its primary objective as counter at ease refused to leave his post and pursue the hammy died four days later on 18 January os5 january nineteen thirteen when the Ottoman fleet against a lead from the Straits towards Lemnos it was defeated for a second time in the Battle of Lemnos this time the Ottoman warships concentrated their fire on the other of which again made use of its superior speed and tried to cross the T of the Ottoman fleet Barbaro’s hey red in was again heavily damaged and the Ottoman fleet was forced to return to the shelter of the Dardanelles and there sports the Ottomans suffered 41 killed and 101 wounded it was the last attempt of the ottoman navy to leave the Dardanelles thereby leaving the Greeks dominant in the Aegean on 5 februari OS 24 january nineteen thirteen a greek foul man MF dot seven piloted by leftenant mitosis and with Edson moretti knees as an observer carried out an aerial reconnaissance of the Ottoman fleet in its Anchorage at negara and launched four bombs on the anchored ships although it scored no hits this operation is regarded as the first naval air operation in military history generally vanaf commander of the second Bulgarian army acknowledged the role of the Greek fleet in the overall a bull can League victory by stating that the activity of the entire Greek fleet and above all the ever off was the chief factor in the general success of the Allies the Serbian forces operated against major part of Ottoman Western army which were located in the areas of novi pazar Kosovo and northern and eastern Macedonia strategically the Serbian forces were divided into four independent armies and groups je veux Brigade and I bar army against Ottoman forces in the area of novi pazar 3rd army against Ottoman forces in the areas of Kosovo and meter here 1st army against uttaman forces in the area of northern macedonia and 2nd army operating from the bulgarian territory against uttaman forces in the area of eastern macedonia the decisive battle was expected to be fought in the area of northern macedonia more specifically in the plains of of spoel where the main forces of ottoman VAR daram you were expected to concentrate according to the plan of the serbian supreme command three serbian armies first second and third were supposed to encircle and destroy the vardar army in that area with 1st army advancing from the north direction of orange kumanovo offs pole second army advancing from the east direction driver palanca Kratt OVO of spall and 3rd army advancing from the

Northwest direction pristina skopje AUVs pole in the execution of this the main role was given to the first Army while second army was expected to cut of Avadh our Army’s retreat route and if necessary attack its rear and right flank the main goal of 3rd army was to take Kosovo and meter here and if necessary give assistance to the 1st army by attacking the vaad our Army’s left flank and rear I bah army and the jaiva Brigade had a minor role in the Serbian plan they were expected to secure sanjak of novi pazar and replaced 3rd army in kosovo after advancing farther south the serbian army under general later marshal patna dealt 3 decisive victories in Vardar Macedonia its primary objective in the war effectively destroying the Ottoman forces in the region and conquering north Macedonia they also helped the Montenegrins to take the sand Zack and sent two divisions to help the Bulgarians at the siege of Edirne the last battle for Macedonia was the Battle of monaster in which the remains of the ottoman VAR daram you were forced to retreat to central Albania after the battle Prime Minister PASOK ask jen patna to take part in the race for Thessaloniki patnik declined and instead turned his army to the west towards Albania for seeing that a future confrontation between the Greeks and Bulgarians over Thessaloniki could greatly helped serbia’s own plans over Vardar Macedonia after the great powers applied pressure on them the Serbs started to withdraw from northern Albania and the sand sack although they left behind their heavy artillery Park to help the Montenegrins in the continuing siege of skoda on the twenty-third of april nineteen thirteen scoot ares garrison was forced to surrender due to starvation the treaty of london ended the first balkan war on the thirtieth of May 1913 all Ottoman territory west of the Enna’s kakoy line was ceded to the ball can leak according to the status quo at the time of the armistice the treaty also declared Albania to be an independent state almost all of the territory that was designated to form the new Albanian state was currently occupied by either Greece or Serbia which only reluctantly withdrew their troop having unresolved disputes with serbia over the division of northern macedonia and with greece over southern macedonia bulgaria was prepared if the need arose to solve the problems by force and began transferring its forces from eastern thrace to the disputed regions unwilling to yield to any pressure greece and serbia settled their mutual differences and signed a military alliance directed against bulgaria on the first of May 1913 even before the treaty of london had been concluded this was soon followed by a treaty of mutual friendship and protection on 19 May June first 1913 thus the scene for the second Balkan war was set reactions among the great powers the developments that led to the war did not go unnoticed by the great powers although there was an official consensus between the European powers over the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire which led to a stern warning to the Balkan states unofficially each of them took a different diplomatic approach due to their conflicting interests in the area as a result any possible preventive effect of the common official warning was cancelled by the mix unofficial signals and failed to prevent or to stop the war Russia was a prime mover in the establishment of the ball can League and saw it as an essential tool in case of a future war against its rival the austro-hungarian Empire but it was unaware of the Bulgarian plans for Thrace and Constantinople territories on which Russia itself had long-held ambitions France not feeling ready for a war against Germany in 1912 took a totally negative position against the war firmly in forming its ally Russia that it would not take part in a potential conflict between Russia and Austria Hungary if it resulted from the actions of the Balkan league the French however failed to achieve British participation in a common intervention to stop the bull can conflict the British Empire although officially a staunch supporter of the Ottoman Empire’s integrity took secret diplomatic steps encouraging the Greek entry into the league in order to counteract Russian influence at the same time it encouraged the Bulgarian aspirations over Thrace preferring a Bulgarian three a Russian one despite the assurances it had given to the Russians in regard of their expansion there austria-hungary struggling for an exit from the Adriatic and seeking ways for expansion in the south at the expense of the Ottoman Empire was totally opposed to any other nations expansion in the area at the same time the Hapsburg Empire had its own internal problems with the significant Slav populations that campaigned against the German Hungarian

control of the multinational state Serbia his aspirations in the direction of the Austrian held Bosnia were no secret was considered an enemy and the main two of Russian machinations that were behind the agitation of Austria’s Slav subjects but the Habsburgs fail to achieve German backup for a firm reaction initially Emperor Wilhelm the second told the Archduke Franz Ferdinand that Germany was ready to support Austria in all circumstances even at the risk of the world war but austro-hungarians hesitated finally in the german imperial war council of the eighth of december 1912 the consensus was that Germany would not be ready for war until at least mid 1914 and notes about that passed to the Habsburgs consequently no actions could be taken when the Serbs exceeded to the Austral altima tome of 18 October and withdrew from Albania Germany already heavily involved in the internal Ottoman politics officially opposed a war against the Empire but in its effort to win Bulgaria for the Central Powers and seeing the inevitability of autumn and disintegration was playing with the idea to replace the Balkan positions of the Ottomans with a friendly greater Bulgaria in its San Stefano borders an idea that was based on the German origin of the Bulgarian king and his anti Russian sentiments finally when sir boss Terry intentions again grew hot in July 1914 when a Serbian backed organization assassinated the heir of the austro-hungarian throne no one had strong reservations about the possible conflict and the first world war broke out