Basic concepts of Organizational behavior

you hello friends I’m inviting you to a very exciting subject called organization behavior a subject which can be taken as a self development tool to make ourselves better individuals for me this subject has made a lot of difference in my life as a trainer as an individual who wanted to connect to people who has a lot of good intentions towards people and yet you get misunderstandings coming up a lot of self analysis one needed to do organization behavior is a beautiful way of understanding why we do what we do and why others are doing what they are doing and how to connect with each of us there are two words in this organization and behavior there is an individual behavior which you and I exhibit now I am defining behavior little later there is an individual behavior which you and I do exhibit each of us but there is a behavior which we exhibit when we are in a group in an organization now if I have to understand how people behave in an organization the first and foremost I need to understand how I behave I must know why I do what I do why I behaved the way I behave now what’s the purpose of learning organization behavior the purpose of learning organization behavior is to understand how to relate to the people around with whom they’re working a B we have to create comfort zones and harmony and understanding so that they come along and work in a team willingly and as a result of which they are able to give the output for which we have collectively come so two parameters two key words I would like you to don’t down one is to bring about harmony and to bitterness and the second one is to bring about the effectiveness of the goal for which we are all working together so this subject is going to help us to understand the various nuances the various parameters the various things that are coming as components of behavior and then this is not a pure science organization behavior or rather for the better behavior itself is not a science by itself it is an applied science and any applied science does not have a single theorem or a single law governing it we have to understand it from different different angles and no one single person in this area of behavioral science can claim to be an expert I can do a PhD in mathematics in some area of mathematics and I know that I am an expert in that any pure science it’s very easy to say that I know this thing because it’s totally objective but when it comes to behavior it is very subjective and behavior keeps evolving over a period of time over cultures over nations over groups etc right now let’s take the very first opening slide it talks about human behavior has been believed to be the outcome of our response to certain external and internal forces called stimuli let me define behavior a very simple definition of behavior which I am giving in the introductory slide to this chapter I made an introductory slide and that slide is giving some inputs which are not a part of the textbook so for the benefit of students to understand the conceptual aspects of behavior I made a introduction so in that I have given a definition chord what is behavior let me reiterate the definition here before we start behavior is a socially driven purposeful action there are three key words behavior is socially driven underlined socially driven purposeful underlined purposeful and third one action underlined action so behavior has got three components it is socially driven behavior comes when there is a social other when I am alone there is no behavior there is only communication but when the other person comes there is a sensitization something happens to me when somebody walks into a room

I’m sitting alone right so we certainly get Kenickie aware about the other person’s presence when you are traveling in a elevator in a lift all alone and somebody comes in from a different floor all of you will agree that you certainly get a little sensitive now you may be doing your normal thing while you’re alone but when the other person comes you find yourself putting up an appearance you find yourself putting up an appearance suddenly something happens to you I am discussing these aspects why they happen on in the introductory slide now behavior is a socially driven purposeful action it is socially driven it is purposeful a behavior has got a purpose every waver has got a purpose now I don’t want you to go along and start researching what is the purpose of so-and-so doing this that will become too much of her analysis and any paralyze you you must realize one thing that even the most casual behavior has got a purpose behind it it is not pre-mediated many people confuse pre mediation from a purpose purpose could happen situationally purpose it could happen because there is a need it comes natural the organism through its instinct creates a purpose of doing some action when it is pre mediated it comes from a thought calculations some sort of a manipulation so don’t get this feeling the moment I use the word purpose the purpose is all about pre-mediated boom this person is behaving nice to me because he’s got some intention behind his behavior need not be all the time he may be having a purpose for himself not for you or he may be having a purpose to survive II may be having a purpose to fill up his loneliness there is a maybe the reason is coming to you now those are all very complex aspects which will be discussing down the line but coming back to that content of this chapter behavior is a socially driven purposeful action is an action it’s a movement right now behavior is it coming from inside or outside it’s coming from both outside as well as inside okay there are certain external forces and there are certain internal forces my thinking process within me there are perceptions and attitudes I am NOT taking some values some old experiences now all these were together could make my behavior happen internally driven and/or outside somebody is abusing me or somebody is giving me some praises or somebody smiling at me so then somebody becomes an external stimulus which will make me do whatever I have to do the person who is abusing me I may abuse him back or I may not abuse it back the person who is giving me a compliment I may give a say thank you to him or I may not so in other words if you want your behavior you will find it it’s a outcome a resultant of internal as well as external forces imagine that you are having a very bad day in the morning at home something has gone wrong in your building where you say the water has not come only morning there’s been a lot of chaos and from the chaos you are coming out somehow you’re in a state of stress and you haven’t had your breakfast and on the way of car gets into some trouble you will end up in the office now in the office there is a surprise birthday party for one of your colleagues everybody is joyful everybody is happy you go there now inside you you are not feeling good about the past one or two us ever since you left your home at the same time out there is a stimulus that is telling you come on love be merry be happy let’s have the party in the morning let us cut the cake and then we start about a very important persons party birthday now this birthday can change your internal climate or your internal climate will not change and you may not enjoy the birthday it happens to most of us am i right friends now the point is which is stronger force my internal force which are carrying from home or is it the external celebration that’s going on which is stronger now who decide stronger I so behavior is a choice if I come to the office and I make up my mind that I am going to drop whatever happened in the morning and I am going to get involved

in the celebration then life is a celebration I will enjoy I have a beautiful time on the other hand if I am still carrying those feelings of the morning in me then what happens whatever party may happen whatever types of good things are happening I will never be able to connect to that I will feel miserable that’s the reason why certain people are feeling miserable in spite of being in good surroundings and certain people in spite of not being in good surroundings they are feeling very happy so it is my choice to allow either of the two to take over my blueprint to myself and to others is there are times when inside is not okay because of some reasons there are sometimes outside is not okay because of some reasons very rarely you will find inside and outside both are not okay now if my inside is not okay what I do I try to look at the outside which is okay and I get connected to the outside on the other hand if I find that the outside is not OK for me and my inside is okay then I allow my inside to operate my outside this is a choice one needs to make as ordinary individuals when we are not understanding the dynamics of behavior that is before we learn OB we will operate very ordinarily you may go to very an area a slum a depressing place to go early morning you may go there and the moment ago they really need to avoiding it and managing it is depressing and when you go there you say yeah this place is slum everybody will get depressed I am also getting difference this is a ordinary way of looking at things when you learn behavior you will say fine I have won the slum but within me I make a joy can I look at the place from a joyful angle and out there and I see some things which others are not seeing the choice is mine the choice is mine there are also times many of you must have experienced you go to a nice resort a beautiful five-star resort or even go into a five-star hotel and the best of the dinner is served everything seems to be good but you are not happy if outside was to decide my behavior then outside would have been a great thing to contribute if inside Allah was should decide my being that inside would have been also great but our behavior is a resultant of two factors internal and external stimuli these are basically stimulus means a type of a provocation something that comes to you like a jet car like a pinprick it comes in if it hits you it hits you unknowingly and then you react to that stimulus and what is behavior behavior has been believed to be seen as an outcome of it is an outcome of internal and external forces or a response to the internal and external forces right so a behavior is an outcome and a response at the same time taking it further in this chapter we’ll be discussing two views of how human behavior occurs these are the two old classical use which have been modified in recent times but they stand as the testimony of how behavior was researched at one point of time by people when we do some research at some point of time we have some findings so on those basis we have to give we give our report our research findings but when we find that the same phenomenon is changing after some time then that old report gets redundant and a new version comes in similarly when you talk about the tradition view and the input-output system which we are discussing now after some time we this are the old classical systems which were created that has moved over into something new which we have discovered and something more will also come in the years to come so this is an evolving subject at the same time remember one thing behavior is a thing into which you and I are everyday people can look at behavior from very random common man angle and start providing solutions for things which we do but out here we are learning very scientifically understanding how behavior can be scientifically understood and then how it can be designed to make our life better to make a life harmonious a lot of interpersonal relationships my dear friends can improve drastically in your life when you take this inputs and start applying it systematically remember one thing your game is your choice if you choose your behavior things will happen you will be justified in doing what you’re doing with disastrous results coming in the end and then you will say yeah this had to happen I had no choice the reality is you had a choice so my

behavior is my choice we use those words called proactive behavior and a reactive behavior a proactive behavior is one which takes me towards the goal so no matter what happens I choose to have a proactive behavior because I am goal-oriented a reactive behavior is merely a immediate response without even thinking to the events that are happening around me at that point of time I lose my sanity temporarily I lose my mind temporarily and I react the goal is there instead of responding with a behavior that takes into the goal I am responding with a behavior that is making me standard most of us in life are stagnant because we have we have developed behaviors which are reactive and not proactive you go in ask people you won’t tell them that you are reactive they say they just we justify our behavior and in the dust if occasion our point of view is put forward very strongly justifying miserly rather than allowing yourself to liberate from the misery and go ahead and achieve your dreams people who are reactive people who exhibit reactive behavior have been seen to always feel bad about things they did not achieve and they’ll blame so many people they started saying and this did not happened and it won’t happen so also thing did not happen many of them are true they don’t happen it’s a fact there are things which are beyond our control but the moment I realized that I have to respond to this thing in my way then things become different see friends situations happen troubles come in life suffering is my choice when a situation happens how I respond to the situation is my choice tsunami took place in India Indonesia tsunami also took place in Japan I am just comparing behavior don’t I’m not comparing Nations now the way we are as a culture our reaction to such events rightfully is pretty long wrong four days together weeks together we start feeling very quite different about ourselves and we start getting into the solo part of it and it is a solo no doubt but those of you who have seen the clippings of what happened in Japan within a few days every citizen comes back to normal they chose a behavior that was proactive to build back the cities and the villages and the nation back into action we also did that we also did that I am NOT saying we did not do it but the way we did it was different our behaviors were different the proactivity is a important hallmark of organization behavior it’s important for us to be proactive so that our behavior in an organization is helping us to achieve our goals and the goals of the organization so I take you to the first one which is called as a tradition you also called as a s.o.b model S stands for situation o stands for organization and B stands for behavior very simple easy to understand the model says that behavior is a response to a stimulus this already explained situation comprising of stimulus and environment is present a situation occurs it’s there in your textbook in our course material you can have a look at it right there is a situation that occurs now what is the situation the situation is nothing but a stimulus takes place in an environment in a surrounding what pervades inside and outside of the individual I am talking to you right now and a stimulus is what I am giving you I am probably good to listen to me when you’re putting on this video and when you are listening to me there is an environment around you environment inside you wherever you are sitting and the environment outside you wherever you are sitting and watching this video so this is a situation where in the faculty is talking to you stimulus and within you there is a n worm around you and within you there is an environment now when you start seeing me talking to you immediately inside you your mind and body hits aligned organization is not the company organization organizing organization is the aligning of your mind and body the physiology and the psychology board gets aligned your body will suddenly respond to my presence and the words that I say and your mind will also respond to it

now this alignment of physiological and cognitive cognitive means thinking process this is a outcome of the situation which is happening that is I giving a top view as a result of which will come out with a pattern of action as an outcome you may switch off the video not wanting to listen to me you may continue listening to me thinking that oh this guy is talking something interesting or you may get distracted by something around you there could be various different types of outcomes as behavior in each of you who are listening to me right situation will be different organization will be different for each of us and so will be the behavior so this model says that the behavior is an outcome of a situation which gets superimposed on your physiology and psychology I repeat this model says behavior is an outcome of a situation that gets impressed upon the physiology in the psychology of the individual the situation external remained is remaining the same each one of us goes through different types of organization of our mind and body and as a result our behavior is also different from each other that accounts for the fact that when I show roles to you one of you will look at the rules and you start getting a feeling of melancholy so somebody else will look at the rules and start thinking of love a third person will look at the rose and start feeling joyous about some event that happened some years back so each of us will have different emotions as a result of which we may have different behaviors towards the roles right now this is the s.o.b model also called the traditional view model next I take you to the input-output system the input-output system called as an input/output system because it talks about something going in and something coming out something going in in something coming out not by itself but when something goes a raw material goes in it goes through a processing and we get the finished goods similarly a thought comes into me and this thought goes to some sort of a churning and this churning comes out in the form of a behavior somebody is staring at me and when they stare at me that is a input that goes into me and this input goes into my system and I interpret the staring I process the staring as something not good and my output will be I start shouting at the person or a abusive I could be having a choice of doing something else and I may get a different output so what makes a difference the processing makes the difference about the output how you take information into your system how you process it is unique to each one of us that is why the input remaining the same the output is different you are listening to my lecture right now that is my input each of you is processing the information in your brain that’s a way each of your processing each of you will come out with different reactions to my nature that’s your behavior there will be one or two students who are listening to me who may come out with a transformative behavior that will make them a champion they will make them a trainer tomorrow who knows such a person if others want to become like them then they have to learn to process information in the same manner in which they are processing if I want to be a champion I must learn to be thinking like a champion responding like a champion to situations so that I become a champion so what is the separator disappear it is a processing put it in different terms into the stimulus that is the input internal and external processing here and responses output this was devised by BJ kalasa and this is based on the system’s approach system’s approach is very simple I have a body and I’ve got organs if my body needs to be healthy every organ needs to function properly they have to be healthy individual organs may be functioning excellently well they need to be connected there should be coordination of all the organs in the body if any one organ gets into trouble then my body will also get into trouble systems approach right so my behavior would be an outcome of a number of things happening inside the processing of my information my mind will come into picture my health so many other things will come picture right so continuing further in this slide we are talking about viable biographical features affecting behavior behaviors get affected due to various factors now what is popularly believed

in the past is what we have listed here four points state given given from a Coast material they say age affects behavior the younger the person his behavior is of a type a enthusiastic curious full of energy immature not understanding the larger picture thinking of smaller things and immediate things these are some of the stereotypical thinking about such people young people all young people may not be like that but these are indicators the person becomes older he supposed to be slowing down his creative energies are little lesser compared to the younger people his energy levels may also be less the way he relates to people will be different a little bit of more maturity now this is all the indicators of age they say that age indicates the behavior one of the reasons why we come across people who tell us live your age this is a way to behave a sixty year old man may go to a party and he may dance and depending upon the background he comes from there may be zero typical thinking that somebody made come and tell him his wife may come in tell amorous children may come and tell him that is a age to dance like this you don’t look don’t dance you’re at your age you should be dancing now we all know that age has nothing to do with dancing but in that context people start thinking that at that age you are not supposed to dance so people say that at that age you’re supposed to do X Y Z so there are certain indicators given by society which says that at this age people have to be like this because that is a general observation but when we are studying behavior it is not the general observation that matters be able to see how each individual is different we come across people who are pretty old in our own dlp classroom I have people were on the verge of retirement even retired people are our students they are learning very well and at the same time on the other end of the spectrum I have youngsters who don’t learn who are not willing to learn who cannot absorb certain basics so it is nothing to do with the age but age is an indicator next comes gender the main of the female gender the opposite sexes that has a bearing on the behavior it was popularly believed at one point of time even now many people believe then the male is aggressive the male is a go-getter ambitious he is a hunter who goes and gets for and nurturing for the home and he is a person who makes decisions this is a stereotypical thinking of most societies main has to be like this a male can’t cry Amelie should not cry he should not exhibit sorrow sorrow is weakness these are all things which many cultures and many organizers and many subcultures believe in on the other hand we say that a female a female is said to be a child nurturing type caring type always very soft allowing things to be absorbed by like a sponge now these are the characteristics wave which is expected of a female socially so again gender becomes an indicator of the behavior but it is not an end all there are girls who are very boisterous rhomboids there are boys who are very very quiet and we all know this is spectrum this is a role is not even a ruin it is an indicator rather than a role and there are exceptions in every rule so that is when we say that being a girl don’t behave like this may tell a girl who is like a tomboy we tell her don’t behave like this we are not understanding that behavior is not about the indicator it is about individual choice it’s about individual choice right next comes length of service in an organization just believe that people who are young in the organization have got a certain type of a behavior they have short term goals they don’t see the larger vision of the company they are very impatient they want promotions pretty fast they get very aggressive and things don’t happen their way length of service if the length of service is more it is expected that the people in the company the organization would be much more mature they’ll have more amount of patience they have faith in many systems even if they don’t test it and they believe in certain things which are which are which they implicitly trust now that is again an indicator need not be true in many cases last comes marital status unmarried people are supposed to have certain type of a behavior happy-go-lucky devil-may-care attitude this figures and willing to do anything they are not really concerned about the about anything around them a little reckless that’s a popular belief the

moment you get married it is expected that you should behave in a responsible manner being a nurturer you must be able to take care of your family etcetera etcetera etcetera now these are again indicators now these indicators are basically social indicators make a note when you are in society when you are in a certain society in a certain cultural milieu and this also from culture to culture there may be some variations it’s popularly believed that when you’re in these four indicators and there are some more indicators also these indicators have to indicate the way you behave in a society when you’re there but they again in the society where we are all living there are people who defy each of the four there are people in the older age group who are very happy-go-lucky there are the female gender who’s very aggressive there are the younger younger boys and girls who are very responsible in terms of action steps in terms of patients and working companies they sustain themselves organizations although many do not do it and last but not believes there are married people who are very but much they do things which they are not supposed to do so we get a entire calendar scope of people who could be different from what is indicated here now that is a learning the learning is indicators are there but indicators do have exceptions when exceptions come people like to condemn if you are one of the persons who is condemning that after learning behavior you will stop condemning because you need to look at each person from a different angle different strokes for different folks when you do that you realize that these although their indicators each one is a different person each one is unique right now this is something which we have to take into account now we come to this slide in which we are discussing the biological foundations of behavior the earlier slide was talking about indicators a general indicator in this case we are talking about foundations which are more or less constant now when we say constant means we mean that these indicators these factors they do bring about a behavior which is predictable in most cases if there are n people analyzed in the earlier slide they may be exhibiting different types of behaviors those are indicators now if I have ten people here and there is a certain factor of heredity then out of ten eight people or nine people will be exhibiting their behavior that means this is more pronounced and more deep-rooted let us take them one by one heredity Henry T is all about the DNA the various types of behaviors thinking process physical features that we carry from our forefathers now this impacts our behavior if you come from a family of brilliant scholars and everybody is having as they say the the bright DNA in them your forefathers your grandfather your grandmother everybody up the line in your ancestral tree then you exhibit a behavior of brilliance this is again not totally true but the heredity plays a major role indicators may not play major role they are just social socially observed factors in this case these are part of your body it’s a part of the individuals system and so it impacts the behavior so heredity impacts behavior next comes some biological development in your body and the clients we go through changes in the body as we grew up your behavior was happy-go-lucky carefree when you were a child where the biological development took place you became a adults in your behavior changed into a precocious little bit of a van wild child not listening to anybody you are growing up to become an adult but not yet an adult that in your behavior was different when you grow beyond that and gone into high school and Beyond high school into say junior college and graduation that’s the time your behavior further change so all transitions in life there is a biological transition that takes place in your body then the behavior is set to change now with that there are glandular changes in the body there are glands in the body which are basically flushing systems they keep the body healthy if

any gland is dysfunctioning there is a chemical imbalance and that brings about a behavior change all of us know about thyroid we know about women who go through menopause and during that time there is a chemical change happening in the body that chemical change creates a type of a behavior which may be a little cranky aggressive and with the most very mild-mannered person this behavior can become like this because it is a chemical change in the body so biological development and glandular development language changes changes in the chemical composition of your glands can bring about a behavior change this is noticeable it’s observed in most cases this is not an indicator bug this is noticeable nervous system the way we operate our brain if in the nervous system there is some error something has gone wrong again a chemical imbalance our neurons there are nerve cells if they go through some chemical imbalance the electrochemical processes which is transference of messages from cell to cell if that goes through some sort of a problem then it affects the behavior next comes cognitive process which is comprising thinking problem-solving daydreaming an artistic thinking cognitive processes a whole set of thinking process wherein we try to find meaning in what we do I am observing the world around me and I create my own mental map and to that mental map I give a meaningfulness so that I can live with the surroundings that meaningfulness comes through thinking thinking is basically looking at something and responding to it with a meaning problem-solving as we go along in our life things don’t happen the way it it is we want it to happen so we come across problems and how do we surmount those problems is problem-solving the way I think the way I do problem-solving the way I get into daydreaming daydreaming is all about letting the thinking go the way it is going not controlling it so that creative processes start coming and artistic thinking which is about looking at things in a different angle you look at a car and you see the car as a flowerpot some sort of artistic thing something very different now all these different ways of using my brain to create a meaningfulness comes at the cognitive process depending upon how I am using my for these processes my behavior is also according to that for example the cognitive process of let us say a loyal sets up the behavior which he exhibits the cognitive process of an artist a painter exhibit is resulting in the way in which the painter exhibits the faculty who’s talking to you my cognitive process will create the type of behavior which an exhibiting right now so the way we think the way we process information the way we look at the world artistically the way we start letting go now all these things is the way from this gets impact in the behavior that we display now all these are processes to the individual and how the individual can take care of it right so we spoke about biological foundations and we also talked about indicators now we take it further to an understanding of individual behavior begins with a review of major contributions to OB in fact it is major psychological contributions the whole study movie is based on the the core of it is psychology and sociology there are other contributed Sciences also which we’ll be discussing in chapter 2 now here we talk about there are contributors to OB OB as I told you is not a behavior is not a pure science it’s an applied science there are various contributors that make behavior happen these contributions are subdivided into four concerns for the context of this discussion values attitudes perceptions and learning straight from the book we are covering values in this chapter now what are these things values we’ll be talking about it attributes perception and learning I’m on it I am discussing it in the internet recitative OB you can refer to the particular module where I’ll be talking about it right taking it further what are values values represent basic convictions that open inverted commas a specific mode of conduct or end State existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or a converse mode of conduct or in state of existence I choose a to be I chose a as an

individual to be or we as a group choose a to be what is this a and B the a and B according to this definition is a mode of conduct or n state of existence a mode of conduct means are going to conduct myself in a certain way I want to behave in a certain way I want to act in a certain way or I want to have that end state of existence I want to be there so that is a this I want to be there is what I think or my group thinks I want to have this mode of conduct is what I think or my group things okay so it is it is a mode of conduct or in state of existence the preference of the mode of conduct or in state of existence a as compared to B that is defining values and easy to understand simple definition of value is values are values for us when they have a meaningfulness for us they give us a comfort they put us in a comfort zone and also they give us an identity values are values for us when we get a meaningfulness of the values which we cherish and we nurture and we live by these values also give us a comfort zone and they give us an identity the three factors which contribute to value how do I know what is my value a value is like a teddy bear we hold on to it we cling on to the teddy bear the value and it gives us comfort it gives us identity it gives us meaningfulness it gives us a sense of warmth no matter what happens I would not do it I cling onto it like a teddy bear right values highlight and individuals ideas as to what is good what is right good or desirable now good or bad right or wrong desirable and undesirable are highly subjective statements my value says that I should put in a sincere contest work but it might not be it is a it’s a value that is good for me so when I say that I want to put a sincere hard day’s work it is a value for me the converse is bad and this is good for me so anybody who doesn’t put a good day’s hard day’s work since I work in a day to my value it will be a bad value so we choose our values and those values which we choose becomes good right and desirable for us and those who do not choose our values or choose the opposite that becomes wrong for us that becomes bad for us that becomes undesirable for us this becomes a point of conflict for many of us right value system is a priority of list of values in descending order which the indigent stands for okay value system or we also call this hair our key of values error key values each one of us has got a number of values with which we live by now some values our top values they’re very dear to me I don’t I will never give those values some values are important but not as important as a top values they have come in the middle and yet other values are at the bottom i I really don’t care for those values so we have a hierarchy values each one of us has an individual map of hierarchy of values the top values I cherish I stand by it I would give anything to sustain those values the bottom values I really don’t care in between comes of values which I may do and may not do depending on convenience but it’s just one okay so that comprises value system it’s a priority list of values in descending order of importance which the individual stands for examples freedom pleasure self-respect honesty obedience equality etcetera money hard work you can keep on adding right