AP Comparative Government and Politics

you you hello and welcome to you the diligence scholar you’re watching this introductory VOD because perhaps you are considering well you are considering taking AP comparative government this is a comprehensive course on its own sometimes the subject matter can be rather daunting there’s many different countries that are studied and within these countries that are studied there’s many different forces that are gone over as well what we do here at Stephen Academy on the video demand course or ap comparative government is break things down so you can understand the matter understand the course and of course get a five on the exam we discuss everything in this class from the advanced democracy such as Great Britain in the European Union to developing countries such as Mexico to Nigeria to the post-communist countries and even present communist countries which is to say Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China in a word diligence scholar everything and I do mean everything you need to know is covered in this video on demand lesson before you take this lesson though you’ll need two texts and they do come with the lesson the first is the 6th edition of AP comparative government by fo wood this text complements the class and you will be reading it as we go over the video lessons together the second just as important indeed if not more important is the AP comparative government workbook designed by yours truly and my name Michael ricotta in this workbook you will not only find multiple choice questions that painstakingly have been researched to mimic those on the exam itself but the all-important key terms these key terms break down and very disparate very different subject matter into small bite-sized bite-size chunks so you can understand the material incorporate the material and nail the five on the upcoming exam so if you do want a 5 on the exam for AP comparative government if you want to have a thorough understanding of AP comparative government and improve your writing style in general on the AP level I encourage you to take this class it provides you the diligent scholar with everything you need to know so I hope to see you soon in Lesson number one of Steven Academy’s video on-demand lessons for Advanced Placement comparative government hello and welcome to lesson number one of Stephan Academy’s ap comparative government study course video on-demand lessons just for you the diligent scholar of all the AP courses perhaps really none as his comprehensive his AP government an AP government comparative we study a little bit of geography a little bit of economy some key terms some demography that is the study of people’s everything is included in this course and this course isn’t designed specifically to give you all the information you need to get a 5 on the test so we’re going to be covering a lot of material you’ll notice is well diligent scholar that this course is a little front-heavy what I mean when I say that I mean the first section the key term section is the most critical section and we’re going to be spending more time than any other section on the first section this is the key terms the definitions that are really part and parcel of the entire course now when we’re done with this section we’re going to move on and study individual nations and super national organizations such as Great Britain the European Union the Russian Federation the People’s Republic of China the Federal Republic of Nigeria the United States of Mexico all of these states are states were going to study not forgetting the Islamic Republic of Iran each of them with their own differences and their own exceptions but for each country we’re including all of the key terms we’re learning right now so in a way we’re going to get a template in the next few lessons that we’ll be applying to each country separately so this is really the need of the matter as they say at the very beginning hope you’re ready I’m sure you are so there we are and I’m getting ahead of myself as beautiful weather here in Seoul is getting to my head my name is Michael ricotta you may remember me from such Bo D’s as s82 world history s82 United States history and Advanced Placement United States government and politics if you’re a returning student I gladly welcome your board if you’re a new student I cordially greet you so let’s go ahead and if you would take out a pen and a piece of paper and we’ll begin with our notes and we’ll go ahead

and dive into the course so let’s go ahead and begin by talking about government what is it well diligent scholar government is related to politics which will be our second definition once again I cannot overemphasize the importance of these first lessons you’re going to get a whole slew of terms these terms are absolutely vital for understanding each of the nation’s we’re going to study specifically so once again this is the template that we’re going to be imposing on these very various different countries this in a way is the tool we’re going to use to compare the different subjects so pay attention grab some espresso if you need to government diligent scholar is simply the collective name for those institutions which create what we call public policy that is what goes on in a country on an official level there’s three types of public policy it may either be promotional it may be regulatory or it may be distributive now what do I mean when I say that promotional is the aspect of governmental public policy in which a government promotes something civil rights political rights the right of certain groups to vote the need for a war perhaps right all of those are promotional regulatory is another important aspect of government the government government generally by nature regulates society what can you do what can’t you do and when can you do it and distributive government gives things out it gives things out in many cases like welfare that’s an important concept we’re going to be learning about in here that is social security or health programs pension programs child welfare programs various different types of programs so promo shanell government promotes things regulatory government regulates things and distributive government gives things out of course does it give them out for free people pay taxes that provide for it politics we’re going to give a more concise definition is who gets what when where and why that is the process of politics who gets what when do they get it where do they get it and lastly put the question mark there slip slip of the pen why do they get it so this is really the bedrock bedrock of our course and from here we’re going to be expanding out public government is the institutions which we create public policy presidents legislators politics who gets what when where and why so these are the basic definitions but before I go any further even take it up a notch even a little I want to talk about two sectors that’s really these are global definitions because every country in the world every civilization that has ever existed is either in one of these two sectors or rather let me take a step back operates in both of these sectors we have the private sector and the public sector the public sector are all those aspects of society which are run by the government examples of the public sector are many and varied so you’d have things like postal services militaries of course the institutions of government anything that affects the public as a whole that’s why we call it the public sector collective society now of course you may well guess if this is all institutions that are run by the government everything from your dog catcher to the president or the supreme leader in the case of the Islamic Republic of Iran the private sector then are all those aspects of society which you run by private citizens or individuals so when I say public sector and private sector I’m not talking about the sectors of the economy we’re going to get to those in a little bit I’m just talking about the general outlay of society what is run by society and run as one prime what is run privately by individuals now this is a this is a dynamic which moves back and forth some countries certainly have a larger public sector and some countries certainly have a private larger private sector but

we’ll be getting to that in a moment so those are the basic definitions so if these are the basic definitions then we need to move into the sphere of comparisons there’s two ways generally in this course we’re going to compare governments this is comparative government so you may well ask how do we compare and what are we comparing of course governments there are two approaches diligence scholar the first approach to comparing different government’s to comparing different countries indeed really to comparing different civilizations is what we call the empirical approach and it is interesting I always discuss with my students here just what a wide-ranging class this is so we’ve talked already about a little bit of economy a little bit about economics we’ve talked a little bit about government now we’re reaching into the philosophical realm empiricism and empirical knowledge the empirical approach is based on what you can quantify and verify so we’ll say here this is based on statistics based on data generally based on factual information and when I say factual information I’m speaking about information that is objective so this is a class designed for students in the United States at the senior level of high school of secondary education so I’m hoping by now you know what objective means but just in case you don’t an example of an objective statement would be this is a podium this is a marker now can you disagree with me that this is a marker no obviously clearly this is a marker based on factual information right this is a marker that’s objective it’s a statement of fact you can’t disagree with it now the other way we are able to compare government sincere is the opposite and that would be called the normative approach the normative approach is based on issues that require value judgments and here we’re speaking about things good and bad right and wrong so to go back to our earlier example here this is a pen that’s an objective statement is this a pretty pen I don’t know I think it’s pretty good looking you might say no that’s an ugly pen that is subjective some excuse me subjective you have made a value judgment now as you might well imagine this class we’re going to try to focus on the empirical data normative data really isn’t that supportable what I think is good may be different than what for example an Iranian thinks is good what I think is a good level of religious involvement in society by the government may be very different from what the ayatollahs of Iran believe so we’re going to try to stick to this we’re going to stick to statistics data and factual information I would concentrate on that I really do not think we should be using too many normative statements in this class and so as we go through examples of various freer excuse me free response questions as the class waxes on I’m going to give you exam most of my empirical answers and I want you to concentrate on that as well so these are the two approaches if these are the approaches diligent scholar then what are the tools well what we can say is there’s several ways or several first of all the goal of this class is to compare one country to another there it is to do this we’re going to use several several items so the first we’re going to use is generally our approach is going to be similar to the scientific method you can see here we’re going to be very clinical we’re going to go down the road of empiricism and of course those of you and I hope you have who have taken a science course before know

what a hypothesis is which is going to be the first way we compare one country to another or the first element I should say involved in our comparison this is a speculum speculative statement about one or more variables so an eye pollicis might be if the country has a large military it will be more likely to go to war right that’s a speculative statement I’m not sure if it’s true or not now variables will be our second element variables are measurable traits or characteristics moreover these are measurable traits or characteristics that change in different conditions that change in different conditions an example of variables might be birth rates specifically variables for comparative government we’re going to be sticking to that we’re not going to get to too large screen here so it could be a birth rate literacy rate so on and so forth all of these things are measurable traits how many people are born in a country how many people die in a country what is the voting rate in the country what is the poverty level of a country so those are variables our next element will be causation which is the idea that one variable influences another that is causation now to understand causation we need to break down variables there’s really two different types we have independent variables and dependent variables the reason we call these independent variables is because they depend on dependent variables I told you this is a very clinical class very definitive so let’s go ahead and talk about what a dependent variable is its actions depend on an independent variable so let me go ahead and give you an example an example of this Illustrated would be literacy rate that is how many people in a country can read write the literacy rate depends on this how many schools a country has write how many people in a country can read directly depends on how many schools a country has if there’s more schools more people will be able to read if there’s fewer schools less people will be able to read if the country spends more money on education obviously more people will be able to read so here we see the reacts or the relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable another example might be the number of transportation networks a country has or let’s say the number of railroads a country has depends on how many tax payers a country has so a country that’s wealthier that has more people paying taxes in the first place we’ll have a better rail system or a better air traffic system or even a better road network the road network depends on how many tax papers they’re tax payers there are that’s the difference between a dependent and an independent variable now of all these elements the last is correlation correlation is or we could say rather correlation exists when a change in one variable coincides with the change in another so going back to our example just a moment ago regarding dependent and independent variables regarding the

dependent variable literacy rate and the independent variable how many schools a country has is there a correlation indeed there is the more schools a country has the higher the literacy rate will be the lower the fewer schools a country has the lower the literacy rate will be so we can say there is correlation in that circumstance now those are the fundamental bedrock definitions that’s the those are the items we can use to compare and contrast different elements of countries and societies how do we generally compare countries on the macro or their larger level well there’s several different approaches so let’s talk about now comparing countries comparing countries the first method and the method that it was used up until fairly recently I’d say about you know 10 or 15 years ago is what we call the three worlds approach this was used during the Cold War the Cold War really more than any other I think single conflict influenced the 20th century it was an ideological conflict between the United States in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics we’re going to talk about really in detail when we get to the Soviet Union or excuse me the Russian Federation which is what it’s called now but this really is kind of passe nowadays but we’ll go ahead and describe it because these are terms I’m almost certainly you’ve heard if there’s three worlds then we divide it of course into three the first world in the three world system these are the advanced democracies more specifically these are the democracies that were allied to the allied to the United States during the Cold War so we can say it’s also the United States and its allies so in the three worlds model this included most countries in Western Europe North America and East Asia for example Japan and the Republic of Korea Republic of Korea not the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea the second world if the first world was the US and the United States and its allies the second world then would be those countries associated with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics so these would be the countries allied with what Russia was then called they were largely located in Eastern Europe and Central Asia the ston States Kazakhstan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan these countries on the whole had a lower standard of living than first world countries on the whole so these are the second world countries and here’s the word that gets bandied about a lot nowadays the third world the Cold War was a bipolar conflict really it picked the first world against the second world it hit the United States and its allies against the Soviet Union and its allies and all states not involved with this bipolar conflict were lumped together in the third world these were countries that belong to neither so you can see here Central Asia Eastern Europe Western Europe Japan and Korea North America have all been covered so where were the majority of third world countries well they could be said to have been in South America and Africa and it’s really almost become like a derogatory term oh that country country X is just a third world country not that it’s not allied to one of these two states the first world or the second world but it’s really just kind of a lowly developed not a really nice place probably somewhere you wouldn’t want to go so we’re moving away from this model the three worlds approach which brings us to our second approach of comparing countries that is those countries which are democracies and those countries which

can be said to be authoritarian and in this system really as I said just a moment ago which countries have democratic governments and which countries have authoritarian governments this is used for example we could say the United States is a democracy and for example the Islamic Republic of Iran is an authoritarian state but this model isn’t too accurate either because it goes back and forward it’s fluid some countries are more democratic some countries are more authoritarian but even those come even those countries which are somewhat authoritarian might have democratic tendencies so we’re not going to use this model too much either the third model of comparing countries is an economic model and it focuses at those countries which practice capitalism versus those countries that practice communism properly put it would be those countries with free or mixed market economies and those countries with command economies for those who for those of you who have taken economics before this really isn’t that useful either nowadays because there are very few command economies left in the world largely because the command model of economics really isn’t that successful and ultimately they end up collapsing now the method we’re going to use in here and the method that’s really in vogue nowadays is the fourth method which is the MDC versus l-e-d C which stands for more economically developed countries and less economically developed countries these are countries with relatively keyword there is relative no absolute statements developed economies and these are countries with relatively underdeveloped economies so this is the model we’re going to be sticking to here before we continue further and talk about specifically different countries and classify them together I want to talk about the economy specifically the sectors of the economy because this is going to be a recurrent thread throughout this class for example if I ask you in an frq and I very well might identify the primary economic center or the economic sector of the United States of Mexico you would say Mexico is a largely secondary sector country with a with the vestige vestiges rather of a primary sector so let’s talk about the economic sectors I told you we’d be all over this place with this class I mean this class compares different countries and to accurately compare different countries you need a lot of different information a lot of different variables so let’s go ahead and talk about the sectors of the economy and I I wonder if I dare presume that some of you students have taken economics before again in America this is what you might call a capstone class that is you would take it your senior year after taking all the other social sciences so you can draw on all the information from history from geography from economics and utilize it in this course so if this is familiar awesome if it isn’t familiar no problem we’ll cover it now the first role that I should say largely there are three sectors to the economy a lot of sociologists and a lot of economists argue that there’s a fourth and fifth sector to the economy the coronary and the quinary we’re not really going to go into that largely because this test is or this class rather typically designed for you get it to get a five on the AP test so we don’t need to go in for that information we’ll focus on the Trident through tried-and-true one through three and the first sector of the economy we make all the primary sector the primary sector of the economy economy involves the retrieval and production of raw materials very basic indeed the most basic the retrieval and production of raw materials what am I talking about here I’m talking about agriculture mining fishing of raw materials these

are not processed goods I pick up the corn from the ground I dig the dirt out of the mind I grab the fish from the ocean all of these take place on the primary level so an example of some primary level occupations rather occupations in the primary sector might be a coal miner or a Fisher person fishermen I guess I can still say that is politically correct these are all primary sector sector level occupations let’s take it up a notch let’s go to the secondary sector the secondary sector lady or gentleman involves the transformation of raw materials into goods in a word we call this production so therefore secondary sector economies would be industrial these are industrial economies they make things an example here would be steel manufacturing or textile industries right so an example of an occupation in the secondary sector would be a fact excuse me yeah a factory worker or a dressmaker dressmaker sounds somewhat specific I could say in general a close e’er someone who makes clothes these I don’t want to say they operate from least advance to more advanced but you can see here there are more complicated steps primary sector is pretty basic you harvest the resources of the earth secondary sectors a little more advanced do you transform these raw resources into a good or a finished product the third sector could be said to be the most advanced and we call this the tertiary sector or the third sector it’s also called the service sector and the service sector involves supplying services so it provides services to consumers now what is a service and economics sometimes these are called intangibles or invisible goods this is something not like a raw resource that’s transformed like a piece of steel that I may sell this is different this involves for example banking insurance entertainment even restaurants so examples of tertiary level or service sector jobs might involve shopkeepers accountants accountants grocers so on and so forth and really we’re going to be dividing the countries that we’re going to study Nigeria so on so forth Mexico Britain into these three categories we can say that Britain for example has a very large tertiary sector and a decreasing primary sector whereas Nigeria for example is still dependent on its primary sector for the majority of its GDP we’ll get to that definition and then a few lessons down the road and I think we’ll end our first lesson here today on the three levels of the economy still to come in our discussion of how we compare countries are the demographic transition model and we’re going to plug the EM EDC and LED see model or rather we’re going to take the countries we’re going to study and plug it into that model so there’s been a whole lot of key terms in this lesson look them over because the first section of this class is so front heavy or top-heavy if you will we’re going to be going through quite a few vo DS before you get your first homework assignment so it would behoove you to take all the definitions you’ve got and turn them into flashcards for your key terms so there we go I will continue with you when I see you next time and we continue on the fundamentals of AP comparative government thanks again for hopping on board