APES Unit 1 – Chapter 1

all right welcome everyone to your very first sticky note lecture for AP environmental science this entire series of lectures is based on the friedlin and really a textbook called environmental science for AP it’s the second edition or the one known as the butterfly book alright for those of you who are listening now you need to understand that these lectures are a hybrid they are a hybrid between a traditional lecture or I’d stand up in front of the class and just talk to you and you reading from the book so let me go ahead and explain to you what you should have in front of you you should have something to write with either some sticky notes or a blank sheet of paper for those of you who like to take notes Cornell style and then also your guided reading / viewing questions some of the things I’m going to literally point out to you and then other things I am going to say that finds the answer here you can read the purpose of doing this is to keep you from taking a whole bunch of notes because you’ve got your textbook and to also teach you how to read a college level textbook because I’m assuming you’re going to college because you’re taking an AP class either for the credit or to get you trained up so that you do well in college so this way you will be able to interact with that textbook without having any problems so how can you take notes there are lots of different ways you can do it you can put the sticky notes that I’m doing word-for-word which is what I highly recommend if you’re more of a Cornell note person take Cornell notes and then there gonna be some of you who are going to think that it’s just the best idea to go ahead and answer the questions directly on the Google document that is the the list of questions that will appear on your quizzes and on your unit exams I really want to caution you against doing just the guided reading questions for two reasons first of all there’s additional information that I’m going to be writing in the book that is not there that you need to know for the unit tests not everything on the unit test is going to come from those guided reading questions and then secondly I can show you study after study that shows the act of writing things down is what creates the memory in your brain so why not take the extra step now so that you have to study less later alright so let me go ahead and get started every chapter opens with a case study which is a story that puts the context of that chapter in a into a situation that you can identify with so this one opens with something called fracking and your first series of questions basically are asking what fracking is designed to harvest and then what natural resources fracking possibly been contaminating alright so here’s where I put a sticky note for you to kind of sum this up fracking is something we’re going to talk about in more depth when we start talking about energy sources so you really only need to know very few things about fracking fracking is a method of injecting water and fresh water and chemicals into the ground creating micro fractures through which sometimes petroleum oil or more likely natural gas aka methane aka ch4 which is what I’ve got written right here bubbles up through that water and then you can go ahead and harvest it there’s really no other way of getting at these particular resources that are in these tiny little pockets there’s no other way of doing it so the pro to this is you’re harvesting more of a finite material that you couldn’t get out before the cons are I’m going to talk about in just one second so if you are going to do a sticky note this may be a good place for you to put one you need to know that it harvests natural gas which is aka stands for also known as methane and then aka ch4 this is not something I explicitly asked for you to know but I do expect for you to know the chemical formula that means one carbon and four hydrogen’s bond to make this thing called methane and you can burn this to create heats which through a series of steps you can eventually either create electricity or more directly cook with all right you can look up videos on residential water coming out of the faucet catching on fire so you’ll be watching those in class a little bit later on in the school year

so then the next question is which natural resource has fracking possibly been contaminating and then go ahead and turn the page and we’re going to look at page two and you can see that I have multiple sticky notes here now this is the first time that I am doing lectures in this fashion so please excuse the low-tech nature of it all but this is where we are at right now I hopefully won’t have a better system in place by the next lecture because this is already irritating me okay so a couple of things to note is that from a from a context perspective they are the folks who do fracking are exempt from the Clean Water Act so what does that mean it means they don’t have to tell anyone what chemicals are in their water that they’re injecting in the ground so that means that this can possibly contaminate groundwater because the fluid that they use can go through those little cracks and possibly go into groundwater groundwater is a source of usually drinking water or water that’s used to water plants that’s underground alright so what are the contaminants again this is just from a perspective standpoint this is not something I’m going to ask you directly in this chapter and that would be the unknown chemicals in the fracking fluids again we don’t know and then methane from leaks that occur in the surrounding area that that those bubbles of methane can go into water and go into different places so you’re probably asking yourself why do I need to make sticky note of something that I don’t need to know that the answer is you don’t need to know it right now the purpose of this lecture like this is to help get you ready for the future assessments and then there is one more we’re going to see if the zoom works here one more stick I’ve got right there and that is we’re gonna talk about other consequences later on for now just be able to see the pro cons of fracking pros are you’re getting again at a resource that is finite and you’re getting more of it so it’s not running out as fast the cons of course are impacts not only on the environment but also on human health so this is a good lead-in as to what science environmental science is basically the the study of our environment which as you can see right there the sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life there is a difference between environmental science environmental studies and environmentalism you are in environmental science we are going to be using a lot of facts and studies to kind of back up what we’re talking about the environmental studies which you can see the definition is there in the corner environmental studies is the field of study that includes environmental science but it also includes things like policy economics literature and ethics while we will talk about those things they are not things we’re going to discuss a whole lot except to say well what do you think about it simply because those are gonna vary from person to person and when you start talking about beliefs those are sometimes things that are almost impossible to come to a conclusion about so I will kind of staying away from that and then we’re also in staying away from environmental ISM because again that usually includes things like activism which directly relates to your ethics and how you feel as something being either good or bad so basically we’re going to be sticking to the facts in this class your questions ask you to be able to classify ecosystem components is either biotic or biotic make sure you know those definitions one clarification I put on there is that biotic is currently or just recently

living so like a lot would be considered a biotic component of the environment you can skip the next section that says alter natural systems but I did take a look at this note right here which says the following skim these pages understanding how systems interconnect and how some systems move slow and others move fast understand how they influence each other because this is going to help with your fr cues the RFR cues are not your free response questions are not just regurgitation of facts they are how things are interconnected with each other and you can see in this particular graphic all sorts of different systems that interconnect with each other so again just skim these pages here you may want to make a note to yourself about this but the you won’t be tested on this knowledge here but having this in the back your head is absolutely going in it in general is going to help you down the line so please do not skimp on prep now so we’re gonna turn the page and on page 6 are some practice questions take a look at your unit 1 guide that you’ve got and it will explain which ones of those you might want to take a look at all right so the next module real quick when we get into the really meaty stuff you will only have be responsible for one or two modules at a time the reason we’re going through this entire chapters because a lot of it is background knowledge alright so your next series of questions are as follows you’ve got what is an ecosystem service be able to a list in IDs some examples so I have right here I’ve broken it down for you what ecosystem services are they can actually the definition is right here I apologize you can read that on your own but you need to realize that ecosystem services can benefit humans the natural world or both the reason that this is important is that on a free response question you may be asked to identify an ecosystem service that specifically benefits people or maybe even specifically benefits the natural world so you can’t say something like a forest provides this statement right here forests provide trees humans can use to build shelter is not a ecosystem service for the natural world you don’t see deers cutting down trees to build shelters okay this one is particularly human so you’re gonna want to watch that wording when you get to free response questions you also notice that you’re going to need two parts identify with the services and explain how it serves whichever category that they asked for alright also I don’t know if you’ve noticed but there’s some really nice convenient green boxes right here and these have a lot of definitions in them so kind of cool all right five global scale environmental indicators that describe the current state of our current environmental system well when you turn the page you’re gonna see they’re all right there in table 2.2 it’s all nicely summarized for you however don’t just stop there and skip the next couple of pages because as with everything in this class you need to know more than just the surface so here are the five indicators that you need to know all right what are the three scales of biodiversity if you take a look at that figure right there 2.1 they’re all listed and you can see the actually point at something you can see here you can see the labels tell you what those three scales of biodiversity are and then how they how they fit together in terms of the one on the top is the largest the one in the middle is more micro and the the bottom is the most micro of them all alright so you can read that part benefit of a high genetic diversity excuse me it means that you can withstand a catastrophe and there you can see the post-it note please don’t forget you’re watching a video so if you need to actually pause and take a look at something more you have the power to do so alright this is a point I’m going to bring up when we talk about evolution but you may as well know it now high genetic diversity you’ve got a lot of

different mutations in a particular population that means that your pre adapted for the catastrophe it doesn’t mean that you respond to the catastrophe for example if the world were covered up in water humans would not grow gills in response to that the only people who would have gills would be the ones who had the gills before the water came that’s what this is all about is you just have to win the mutation lottery and be pre adapted to what’s going on but if you have a high genetic diversity the likelihood that somebody in your group is already pre adapted for whatever catastrophe comes along this is pretty high so you know that this species is going to continue alright please be certain when you know what a species is it’s when individuals can breed that’s one and produce offspring that’s two and the offspring has to be fertile that’s three this is a sticky note you may want to put in matings between two species that produce offspring make hybrids that are sterile an example is the mule alright just because you can breed or mate and produce an offspring doesn’t mean that you’re part of the same species because if your offspring is sterile it means that things don’t match up quite right and you’re still two different species so please keep that in mind another one of your questions is what is a benefit a high species diversity with an ecosystem same deal as a five genetic diversity and that is universe stand a catastrophe if you’ve got eleventy billion different species in one place and something wipes out two-thirds of them you still have a lot of different species and that particular ecosystem will carry on so keep that in mind so I believe that is all of the sticky notes that we’ve got here on this page so I’m going to go ahead and turn the page those pages 8 & 9 so we’re gonna go ahead and turn they will figure out a better way of doing this so you don’t have all these freaky shadows all right so here’s pages 10 and 11 so let’s take a look at page 10 one of the questions asked for you to comment on extinction speciation there normal stuff dies out dinosaurs things rise up people totally normal a small number of species rise and fall the issue becomes when extinction outpaces speciation speciation means that the creation of a new species and I guess the rise of a new species is probably better from a scientific standpoint so there’s this thing called background extinction totally normal it’s when that accelerates that we start to have problems you have a lowered species diversity blah blah blah we will talk about this more in depth in a coming chapter please realize that the number one human influence on the ramping up of extinction is habitat destruction it’s not the direct hunting of animals it is destroying where they live very much like in the Lorax when the once-ler comes along and cuts down all of the truffula trees alright so another one of the indicators that is talked about here is food resources and some of the questions that have to do with that are oh i’m sorry let me back up for a second organisms that were once in danger but are no longer danger because of positive human influence you can see I made a list right there American bison peregrine falcon bald eagle and American alligator this is the kind of thing on the National exam that you need to take one of these and tuck it away in your brain I’m going to be providing you with a Google document where you can go ahead and put down the things and that stick with you the best so that you’re creating your own study guide so talk one of those away you could be asked in a free response to name one animal that was originally on the Endangered Species Act that is no longer endangered you don’t know what the act is but suffice it to say human intervention brought this animal back from the brink so it’s no longer extinct those are four really good examples all right so moving on to food production as an indicator of environmental issues sorry pausing as I am reading what are the three main grain types wheat corn in rice again we’ll talk about that later with human populations in agriculture and ever to start soon to learn that stuff you need

to know what per capita means it means per person you need to identify reasons for recent food sorta j’t shortages excuse me and you can see it right here the sticky note it’s this paragraph right here there’s a whole bunch of stuff that’s going on so talk a couple of those away in memory or at least be able to recognize them if you’re in a multiple choice type situation all right so I think that is enough for this page so I’m gonna turn the page and talk about water let me get this page so it actually just stay put sorry about that if you haven’t noticed this chapters a little bit of this a little bit of that because it is an introductory chapter okay so stay with me here there we go all right so why is the constant temperature important on earth and that’s because a constant temperature keeps water liquid in most places on our planet and every little living thing on this planet needs like liquid water in order to exist some part of the body is made up of liquid water so it’s more about than just staying warm it’s keeping that water liquid so that our body processes aren’t possible you can see that the sticky note right there this is a figure two point four at the top contains a lot of information it tells you to look at figure two point four how gg which stands for greenhouse gases work to keep the earth warm not going to necessarily test you on that now but you do need to understand that greenhouse gases aren’t emitting Heat they are insulating they’re like a blanket on planet Earth they are nothing to do with the ozone holes or and those own layer they’re in two totally different parts of the atmosphere okay you need to get that in your brain right now greenhouse gases in a totally different place than the ozone layer totally different so this is not the Earth’s sunscreen this is the Earth’s blanket so you can take a look at that right there and see how it works it’s the same reason why your car gets so hot in July light comes in heats up the heats up the air that heat gets trapped by the windshield or in this case greenhouse gases earth and your car stay warm however too many greenhouse gases Earth gets too warm it’s like having too many blankets on you get sweaty and let’s see what is a greenhouse gas you can read about that right here or down at the bottom you can which greenhouse gas is characterized as the quote unquote most important by your book it doesn’t mean it’s the most powerful one but it is important for a variety of reasons we’re going to talk about that’s right their co2 just carbon dioxide you need to know the name and you need to know the chemical formula when carbon two oxygens together definition of anthropogenic is right here and also down right here you need to know that and then you need to know what happens at the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the past two centuries you can see that the levels have gone up when you take a look at got this graph here figure 2.5 the blue line is carbon dioxide in parts per million ppm stands for parts per million you need to know what that means and then you can also see the global temperature has gone up at the same time there’s a direct correlation between the two and I say correlation because is we’re gonna see in a minute you can’t isolate the atmosphere so all we can do is notice trends that work together and you can see that those trends have absolutely gone together plus we have other correlative data that shows us that carbon dioxide does help to trap heat in a closed system all right you need to know how many people there are on the planet there are currently seven point two not 72 but 7.2 billion with a B people remember that’s nine zeros and what does this mean for our future we’re gonna be talking about that later but as you can see here if you read this a little bit right here some people think that our population is going to stabilize and other people think that we’re going to hit ten point five billion people by the year 2100 that’s a lot of people all right you need to know the difference between finite finite but recyclable and renewable resources finite another word for that is non-renewable that means you only have

so much of it and you’re done you can see up here I’ve got a little sticky note that says non-renewable on it and it gives us the definition when something is non-renewable but you recycle it it means that you can keep using that specific chunk of stuff and that would be things like metals for the most part you can’t cycle gasoline as an example and then the definition of renewable is right there as well you can see where the arrow is pointing on it you also are going to need to know examples of each so a non-renewable finite source that you can’t recycle would be like oil and coal and natural gas a non-renewable that you can recycle metal think like aluminum and then a renewable resource would be something like it says right there trees alright you need to Popkin a renewable resource became made non-renewable you can see in the note right here that renewable things can become non-renewable when they’re used faster than they can be replenished so if you cut down a forest and you keep cutting it down and you don’t wait for trees to grow back or you don’t even plant any trees to help it go faster forest is gone alright then transitioning over to human populations which is a herb resource depletion which goes into human populations as a sign an indicator of what’s going on in our environment you can see list three indications of development within a country you can see I went ahead and bullet pointed those for you car use meat consumption in other words how much and then the availability or use of technology and that means everything from computers to cell phones your next question asked for you to how do the number of people compare between developed and developing countries and what’s the division of resources there I’m going to zoom in to that little description that’s right down there in figure 2.7 it really says it all only 20% of the world’s population lives in developed countries but that 20% uses most of the world resources remaining 80% of the population lives in developing countries and uses far fewer resources per capita so do you need to know the specific numbers 20% is probably a good one to remember but they use the vast majority of what goes on on this planet so I’m gonna start talking about things like basic needs and meeting basic means we’re going to need to figure out what really is a basic need and what we consider to be a basic need here in the United States all right so let me see if I would scroll out without completely freaking out okay so we’re in the homestretch like I said most lectures will not be this long this is just because we’re doing an entire chapter so home stretch talking about sustainability the math stuff by the way we will be doing separate you’ll never be quizzed on that until after we have gone over stuff because I know that the math is can be challenging for some of y’all so describe the environmental degradation that led to the collapse of Easter Island there is the chapter on Easter Island right there and as you can see it is a tragedy of the Commons it was a common area where trees and grasses were and nobody was monitoring how many things were used and then you can see a cascade of problems that occurred and the whole place just basically fell apart you’re gonna read on this a little bit more in a separate reading if you would like to know some useless information about those statues which are called my that you’ll never be tested on this stuff just realize that the year there’s a body there that’s in the ground they originally had hats and inlaid eyes you can google these things and see they look like the little top nuts on in their eyes staring at you they all face the ocean and they commemorated gods and chieftains so they ring they ring the island so you don’t need to know that but I know it so now you know it so let’s see last couple of questions list two ways to address the problem of resource depletion all right I need to turn the page so hang out for just one second let me see if I can get this down without linking tip over okay stay all right and I went ahead and

put that sticky note there for you to increase sustainability this says you can either develop substitutes for things or you can recycle there are other options that we’ll discuss later but this is to start getting you thinking about how we can increase sustainability and remember that sustainability for like what is sustainability it is down here there is a definition in the green in the lower right hand corner of page 15 right so this is page 16 I really need to do a better job of calling out the page numbers so you just fix this little clip really fast all right so home stretch looking at ecological footprint tell us about the sustainability of a country’s average lifestyle well you already filled one out for yourself so you already know that it can tell you that if a country is using more than its fair share of resources based on what goes into its footprint yeah you need to go ahead and change something so that’s true a pretty much most developed country on the planet alright the last two questions 26 briefly review the scientific method I’m going to show you a couple of sticky notes that I have I’m not even going to bother to read this to you because you’ve had all this stuff since the fourth grade there is a refresher course for the scientific method here I didn’t even bother put a sticky note but if you need to look you can you don’t need to know about precision and accuracy in here you should know that you need to reproduce your data but there are two things you do need to know that are not in your textbook I didn’t ask you a question about it but you need to know these definitions and that is what the independent variable is that’s what the scientist manipulates we’ve talked about this already that always goes in the x-axis of a graph and then the dependent variable is the data that you collect and that always goes in the y axis of the graph alright and then what are some challenges inherent in environmental studies so oh real quick you do need to know the definition of a natural experiment I won’t ask you this definition but you need to understand that virtually everything we do in here is a natural experiment because you cannot take the environment out of the environment if that makes any sense you can’t study things in isolation or you’re not going to get good data all right so the last question about environmental science and challenges lack of baseline data it’s only been recently that we’ve actually cared about conserving our environment and so we don’t have a lot of recorded history really when it comes right down to it subjectivity this is where ethics go there are some folks who are still very manifest destiny which means if it’s there we need to use it for example there are pushes right now to go ahead and get rid of our natural parks so that we can use that land for development for houses for people and for for food so we can grow food for folks there’s pros and cons there and we will discuss all of those all right interactions this is where the analysis of data comes in we usually have to stick with what are called correlations this thing happens and then this thing happens every single time we very rarely have a clear-cut causation I light a tree on fire and it burns down that’s very very rare we have to kind of look at how two things interact this one then this one side-by-side and come to some sort of conclusion that way as we try and predict what’s going to happen next and then human wellbeing is also an issue because what you consider to be your basic needs may not be the basic needs of other people around the world all right so that is the conclusion of this video lecture I know it’s almost 34 minutes long at this point please realize it’s because we went over a whole chapter you’re only gonna be doing one or two sections as we get into the meat of things let me move my fingers sorry about that so you’re only gonna be looking at a 15 or 20 minute lecture but that’s not going to stop you from reading I’ll tell you what passages skip over I’ll tell you what things to look at but you are gonna have to pause and read things and then be able to answer those guided learning questions so good luck and good luck on your first quiz