Science 9 Lesson 1 The Scientific Method

and we’re live there we go hey welcome science nine lesson one we want to talk a little bit about the scientific process this notion of why is science so important it gives you a way of thinking about the world a way of analyzing about the world so I wrote down here the first thing that we do in the scientific process is we identify the problem or the question in fact what we do is we decide what we want to measure my handwriting is atrocious which is why I type most stuff if you can’t read something I will never make fun of you if you ask mr. Duke what does that say it’s my handwriting believe it all its improved who create a question about the following situation the relationship between sunscreen and sunburns you know what a good question might be does sunscreen prevent sunburn maybe it’s all I and what we mean by a question we mean a question that is testable that you can measure that you can test that you can answer a question that wouldn’t be testable for example the famous example is if I say to you I can survive being shot in the heart by a bullet because there’s only one way to test that and no one’s going to let me test it that way right that’s an example of an untestable question even though a pretty sure we know if the answer is it’s no way to test it scientifically it’s kind of a morbid one mood but whatever the relationship a degree degree of dumbness and baking time for cookies does baking time effect done this you know what I think we can more be even more specific how about this does longer baking time effect done this yep isn’t it mostly about the heat so what you’ve done Thank You Brooke candy for you make one thing suddenly know that we didn’t talk about yet we would now have to introduce the concept of different variables we would have to say is time the only issue wait a minute my oven has a knob and I can adjust the temperature may be the difference between 500 degrees for 10 minutes and 200 degrees for 30 minutes yeah but certainly this would be my starting point and then I would have to eliminate all the other variables in fact hmm maybe I anticipated you the next one says the relationship between oven temperature and length of time required to bake the cookies hey does higher Oh length of time yeah so it does sure higher temperature affect the length of time a fairly good show that I love which actually does a pretty good job of modeling the scientific method is Mythbusters in Mythbusters they start with a question and then they try and answer it now towards the end they have to abandon the scientific method because so many of the myths are false and if they want to replicate them it usually means gunpowder and c4 and bigger and bed and that’s great entertainment as well but I’m Eve you watch Mythbusters before and if you see their live show when they came here I’m the only one okay so what we do is we had get a question and then we create a hypothesis the hypothesis is an educated guess it doesn’t even have to be what you think is right so for example I could as my hypothesis say I think sunscreen has no effect on sunburn that’d be a fairly easy one to disprove I suspect the bet could be your hypothesis you use the information that you have to make a prediction that is based on your observation I’ve seen Mythbusters live and then also

two years ago Adam and Jamie came to UBC and just did a question and answer session and I went to that as well and Adam Savage often has asked what myth have you tested that gave you the most unexpected result and he always gives the same answer he says we were shooting in South Africa it was for shark week we were supposed to be out on the water but the weather was lousy and we were sitting there we had two days before we go back out we’re down in South Africa it’s costing money so we kind of asked what could we test and someone suggested why don’t you test whether elephants are afraid of mice okay that was their hypothesis are elephants afraid of mice that was their question their hypothesis was to be honest elephants are not afraid of mice and to their shock and amazement seem to be they ran a nice test okay you try and set it up in the format of an if then the fancy word for this is if condition then result going to my elephant example Adam figured if an elephant sees a mouse a mouse then nothing will happen that was their hypothesis turns out if an element I felt elephants having a hard time talking she sells seashells by the seashore what about if an elephant sees a mouse something does happen kayden could you read me that one for example if I am always like would do it but I’m asking that’s a good hypothesis and I think that’s an experiment that probably could be proved I’m just speculating sorry i’ll leave you i’ll leave you alone now hey if I study for a test and I’ll do well okay create a hypothesis and if then for the following situation I wonder what will happen if I only eat chocolate so we’re going to start out if I only eat chocolate then what might your hypothesis be happiness will increase maybe I don’t know yeah you know what mr. do with no wimping out learning names kevin was that a hand up or just a twitch with your pen so well it is now okay then I will gain weight I will get that probably there are other nutritional issues as well I don’t know how much iron or vitamin c you right there is in chocolate okay actually as I understand it because that’s a very common hypothesis that is still perpetuated that sugar and fatty foods leads to acne that has long since been disproven that’s an example of a hypothesis that was believed for a long time but actually it’s not true most studies show acne is Lee is caused often by stress which is why it often comes up before a big date or a test or something like that go figure so what you want but healthy I wonder what will happen if i mix red paint and yellow paint if i mix red and yellow I’ll what yeah create or you know what okay and that’s great or you could even say i’ll create blue and that would be one you would disprove right a lot of research right now is also disproving stuff that we thought was true hence the acne records and now we come full circle back to Brooke you need to identify the variables these are the things that I’m going to type thing just so i can write a bit larger um great grace yes is that big enough that you can see back there okay because I’m not in midseason form I gotta get all the bank patient things that change during the course of the experiment in our cookie oven yeah temperature could change absolutely even the type of baking sheet might play a difference maybe some sheets spread heat better than others I don’t know I’m not much of a bigger there are two main ways of I don’t think I’m gonna be able to fit this and life to hand read it categorizing them categorizing and the way we categorize them are

independent and what’s the other one that goes with independent dependent the independent variable is also often called the manipulated and the dependent variable is often called the responding so Brooke going back to your cookie example what i would do to remove temperatures i would decide before the experiment i was always going to use the same temperature so that’s no longer a changing variable the only thing i’m going to change is the length of time it’s in the oven for fact we talked about qualitative versus quantitative variables quietly these words sound very much alike quantitative think the word quantity and I hope that’s a word that you know what it means qualitative think like a quality qualitative is to do with oh I give you the word a a property that can’t be measured color how purple is that I don’t know purple state solid liquid or gas it’s either it is one of them but wow how liquid is that it’s a liquid how solid is that the solid let me think of another one here well I’ll say this magnetism good it’s our magnetic or it’s not right how magnetic isn’t you can measure magnetic fields and things but that’s a different kind of concept texture how rough is it well it’s rough or not how smooth is a quantitative next page over for you guys I think is that right through the page I’m not going to tell you to turn the page anymore i’m going to assume a great 9u gets boeing quantitative contains measurement 10 minutes 13 grams five meters six point two amps five volts measure it you can assign a value around a number do it so we’re going to identify the following as qualitative and quantitative by the way i generally try and abbreviate stuff the problem is both of these beginning letter Q so I’m going to abbreviate qualitative as ql and quantitative as qn you can if you want to oh she told me I gotta check I had it for a second there Sierra I have the essay I couldn’t get more than that Sierra right Sierra if you want to you can write qualitative or quantitative all the way out of but one of the things I’m going to put suggest you guys and push you guys try to reviewing stuff of your notes the bowling ball is heavier than the basketball is that quantitative or qualitative what you’re really asking is is there a number of measurement in that statement is there a number of measurement in that statement you see a number in that statement then it’s call all the tative not quant it’s q l the red ball weighs 5 grams more than

the blue ball that is quantitative number two a and B kind of go together one says the temperature increased by several degrees one says the temperature increased by 2 degrees Celsius which one of those is quantitative which one of those is a measurement yep be their names Trevor a is qualitative 3a says the water was lukewarm be says the water was cooler than the oil which one of those is oh you know what I said qn and i’m using cutie didn’t well you know what apparently i’m using let’s go with what the hand that said if you went cutie that’s fine but i guess i said qn up there i really should have gone cutie gets quanta whatever hey 3a the water was lukewarm 3b the water was cooler than all the oil which one of those is quantitative it’s a trick question huh I heard someone say it I think yeah yeah none are quantitative the color changed from blue to green you know what I think that’s a right how blue how girl it’s not a measurement gesundheit the sound became louder as the vibrations increased now you can measure sound sound can be measured in decibels actually measured in bells but decibels is a better units to use and if they had that oh the sound reached 115 decibels first of all we all be covering our ears and grimacing and pain but that would be a quantitative measurement 5a 5b I think we got one of each which one of those is a quantitative one a or b Nick be and since I’ve been doing that in red or some reason I’m going color coding I don’t know why but I am what about number six yeah both okay let’s go back to independent and dependent so the independent can I fit that in here I don’t think I can’t know it’s going to be too big off to hand write it in the pendant grace is my handwriting big enough for you to read back there okay i know the typing is but it’s my handwriting that’s the issue variable is one that you the scientist change or manipulate going back to our cookie example that would be the timer on the oven that’s the one that I change the dependent variable is the one that changes as a result of what we did as a result of what we did that would be the doneness of the cookie now doneness I don’t know if that would be quantitative probably that would be a qualitative measurement you could kind of say oh that’s more done than the other one but I don’t know if you can say hey that’s done 13 some units I don’t know what even the units but maybe I mean who knows maybe baking companies might have something like that but I don’t know in fact the independent one is often the variable that you are measuring if its quantitative coming full circle to kevin kevin was it yeah because I think you were the one someone said it’s your acne or something like it was you if I eat more chocolate than I will get zits what’s the independent what’s the one that you can control yep although between you and me I can really control the amount of chocolate that I just if it’s there it’s

getting eaten the dependent variable and if you are counting that would be strange but it would be quantitative because you’d be measuring you guys are okay that’s my previous infer number yes you’ve seen that before hope the pound sign I thought it was a hashtag that’s a straight now shut up use logic to fill in the blanks if I give a plant fertilizer than it will grow bigger what do you think the independent variable here would be I had a Josh my new kid yes ok can I abbreviate how much with the word amount and can I be v8 the word amount with amt because I’m gonna come abbreviate the word fertilizer with Ferdie I abbreviate stuff or as I like to say I tend to a brief preview the singing over their head okay tough audience dependent variable F yes and that you could probably measure I would imagine just with a ruler or well plants are curvy you probably with a piece of string you would just run it along the branch and then you would straighten out the string and measure how long the string was or something like that could be done I wash the dishes with lots of soap then they will be cleaner what’s my independent hannah amount of soap dependent Danielle you had your hand up to what’s the dependent now how would you measure cleanliness that’s a probably more of a qualitative than quantitative although maybe you could count the number of food gunk scraps that are left but I don’t know but sure cleanliness cleanliness by the way this experiment I suspect that initially you would find more soap makes them cleaner but I also suspect eventually you would just level off because now you’re just wasting soap I suspect so this might be an example of one if you were graphing it would kind of look like that and also new out you know what I’ve put as much soap as the water can handle it can’t handle anymore now all this hope is doing just float around and then now we’re coming back to Brooke identify the controlled variables these are other things that could affect your experiment that you have to control for these are things that need to be what word did I want it yet I think I got room to type it kept constant let’s go to Evans fertilizer plant experiment if you were actually running the experiment what other conditions would you have to keep constant so that you can tell if it’s fertilizer that’s making the difference had map hang on hair let’s decide we can do that and figure out we mean temperature and not temper tantrum it’s science what else yep oh good in fact you might even want to take seeds from the same packet or you might want to get two packets and have half the seeds from each packet in each jar or something to really really make sure yet trying to even eliminate that Brady oh can I do that and that’s our abbreviation for water what else frowns is not a hand-up thought you did that no can’t think of something else I’m putting you on the spot I know ah good good I was hoping someone come up with that what else

there’s one that’s so stupidly obvious you might forget about it because it might not even come up I don’t know but I it may very well be that a different container might allow the roots to expand a different way and you might get a different right I mean and this is why by the way especially when you read when you listen to the news and you hear some announcement about medical science our bodies human beings it is so difficult because you have thousands of variables within you trying to control for those is so difficult that’s why you’ll hear say a year ago oh here’s a study that says caffeine prevents cancer and then six months ago here’s a study that says caffeine causes cancer and then three months here’s a study that says caffeine has no effect on cancer it’s biology in particular human beings in particular because we have to try and control for lifestyle factors and we got Cole who plays sports and is really athletic and then we might have be comparing him to another kid who sits around oh how do you control that it’s really tough so there’s a few just for plants for pete’s sake which aren’t that complicated they don’t a personality is they don’t have habits or hobbies you can control a lot of the stuff there type of soil lots more we could go on for ages and ages and ages and ages but instead let’s turn the page the famous mad scientist why did you build a Death Ray to take over the world no I mean what mad hypothesis are you testing are you just making mad observation look I’m just trying to take over the world that’s so you’re at least going to leave some of the world is a mad control group right sad truth most mad scientists are actually just mad engineers because they’re not using the scientific method there’s going to be lots of that this year so 20 minutes left yay here is your homework this is called The Simpsons and the scientific method in each of these you’re going to have a little paragraph about one of the simpsons characters the first one here says this Smithers thinks that a special juice will make his workers work faster he creates two groups of 50 workers each and he tells them to staple the set of papers group a is given the special juice to drink Group B is not given the special juice after an hour Smithers counts how many stacks of paper so certainly it looks like this is quantitative because he’s measuring number one what would be a good title for this experiment what do you think the objective is what’s his hypothesis materials I’m really more interested in what do you think the control group is what I think the independent variable is what’s the dependent variable and what other variables might he have to control to make this a fair experiment we’re going to go over the answers when I see you on Tuesday I’m not going to be marking this as much right or wrong because there’s plenty of gray wiggle room where we can discuss this is just kind of wrap your brain around this okay Homer I’ll let you read Homer Simpson crest you the clown and I on yours Lisa’s is crossed out yes so gears have a weekend coming up is this your first weekend since schools back 20 minutes if you medium hustle I suspect you can set this up with no homework for you okay if you finish in class hang on to it we’ll go over it tuesday i’m going to assume you cannot lose an assignment and i’ll collect them tuesday