Mark Brosmer – COSMOS Discovery Lecture Series

very much I appreciate that as was mentioned I’ve been in the aerospace industry for essentially 23 years the majority of that twenty one of those years I’ve been developing launch vehicles rockets and so I’m going to talk about space but primarily from the perspective of how do we get into space I’ll give a little bit of an example of some of these products that we put into space and the satellite from the spacecraft for exploration purposes but primarily focusing on the launch vehicles and the history of launch so a little bit of a history of space exploration going back to 3000 BC up to the present talk about the basics of rocketry I think from what I’ve run understood you guys probably know how Rockets works and maybe I shouldn’t go through that part of it but nonetheless I’ll give you a little too that talk about the eld program talk about some of the satellites that we put into orbit talk about NASA’s constellation program and the types of space exploration that that program should enable us in the future space is something that people have been interested in four or five thousand years or longer the Babylonians used to look into the skies chart out the stars they actually define the first zodiac back in two thousand BC so space is something that has been of an interest to the population of the world since the beginning of time early on it was already discovered that all the planets the Sun rotated around or all the planets rotate around the Sun and it wasn’t until around 120 hundred and thirty ad that people actually started to believe that the earth was truly the center of the universe that perception was dispelled in the 1500s by Copernicus and Galileo Galilei when they started to develop new techniques to look into the heavens the telescope was invented by Galileo and with that new device he was able to confirm that indeed the earth was not the center the universe that the earth rotated around the Sun just like the other planets in the solar system Kepler in Isaac Newton also in the 1500s 1600s they developed a fundamental that told us how the planets rotated around each other how they attracted each other what their gravitational pull was those two gentlemen set the stage for all that we can do now as far as getting into space around the turn of the century that would be the last century not this one 1900s to 2000 way before any of us was alive there were three gentlemen around the world one Russian one German and there was an American that knew that we were limiting ourselves by not being able to get out into space to really explore the heavens and really understand what was going on they were intent on developing rocketry so that we could actually get ourselves off this earth and go out into the heavens they looked at what the Chinese had developed back in 1300 BC simple rocketry that was developed based on gunpowder gunpowder doesn’t have the energy to get us into space so these three gentlemen some have ski of Earth and Goddard became the father of modern rocketry they developed the technologies to get us into space the first time that that technology was really used was in World War two 1944 it had no impact on the outcome of the war but the Germans use that technology to launch missiles from Europe into London trying to basically dissuade the British from fighting any longer it did not work what was so critical about that was the v2 that that was developed by verner von Braun became the foundation for all future space launch vehicles the United States and Russians got involved in what was called a space race during the 60s it was an exciting time because we saw a lot of firsts in in space access the first satellite was launched by the Russians in nineteen fifty-seven first animal launched into space the first human launch into space all by the Russians the Americans were slightly behind that but we also launched our first satellite the Explorer one in 1958 what was so important about that is that satellite actually discovered the Van Allen belt which is radiation belt that surrounds here 1961 first human in space yuri gagarin followed by Alan Shepard the United States John Glenn first American to orbit the Earth Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin first individuals to actually set foot on the moon these were very heady times this was a fantastic time for space the last time we visited the moon was 1972 and then we started investigating space from the space station from the shuttle so how do we get into space we use rockets it’s a

standard right now is we need something that has high thrust something that can get can offset the pull of gravity pulling the rockets back on earth we also as we speed through the atmosphere we start to generate aerodynamic drag that’s also trying to slow us down so we need to balance out the trust to gravity and the drag to get us into space thrust is provided by the propulsion systems on the Rockets we either use a liquid rocket engine solid rocket motors either one of those they work on the same basic concept we burn a fuel and oxidizer in a high-pressure combustion chamber we are then forcing that unless you can see this very well but basically we burn the fuel in the oxidizer together high pressure forcing doubt through a throat of a nozzle through the supersonic section of a converging diverging nozzle that provides significant thrust that pushes a vehicle the opposite direction basically using Newton’s laws of motion the only difference between the two is it a solid rocket motor we have blended the oxidizer and the fuel together we use a rubber binder to hold it all together and then we burn that as a single mass within the combustion chamber liquid in rocket fuels are separated in a liquid rocket engine we use what we’re using now is generally liquid oxygen and either RP one which is a kerosene based fuel or else we use a liquid hydrogen and i’ll talk about both of those little bit later on we basically use up pumps to pump that those two liquids into combustion chamber burn it same net effect is having the solid rocket motors well you have to realize with rockets is that the primary weight of a rocket is the propellants themselves over ninety percent of the weight of a rocket is a propellant the rest of it is the tank structures it holds the propellants and then the rest of it is actually the payload there’s a rocket that we just launched it weighs one and a I’m going to say about one and a half million pounds out of that rocket a thousandth or nine thousand pounds was actually the satellite so you can see that most of what we carry is actually propellant in structured it’s highly inefficient to burn all of that propellant and have all the structure still around it because you end up carrying dead weight so we’ve developed over the past 50 years staged systems so that adds you deplete your propellants in one stage you you basically jettison that stage get rid of that dead weight that you don’t need and go to the next stage and burn the propellant in that and continue to go through each of those stages until you get to the final stage where you have an upper stage and the satellite by the way that’s a DSP 23 satellite that was launched a year ago that was my last launch that I was in charge of see end up with just that little piece of hardware at the top and that is put out in space we separate ourselves from that so it doesn’t carry along our dead weight and then it does its job for 10 20 30 years we can’t just put a rocket on the ground light it off and expect it to go where we want it to go we need to have an autopilot a guidance navigation and control system there’s not a man in the loop that is driving this car into space basically what we do is we put we preset a trajectory from the earth to its final destination we define when we’re going to stage each component of the vehicle and that’s set in place prior to launch the GNC system basically identifies the actual position of the rock at any time during its flight compare that to work supposed to be compare that to how fast it’s supposed to be going and it makes continuous Corrections I think it’s at 50 cycles per second so it’s constantly we navigate in its position redefining where it’s supposed to go and basically putting a rocket at exactly where it needs to be to drop a load off words desires where does it go we’ve got multiple orbits we put satellites each for different purposes you’ve probably heard a lot of these but basically we put them in low Earth orbit medium over it excuse me geosynchronous or high Earth orbit basically it all depends on what the mission of the satellite is weather satellites actually are in low Earth orbit along with the shuttle or the Hubble telescope and the space station any of our earth imaging satellites that go up there to understand the mineral deposits and other aspects of the earth are putting the low Earth orbit so they can get a very good image of the surface of the earth the GPS satellites many of you actually have navigation systems in your cards each of those navigation systems is actually talking to continuously talking to a series of satellites at eleven thousand nautical miles that’s the medium Earth orbit when you’re talking on international telephone you’re actually probably going through a geosynchronous communication satellite 22,000 miles in the sky high Earth orbits are also used for communication satellites however they have special

needs especially if you’re looking at the northernmost parts of the world or the southernmost around the North and South Poles because geosynchronous orbits don’t allow you to really cover that part of the globe so we’ve developed a high Earth orbit it’s generally going to be highly inclined in a highly elliptical orbit inclination is basically the relative angle of the orbit around the relative to the equator zero inclination says you right at the equator and there’s a special case for the geosynchronous orbits that are have a zero inclination they’re called geostationary orbits those orbits are such that the satellite is rotating around the earth at the same relative rotational rate as the earth is so it effectively is sitting directly over the same spot on the globe for its entire lifetime that’s where we put our our satellites for human communication so that we can constantly communicate any place on the globe by linking up to the same satellite you’re on if you’ve got the dish network or you’ve got another satellite TV system you’re basically communicating one satellites is constantly over your house so that’s the basics of rocket science propulsion targeting and location so what’s the eld program it’s the most recent development of launch vehicles since the 80s i’m going to say the 70s it’s actually a program where we developed to completely new families of launch vehicles the app with five in the delta for lockheed martin was actually the developer for the Atlas 5 Boeing Corporation was a developer for Delta 4 they did this development for the US Air Force I work with I don’t work for but I work with the Air Force on the development of these two rocket engine or rocket systems program started in 1995 it was a seven-year development program before we got to our first launched in 2002 it’s destined to be the primary means of access to space for satellite and space systems to 2020 why did we need a new rocket system the cost to get into space was becoming more and more expensive a Titan for launch which launched the heaviest and most expensive payloads that we put into space costs 500 million dollars per launch even our government couldn’t afford 500 million dollars per launch on a regular basis so the whole purpose of the eld program was to figure out how to get into space cheaper the goal was to cut the cost of access to space by as much as fifty percent so how do we do that prior to the elb program the US had four primary launch systems at Titan to Atlas who and Delta two as well as a Titan for each one of those rockets was developed with a singular purpose Titan to launch nothing more than the dmsp is weather satellites out of Vandenberg Air Force Base to put those weather satellites into low-earth orbit Delta two was designed to put the gps satellites in de meo the discus satellite was launched off of atlas to DSP 23 and all the DSP satellites which are warning satellites as well as reconnaissance satellites were all launched on the Titan for very very specific missions very specific launch vehicles to handle those specific missions very inefficient use of our resources though every one of those launch vehicles required its independent factory independent manpower independent launch facilities independent infrastructures we were paying four times just to get into space the idea of the eld program was to say how can we develop a launch system that can actually put in space any of those types of vehicles from a small dmsp which weighs several thousand pounds to a DSP or a heavier satellite that might weigh 13,000 pounds or even a satellite that might waive 50,000 pounds and put into low-earth orbit that was a whole reason we had the e-elt program we developed two families the Atlas 5 and the delta 4 because we learned some hard lessons in 1985 the Challenger blew up I don’t think you guys were around at that time but the Challenger the Space Shuttle was the only way that we could get access to space that timeframe when the Challenger blew up we had no access to space we didn’t want to get back in that same condition in the future so we developed two completely independent systems of launch vehicles so we were always assured of access to space the Atlas system is actually built using technology gained over the past 30 years for the initial Atlas vehicle that was used to launch ICBMs as well as to

launch man into space incrementally it was evolved what we had to do though what we wanted to do was develop a modular concept for launches so the Atlas 5 basically took a very strong structure for a core vehicle that we could attach solid rocket motors on to if we wanted to anywhere from one to five solid rocket motors we could actually strapped three of these core boosters together and by mixing and matching components using just one manufacturing facility mixing and matching components we could actually lift the full fleet of satellites that the u.s. had Delta 4 we did the same thing there was a little bit of a difference for Delta 4 for the Atlas 5 they had already developed a brand new rocket engine for that system Delta 4 we still were relying upon 9 solid rocket motors and a small little RS RS 27 liquid rocket engine that’s a very inefficient use of taxpayer dollars we want to develop a brand new engine that could replace the capability of all three all 10 of those systems I was the RS 68 first new development program of a liquid rocket engine of that size since the Space Shuttle main engines back in the 70s it took a whole new structure and again a modular concept mix and match number of solids mix and match number of boosters that you want to put on that thing and it’s basically dialer rocket type configuration the RS 68 again it’s a workhorse of the Delta 4 programme Rocketdyne had developed a whole fleet of engines from the j2 engine that was used on the Saturn five program every one of the locks RP engines that was used on the Atlas two or the Delta two programs were built by rocketdyne they built the Space Shuttle main engine they also developed a cheaper version of the ssme which was more for development purposes to show that you could get a more cost-effective version of that engine we worked with rocketdyne to develop a new capability that was driven by simplicity and robustness as opposed to high-performance again simply design we wanted to reduce number of parts we wanted to reduce the amount of time it took to manufacture this engine ultimately drive to a lower cost that gave us the r 68 and that’s what we’re flying today one of the things that we found is that satellites continually get heavier they don’t believe in getting lighter they want more capability so we’re going through some trades right now looking at the simplicity of the design scene if we can maybe regain some performance for this engine by beefing up the turbo machinery the turban the pumps and so forth to feed propellant into the combustion chamber beef that up get lightly more performance maybe five seven percent is all it’s going to take and that will define the RS 68a which will fly in 2010 NASA is going to take this capability and they’re going to use it for their next generation launch system they’re going to make some modifications for operability and they’re going to call it the RS 68b we constantly look at our technology constantly try to improve it incrementally to get more capability but the same trying time try to keep the cost down some fun facts about the RS 68 we use liquid oxygen liquid hydrogen liquid hydrogen is stored at 400 degrees below zero we mix it with liquid oxygen in the combustion chamber we light it it reaches a temperature of 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit that’s enough not just to melt iron it will vaporize iron that’s how much energy we release when we combined locks in hydrogen when we light off in our 68 it gives us the equivalent energy release of the Hoover Dam 11 Hoover dams per one hour 68 engine that’s pure power 17 million horsepower is equivalent to 50,000 Maseratis it’s powerful that’s why I’m in the business I love the power of rocket engines we strapped three these together to call to create a heavy launch vehicle at liftoff the three engines combined put out 1.6 million pounds of thrust the rock itself weighs about 1.4 thousand 1.4 million pounds so we don’t have a whole lot of excess thrust capability for this system but that’s a boatload of energy coming out after two minutes of flight we’ve consumed half of the propellant on that thing we burn one ton 2,000 pounds of liquid oxygen liquid hydrogen per second with each of those engines that’s a quick if you have a Porsche we can throw two of those out a second out of each of those engines at 9,000 miles per hour

talk about some power we can put 50,000 pounds of of a satellite into low-earth orbit that’s like taking a school bus fully loaded with kids put it in delete Leo over it so what makes the eld program so special simplicity is the bottom line we wanted to reduce the number of parts and the number of hours it takes to build these rockets the r68 only requires twenty percent of the parts that are used in the ssme again we do reduction in part count it takes less than ten percent of the time to build an RS 68 than it takes for an ssme yes SME again is the engine use on the space shuttle and we’ve cut the cost by eighty percent for the production of that engine as I mentioned earlier we took one engine the RS 68 and used it to replace nine solid rocket motors and a liquid rocket engine simplicity in design what else makes it special we’ve gotten rid of all four of those launch pads for the Titan to Delta 2 and Atlas to we now have one launch pad that can launch the full fleet of Atlas 5 launch vehicles we have another launch pad that can launch the full fleet of Delta 4 launch vehicles every configuration to put any satellite that we have made into orbit we used to spend a lot of time processing our vehicles at the launch site we would spend as many as 30 days or even us for months on the launch pad itself for a titan 4 we would use 18 different facilities for the atlas to we would use i think 30 facilities for the titan 4 we now only use three facilities out to Cape Canaveral for the Atlas 5 we spend one day on the pad that’s the day of launch so what’s so special about it very robust design more efficient manufacturing processes more efficient launch operations more flexible payload capability dialing rocket bottom line is its lower cost inherently higher reliability how reliable these are the 12 launches that I was involved with that’s only half of the launches that we’ve launched on the eld program we’ve launched 22 rockets since 2002 every one of those Rockets has been a successful launch the probability of doing that you wouldn’t believe it historically out of the first three launches of a brand new launch vehicle you can expect one of those three will be a failure we beat the odds on this program we have a hundred percent successful launches statistically that says you have a ninety-four percent demonstrated reliability compared to the very mature programs of the Titan for Delta to Atlas to they were able to prove over their lifetimes a ninety-seven percent reliability brand new program has already demonstrated reliability on par with very mature systems the commercial market for launches is only about ninety percent reliable we’ve already exceeded the reliability of those other launch programs this is a short video it’s about 45 minutes long it’s going to show you some of the manufacturing capabilities for the Delta for it’s also going to give you a short clip of a launch of the DSP 23 satellite assuming council maybe we won’t it was a good video and I showed it before this presentation this rocket each of those boosters is 5 meters in diameter that’s 15 feet total stack is 300 feet tall this is a gentleman doing final processing of the upper stage and what you just saw was the booster for this rocker those guys were looking inside the engine belt to the r68 engine we use robotic machining capabilities and techniques to basically create out of sheet aluminum several inches thick the structure of the tanks we also use a lot of composite materials so a lot of robotic operations for the construction of the vehicle minimize the amount of time in touch later that we had on the rush in a second you’re going to see them roll this brand new rocket out of the factory and will ship it to Cape

Canaveral you see rocket this big being driven out of aid out of a building and you’re walking next to it it just kind of stops your heart for a little bit you won’t believe the excitement we transported by barge from Decatur Alabama to the launch site that was a delta Mariner you can actually put three boosters in there and upper stage payload fairing so we can have a full staff we take to the horizontal integration facility make the different pieces together and then we drive it out to the little launched at this thing the K mag can go a whopping 10 miles an hour unloaded down the road when we have a vehicle on it you can see these guys are walking next to it that’s how slow lacrosse we’ll take it out the launchpad it goes on to what’s called a fixed pattern rector which basically transitions in the horizontal to the vertical positions on the launch pad it’s going to go pretty quick but in reality it takes several hours actually elevated into that position not quite that quick we finished processing the vehicle on the pad we put payload on top of it so that we’re pulling mated with you final checkouts and they have launched we will back the tower we load it with lots of hydrogen and it doesn’t quite move this fan and this is when it gets exciting get them on board video you’ll see later on those strap-on motors one click we have ignition of the bait inches we add as a ball of hydrogen flame let me know she is Delta for heavy rocket carrying PSP 23 the final DSP missile warning satellite for the United States Air Force from the mission directors Center which is where I sit about my own half two miles away sit there you watch this thing slowly slowly lift off a pad you’re wondering if it didn’t make it all of a sudden it gets high enough up that you’re basically underneath that entire building shaking the pounding of all that thrust 1.6 million pounds is just overwhelming the two strapons are about to burn out and they fall away from the vehicle yeah are they all that’s one of the two falling back to earth this is inside the payload fairing I’m going to get rid of that excess weight its jettisoned because we’re outside the atmosphere we don’t need to protect the satellite in we deploy the nozzle on the second stage engine this is an RL 10 built by pratt whitney rocketdyne deploy the nozzle light the engine that nozzle is 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit carbon-carbon very hot able to hang with him withstand to those temperatures but easily this is a DSP 23 satellites separating from the booster after a seven-hour mission we’re going to see the solar panels deploy in a second they lock into place they wiggle and wave goodbye when you’re in the launch business and you realize that if you make a mistake you throw away a billion dollars worth of satellite that is an exciting sight to see it successfully put in so what we put in space communication satellites navigation whether its satellites early warning satellites defensive satellites reconnaissance first science and space exploration if there’s any reason to go into space we’ll put it in the space for you calm satellites the first two satellites we put in orbit for the delta port program in the Atlas 5 program we’re built by Eutelsat these are commercial communication satellites they transmit TV radio broadband internet they have satellites throughout the world that are basically there to help you have good commercial communications

for the military we had the defense satellite communication system it’s been the workhorse of military communications for the past 20 years it has high data rate secure communication for the Air Force the army the Navy all military services including White House communications we launched the last two of those in 2003 disqus a 3 and B 6 the follow-on system is a wideband global system this will provide an order of magnitude greater communications ability than the discus systems there are six discus satellites in use right now a single wideband system can replace the data rate of all six all five or six of those satellites what we’re seeing with the evolution of satellites we’re looking for bigger better more powerful more capability which means bigger rockets Global Positioning System i mentioned this earlier these things sit at eleven thousand nautical miles there’s 24 of them in space your GPS detector that you’ve got in your car maybe you have a handheld device it basically is talking with four of these satellites it’s actually talking with more of them it selects the four best satellites that have the best signal and it basically uses fundamental geometry each satellite broadcasts the time of day using atomic clock that’s all synchronized it broadcasts its position in space you GPS system basically picks that up triangulates off those four satellites figures out the exact location you’re at plus exact time and dated at your location weather satellites there’s two different types of satellites ones at geostationary orbit when you watch the news seven o’clock news you look at the weather channel they’re actually broadcasting from the goes satellites in geostationary orbiting satellites those things basically observe track monitor weather formations whether it’s thunder storms whether it’s a hurricane off the coast of Florida they track it and use that to project where it’s going to go to really be able to forecast the weather patterns we use a dmsp satellite defense meteorological satellite program it sits at 400 nautical miles it flies over the North and South Poles it covers the world in basically 12 hours it measures a temperature and moisture content of the air all the way to the atmosphere it can tell you how high the waves are in the ocean it can tell you what the temperature the surface of the earth is it can tell you how much snow is on the earth we use that type of information to help generate weather forecasts for the next couple days next couple of weeks it’s used extensively for mission planning for the military early warning systems during the height of the Cold War we were deathly afraid of the Russians and the Chinese sending ICBMs in the United States developing this capability called the defense support program that launch that you just saw was the last of the DSP satellites there’s 23 of them they basically monitor they have an IR sensor that’s looking down on the earth it measures or monitors of plumes coming off of rockets it tracks the trajectory of those rockets and we verify whether they’re coming to the United States or often to some other location gives us an opportunity to take defensive measures zippers will be the follow-on system not only will it be able to detect ICBMs but one of the deficiencies of the DSP system is it it’s a global type observation the Seabury system will actually give us tactical awareness of short-range ballistic missiles or short-range missiles so that our war fighters in Afghanistan or in Iraq will be able to see a missile coming at them quickly be able to take very quick responsive action even if that flight time is minutes instead of hours so that’s the military use of space NASA also use a space you might have figured that out but anyways NASA does all the space exploration all the they do the manned research in space President Bush three years ago said you know we haven’t been to the moon we haven’t really done exploration for a long time he told NASA that you will put a man on the moon by 2020 you will enhance our ability for scientific research in space you’ll create a stepping stone to allow us to get to Mars so how’s NASA going to do that they’re developing the constellation program which is the next generation of launch systems for NASA it basically consists of a manned Orion spacecraft which is a larger variant of the Apollo spacecraft that we’ve launched in the 60s a lunar lander that again a modern larger version of what we launched in the 60s the Ares one in Ares

5 launch vehicles the Ares one basically will replace the shuttle it will take men back to or humans excuse me men and women back to the space station we’re going to basically use again the same way we did with the elb well based technical or technology flight proven technologies the j2 engine off to Saturn 5 the strap on solids off the Space Shuttle the RS 68 off the Delta 4 I believe the plan on using the electronics from the Atlas 5 take those tweak them modify them slightly but but maintain that basic technology create these two launch systems four trips to the moon will launch the Ares 5 and the areas one the man capsule will be basically mated with your earth departure stage on Ares 5 and that will take it to the moon from a scientific perspective what’s really great about the Ares 5 is that it provides I believe somewhere around seven times to capability of a delta for that opens up new avenues first interplanetary studies space research what having to with that amount of a lift capability the Hubble Space Telescope is a two and a half meter mirror we can launch a 16 meter mirror in that type of system eight times were actually about six times the size of the Hubble that will enable us to look farther into the universe farther into the history of the universe help us to understand how the universe was formed how the galaxies were formed and how the planets were formed and how they’ve changed over time we’re also looking at heliophysics which is the study of the solar system specifically the Sun and its effect on the rest of the solar system one of the options that being considered is to take some probes to the very close locations around the Sun to monitor its weather patterns if you will to understand solar flares to understand the magnetic attraction and medic magnetic fields yet the Sun and understand how they affect the Earth’s weather how they affect satellites because solar flare has actually affect the way electronics work we need to understand that better also follow on missions to the edge of the solar system to understand what’s in that boundary between the solar system and the galaxy the heliosphere some great research was done the Voyager satellite service based were launched in 1977 they’re still living there still flying they’re still sending back data we want to get more information about what’s out there at the edge of the solar system some of the other options are to go to other planets such as manned missions to Mars perhaps go to the outer planets of the solar system things that would normally take 30 to 50 years get out there this will help us get out there much quicker I have more technology on those space probes help us to better understand the genesis those planets and understand perhaps the genesis of life or potential for life on some of those other planets some of the other things that NASA’s it has been doing to enable space exploration I mentioned earlier how much propellant that we carry on a launch vehicle that doesn’t leave a whole lot of room for scientific experiments so what NASA is doing is looking at alternate propulsion technologies the solar sails basically the same concept as sailing across Lake only we using solar energy to drive ourselves across the universe electric propulsion uses a very small amount of propulsion of propellant uses the electric energy to heat it up to excite it it’s not even heated up it’s just excited to extremely high velocities high performance maximize the benefits of that propels propulsion system to take our vehicles out into the far reaches of the solar system error capture once you get out to a planet like Mars or Neptune you’re going at 17,000 miles a second you’ve got to slow down arrow capture helps you do that this is a arrow shield which is very much like what we used on the Apollo program you fly into the atmosphere you use the atmospheric drag to slow yup you dissipate the heat with a shield the other option is to take advantage of the atmosphere is at the higher altitudes you need a lot larger surface area to do that so these are deployables systems called balute it’s combination of a balloon and a parachute you deploy these big large surface area helps you slow down much quicker you don’t get nearly as hot and you save a lot of weight than for your scientific experiments so that’s where we’ve been what some of the opportunities are in the future it’s all built on technology we have a need to improve our launch capabilities because we need to get those satellites into space to better utilize space we need to

put those space probes into orbit so we can better understand the genesis of the universe we need new sensor technology we need continuous development of new capabilities and new technologies and that’s what I’ve got for you questions thank you very much very fascinating talk we have time for I’m sorry I can’t hear you my ears are going bad how come you guys haven’t tried to go to the moon since 72 and you’re now trying to go to the moon when the president asks you to um not my decision no that was a lot of it was really based on political motivations during the 60s we were in a very tight it was a cold war period we were going to battle a psychological battle with Russia we want to be the first people to the moon we went out there we found what the moon was made of we understood the moon and the excitement was over so for political reasons to cancelled the space program we’d been there what more can we do what President Bush wants to do is to use that as a staging location let’s go out there develop colonies so that we can then we now have the technology let’s use that as a base to lift off and go to Mars and other planets so now it’s not as a end point but as a stepping stone to other other research I’ve heard of another launch system that they’ve been developing it uses magnets to actually propel accelerate an object enough to actually send it into a lower space orbit is that true there are magnetically driven propulsion systems they’ve been in in development i’m going to say for 20 years that we initially developed for kinetic energy type systems to say that whether they can put a satellite or a system into orbit I really can’t say I haven’t been involved in that but I know that they do take the magnetic fields and you have basically very little friction in those types of devices and you can accelerate structures to extremely high velocities whether we can put something into space with them or not I can’t say I’m sorry why did you guys choose to develop two different systems like the Delta and the Atlas it was basically initially we were gonna only develop one we felt that we could develop and build these systems with sufficient reliability that we would only need one family of launch systems there was a problem with that philosophy in 1998 we we lost to Delta threes a delta to tighten for in an atlas our entire capability to put satellites into orbit was thrown out the window within a six-month period of time we realized that flying to space is not an easy endeavor it’s a dangerous endeavor we wanted to make sure that in the event that we had such a catastrophe in the future let’s just say that the Delta 4 had some major problems with it we couldn’t get it off the pad we needed to have an alternate way of getting into space so we want to keep the two of these systems going simultaneously so that we can ensure that we have an ability to put satellites into space that question that you just asked is constantly on the tongues of congressional members congressional committees people are watching the budget why do we have two vehicles out there it’s always going to be a good question and it’s always a matter of how much risk you want to accept do you want to put all your eggs in one basket or keep two families so you can make sure that you do have an access to space um if an ICBM is launched how much time do we have um about 45 minutes not a whole lot it takes about 90 minutes to orbit the earth so if you go in half the way around the earth about 45 minutes so it’s duck and cover and that’s why the sea breeze is so important because if you’re looking at a theater type defense you need something that’s even more reactive within a matter of minutes not

45 minutes question down here there is the question is is it true that we have satellites that are capable of capturing or harnessing the solar energy and sending it back to the earth to my knowledge that capability does not exist today but there are people that are looking at it investigating capabilities to do so you can actually put a mirror into space you can harness the Sun and then focus that down to a collector on earth so that capability does exist it’s a Magna returning on excuse me return on investment as to whether or not we would really do it but there are people there looking at that capability you guys are challenging me how much to the Astro or should I say xenobiologists bug you to go back into space how much of the bug is to go back into space there are every element of the Space Sciences community is thirsting to get into space they are they want to they want to know more about the the planetary structures they want to know more about life on other planets they want to know about the origin of the universe every facet of the space community is thirsting to get back into space and did to do more research in space so much if that answers your question but people are generally inquisitive and they want to learn more and they’re always asking for more opportunities get back out into space when the rocket is going up and the to sidewalk Rockets fall where they fall to they actually fall into the ocean they’re about maybe 100 miles off the coast of Florida when they fall they land in the ocean and basically sink and now you’re going to ask why am I putting litter in the ocean basically what happens once they fall in the ocean do we make sure that there’s nothing out there we have a clear zone to make sure there’s no boats no people so nobody’s going to give it get injured when we drop these things into the ocean they do crumble when they hit they sink to the bottom of the ocean and sea life actually starts to grow on them you start making basically an artificial reef and you’re actually helping to spawn additional life we’ve got a whole bunch of what would be called trash in the ocean off the coast of Florida and that is actually generated new habitats for fish down there thank you how much do the chemicals used to propel the rocket harm the environment that’s a good question the system that I showed you on that video is it’s a LOX hydrogen system it burns and the products are water and water so it basically does not do any harm to the environment with that particular system some of the older systems that we had we used solid rocket motors they actually generate a lot of hydrochloric acid HCl that would actually cause damage to the ozone layer and it would cause damage to the area around the launch pad so we’ve tried to minimize the use of solid rocket motors we still do use them to a certain degree but not to the magnitude that we used to and again those drop off within about a hundred seconds after launch they do not actually penetrate the ozone layer so they don’t do the same type of damage that we used to do with the older Rockets what’s the process of a rocket goes through when it returns to the earth for these particular rocks that i showed you their expendable launch vehicles so that the two core vehicles actually three core boosters all fall back into the ocean and they just tumble the upper stage generally goes into an orbit that will slowly decay over time and it will reenter the atmosphere and generally burn up although some of it does distribute itself around the world mostly into the ocean but sometimes on land those are just free-falling bodies for a vehicle like the space shuttle or the Orion system what they will do is basically using their maneuvering engines or motors on the on the capsule they’ll turn theirs they’ll reorient themselves to make sure that the heat shield is properly positioned they’ll target a certain spot on the earth and

then knowing basically what the atmospheric conditions are the pressure the density and that type of thing throughout the atmosphere you’ll target it and basically just ride through the atmosphere and get extremely hot so it’s a targeting exercises what it is not what are they more cost efficient fuels that we can use actually the most cost efficient is probably our key one which is kerosene which is a petroleum-based two propellant we’ve used after a very long time it’s very cost effective gone up in price recently because of the oil crisis but other than that it’s a very cost-effective propulsion fuel liquid oxygen is relatively inexpensive liquid hydrogen is relatively expensive it takes a lot to make hydrogen are there cheaper ones not really not as efficient and it’s always a trade-off between the performance and the power you can get out of the propellants and the cost to make them and this is the best cost-benefit ratio that we’ve got thank you very much appreciated