Ogden at Brown: Jim Yong Kim, M.D.

the University’s 250th Anniversary applause I extend Brown’s warmest welcome to all of you, and thank you for being here and being part of our distinctive community of scholars It is most fitting that we launch this weekend of celebration with an Ogden lecture by Jim Yong Kim, Class of 1982 The Ogden lectureship has elevated in a rich discourse at Brown for nearly 50 years, presenting the university and its neighboring communities with authoritative and timely addresses about critical issues in international affairs The lectureship was established in memory of Stephen A. Ogden, Jr a member of the Brown Class of 1960 who died in 1963 from injuries he had suffered in an auto accident during his junior year Stephen’s family created the Ogden Lectureship in 1965 as a tribute to his interest in advancing international peace and understanding So as always, with every Ogden Lecture, I like to extend my gratitude to the Ogden family for their generosity and affirm Stephen’s enduring legacy as a vitally important member of the Brown family more than 50 years after his passing Please join me in recognizing Susan Adler-Kaplan and Dr. Robert Ackerman who are here today to represent Stephen Ogden’s family and closest friends today applause And I also just want to send my warm regards to Peg Ogden who couldn’t be with us here today So, about the Ogden Lecture- dozens of heads of states, diplomats, and observers of the international scene have presented Ogden Lectures over the years, from the former President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev to President of Bolivia, Eva Morales to Queen Noor of Jordan Today, we welcome World Bank President and Brown alumnus, Jim Yong Kim to this distinguished company applause Now I’d like to say that Brown can take full credit for President Kim’s extraordinary achievements, but I don’t think we can, as you’ll hear when he describes his story He brings many gifts to his work, just one of which is a Brown education But it’s wonderful to know that his journey carried him through Providence and to know that Brown informs his service to the world Jim’s values are Brown’s values We’re deeply committed to building peaceful, just, and prosperous societies worldwide We advance that work through the intellectual and humanitarian contributions of our Watson Institute for Internation Studies, our Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice, the Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity in America, in the work of hundreds of faculty members and especially our students Brown people are working all over the world to address issues of poverty, inequality, sustainability, disease, and disability This ethos of engagement, of using the best at Brown to address the world’s challenges, is core to the university’s new plan for the future, Building on Distinction Similarly, Jim Kim has spent his life serving the world’s underserved people In collaboration with another extraordinary physician/humanitarian, Paul Farmer, he co-founded Partners in Health He served as director of the HIV-AIDS department at the World Health Organization A former President of Darmouth College, he is now the 12th President of the World Bank Group, an organization with two interdependent goals: to end extreme poverty in developing nations and to promote shared prosperity by fostering income growth for the lowest-earning populations in each country In 2003, he was awarded a prestigious MacArthur Fellowship for his vision and his leadership His career provides an excellent model of what can be achieved with innovative thinking and with global partnership Brown is extremely proud of Jim Kim, so please join me in welcoming him to deliver the 87th Stephen J. Ogden, Jr. Class of ’60 memorial lecture on international affairs Thank you applause

Thank you Thank you so much What a great pleasure it is indeed to be back here at Brown to celebrate our 250th anniversary applause We are all so proud that Brown remains one of the world’s leading institutions of higher learning I’m confident that under President Paxson, Chris, Brown’s role will grow further still She understands that academic institutions have an unshakeable responsibility to inspire students as they think about and confront the world’s most important problems The fundamental questions that drove me when I was a student remain the questions that we must ask ourselves today: What is to be done in the world, and what will I do? Every one of us, in one form or another, must address these questions The enormity of the challenges we face force us to do so I grew up in Iowa in the 1960s and 1970s My parents always encouraged me to strive for excellence and impact, but they had very different ways of doing so My father was a dentist Dentists, as you probably know, are among the most practical people in the world He taught me that concrete, practical things are needed in order to succeed in life I remember the day that I came home from Brown for the very first time my father picked me up at the airport got the car and as we were driving home the airport was about 30 miles from my hometown in Muscatine, Iowa he sort of said offhandedly “so what do you think of studying?” And I had been so turned on by my first semester at Brown that I said “I want to study Philosophy and Political Science and I think I can make a real difference in the world of politics.” So he slowed the car down, pulled over to the side of the road, turned the engine off and we sat there for a little while And he finally looked back at me, and he said, “Jim, after you finish your medical residency, you can do anything you want.” The funny thing is, I’ve actually told the story to an Asian audience and nobody laughs applause My father knew something about uncentainty, he grew up in Korea during a gruesome civil war, and he’s worried that his own children, who grew up in America would not understand the importance of actually have a skill My mother took a very different approach she’s a philosopher, she taught me from a very early age to care about social justice, politics, and what was happening around the world My mother stressed human empathy and the importance of history and culture in shaping economic and political outcomes she used to say “You have to act with a sense of eternity.” And what she meant was that she wanted each of her children to do something that would make a difference in the world She also introduced me to the American Civil Rights movements, and in particular to the teachings and speeches of Dr.Martin Luther King One of my most vivid memories is sitting in our living room watching Dr.King on television. I was moved by many of his words, but especially when he said, “The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.” Inspired by Dr.King, I knew I wanted to bend the arc of history, and fight injustice, and fight institutionalized discriminations But my horizons were limited, most of my friends and teachers were more interested in the upcoming Iowa Hawkeyes game than the race riots of 1968 or the war in Vietnam I enrolled at the University of Iowa as a freshmen but I couldn’t shake my dreams of having a larger impact being part of a larger world so then I transfered to Brown my sophomore year And after that, quite literally, nothing was the same I found a home at the Third World Center, where I quickly learned that I was not the only kid who ever felt like an outsider Some of my new friends have grown up in really tough situations. Some were from Bedford– Stuyvesant, Harlem which back in those days were very different places They endured racist taunts, they were poor, and their families lived on food stamps, their mothers worked two jobs and had little time to spend at home Their stories fundamentally shaped me, they gave me a powerful sense of what it meant to struggle in the United States,

to choose between meals or medicine, or joining gangs versus becoming a target of gangs, resignation or resistance, all in the richest country in the world They motivated me to take action One parents weekend I’ll never forget, my friends from Third World Center and I dressed up in black and marched around campus, protesting the university’s decision to raise tuition without increasing financial aid for students who needed it We won concessions on the issue and eventually led Brown to adopt a need-blind admissions policy But from that moment on, I was hooked I realized that activism could drive fundatmental social change What a sense of empowerment By the time I graduated in 1982 I started thinking beyond the change that we could affect in Providence I asked myself once again, what is to be done in the world, and what will I do? Today, 32 years later, having co-founded Partners in Health, worked at the World Health Organization, Harvard University and Dartmouth College. And now in my role as president of the World Back, I can look back with a little more clarity and even propose some answers to those fundamental questions What is to be done? At the World Bank Group, we’ve set two goals, as President Paxton mentioned End extreme poverty by 2030, and boost shared prosperity for the bottom 40 percent of every developing country These goals will drive our work going forward. But three major challenges will determine whether we succeed The first is achieving inclusive economic growth Today, most countries have turned to the market to accelerate growth, and are focused on adopting policies that enable businesses to invest, grow, and create jobs Indeed, the private sector is now responsible for 90 percent of job creation in developing countries, and very few governments continue to promote an exclusively state-led approach to economic development The Communist Parties of China and Vietnam, for example, are deeply engaged, and we’ve had many conversations with them, about how they can improve their competitiveness in the global capitalist system Even in Myanmar, a country that was closed off to the world for 60 years, one of the key questions that government officials asked me when I visited in January was, “How can we engage the market?” Attract investment and create good jobs for our people But we also learned that growth isn’t enough Economic growth accounts for about two-thirds of poverty reduction The other third comes from redistributed policy, such as progressive tax systems and a particular program that we have worked very hard with, the Conditional Cash Transfers, that give money to the poorest people and give that money on the condition that they send their kids to school, and go to the doctor, and improve the health of their whole family In recent years, we’ve seen what happens when growth is not inclusive In places as diverse as Egypt, Turkey, Thailand, and Chile, people have streamed into the streets to demand a greater share of their country’s economic growth That leads to the second challenge: investing in people Investing in people provides a major boost in economic growth, and they also represent the best way to forge social inclusion, and reduce inequality over time Let me give you some of the numbers The Lancet Commission, a group headed by eminent economists and public health sectors– the person who led this particular study was Larry Summers –found that between the years 2000 and 2011, a full 24 percent of the economic growth in low- and middle-income countries resulted from improvements in health The commision also found that smart health investments would allow low-income countries to reduce their rates of infectious diseases and maternal and child mortality to the levels of the best-performing middle-income countries by 2035 The human gains from this grand convergence in health outcomes would be enormous The Commision estimated that it would prevent roughly 4.5 million deaths by 2035 alone The link between education and economic growth is just as strong A 2010 study by OECD, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, looked at the link between PISA scores, the Program from International Student Assessment, which track academic achievment across countries, and economic growth The study found that even small improvements in a country’s PISA scores can result in substantial long-term economic gains In other words, when kids learn more, countries’ economies grow faster But even if countries do everything right on the growth front and invest in their people, it won’t matter unless we sustain our planet for future generations This leads to the third global challenge: slowing the rising tide of climate change Climate change threatens– You can clap; that’s fine laughter, applause

Climate change threatens our existence on this planet And because people living in extreme poverty are more vulnerable than anyone else, they are going to be the first to feel the brunt of the impact Just consider what’s at stake A four-degree-Celsius increase in global temperatures would trigger unprecendented heat waves, severe drought, and major floods in many regions The global sea level would rise by up to one meter, and could be up to 20 percent higher in the tropics, where most of the world’s poor happen to live Even a two-degree rise in global temperatures, which could happen as early as 2030, would result in devastating food shortages in Sub-Saharan Africa Some scientists predict that by 2030, if we do reach two degrees Celsius, Bangkok will be underwater It’s fundamentally unjust that those least responsible for raising the earth’s temperature, will suffer the gravest consequences from climate change I’ve called for global leaders to focus on five urgent tasks: we must cut carbon emissions in cities, we must promote climate-smart agriculture, increase investment in renewable energy, set a predictable price for carbon, and end fossil fuel subsidies Some of these steps, of course, will prove extremely challenging politically Businesses don’t want to pay more for energy and don’t want fuel prices to rise But now, and especially this year, is a time for political leaders to show courage and do what it takes to keep our planet livable for future generations Now, I know that Brown has had its own debate about how to take bold steps to fight climate change I know, for instance, about the drive to divest all coal investments, and I’ve read President Paxson’s thoughtful response in deciding against doing that I’m not here to make any judgments on this issue, but I must say that I am so proud, as an alumnus, that students raised these difficult questions applause And I’m even prouder of the way that the whole community and President Paxson has taken them on Whether it’s climate change or ending poverty, maybe you have your own ideas about what needs to be done in the world and how you’ll go about doing it You may disagree with me, and you may challenge my ideas about what needs to be done That’s exactly the kind of bold thinking from young people that keeps the world moving forward What I want you to remember is how you feel at this very moment in your lives: idealistic, passionate, driven, wanting to change the world You not only need to hold onto that, you need to act When Dr. King talked about bending the arc of history, he didn’t mean that we should be spectators who stand by and watch history unfold He showed us through his own life that all of us must do our part to grab the arc of history and bend it toward justice with everything we have That’s not all Dr. King also talked about the value of time In Dr. King’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail, that was here in this wonderful book that I keep going back to over my life, called Why We Can’t Wait, Dr. King talked about a letter that he received from a white moderate And the white moderate said to Dr. King, “All Christians know that the colored people receive equal rights eventually, but it is possible that you are in too great a religious hurry It has taken Christianity almost 2000 years to accomplish what it has The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth Dr. King responded, and I quote, “Such an attitude stems from a tragic misconception of time, from the strangely irrational notion that there is something in the very flow of time that will inevitably cure all ills Actually, time itself is neutral It can be used either destructively or constructively More and more I feel that the people of ill will have used time more effectively than the people of good will We will have to repent in this generation, not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people, but for the appalling silence of the good people Human progress never rolls in on the wheels of inevitability We must use time creatively in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right.” When I was your age, I had so many questions about my identity and my purpose I am now in the sixth decade of my life, and today, I can assure you that the time is always ripe to do right So find something that will give you clarity and purpose Find your Dr. King And then, act with urgency and discipline to make a difference in the world I was a student on this campus, and it feels like it wasn’t so long ago And I had a tight circle of friends Like many of you today, we asked many questions about ourselves,

about justice, and about our place far outside the walls of Brown Eventually, many of us came to that same fundamental question: What is to be done in the world, and what will I do to change it? That’s the question that I’ve tried to answer my entire life, and I’m still trying You should ask it of yourselves, too What will you do? Now my great hope is that some of you will answer it by working to end poverty, to boost shared prosperity, and to battle climate change But whatever you do, please remember that the time is now for all of us to work together to bend the arc of history toward justice The great anthropologist Margaret Mead once said, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world Indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” Be those citizens, take it on, and, please, go change the world Thank you very much applause Thank you very much That was a wonderful talk Now, I know that many people here have questions for Dr. Kim, and so I’m going to lead off with, I think, just one question, and then I’m going to open the floor There are microphones on both sides I loved your personal story about your father, and your father said, “After you finish your medical residency, you can do anything.” But I don’t think you waited that long I don’t think you obeyed his– followed his advice because unless my dates are wrong, you founded Partners in Health before you finished your medical residency, before you did a PhD. in anthropology– you were quite young– and, you know, you’ve told students here to be bold But what gave you the self-confidence, the courage to do something as audacious as starting to do work on HIV in Haiti? Well thanks, and it’s– thank you all Can you hear me? We’re okay? So let me tell you– for my father– the story gets even worse than that because when I was here at Brown, I was really involved in the Asian American Students Association, The Thirld World Center, and I was admitted to several medical schools, but the one I really wanted to go to was the University of California at San Fransisco because San Fransisco is where the Asians were, and I was going to be down with my people, that was going to be– laughter and so I told my father one day that I was going to go to the University of California at San Fransisco And he said, “Not as long as you’re my son are you going to go there.” So I ended up going to Harvard, but the– laughter, applause The fantastic thing was that the year I got there, they started this M.D. – PhD. program in anthropology. And I had studied– I was a human biology concentrator here at Brown And so because I had already gotten into Harvard Medical School, my father said it was okay to do a PhD. in anthropology So he wasn’t a silly man He knew what he was doing So you know, one of the things that– that I’ve always done is that I’ve always tackled problems that felt a little bit beyond my comfort zone And this is the hardest thing to convince people to do, but in just about every situation over the last literally 25 years that I’ve walked into, there was a knot in my gut and a feeling of, “Oh my god, we could fail miserably,” with everything that I took on I don’t know what that says about me, but it’s been like that for a long time And the great news for all the Brown students is that I want to tell you right now today, “You really should do that,” because if you are here today, and if you graduate from Brown, you are ready to tackle just about anything The experience you have here– the diversity of experience, the quality of education: it has prepared you So don’t be fearful, and know that unless you do that– unless you put yourself into positions that really stretch you, you’re really going to be selling yourself short, and you’re going to selling your education here short Thank you, yeah So let’s take questions from the audience, and again, there are two microphones, so if people walk down, we’ll alternate back and forth Why don’t we start here on the left? Thank you Hi. Is this on? Yes It is? Hi. Good afternoon President Paxson and Dr. Kim. Thank you so much for being here The things you said in your speech really resonated with me At the Davos Press Conference earlier this year, you said, “This is a year to take action on climate change There are no more excuses

If we fail, our children and grandchildren will ask us why we didn’t act when it was still possible to do so.” The World Bank Group has decided not to fund coal projects because continuing to do so would betray our responsibility to future generations who will be affected by decisions made today Coal is the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions, and given the World Bank’s stance on the coal industry, what do you think about the Brown Corporation’s decision not to divest from the fifteen largest coal companies in the United States, saying that the harms caused by the coal industry are not enough for Brown to divest? Well, I’m at Brown, so I shouldn’t be surprised that you asked that question first laughter I want you to understand, though, we have a very nuanced position on coal, and the nuance of the position is simply that 40% of all the energy today still is provided by coal Washington– Pepco uses coal to power many of the government buildings We have to find a balance What we said was not that we’d never do coal We said that we would only do coal in the rarest of circumstances And what might that be? There are countries that quite literally have no other options And people have said, “Well why not solar- and wind-based micro- and minigrids.” But you have to have base load; you cannot have intermittent electricity and expect that a country will grow So our position is nuanced We’re going to try not to coal because we’ve set ourselves a target for providing a kind of long-term financing that’s necessary for alternative sources of energy Now the decisions that a corporation and President Paxson make about getting in or out of a particular investment– these are hard decisions, and I’ll tell you part of the reason why Some of these investments are long-term investments, and you actually can’t get out of them right away And so I don’t know the details of what the portfolio looks like, so I won’t comment on that But here’s what I would say: What is the net benefit that Brown University is providing to the entire world around the issue of climate change and the environment? Well I just met today professors who are studying those very issues here at Brown I think there’s a huge contribution that can be made through academic programs, through research, and there are just an extremely large number of questions that are very complicated And so what we’re trying to do at the World Bank Group is to say, What are those things that everyone agrees on that we can move forward on? So yes, alternative energy But the fundamental issue is there’s no access to long-term capital in poorer countries, so we have to do that, and we’re doing that Climate-smart agriculture– there are so many interesting ways that agricultural systems are actually putting carbon back into the ground, and we’re not scaling up those solutions, and so we’re working aggressively on that Cleaner cities– I mean, all of these things– cleaner cities, getting rid of fuel subsidies, trying to find a way to have a stable price on carbon– these are the kinds of things that are going to make a huge difference But having said that, I think it’s really great and important that you continue to have this discussion, and my guess is that you’ll continue to raise these questions, and that the corporation and the president will continue to think about what they want to do next But my own view is that net contribution of Brown to fighting climate change is in fact extremely positive, just from what I heard today at lunchtime with the professors Thank you We’re just going to do one question per person This isn’t actually a question, but Dr. Kim, would you actually accept this gift from me? It’s actually a t-shirt Great Why don’t you put it down front? Thank you So we have a question over here Thank you Thank you. Great My name is Lynn Holmquist, I’m an anthropologist and a sustainability researcher at the Global Shift International University I do work on sustainability Now, in 1980, Professor Buckminster Fuller, in his work called Critical Path, explained that the two essential things for integrating world systems was to integrate, first of all, the energy systems that is, the worldwide electrical grid, and secondly, the financial – that is, the banking system And he said the technology, everything to do that was available in 1980 So, why did that not happen, and why has more not been done with that in the last 30 years? Thank you Uhh, I’m going to defer to President Paxton to answer that question. [LAUGHTER] Well, has the global financial system been integrated? Well, one of the things we learned from 2008 is that things that happen here in the U.S. have a huge impact all over the world Lemme tell you just how it works

We look back at when the U.S. government came close, in August 2011, to not being able to pay its bills And, we didn’t actually get there, we had an agreement, but just getting close drove up borrowing costs in developing countries significantly And that lasted for about eight months And so just getting close to not having a budget agreement led to tremendous hardship in developing countries So it’s not even that a problem here translates, but the threat of a problem here translates into increased bond spreads in the developing world So we’re very much linked together But just take a look at the European system right now What is the most important problem for them in getting to the next stage of solving their problem? It’s the banking union And everyone agrees that a banking union is necessary, but it’s really hard to agree on on how you’re going to look at assets. Who’s gonna do this deep dive to figure out what the quality of the assets are? And are the German banks going to participate, is everyone going to participate? We know we’ve gotta do it, but it’s hard to do So, on the one hand, there’s no question we’re connected At the last G-20 finance ministers’ meeting, The question that was asked was: “How is the U.S. thinking about its withdrawal from these unconventional monentary policies?” How is it thinking about it, because every time the United States reduces their bond buying just a little bit, you see these fluctuations in the developing world And so, people from the emerging markets were very adamant about the U.S. taking that into consideration So, not only are we connected, but now we have these fora, like the G-20 meeting, where literally, I see the finance ministers and central bank governors, literally four to five times a year And so we have these fora to coordinate, but it’s really hard to do it And so, we’re all waiting to see if the banking union will move forward It has to, but it’s gonna be tough, because we’re talking about nation-states So there’s a secret war between capitalistic perspectives and socialistic perspectives, and the major factor at play is perception of fear? Thank you for your question. Why don’t you blog about that when you leave here. Thank you Over here Dr. Kim, I come from Myanmar, so firstly, thank you very much for your help towards my home country I have a very simple question Can the World Bank promise to eradicate extreme poverty by 2030, as you have said? I have an interest in making sure the World Bank realizes that goal, because I want to see millions of people be lifted out of poverty in my home country Thank you for that question. You know, we can’t guarantee it But – excuse me it’s a little loud – but we took a huge risk And it was an interesting process. You know the World Bank has been around for almost 70 years. And there, as far as we know, the World Bank has never set a global target like this Think about it. This will be the first time in human history that we can actually think about ending extreme poverty in a generation First time in history. In 1990, close to 50% of the people of the world were living in extreme poverty So that has now come down very rapidly we’re at about 20%. And getting to I mean, we don’t think we can ever get it below 3% because of natural disasters, things happen all the time, hurricanes, people will be moving in and out of poverty in many, many countries in the world So 3% is our cutoff. That’s going to be extremely hard to do And everyone knows it’s going to be extremely hard to do For example, climate change could throw everything off Because if you lose, for example, if we get to 2º C quickly, you’re going to lose 40% of the arable land in Africa And that will lead to food shortages – we’re already struggling with water shortages So it’s going to be extremely hard to do, but the reason I push so hard for it inside the World Bank Group was because I don’t think that people change the way they do things unless there’s a clear target with a clear deadline I’ve done this multiple times in my life, and every time we’ve set goals people have told me that I was crazy. But what I learned was that without clear targets and clear deadlines people don’t self-assess and say “Are we fit for purpose to accomplish this end?” We’re having that conversation right now at the World Bank Group. I don’t know I can’t guarantee it. But I can guarantee that we at the World Bank Group will do everything we can including going through a major organizational change a process that we’re going through right now, to make ourselves fit for purpose

I can’t think of a goal that’s more compelling than ending poverty in the world Now, the reason we have the second goal, of boosting shared prosperity, because $1.25 a day is the cutoff for extreme poverty Now, you think that’s a really low target, but more than a billion people live on less than $1.25 a day But what we realize is getting to $1.26 a day is not paradise. So that’s why we’re also going to focus on inequality and the income growth of the bottom 40% That is also the first time in history that the World Bank has set a target and is following an inequality indicator So, I have great hope for Myanmar I think the actions of the current leadership were incredibly courageous I also think that there’s huge potential there in Myanmar So we are with the people of Myanmar. On my trip there we were able to put 2 billion dollars on the table to help them grow. And we are working very intensively trying to realize this dream of ending poverty in Myanmar Thank you. -Yes, over here Hi Dr. Kim. Firstly, I’m Leah, I’m studying Design and International Development and I wanted to say thank you for making the Korean-American community proud, and for being such a great rapper as well Still have not forgotten about that I just have a question about how do you think your background in social medicine and anthropology will contribute to changing the general approach to development to a more human-centered, bottom-up approach? Because former Presidents have been from the banking background, and economist background, so I wanted to see what you thought of that Well, I think the thing that has been most striking to me, and I hope also striking to people inside the World Bank Group, is that I’ve been doing development for most of my adult life So, many of the former Presidents of the World Bank Group had to spend a lot of time going to the field to understand what it’s like to try and make something happen in a poor country. I’ve been doing it all my life So, because I had an innate understanding of what they were doing, I was able to devote a lot of my time in the first year and a half to organizational change The organization hadn’t changed since 1997 And budgeting processes, everything was very antiquated So, it’s really one of the most extraordinary institutions I’ve ever been a part of. Incredibly bright people But the most exciting part of it is that we have some 3 to 4 thousand PhDs, most of them economists But they haven’t just been sitting in cubicles reading studies or crunching data. They’ve been out in the field, trying to get roads built, bridges, building health care systems, and so we have a collection of practicioners that are really quite unique in the world And so what we’re trying to do right now is to bring them together so they can use their information in very practical ways. You know, coming from the medical field, we’re constantly looking at the latest data But we’re constantly looking at the latest data so we can improve the way we treat patients And so the bank is full of sort of clinicians The economists are the closest thing to economic clinicians I’ve ever met Cause what they’re doing is looking at the data to try and help countries and actually change their reality So just breaking down barriers so that people will talk to each other and bring the solutions everywhere, more quickly and more effectively, I hope has a big impact I’m not sure if my medical or anthropology background has an effect, but I’ll tell ya, the method of anthropology is enthnography. And basically it’s studying different tribes and trying to figure out what the hell is going on And so my medical training comes into comes into use occassionally, but my ethnographic skills I use every single day Thank you Yes Dr. Kim, thank you for being here My name is David and I recently transferred to Brown this past year or two, so I appreciate you sharing your stories about that Could you tell us a difficult time you had at Brown and how you went about resolving that issue? And, secondly, tell us about a crazy or funny story about your Brown time [INAUDIBLE] [LAUGHTER] So probably my most difficult time at Brown was the semester in which I took Introduction to Organic Chemistry I realized I had a B- going into the final and, I thought – thoughts, as always, when I’m getting a B-

turn to my father [LAUGHTER] and I remember studying literally 20 hours a day for ten days. Because I knew that to get an A I had to get the highest grade in the class So, I didn’t get the highest grade in the class, but I got one of the highest grades and I got an A, and I thought that would cure me forever of procrastination. But it didn’t. [LAUGHTER] Uhh, but that was a hard time And, a funny crazy time… well, you know, um, there was just so many, and it’s not funny or crazy so much as my time in the Third World Center really did shape me in so many ways And I just remember so many evenings, sitting late into the night in the Third World Center. Back in those days it wasn’t this beautiful house like we have now. We were in the basement of Churchill House and at the time it was called Rites and Reason, it was an African-American theatre group And so many evenings where we would just be talking about things and you would hear a group of Puerto Rican students talking about what it was like to grow up as Puerto Ricans in New York City One of our friends was from Eagle Rock, Texas and he would talk about what it was like to grow up as a child of migrant works in southern Texas And then folks who were – at that time Bedford Stuyvesant in New York was the toughest neighborhood of any neighborhood and we had a lot of people from Bed-Stuy who would come and just tell us what it was like. And so there were moments of great hilarity because we shared this experience at that time of being committed to exploring who we were at that time as people of color But the funny thing is that those conversations have never left my mind I still have vivid memories of those conversations and I try and remember them when I go out and do things in the world Thank you -Thanks. -Yes. -Hello! Dr. Kim, my name is Miriam, I’m a European [LAUGHTER] When I tell people my country most people are like “What? That’s the capital of what?” Never mind. -Which country? -Norway Which, you’d be surprised how many Brown students think that’s the capital of Sweden [LAUGHTER] [APPLAUSE] Norway is the most generous country in the world in terms of foreign assistance Thank you. [APPLAUSE] I’d like to take credit for that, but At least if I say I’m European, most Americans have an understanding that that’s a continent No, my point is, I, like everyone else here who’s a student I guess, I’ve grown up after the Cold War, in Europe, you know it’s been surprisingly peaceful and calm, and you know over the last few weeks we’ve seen something like an implosion in Southeastern Europe And I can barely, whenever I check the news something new has come up the EU has now offered a crisis package to the Ukraine, Putin has offered a crisis package to the Ukraine, and they’re overbidding each other, and Crimea might be leaving, and I’m wondering: what is your perspective from the World Bank Group on the crisis in the Crimea and the Ukraine and also what the wider what the wider world and international scene can do to dissolve the tension You know, I’ve become very good friends with Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon we travel a lot together now, its great, because now, actually I had forgotten every word of Korean when I was at Brown. And I was so excited to meet Korean students here that I did a PhD in Korea and learned to speak Korean so now the Secretary General and I can speak in Korean and noone knows what we’re talking about And his mandate is politics And my mandate is economic development so we’re actually limited by our Constitution from getting into political matters I’m going to answer your question But I have never seen anybody who has more endurance and ability to tackle intractable, difficult problems as the Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon So I’m very glad that he has his job Because my job is a little bit easier In the sense that, what our role in Ukraine is, is we have about 1.5 or 1.6 billion dollars of investments in Ukraine right now On everything from health and education to helping them improve their business environment we do a lot of things in the Ukraine And right now we’re basically waiting to see where the political discussions will go In terms of the projects we have ongoing, we continue But we will have a role when global powers,

the Ukrainian government, the discussions when we decide who’s going to be taking the lead who’s gonna be, what the country’s going to look like how the powers are going to sort themselves out we will be ready to increase our assistance to the Ukraine for matters around development. Now, of course, politics has a part in all of these different discussions but we actually don’t participate in negotiations about political agreements We stand ready to support when those political agreements have been resolved So we stand ready. Again, my job is just incredibly… I feel incredibly fortunate to have my job because just over the last two weeks I met with both the Prime Minister of Moldova and the Prime Minister of Georgia they both came to Washington and I got to sit and talk with them and they have very deep worries about the current instability My hope is that everyone will realize that the stakes for not being able to reach a peaceful agreement are just far too high to back off from those efforts and so what we say is “Please, please, everybody calm down, let’s find a path forward,” and so what I can tell you is the motivation to find a path forward is extremely high everywhere So, I remain optimistic that something good will happen Thank you. Yes Dr. Kim, thank you for being here. You do a great honor to the University in what you do as head of the World Bank Group and what you’ve done since your graduation from Brown and I ask this question of you particularly because of your background that unlike the previous leaders of the World Bank Group you have expertise in health and particularly in tackling a problem, HIV, that plagues so many of the areas that are in extreme poverty, and my question is, How do you deal with, or reconcile with, these sort of systemic, largely ideological factors that exist in areas of extreme poverty, or even the poverty we see in the United States, that work against, or prevent, or rebel against, these sort of pragmatic solutions that are necessary to counteract problems like HIV, when we see religious opposition to the distribution of birth control, or in the United States, for example, when we see something like that and we see how that spreads teen pregnancy, which keeps communities in poverty And so I suppose my question is, How do we work against, or at least reconcile with, these existing ideologies and religious beliefs about pragmatic solutions that may exist in order to arrive at the goals of ending extreme poverty That’s a great question, and I would just say this: you know, one of the great benefits of coming from the medical field is that something happened in medicine, probably not 30-35 years ago, and it was the evidence-based revolution in medicine I mean, people think that for a hundred years, medicine was only doing what was evidence-based, and that was not the case at all The sort of devotion to generating data on what works, what doesn’t work, what works in what situation, it’s really only about 30-35 years old So having been trained in that tradition, my approach is to always say, Well okay, what’s the evidence base that these kinds of ideologies make any sense So for example, let’s take gender equality There are a lot of countries where leadership doesn’t necessary believe in the same things that we believe in, in terms of access to education, access to jobs, et cetera And so all we can do is continue to provide evidence that to limit access of women to education, limit the access of especially girls to education, limiting the access of women to the job market is actually a really bad economic choice So, for example, at Davos this year, Prime Minister Abe came and he basically said, Our biggest problem is that women don’t participate in the workforce at the level that they should, and that if they increased the participation of women in the workforce, they could increase their GDP by up to 14% Now a 14% increase in GDP growth is an enormous change Now they’re going to have to go through a lot of pretty fundamental social changes to get there, but my own sense is that these things can happen pretty quickly So what we do is to try to make the case that there is so much evidence now that discrimination is actually bad economics There is so much evidence now that investing in people and their education and their health and social protection is actually good economics Now we didn’t really have that data thirty, forty years ago And President Paxson did a lot of the research to show us how important investment

in children, for example, was for economic growth But we have it now So the great thing for me, as President of the World Bank Group, is it feels like the evidence base and the moral and ethical arguments have now come together in a powerful way You know, we’re talking about sovereign countries and they can have their own views about women, about sexual minorities and the LGBT community they can have their views on it But it’s our job to continue to move forward and put evidence in front of people that say discrimination is bad for your economy discrimination is not going to allow you to lift your people out of poverty, and here’s the data. -Thank you Yes. -Dr. Kim, first of all, thank you so much for taking the time to come and talk to us today The points in your speech were phenomenal, so thank you for enlightening us My name is Cliff, I lead a start-up company I’m also doing a independent concentration here in renewable energy, particularly focusing on photovoltaic engineering. From that perspective, I have kind of a naïve question Which is: any time you’re a student and you’re leading a project or a company, having validation from someone like you who’s well known and has a lot of prestige is really advantageous. Having the ability to work through your connections would be phenomenal [LAUGHTER] No no no, this is not a question for me personally, this is for any student Do you have recommendations on how to contact people in your position? And how to get to know people like you and be able to have communication with them For all students in general. That’s the first question The second question is also a social one Which is: how do you lead, manage, and inspire people that work with you? So, the first question, come down here and get a card from my team, my dear Come on down. [LAUGHTER, APPLAUSE] That part worked. -Ok And so what I would say is, look, we need better technology around the photovoltatic cells that you’re talking about as you know, we’re a lot better with concentrated solar but are we going to be at the point where say, you build a solar farm in Morocco and are able to transmit that to France? It’s a project we’re working on right now And you would think that we would put everything we had into trying to build better solar capacity concentrated solar capacity, so it can actually provide base level, you know exactly what I’m talking about So, that’s what we need to do But we’re underinvesting in that, enormously So, if you’ve got game, we will get you in touch with the people you need to talk to Now, in terms of inspiring, you know, the thing is I… – Just to clarify that question, the main question was how to – so that was effective for me The question is actually for everybody else Which is: if I do get your email, however, there’s ways to get everybody’s email What are you looking for in an email from a student in order to start engaging with them? The first thing is that you really know what you’re doing, you have Let me then go back and link it to the next question So what do I do in thinking about leaderships?’ I think about it all the time. I’ve thought about it for most of my adult life. I played quarterback on my football team, but we lost every single game when I was a senior. [LAUGHTER] So, starting from that leadership failure, I have been obsessed with leadership because what I understand what I understood from years of knocking my head up against building health care systems is that how you organize people is the most important thing in getting what you want to get There are very few things that are transformational that you can do on your own So, I think about it all the time I have a leadership coach. He’s I’m a charity case for him because he he’s the leadership coach for Alan Mulally, CEO of Ford leadership coach for Ian Read, CEO of Pfizer but I met him, and he’s been helping me And here’s why I do that If any of you want a perspective on this, read Atul Gawande’s piece in the New Yorker on coaching And he said something very simple, he said: “Tiger Woods has a coach. Why don’t I have a coach as a surgeon?” And so he got someone to coach him in the OR in his second decade of doing surgery and he got better. Now I’ve been doing this for a long time so, for me, you can always get better as a leader But the most important thing is to say, “I can get better as a leader.”‘ And I’ve been thinking about this, but here’s how it relates

So the most important thing you can do as a leader is pick the right people And what do we look for in people? Fred Hassan, one of the greatest CEOs in the health care business, came and spent a whole day with me and the World Bank Group because he’s such a great leader and he said, “Look, Jim. The talking, the inspiring, all that’s fine But it’s your team. Your team is everything And you’ve gotta work with them.” And he said, “There’s only three things I look for when I hire somebody.” Which is just what I look for when someone approaches me One: are they technically excellent? And this is important You actually can improve people’s technical excellence The second is: do they have fire in the belly? And that’s just how he said it Do they have fire in the belly. And the third: are they trustworthy? Are they team players? Can you trust them? So, it’s become very simple I’d never seen it put that simply before But now everyone in the Bank knows that’s what we’re doing And that the thing that is non-negotiable is the trustworthiness part. We make it clear that we’re going to work together as a team, we’re going to help each other, we’re going to be respectful And, we have… If you can’t get excited about ending poverty in the world, man, you know, what can you get excited about? But what I also know is that you have to manage people You have to constantly inspire them. And the best way to do that is to pick a great team. So if you know what you’re doing clearly you have fire in your belly, and if we can trust you to keep going and make this work, then we’ll get you the right people Thank you so much. – Thank you. [APPLAUSE] Thank you Dr. Kim, I’ve really appreciated your talk thus far I have a question, going back a little bit, to climate change And then a broader question after that So, regarding climate change, and you have priorities all across the world how to implement initiatives to deal with that issue How do you deal specifically with the issue of some countries being more able to move from fossil fuels, moving away from fossil fuels but other countries, for example like India or China, still having a lot of power issues, where they might be potentially better off using fossil fuels as their first energy source when they have a lot of power issues? So my first question is about feasibility and my second question is, about climate change but also about a lot of issues in general, how do you go about implementing these concrete goals that you have when you’re dealing with fragile and volatile political institutions? Well, those are very good and complicated questions and let me just and take them one at a time So, I think, if given the choice, people would rather have green energy, they’d rather have a green economy than a brown economy There’s just no question that fossil fuels are going to be a big part of our future going forward And, for me, the question really is: if we want to go to a green economy, what are the things holding us back? And what can the World Bank do to remove those obstacles? So, one of the big ones is long-term financing In order to build a solar farm in Morocco with transmission lines all through Europe takes a lot of up-front investment And it’s not clear what kind of return there will be So, it’s very hard to get the private sector engaged. But, if we in the World Bank set up a system where even pension funds and sovereign wealth funds can see that over time, they can actually get a good return, then we can actually bring together the financing to support the difficult but important transformative projects The financing is one of the things that we need to do But the other thing is that there’s lots of really great examples of, for example, climate-smart agriculture Costa Rica’s doing some great stuff, there’s a great project in Kenya, the Loess Valley in China, there are great examples of people who have done things to increase the productivity of farmers, while at the same time putting carbon into the ground and reducing greenhouse gas emissions It’s just that those things aren’t spreading So we’re trying to be the great interlocutors who help spread good ideas quickly. We can provide a little bit of finance But probably our biggest role is going to be in helping people who want to do these innovative good things to take them through not just the first step of the idea but take them through all the way to completion and that means that we have to bring all our brilliant economists with practical experience, we have to get them working together to support people, in not just telling them what they should do, but helping them by providing the how, how to take the next step and the next step. You know, fragile and conflict affected states are extremely difficult. We’ve committed to increasing our work in fragile and conflict affected states by 50 percent,

and it’s going to be hard. It’s going to be really really hard One of the ways we’re trying to do this is we’re trying to link security, peace, and development So, the Secretary General of the United Nations and I went to the Great Lakes region of Africa We went to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we went to Rwanda and Uganda And the World Bank put on the table one billion dollars And the Secretary General helped to sign peace agreements and the idea was that as long as you respect the peace agreements we’re going to continue to invest in the whole region to try and bring development. Now, what was interesting was that, as we were landing, the Secretary General looked at me and said, “This is, as far as we can tell, the first time in history that the Secretary General of the United Nations and the World Bank President ever traveled on mission together.” Now, seven years ago, the intention was that we would do this all the time But, what happened is, because of personalities, or just the inertia of huge bureaucracy, these things were not happening before So what we’re trying to do, in fragile and conflict-affected states, going with the U.N., going with the African Union, going with the European Union, the next trip we took was to the Sahel – Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso – and at that trip, we actually brought the European Union with us, and the African Union, and the African Development Bank, and I think that if we bring these issues together, peace and security and development, we might have a chance to make progress that we didn’t have before Thank you. Yes. -Dr. Kim, you’ve been very eloquent about what the consequences will be if we don’t do something to arrest the rapid direction towards global warming and climate change I think a lot of people would like to do something, have good intentions, but we all know where the road paved with good intentions will lead us What are three practical things, or even one practical thing, that each of us could do to try and stop the race towards global warming? Well, you know, when I came into the job I met with a lot of the great leaders who are tackling climate change One of the first meetings I had was with Vice President Gore And then I met with Professor Pachauri, who runs the Scientists’ Group, and I met with Fred Krupp, of the Environmental Defense Fund, and Carter Roberts, World Wildlife Fund, and they’ve all become friends And I think that the history of responding to climate change has been about what individuals can do so I think they have lots of good ideas Solar panels on your home, be careful about how you use water, and maybe more important than anything else, is inform yourself of the science behind climate change I think that what we’ve been missing is the kind of massive global action that we need to take to tackle things like fuel subsidies, like, so for example, in Egypt, one of the biggest problems in Egypt, is that they spend a huge proportion of their GDP on subsidies. They have very inexpensive gas but they should get rid of their fuel subsidies cause they’re now facing such difficult economic times that they need that money that they’re putting into fuel subsidies to pay for all of the other things the government needs to do But that’s really hard to do Now, one of the great things that’s been happening over the last few years, last couple of years, under Christine Lagarde, of the IMF, is that Christine’s really been speaking out on climate change and on fuel subsidies. So, to have the IMF, start thinking about what they can do, to support countries to get out of the fuel subsidy business Their latest data is that we spend $1.9 trillion a year on subsidies. So, what could we do with that money if we didn’t spend it on fuel subsidies? So, I think that there are plenty of things that individuals can do, and that’s great But the most important thing is to inform yourselves and in places like Brown, I think it’s great that students are trying to push the issue There are all kinds of things that every institution can do to play its part. The Chinese, I have never seen a country and a government more committed to reducing its carbon footprint than these guys. These guys, I mean they’re building coal plants cause they have to have energy. But my goodness, their aspirations for reducing the carbon footprint are really high So if China, the United States, the European Union can come to some agreement, we can make huge amounts of progress Thank you. Yes. -Hi Dr. Kim It’s a honor to have you here, thanks so much for speaking So, I wanted to ask you about the World Bank’s position on water privitization, because I know the World Bank really supports water privitization efforts and I believe maintains

the policy of having the initiation of water privitization efforts as a precondition for development loans And I know that there’s a number of merits for water privitization including that it accelerates the development of infrastructure with the profit motive, but I think the case studies of Brazil and India also show that there’s a lot of opprotunity for price gouging and the water quality severly deteriorated and mass riots as I’m sure you know, so I was wondering if the World Bank is taking any steps to mitigate those negative effects of water privitization Well, you know, twenty years ago, I graduated from Brown in 1982, and I really never visited Washington DC until the early 1990s And I went to Washington DC for the first time in the early 1990s to participate in demonstrations against the World Bank [LAUGHTER] At the time, the World Bank was coming on its 50th anniversary And so I was part of the movement called “50 Years Is Enough.” [LAUGHTER, APPLAUSE] And, the very thing we objected to, was what we sought was an ideological approach to specific issues The privitization of not only water, but health care, there was almost a religious belief in user fees for even the poorest countries to gain access to health care services And what’s happened is that over time one of the things I love about the World Bank and one of the reasons I’m glad we weren’t successful in closing down the World Bank, is that this is an institution that has changed as evidence has grown And so, that has been the commitment for quite some time But I can tell you that under my leadership the commitment to forcing evidence to change our policies to be nonideological about the recommendations we make is as important as anything I can do So, has there been a bad history with certain projects? Certainly But again, what we’re doing now, is that when we make a mistake, we’re gonna admit it I mean there are more safeguards. In fact, the whole safeguards around development was invented at the World Bank Group We have an inspection panel. Any group of people who feel wronged in any way can come and file a complaint and then an independent body that reports only to the Board of the World Bank Group which is made up of 180 member countries, can investigate whether or not we violated our own rules So, water is a really really tough, tricky issue And what I can tell you is this: we are looking very carefully at past experiences We are not going to go forward on the basis of ideologies and privitization of everything is good. Do we support privitization in many instances? Absolutely. Because what we find is that governments in many countries cannot possibly run these utilities and other systems and actually make it work But what we also do is we continue to follow up with projects And we continue to monitor them to make sure they’re actually delivering And that’s one of the things that’s most important It happens in so many areas. For example, in Africa, there’s an explosion of discovery of minerals of oils, gas, precious metals, everything And one of the things we found is that the agreements that are being made between private companies and governments are not very favorable to the governments So we did something really simple The French started a fund for us and we just pay for very good laywers from the developed world to actually work with the African countries to make sure that the deals at least just look like deals in other parts of the world So on the one hand, my job is to help economies grow Listen to that statistic that I provided earlier 90% of all jobs in the developing world are created by the private sector There is not a country in the world that doesn’t need to have a growing private sector On the other hand, we also work with governments so that they can put the rules in place to, on the one hand, make sure these companies are growing, but on the other, protecting against all the negative effects that you mentioned. That’s our job. It’s really hard It’s really hard to get it right. And we’re gonna make mistakes all the time But one of the things that I made very clear to our whole team is that the minute we find we’re making a mistake and not going down the right path we’re going to admit it for all the world to see and we’re going to get on and fix it Thank you. [APPLAUSE] Yes. – Thank you again for coming I study, and you kind of answered my question with that answer, but I study development here, and I know there’s been a push in recent years to move away from top-down development

but also top-down privitization. And I’m wondering if the World Bank has seen increased efforts to identify more grassroots efforts and identify and engage with those in a more substantive manner Yeah. So, for the first time in history, last year – no, a year and a half ago – we started something called the Global Program on Social Accountability So for the first time the World Bank is providing money directly to civil society organizations and other foundations. And the very explicit purpose is to get more beneficiary feedback. In other words, how are our projects impacting the people in the actual communities? So, top-down, bottom-up, depends on what you mean by that So, one of the things that happened twenty years ago is that we irrevocably put the countries in the driver’s seat In other words, its the governments, through negotiations, that are going to decide the projects that we work on, not us at the World Bank Group. It wasn’t always like that That’s why we were on the streets protesting because there seemed to be a kind of one-size-solution-fits-all and it was called structural adjustment Now, it turns out structural adjustment is really good because it focused on getting macroeconomics right and it really had an positive impact on these countries But there were blind spots. And so we’re now trying to fill in the blind spots and get better at doing it. So, the most important thing that I’ll tell you is we try very very hard not to be ideological now. And not being ideological means that we listen to the people from the communities We listen to what they want, what they don’t want, we work very closely with governments, governments are in the driver’s seat Our responsibility, though, is that the governments might come to us and say, “We want to improve health.” But they may not necessarily have a person who’s got a 50 step plan for how to improve the health care system. What we do is come in and say, “OK, here’s what we know about your mortality and morbidity statistics Here’s what we know about your current system And we think that there are 50 countries out there in the world who’ve done things that you could benefit from Here’s a menu of possible solutions that you could bring to your country and we’ll work with you to try them out and see which ones work best.” You know, when you have a fundamental mission of ending poverty, that’s what you have to focus on. So we don’t have a committment to a particular ideology or a particular way of doing things We have a committment to ending poverty And that forces us not to be ideological -Thank you. You know, we have time for maybe two more questions And what I thought was maybe we could take several questions at once and you can maybe weave them together into a final answer So, what was your question? -Oh Hi. So, I’m a Chemistry concentrator. I’m actually one of the few people who enjoy Organic Chemistry. -I did too. I did too. After those ten days -So, I can see myself going to grad school, doing research, being stuck in a lab doing pure chemistry stuff, but on the other hand I’m very interested and want to be engaged in social justice and changing the world. Not necessarily in my field but in a bigger sense. So I guess my question is: what do you see as the role, or what do you think the people in academia, or like not even necessarily academia but people who don’t have jobs -Nerds. Nerds, basically. What’s the role of nerds in social justice. [LAUGHTER] -Just like people who arent in the political world or aren’t involved with changing policies Well that’s a great question. You know, I’m a nerd. I’ve been a nerd all my life And I think nerds have a huge role to play in social justice. [APPLAUSE] And so where’s the gentleman that launched his company. Right there. What’s your name again? Cliff. Cliff, meet a nerd in chemistry who can help you make those photovoltaic cells that might change the world. So, do we need more chemists in the world? Oh my God, of course we do Do we need chemists who will think as they do their work about how to make the world a better place? Oh, of course we do! Alright. So, the question you have to ask yourself is do you love chemistry? And if you love chemistry, you happen to be one of the incredibly rare people on earth Who have the chance to study chemistry at Brown University

And I think that puts as much responsibility on you as anyone who studies political science or anything else. You have a responsibility to be so good at what you do that the things that you discover and the things that you make will change the world for the better Cause right now, the deficit we have in the world is only partly social movements. We need social movements But we also need better chemistry. So if you love chemistry, man, do it And just never lose sight of the fact that through chemistry, you can change the world -Thank you so much. [APPLAUSE] -So, unfortunately, we have time for one final question So, this belongs to you. I hope it’s a good one Hi. My name is Sujay. I really enjoyed your talk, so thanks so much for that I’d just like to ask this question where you know in Politics classes we always learn about the World Bank and the history of the World Bank and there’s always been criticism of the World Bank and its structural policies that you have towards the developing countries, so what are your views on that? What do you think personally you can do or you will be doing in the coming years to change the view of the World Bank that we have of you? You know, I’ve talked a lot about that, but you’re right The view still hasn’t changed. And in many parts of the world, the countries view of the Bank is a very negative force and so there’s a lot of work that we’re trying to do So, one of the things we’re trying to do unlike we’ve ever done before is we’re trying to lead a movement to end poverty. Because I think it will require a movement We’re trying to help build a movement to fight climate change Now the World Bank has never been known as the institution that builds movements. But in so many ways we have the opprotunity to do it and make it happen in a way that very few organizations can because we have tons of knowledge and we also have money and there are not a lot of organizations that have that combination So I would just say, you know, think about your question again in a year or two years And what I hope that you will see is that people will associate the World Bank with the movement to end poverty. You know I had the great good fortune of meeting Pope Francis. And he’s from Argentina. And we spoke in Spanish And I told him about how I had spent my whole life trying to work on the principle of making a preferential option for the poor And that comes from Catholic social teaching And he said to me, “That’s exactly what I believe.” And then at the end of it I said, “We need to start a movement to end poverty.” And he just said to me, “Cuenta conmigo.” Count on me Now, if the World Bank and the Pope can work together, to build a movement to end poverty, every single student here at Brown should do something to make it happen Thanks for your question. [APPLAUSE] Thank you Dr. Kim. [CONTINUED APPLAUSE]