The Klan in Ohio

I think there’ll be a few more people trickling in as they find their way in it’s a new location so and I know people didn’t know really where this facility was but it’s a pretty cool room so we’re going to be here next week too at 7 o’clock for the hurting letters program but tonight the Ku Klux Klan the Ku Klux Klan was alive and well in nearly every Ohio City including Marion during the 1920s what made seemingly ordinary decent citizens joint or at least condoned a group we’re going to explore that question tonight it could expand most of us think of the plan of reconstruction following the Civil War was about violence intimidation death of necessary and terror for Klansmen even though they would admit it it was all about fear here they have in themselves fear the changing world fear of a loss of power Sharia is the air velocity our fear of loosing a way of life we usually think of a crisis burning in the front yards of black families or in the gardens of whites supporting a limited liberation of blacks we think of lynchings we think of the south some of those images we have in our minds actually came from a second wave of Klan popularity in this country a wave that began in 1915 and ever greatly by the end of the 1920s those green crosses those who aren’t used until the new era Klan lynchings certainly heard the first plan that they were prevalent in the new era the new era Klan was invented on Thanksgiving night in 1915 by William Joseph Simmons in a dramatic ceremony on Stone Mountain Georgia a cross burn that night became the symbol of the new year our planet Simmons father had been in the original plan he had grown up hearing exciting tales of the Knights of the bringing truth and justice to the countryside after the northern carpetbaggers and unjust northern rule threatened to bend the spirit of the south the impetus for taking action though was his recent viewing in a controversial silent movie The Birth of a Nation a fan of the secrecy and rituals of fraternal organizations Simmons belong to 15 fraternal organizations including the Masons and Knights Templar he moved from Alabama to Atlanta when his job he got a job promoting the women of the world he worked on mapping out the clans original istic ceremonies in his spare time he saw the plan as a way to be Knight Protestant America against the degenerate degenerative forces threatening the American Way of life those forces were immigrants Jews Catholics non English accents he thought urban areas also grant evil and said the real America has always been in country America he thought of exposed evil and I read public with destroyable and he had no real plan of action he liked the ceremony but he didn’t have a lot of substance so you can hear a pair of PR people Edward Clark and mrs. Elizabeth Tyler of Elizabeth Taylor in 1922 run a PR campaign his message was to live a clean life and their appeal to people uncomfortable with the social changes which are went along with the move from predominantly gross to an urban one he attacked the elite urbanites and intellectuals so this is very much a middle class point movement the Klan spread from Stone Mountain Georgia in every direction the door opened for the Klan because of World War one because the Great Library migration of blacks to the northern states because the influx of immigrants arriving from Europe and because society and the world was changing movies senior vulgar music was racing women’s skirts were shorter the public schools seem to be backing away from Christian values the Klan offered a way to fight against change and fight against appear now this shows

you the states of the largest Klan membership from 1915 and 1944 and what’s interesting is the plan was in all 48 states during this time period but look where our higher ranks we are number two and we are have a larger contention Klansmen than anybody in the south so this is a variant topsy-turvy kind of events of the year in Klan very different than that post-reconstruction the Klan moved into a violent Indiana seemingly invading the state from the southwest every County had planned presence and all those heavier some counties than others it’s very difficult to put a number of how many Klansmen were in because they didn’t have public member rosters but the more active clan counties judging from planned publicity and newspaper coverage for Hamilton Franklin licking Fairfield Alan wood and union counties Marian soon had an official Klan group Summit County had the largest local clean chapter in the country with 50,000 members including included in many of the plan groups such as the one stomach County where city and county officials now each group was organized by a man chronically goal and that goal was paid by the plans to organize an individual chapter in a community they were very well paid in they traveled from community to community recruiting new members starting new chapters they were paid a base salary price a commission for each new member so the legal would go into a community such as Marion such as Mansfield any in the ones in Ohio and study the community they have lunch at the local diners they would talk to a lot of the citizens looking for its weak spots its prejudices into sore spots in many smaller Ohio communities that meant resentful the resentment of the great migration which brought thousands of blacks North for factory jobs prejudice toward recent immigrants who were perceived also be communists that all kind of intermingle together resentment of those thought to be in control of the economy which generally were Jews and suspicions about Catholics who had thought that have more allegiance to the Pope than to the American government the Klan espouse itself as the caretaker of society in denounce most motion pictures that we said was a supporter of prohibition and also was a supporter suffrage for women because they wanted their women members to go for Klan candidates and their issues the new jazz music prevalent in the early 20s was a part of the dirty living of the Klan rallying against which also included feeling and urbanites colonists appealed to people especially those on farms in small towns who are all uncomfortable with the rapid social change going on but one thing we need to keep in mind is the plan to not exploit anything which wasn’t already there they are not great watching anybody they’re just playing up the feelings that already do so see now they want it to be seen as any other fraternal organization they want to be seen as the Masons the dogs the Eagles the Knights of Columbus they just said that their group for why you promised submit now they did have a Women’s Auxiliary as well did not join the Klan group and this is one of their advertisements here portraying them as a protector of women and children and indeed protecting womanhood was a big tenant that they really emphasized a lot that of they excused a lot based on what they were doing to protect womanhood they were intent on building a better community they said they tended to like public shows of community care and wanted everybody to see what they are doing in Butler Ohio seventeen masked Klansmen visited the method pistol’ Church presenting the minister with an American flag of the Bible in Mifflin Ohio nine Klansmen visit an inland United Brethren Church and do the same thing they gave money to black churches often breaking into a worship service and walking up the aisle to the

minister to hand in a bag of money they sponsored festivals parades lectures musical programs in Napper and the Klan donated Bibles and flags to a faux high school and succeeded in getting Bible study out into the school curriculum they prepared baskets of food for the poor to be giving out of Christmas and giggling close to the needy communities couldn’t help but notice the new player in town and recognition came even from the pulpit in Mansfield the Reverend Hotel Killinger the First Congregational Church opened his sermon on the 7 or 18 1920 to a little differently than usual he said the Ku Klux Klan has come to Mansfield according to its announcements it claims its members must be 100% American it promises to bring about a modern reforms that will be welcomed to the right thinking citizen it says it’s going to wipe out bootlegging clean up bad movies restore the old southern sense of chivalry and protect women would drive the Catholic back into his church stop the encroachment of the and the Jew and put the Negronis place without question someone or all these things will make appeal to many minds and I do not question the statement that men of all ranks and grades men of business men of the professions of some of the clergy are joining the Klan and indeed the church as we’re going to see different Protestant churches are going to be a big component of each communities Klan membership opposing the plan sometimes that in Springfield the police charged a Klan organizer with riotous conspiracy and raided the Lobo Klan hecklers after the raid 500 new members joined the clan the clan was viewed by its members no differently than any other social or fraternal organization the picnics of fellow members eggplant festivals gathered at conclaves which were there their group big group gatherings and have a lot of parades in every one of us popular places for the Klan to gather the Midwest was a Buckeye Wayne David Stevenson the Grand Dragon of Indiana was a part-time resident of Buckeye Lake so of course he organized a lot of the conclaves the big state and regional meetings to be held there to state conflicts were held there one in 23 the second and 25 was 70,000 plans been attending each one the 23 event included an initiation they called them a naturalization ceremony for 1,700 new members against a backdrop of several 40-foot electric crosses and thousands of plans been holding candles and forming a human cross and midnight fireworks were fired from barges on the lake and it was also a place where you can have Klan wedding such as our couple featured in this picture here and this picture of the ferris wheel is not from Ohio until Colorado over the same period of time and I just find it creepily amusing so I put it in there Landsman all in their robes and hoods writing appears we overcome our politics and business also mixed with the Klan in communities across Ohio the Klan found that infiltrating local politics quickly advanced their parks in Youngstown local leaders opposed the plan until they saw it as a tool to push Protestant moral reform within two years the mayor was a clam supporter many other Ohio towns followed suit with Klan candidates HN Stephens running as an independent with plan backing was elected mayor of Newark even Marion had cleaned him today in 1924 the Reverend ml Buckley pastor the Christian Church on west church street that was between Union and Orchard streets had the backing of the Klan for the mayor’s race he ran as a Republican but he complained that the Republican City Committee did not go to win the election the Klan often criticized local police departments as not being strong enough in curbing the undesirables but sometimes did accurately accuse departments of being on the table especially when it came to bootleggers they often offered to take up arms to clean up the streets which put them at odds with both the community and the police in Steubenville the Klan went so far as to ask Ohio governor Donna made to remove the police chief and the mayor saying the police we’re not doing their job to clean up graft advice when the mirror was Anette the government

governor did not require the Klux Klan’s sometimes to more extreme measures and just boycotting your business if you are Catholic or we’re both openly hostile to the plan and like on a restaurant owner who was arrested plan anyone missing for a week he shows up beaten up in Niagara Falls New York the local Klansmen and Springfield admitted to relocating him saying they objected to the location of his business McLennan also touched the general assembly in Ohio’s government in 1923 the House defeated anti-klan mill for the second time which would have prohibited persons from masking their faces or covering for wearing their regalia and his secret organization the house previously had to be defeated event seeking to make public Klan members names so whether it was Speier even a part of the legislature no to show you how prominent the Klan was by 1924 near the covers of Time magazine which has pope pius xi on the left the week of june 16 24 and then hired wesley the Imperial wizard the KKK a week later and then we have now attached the third week that’s what we’re talking about we’re talking about an extreme amount of influence here and here’s your membership card and I know you can’t read it too much so you’re going to get this after the Kleagle organizes the chapter in your town and then you can sign this membership card if they approve you then you’ll be taken in for the next installation and it was a matter of customization in each town as I said they they worked to figure out what the weak spot was in the western part of the country there’s an anti Mormon feeling so that’s what they played up there in the south that was mostly anti black in the Midwest anti-catholic and hands find you in the Northeast that Sam tied you so each part of the country had its own clan magenta that was instructed in recruiting members but ultimately it was going to weaken the entire clan as an organization which will see the clinicals targeted fraternal organizations who already have large memberships the main sense he helps the women of America and they love to infiltrate the churches especially vulnerable to the Klan message where disciples of Christ Baptists United Brethren and Methodists a typical new recruit was active in his church in a member at least one charitable organization and don’t forget the wiping his women could join the Klan auxilary and yes hoods and robes came and toddler sizes they even tried to organize a couple of chapters with black members in Youngstown it didn’t work for some reason a new plan never played pay $16.50 to join with $10 going to the Klan organization 651 free of Rome and hood that would be two hundred thirteen dollars in today’s economy and that was kind of a large chunk for her middle class family the ropes are made in Atlanta in a clan owned business so that’s where your she told her what size you needed and they ship it there from America the certificate above says I the undersigned a native-born true and loyal citizen in the United States of America being a white male Gentile person of temperate habits sound in mind and a believer the tenants of the religion the maintenance of white supremacy and the principles of a pure Americanism do most respectfully apply for membership in the Knights and we’re going to write President Harding into this because you’ve noticed that the years were talking about 21 22 23 of course if during his presidency so we’re going to insert him and see where what he’s doing in this the clan mate being president much harder simply click the clan was a thorn in President Harding side and when torment president foolish into a lesson extent the Hoover administration our protocol through marrying stars in the late teens and 20s do not reveal much in the way of coverage of plan events it’s obvious that the editorial policy when took more than group as much as possible there are a few pain tax but as far as news stories there’s not a lot there

it probably significantly less planned news than the neighboring newspapers such as the Mansfield is from the starters administration President Harding was also going to be a thorn in the side of the Klan he tried to push Congress to enact and the entire lynching law right off the bat always it was blocked by Southern Democrats it would be blocked for decades by Southern Democrats the Klan issue the race issue came to a head in October 21 when Harding visited Birmingham Alabama Birmingham was a new city in the south founded in 1871 after the Civil War it quickly grew from a dusty crossroads at the intersection of two rail lines into an industrial powerhouse buoyed by the discovery of one of the world’s purchased a process of human sight in the nearby Appalachian foothills in 1907 US Steel came to town in a 1915 the lock system on two rivers was completed providing Birmingham and sheep transportation all the way to mobile on the Gulf Coast by anyone’s definition Birmingham was a boomtown and lived up to its nickname of the Magic City against this backdrop then Warren Harding arrives October 21st 1921 he is to speak at Woodrow Wilson Park recently renamed for the previous president and he has to congratulate Birmingham on doing such a fine job in advancing their city in their short history and becoming a face of the new south with new industry close to 11:30 a.m. on the morning of October 21st warden Laurence party made their way to the nearby park and party settled himself behind the podium and began his address to a huge crowd of 100,000 people a segregated crowd I might add chain-link fence down the middle of the grounds he talked about how far Birmingham and come how represented the new south how it was the epitome of progress the birmingham officials beamed with pride he could have ended things right there he could have exited the podium and triumph kind of like the end of a van Halen experience showing Thank You burning ham and toss his guitar kick into the crowd however there’s the second part of the speech that is the most prolific impact a punch in this speech Hardeen spoke about race relations in this country he said it was a national problem not a regional Southern problem he said it was not going to be solved by individual states in the south or individual communities the way they wanted it to be solved he says it has come to the forefront we need to address it all together he asked for three things for all Americans and regardless of the color of their skin yes her political equality educational equality and economic equality and when he’s talked about economic equality he says I mean it and precisely the same way in to the same extent that I would mean it if I spoke to equality of economic opportunities between members of the same race in each case that our meaning body proportion to the honesty capacities and deserts of the individual so based on each person’s abilities they have that chance educational equality is in a world where the law of the land is separate but equal in the North in Ohio our schools were not segregated in the south they certainly were and they were anything but equal he is asking for our people educational opportunity for both races and he says even though the same race to know there’s inequality everyone has their own abilities but they need that door to be opened first political equality – he says I was sailing that black man vote when he’s fit to vote prohibit the white p.m. Modi when he is unfit to vote again that equality many people have the opportunity the sticky wicket is the socially separate part nobody in 1921 America or throughout the 20s is talking about social integration the black leaders are not the white leaders are not the president is not that is beyond

everybody’s imagination they those leaders of both races once social equality but they realize that they are separate racism they need to have black leaders lead the black population yeah partying very much says that there is a space for black leaders and his administration but they are not talking about integration that that isn’t even in their scope of realization at all but we got some reaction good and bad this is the Columbia South Carolina State newspaper they’re not happy it has permitted us to at least conjecture about what possible King and the convolutions of the brain the president was moved to make this Birmingham address on the question of the Negro what was the incomprehensible urge that looked into them do the most in a program the most unwise thing possible obviously they are shell-shocked and the reaction and Woodrow Wilson bark was much the same there was silence when he was done a few scattered clapping from the people on the black side of the fence most the whites are the newspaper editorials came fast and furious asked in the letters to the White House while many in the reaction was positive certainly not was all black leaders those seemed a sense of momentum in the Boston Globe they’re kind of cutting to the chase here they apply the speech but said that Harding was equally wise and his frank rejection of social equality have suppressed desires for social equality from mixture races can lead only to tragedy and to destruction nobody couldn’t even imagine such a thing well the Klan reacts as we could expect this is Colonel JG Kemp and he was hired by the Klan as a mouthpiece he’s a great speaker he gives to rallies he speaks at all kinds of planned events all their conclaves and there is a PR campaign against the president after the Birmingham speech and in 26 and major newspapers across the country there was an article suggested that Harding and perhaps some members of his administration or actually members of the Klan now there’s a reason they did this they are putting the White House on the defensive so now the party White House has to worry about d9 this allegation because they’re getting letters from all the constituents in Ohio and across the nation is this true am i reading my newspaper that you remember the Klan is true and so we’ve got Harry Daugherty is Attorney General denying Klan connections we’ve got guarding saying he’s against the Klan and he is reacting in that article to a letter by mrs Frank Applegate of Medford Oregon and she is sharing the answer she received from the president with her local newspaper and this is the president addressing her my dear mrs. Applegate your letter of April 12th to the president’s received you may be very sure well actually just George Christian with his personal secretary you may be very sure that any statement of the president’s interest in or approval the Ku Klux plans are complete and a great figure here great thank you misrepresentation of the president’s attitude in some quarters it has even been representative the presence of member of this organization not only SATA treatment of affected to the president early disapproves the organization and it repeatedly expressed himself to this effect but that doesn’t end even people today thinking that he has a Klansman this is where it came from all these decades later August 23 we know that it merriness the time when the president died August 2nd well on August 10th is the day of the funeral here in Marion and there is a very small little note in the Marion star that a floral arrangement from the Klan was delivered to the yard of dr. GT Harding the president’s father where the president’s body was laying state for our viewing by the local population says a florist truck drove up to the Harding home being dr. Herman’s

home shortly before noon and loaded a fiery cross made all out of floral floral arrangements of flowers 5 feet high burying the white letters on the cross arm KKK a note written a smokey and was signed Knights of Ku Klux Klan the cross was made of red lilies and flaming scarlet straw flowers it was placed on the edge of the lawn near the dozens of other Marjorie’s so silently and quickly that fewer aware was presence until after the florist truck had driven away so even at this time of morning they want to be seen as part of the community they want to everyone to know they are also paying tribute and it didn’t remain in the yard very long this brings us to Mary we need to see what the Klan was doing here and it was here and it was thriving now this is a few items that Brenda Marion started give us a little indication of what’s going on is they said there wasn’t an amount of a large amount of coverage and the star government plan that was a conscious any final decision there is an article on this page saying that a delegation of about 18 members of the clan and their hoods and robes appeared at the bell fountain Avenue evangelical church Sunday evening just before the sermon and presented the congregation of hearse to be applied to the building fund for the erection of a new church so just like we’ve seen this tactic I know how to control that and just like we’ve seen in other towns in Ohio they are interrupting church services and presenting money the Reverend CW Ronan the pastor accepted the gift and then the man Menem left immediately afterwards that is the dog fountain annual Avenue evangelical mission at the corner Bell fountain and Henry streets then there’s a notice that there’s an important meeting of the Klansmen at old Wesley Methodist Church it just says be there and they became a regular charter organization of Marion County and they were planned number 53 of the realm of Ohio and they a legal act in the Marion Starr to the citizens of Marion County the Knights of Ku Klux Klan now being a regular charter organization of Marion County is desired and the citizens of this county be informed concerning the massive rebellion of the land Marion County Klansmen will not appear with the mast down from now on and Marion County set by special order so they’re apparently gone darkening friendlier for sonar I guess I don’t know what they’re really doing they wrote an anonymous letter to the star I’m rather a threatening letter I gathered in the research I had done the exact nature of the threat less and all the stars said is the stars in Reseda a Ku Klux Klan communication which it will be very glad to print if the writer will sign his name or authorize the use instead of doubt of his plan title as the latter does not take it out of the class of anonymous communications and the start is not print anonymous communications so the start during this period did get criticized by the plan for not supporting them and in fact actively going after them in some cases another item a number of women members of the plan attended the services at Immanuel Baptist Church in a body Sunday evening the state organizer of lumens organization gave an address and they present the superintendent’s Sunday school with a person fifteen dollars then they sang several songs and have eventually closed to round out their program well this church is Immanuel Baptist Mission which is on the southeast corner of fairyland North Main streets and in a very strange turn of events the Ku Klux Klan volunteers to aid the police chief in policing the town and made mayor miele who is the father of Esther Neely DeWolf Esther is married to was married to Marshall double Lawrence Marnie’s son if you follow all that Mayor Neely receives a letter from the Klan and it says known as we do that you’re a handicap with a small police force and after the outrages committed in our fair city in County last night I don’t know what happened I couldn’t

find anything that we heard whatever we wish to offer the services of one two fifteen hundred of the best american-born men in the city in Canada that’s all in caps so apparently were supposed to shout that part to work with your chief of police and helping rid the city of the crime which now exists we know of this number of citizens acting as free agents and patrolling the streets of Meereen and the county roads these men will soon be driven from this location the mayor turned down the offer he said I’m not going to start deputizing people and we’re not going to start patrolling with everything with I know ragamuffins here this is a naturalization ceremony and initiation of new members if you will and if you could read the gonna read it up there this is an eager this is just west of Meeker and just west of the town stand there and this was in nineteen nineteen twenty-two and this house belonged to Oliver Walters he lives there with his wife Eleanor three children Ellis’s nine water waters is 45 years old at the time and he’s originally from Illinois but he is hosting this event the photographers from Canton Ohio so the photographer snare and auger has invested and one of the new lighted clan crises to have up above the song now this house doesn’t stand anymore the barn does there’s another house on the same location there was a fire in 1944 the winning family live there by that time and there was a fire authorities they used some of the bricks to build a smaller house that stands there now so these initiations were spectacles for agalya hoods and Rose lighted crosses mysterious traditions and an initiation usually is the pretty small initiation usually expected 20,000 doc in Columbus 15,000 and she’ll be another 10,000 and this is very typical a little bit happened on the outskirts Marion not in Marion Crocker but certainly around the county every once in a while now I’ve lit up a little bit of this picture because there’s a couple interesting things here in the left photo and you see there’s a Indian a Native American there for the headdress on I can’t explain what he’s doing there because you wouldn’t think that the Klan would be buddies with Americans they’re against anybody other than whites I don’t know what he’s doing there I think it’s interesting but I don’t understand it in right front of the native America and there are certainly young girls sitting there and the picture of the right also shows young children so this is very much a family event but the the Native American really did surprise me there is an article in the 1925 American Journal of sociology and a writer by the name of Frank Vaughn published this article he interviewed a Marion County plan leader who wasn’t identified he only was described as a farmer only about 60 acres of land but this is what he said he says the country is in danger is ruled by Catholics and Jews the Jews control their moving picture houses and Catholics 80 percent of the newspapers the movies are immoral young girls are not safe on country roads they’re picked up by men and automobiles than the juice Thomas white slaves we want the country ruled by the sort of people who originally settled it this is our country we alone are responsible for its future you know as I was researching actually I was looking for Oliver Walter’s farm and everything I was using the 1918 and 1923 directory of Wayne County which comprised the owners of the rural areas of Marin County and they gave us this these statistics there’s 42,000 citizens of Marin County tells how many in the

city only 239 blacks because they have mostly left Marian in 1919 and Hillary wrote a book about this about the murder of woman on Davis Street and of course black man was railroaded into the blame for that when really it was a woman’s husband so there was a lot of black flight from Marian in 1919 they may have know that there are sixteen hundred fifty-five people with one or two parents of flora birth just in case like this you want that statistic now the introduction just like any city or county directory tells you this information that I’m reading along they say there’s 2100 farms 3409 square miles 92 percent of the county’s farmland tell you the number one promised corn that oak sweet potatoes then the middle of the sit says the farm population marion county is almost exclusively needed worn white and went with nothing that was listed in here and then it went back to science food specifics so even in something as an ark as a directory we find that thinking there that we have to differentiate and apparently needed you crowd the fact that they’re one of their many immigrants now this is going to be an interesting story here you recognize this building maybe as the old Marian start milling and before I got in the hands of the Marian star it had an interesting history it was originally built by the Knights of Columbus in the early 20s not completed they didn’t have money to complete it that grant plans for was going to have a swimming pool in the basement and had an auditorium which I could tell you that building had an auditorium it was supposed to be a social club of sorts on the first grad floor was a marketplace so I’ve proved festivals that kind of thing so the Knights of Columbus bought this couldn’t finish it they only have it about a year and a half the Klan said that they were in the marketplace business out out of the business because it was Catholic and they got people to boycott it I can’t confirm whether that’s true or not so the Knights of Columbus want to sell it and they sell it to a group of men who killed the KFC promissory notes each calling for the sum of ten thousand dollars with an annual interest rate of 6% to purchase the building the first note was paid so they still own fifty thousand so I want you to see who these guys are these are our players actually there’s 700 ayran Wilson he’s 41 he lives on Columbia Street he’s the president I’m Anna crossing company I have no idea what that is Albert Lin skived is 65 he’s on South State Street he’s a dentist George Brett’s turn he’s 36 he lives on Wildwood the floor he’s a repair manager of the shop John Jolley he’s flirting he lives in South High Street he’s a borough Clement Moore he’s 56 he lives in South Prospect Street he’s a pattern maker in the show CC Robinette didn’t find route 2 up 25 new lives on Evans Road he’s an erector the iceburg shovel and this photo was provides to me from Randy winland and it shows that same building back in his earlier days before it was covered with that exterior when a stark attic and we can see those that marketplace kind of storefronts on the first floor so these guys are owned by this and in two months they flip the building and they flip it to a new group and that group is the claimant so this building goes from the KSC to the ownership by the clan while the building was under construction by the KFC this is the clan one of our plants been joking told one of the contractors to be sure a building with building as a clean on Sunday so which a Catholic gentleman standing near retorted not as on the Catholic lives in Marian but strangest fate this is the plant still talking six months later we own the building their

first KFC bility in the United States be taken over by the plan so you can imagine when folks of Marian found out what this ruse was and learned that it was really the plan about this building about how many people who are curious about this invited Wilson the first time this was actually the Secretary of the local clans chapter so they didn’t reveal who they were this building is going to play a large role in the Marion County and plan Conclave try to say that three times fast that is their year of glory in Marian 1924 at doctor headquarters on North State Street and that is going to be featured in this festival of sorts which is what the Conclave is and what they’re going to do is have parades they’re going to use the fairgrounds they’re going to have all kinds of lectures and speakers and music everything going on and this shows them in a parade they took a very long parade from the fairgrounds went downtown ended up on Greenwich Street went past president Harding’s house and were murdered just to leave it as they went by and went down Church Street all the way back to the fairgrounds so everybody knew what they were doing then it went to the receiving vault at the Marian cemetery where President hardens body was and they take a little PR shot here in front of the receiving pot now the plan actually imploded pretty quickly with when you consider all the influence that had during the 1920s and that was mostly because they had corruption their leadership that David Stevenson the one who found the house at Buckeye Lake he’s charged with murder and rape that doesn’t go over well your leader does that other leaders in Atlanta they’re involved in embezzlement of planning funds in when the leaders fall there’s no substance left remember I said that they curtail their message from community to community which was really good in building the chapters but it has no cohesiveness as far as what you stand for as this huge national organization it’s very splintered and then there’s confusion over what is the message what is remaining so it doesn’t go anywhere not saying that Klansmen didn’t stay in some areas they certainly did but they kind of go back underground and the building in Marion their criteria is what they call it they couldn’t support it either and by the end of 1924 they can’t pay the bills and it’s sold to the brush war newspaper company which of course has the Marion star and the Marion star loses operation from each Center Street over to that building so I know I’ve heard around town the Florida law regarding rented space to the Klan where this comes from is confusion in this story Morin Cardenas we know have nothing to do with that building and certainly did have anything to the Klan this it was that chain of purchase and sale through that period where it went from a KFC to the plan and then to brush more so I guess then again we were left thinking how something like this could have happened how many people could be taken in by this kind of rhetoric but again it was the times that can happen at any time in history when the events swirl around people feel down tried and they feel threatened that they are their way of life is going by the wayside but it’s it was an interesting time but certainly a dangerous time in our country’s history and certainly something that was very prevalent in the Harding administration was dealing with this and so I think the more we learn about all those issues that the President had to deal with the more we can appreciate what he did in how he handled himself that’s all I have you have questions for me you talked about this Conclave that’s where they’re the headquarters building was the old star building on the North State Street it

was when the star was there is 150 Court Street because they changed the front of the building to face court Street until fairly recently the Conclave is the festival yeah they called that building The Criterion auditorium company everything have the yeah that now it’s going to be their headquarters and it was for about eight months but it was not there you know their long-term glorious envision I see this one they had a copy of program you were to do best and so forth at Marion County plan is to have mastery college but then photocopy of that firm a would be able to be hard work where they can move out of there now I’ve no idea where it is now back together again you know really furnace me one then Hillary gave me another copy of it this is of course the library didn’t have available right now but it’s a whole program in and it’s got their the history of our country according to the plan which it’s just an interesting history but you know it was it and when they were huge huge events and you know I talked about the events over Mike violate that inner urban line running from Zanesville in Newark and Columbus over to Buckeye Lake they read they spoken in her urban lines and shipped people in and it was a huge huge deal station was right beside the Marion starter right so they could connect right I guess I shouldn’t say this because it’s fuzzy because but my mother lifted weaker and when she was a girl she told about going out to a thing how scary it was yeah I did she was born so that picture could have been too she would have been eight years old 1922 it was her father because she ice and as I say I should say cousin spudsy in progress but see she was saying about going to something with the clans were there and how scary it was and her stomach I walked up to her dad so I mean there was the family was and then it was someone he knew cuz his father was upset but as a state this was something my mother told me when I was a child and that was yeah she was old I actually got very throw out your your Indian okay I know that the Klan being a major nativist based organization the Indian chief was always a symbol of nativity which they was brought out there in the 1860s against the immigrant rush and I’m wondering the fact carried over to the 19 points and and the interesting thing too is of course Native Americans were not US citizens early 20 Arne was trying to push for that so yeah I don’t know what category the the Native American guys down at all but and I looked back even in their tenants I thought oh Perry Ellis Native Americans where are they I couldn’t find any listing I got everybody else listed but they don’t have Native Americans address yeah but maybe he must be a symbol of status full headdress on he also looked like the widest Indian chief I’ve ever seen they might have just skewed that one a little bit because I’m hearing today that

so my question is I think that gives the existence of the plan in your town would have intimidated you as an african-american of course and certainly they’re continuing their bigotry against african-americans they just added Catholics and Jews and everybody else to the mix I think that murder in 1919 is a perfect illustration of that and that’s a fascinating case because the woman was found dead in a field on David Street and in the ear yards these the railroad workers they decided someone and it’s an african-american worker that did a there’s no evidence or anything and they’re going to Lynch down and the police actually come and take him to the jail to keep him safe but you know it’s a bigotry was alive and well against african-americans for sure and as far as the second part of your question about how far we can take the timeline we can keep going absolutely there is no doubt and you know we see this maybe on social media or anywhere else that they’re at this kind of thinking is certainly still around unfortunately so we could absolutely keep building on but exactly when I first woman email me and say she was disgusted that I was doing this topic and I said it’s part of history and history is really messy and it was certainly part of what President Harding had to deal with and it was a lot of all in every town and she said well you’re going to bring the national media down on Mary and I said oh they have to pick every town in the country they’re going to do this because it was everywhere remember I was on that panel with you in the library and it still if it of course it’s a very hot topic and you know but I’m a firm believer that if you that you need to understand what’s happened in the past and everything comes around the loops around over and over again in history and I think it’s important to understand as much as we can what people are thinking and what made them act and say the things that they did I mean I could have gone on for another two hours with the fascinating things and the rather disgusting things that I was learning about towns all over the state the minstrel shows that everybody sponsored and all of return organization is sponsored and you know it just it was everywhere was prevalent I don’t think people gave a second thought in the white community unfortunately and that was just the way society lives and but I think it’s worth dissecting and talking about any other questions coming in so that party was formed at the side of the Klan the end of this because they want to be seen as patriotic as they said they were 100% of America and they’re patriotic plus we don’t know how many of the rank-and-file Klansmen believed what their leaders were telling them that partying was a

Klansman maybe they thought this was one of their brothers they were honoring you know I would tend to think that a lot of them were told that he was a Klansman and they’re paying their respects but again remember they’re they’re all about the outward appearances they want to be seen as paying their respects just like the Masons would just like the Elks would and after Hargens death everybody was having memorial services and prayer services everywhere and they wanted to be seen as a political strange as it is by the late 20s they’re going to be pretty much out so we’re talking really in a decade of this resurgence and they are very public and then at the end of the 20s they go kind of underground again they splinter and they fall apart and I think a lot has to do with the Great Depression coming in a 30s you know there’s no way that they people are going to pay attention to going after all these other groups when they’re trying to feed their families you know I think that kind of superseded the interest in this plus there just was no structure to it it was just all talk there wasn’t anything behind it at all because they were gonna with a guy at 5,000 he is interested in the regalia he likes the mystique of it and he makes up all the rituals but there’s really nothing it’s all for show there’s a lot of haters on right now is there any connection I think they’ve got to be how to have an evolution that’s occurred I think it’s dipped I think it rises and adepts and then it emerges in a different fashion certainly I think after World War two you had more of the white supremacy groups being influenced by the Nazis you know it depends on what world events are happening and then they kind of grasp onto that that’s their new identity and through the 60s you know through civil rights well that’s going to be the impetus so it’s going to kind of have a flow according to what events are going on but you know it’s alive and well it’s just in a different form yes it’s it’s possible since the Klan really didn’t keep any official public records a seventy thousand Klan membership was actually inflated figure more I think they I think they inflated the numbers a lot the the the Buckeye Lake kind claims that was the police giving that number and they knew because they’re there on the Interurban so they could kind of keep track of that and I think they inflated they want you know that article I have where they were are going to offer 500 to 1,500 Marion City and County men that helped the police force come on and I’m not buying that but they want to be seen as a force to be reckoned with and that’s going to be published in the newspaper they want people to do just like I did 515 under you know that’s incredible because they they want to be seen as a force to be reckoned with and they want to be seen as mainstream where sup sounds they want to be seen as main strength he was this was during the twice and he put himself because he said an organization where the members are

cheats on this property I’m sure yeah and the plan was known to leave business cards that you’re having your place of business and saying you know this is a friendly call this time but next time I won’t be so friendly you know they were out out it’s interesting in that program for the very county country businesses advertising in that and that’s saying that they were members or supporters of the plan you know know that a lot in Oakland Heights one of them and I don’t remember already which one was said 100% American which was an overt sign that yes were behind you but it might have just been another opportunity for most these businesses to say oh look extra folks in town that day maybe I can get the business but it’s interesting to see the ones that decided to advertise on that as well any other questions for me I appreciate you participating in this discussion that’s one thing I was like about our programs I liked it with everybody and a participate we’ll be back here next week is 7 o’clock for the harding letters revisited we’re going to dissect the relationship Warren Harding and Eric Phillips and then we’re going to make it even more complicated by bringing nan Britton into the picture so it will be a so proper of sorts so hopefully we’ll see you right back here and drop breadcrumbs so you remember how to get back to this