United Press International | Wikipedia audio article

United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century. At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. Since the first of several sales and staff cutbacks in 1982, and the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its rival, the Associated Press, UPI has concentrated on smaller information-market niches == History == Formally named “United Press Associations” for incorporation and legal purposes, but publicly known and identified as United Press or UP, the news agency was created by the 1907 uniting of three smaller news syndicates by the Midwest newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps It was headed by Hugh Baillie (1890–1966) from 1935 to 1955. At the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, and 1,500 abroad.In 1958, it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service (INS) in May. As either UP or UPI, the agency was among the largest newswire services in the world, competing domestically for about 90 years with the Associated Press and internationally with AP, Reuters and Agence France-Presse At its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees; and 200 news bureaus in 92 countries; it had more than 6,000 media subscribers With the rising popularity of television news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category, began to fall. Its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company.The E.W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearst’s smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982.Since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization. With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus and a corresponding shrinkage of its traditional media customer base. Since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches. It no longer services media organizations in a major way.In 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon.It now maintains a news website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. Based mostly on aggregation from other sources on the Web and gathered by a small editorial staff and stringers, UPI’s daily content consists of a newsbrief summary service called “NewsTrack,” which includes general, business, sports, science, health and entertainment reports, and “Quirks in the News.” It also sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, and energy resources. UPI’s content is presented in text, video and photo formats, in English, Spanish, and Arabic.UPI’s main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five other countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities === United Press Associations === Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps (1854–1926) created the first chain of newspapers in the United States Because the then recently reorganized Associated Press refused to sell its services to several of his papers, most of them evening dailies in competition with existing AP franchise holders, in 1907 Scripps merged three smaller syndicates under his ownership or control, the Publishers Press Association, the Scripps-McRae Press Association, and the Scripps News Association, to form United Press Associations, with headquarters in New York City.Scripps had been a subscriber to an earlier news agency, also named United Press, that existed in the late 1800s, partly in cooperation with management of the original New York-based AP and partly in existential competition with two Chicago-based organizations also using the AP name (as detailed at Associated Press and in AP’s 2007 history, Breaking News: How the Associated Press Has Covered War, Peace, and Everything Else, cited below).Drawing

lessons from the battles between the earlier United Press and the various AP’s, Scripps required that there be no restrictions on who could buy news from his news service, and he made the new UP service available to anyone, including his competitors. Scripps also hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others. At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their immediate geographic areas.Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, did likewise Scripps’ United Press was considered “a scrappy alternative” news source to the AP. UP reporters were called “Unipressers” and were noted for their fiercely aggressive and competitive streak. UP (and later UPI) became a common training ground for generations of journalists.Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and turned down Edward R. Murrow’s first offer of a CBS job to stay with UP, but who later went on to anchor the CBS Evening News, once said, “I felt every Unipresser got up in the morning saying, ‘This is the day I’m going to beat the hell out of AP.’ That was part of the spirit. We knew we were undermanned. But we knew we could do a darn good job despite that, and so many times, we did.”Another hallmark of the company’s culture was that there was little formal training of reporters; new hires were often thrust into a “sink-or-swim” situation of reporting on an unfamiliar subject. Yet, UP/UPI became a training ground for generations of journalists.They were weaned on UP’s famous and well-documented (though frequently misappropriated and misquoted) slogan of “Get it first, but FIRST, get it RIGHT.”Despite that, like all agencies that deal with huge volumes of timely information, UP and later UPI had its share of remembered mistakes. As recounted in the various printed histories of UPI cited below, the most famous one came early in its history UP’s president, Roy W. Howard, then traveling in France, telegraphed that the 1918 armistice ending World War I had been declared four days before it happened. Howard’s reputation survived and he later became a Scripps partner, whose name appeared in one of the Scripps subsidiary companies, Scripps-Howard. But the mistake dogged UP/UPI for generations Still, the agency’s reporters were often able to tell stories more quickly and accurately although they were usually outnumbered by the competition. In 1950, for example, UP reported the invasion of South Korea by North Korea two hours and forty minutes before its archrival, the AP. The New York Times later apologized to UP for refusing to print information on the invasion until the AP had confirmed it === United Press International === Frank Bartholomew, the last UP president to ascend to the agency’s top job directly from its news, rather than sales, ranks, took over in 1955, and according to his cited autobiography, was obsessed with merging UP with the International News Service, a news agency that had been founded by William Randolph Hearst in 1909 following Scripps’ lead Bartholomew succeeded in putting the “I” in UPI in 1958 when UP and INS merged to become United Press International on May 24. The new UPI now had 6,000 employees and 5,000 subscribers, about a thousand of them newspapers.The merger was aimed at creating a stronger competitor for the Associated Press and a stronger economic entity than either UP or INS. The newly formed United Press International (UPI) had 950 client newspapers. Fearing possible anti-trust issues with the Eisenhower Administration Justice Department, Scripps and Hearst rushed the merger through with unusual speed and secrecy Although all UP employees were retained, most INS employees lost their jobs with practically no warning. A relative few did join the new UPI and the columns of popular INS writers, such as Bob Considine, Louella Parsons and Ruth Montgomery, were carried by UPI.Rival AP was a publishers’ cooperative and could assess its members to help pay the extraordinary costs of covering major news—wars, the Olympic Games, national political conventions. UPI clients, in contrast, paid a fixed annual rate; depending on individual contracts, UPI could not always ask them to help shoulder the extraordinary coverage costs. In its heyday, newspapers typically paid UPI about half what they paid AP in the same cities for the same services: At one point, for example, the Chicago Sun-Times paid AP $12,500 a week, but UPI only $5,000; the Wall Street Journal paid AP $36,000 a week, but UPI only $19,300. The

AP, which serviced 1,243 newspapers at the time, remained UPI’s main competitor. In 1959, UPI had 6,208 clients in 92 countries and territories, 234 news and picture bureaus, and an annual payroll of $34,000,000, ($285,894,977) in today’s dollars.But the UP-INS merger involved another business component that was to hurt the new UPI company badly in later years Because INS had been a subsidiary of Hearst’s King Features Syndicate and Scripps controlled several other newspaper syndicates, both companies feared possible anti-trust issues. So they deliberately kept their respective syndicates out of the combined UPI company. That move cost UPI the revenues of its previous United Feature Syndicate subsidiary, which in later years made large profits on the syndication of Peanuts and other popular comic strips and columns UPI had an advantage of independence over the AP in reporting on the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Because the AP was a cooperative essentially owned by the newspapers, those in the South influenced its coverage of the racial unrest and protests, often ignoring, minimizing, or slanting the reporting. UPI did not have that sort of pressure, and management, according to UPI reporters and photographers of the day, allowed them much freedom in chronicling the events of the civil rights struggle.White House reporter Helen Thomas became the public face of UPI, as she was seen at televised press conferences beginning in the early 1960s UPI famously scooped the AP in reporting the assassination of US President John Kennedy on Friday, November 22, 1963. UPI White House reporter Merriman Smith was an eyewitness, and he commandeered the press car’s only phone to dictate the story to UPI as AP reporter Jack Bell tried—without success—to wrest the phone away so he could call his office Smith and UPI won a Pulitzer Prize for this reporting === UP/UPI Newspictures, Newsfilm and Audio/Radio Network === United Press had no direct wirephoto service until 1952, when it absorbed co-owned ACME Newspictures, under pressure from parent company Scripps to better compete with AP’s news and photo services.By that time, UP was also deeply involved with the newer visual medium of television In 1948, it entered into a partnership with 20th Century Fox subsidiary Fox Movietone News to shoot newsfilm for television stations That service, United Press Movietone, or UPMT, was a pioneer in newsfilm syndication and numbered among its clients major US and foreign networks and local stations, including for many years the early TV operation of ABC News In subsequent decades, it underwent several changes in partnerships and names, becoming best known as United Press International Television News (UPITN). Senior UPITN executives later helped Ted Turner create CNN, with its first two presidents, Reese Schonfeld and Burt Reinhardt, coming from UPITN ranks The UPI Audio actuality service for radio stations, created in 1958 and later renamed the United Press International Radio Network, was a spinoff from the newsfilm service and eventually provided news material to more than a thousand radio stations and US and foreign networks, including NPR === Decline === UPI came close to equaling the size of the AP in the early 1960s, but as publishing companies began to pare their evening newspapers, it was dropped by papers that could no longer afford to subscribe to both UPI and the AP UPI’s failure to develop a television presence or subsidiary television news service has also been cited as one of the causes of its decline. By the early 1980s, the number of staffers was down to 1,800 and there were just 100 news bureaus.Under pressure from some of E. W. Scripps’ heirs, the Scripps company, which had been underwriting UPI’s expenses at a loss for at least two decades, began trying to transfer control of UPI in the early 1980s. It tried to bring in additional newspaper industry partners and when that failed, engaged in serious negotiations with British competitor Reuters, which wanted to increase its US presence. As detailed in “Down to the Wire”, by Gordon and Cohen, cited below, Reuters did extensive due diligence and expressed an interest in parts of the UPI service, but did not wish to maintain it in full Scripps wound up giving the agency away to two inexperienced businessmen, Douglas Ruhe (son of David Ruhe, a member of the Universal

House of Justice, the supreme governing body of the Bahá’í Faith) and William Geissler, originally associated with two better-known partners, who soon departed. Ruhe and Geissler obtained UPI for $1. Under the terms of the purchase agreement, Scripps first injected UPI with a $5 million cash balance, in acknowledgement of the $1.0 – $1.5 million per month that UPI was already losing. Facing news industry skepticism about their background and qualifications to run an international news agency, Ruhe and Geissler watched an increase in contract cancellations. Despite serious cash flow problems, they moved UPI’s headquarters from New York City to Washington, DC, incurring significant additional costs due to construction cost overruns During this period, UPI’s 25-year-old audio news actuality service for radio stations was renamed the United Press International Radio Network. But faced with recurring cash shortages and difficulty meeting payroll, the Ruhe-Geissler management sold UPI’s foreign photo service and some rights to its US and foreign photos to the Reuters news agency It also sold UPI’s U.S. photo library, which included the archives of predecessor Scripps photo agency Acme and the pictures and negatives of International News Photos, the picture component of Hearst’s INS to the Bettman Archive Bettman was later sold to Microsoft founder Bill Gates’s separate Corbis Corporation, storing them underground in Pennsylvania and digitizing them for licensing, frequently without any notation of their UPI origins In August 2011 Corbis announced a deal with AP to distribute each other’s photos to their clients, effectively combining the pre-1983 UPI library with that of its former main rival for some marketing purposes. In 2016 Corbis sold to the Visual China Group.The London office of UPI was created during the merger with INP in 1958, previously UP did not have a UK base, and also merged the Planet News agency est.1927. The UPI London office was an early casualty in the UPI decline and the assets, including the photo archives, were sold off c.1970. TopFoto is the current owner of the remaining photo archive and copyright of the UPI London photo agency.UPI’s remaining minority stake in UPITN was also sold and the agency was renamed Worldwide Television News (WTN). As with its photographs, UPI thereby lost all control of its newsfilm and video library, which is now held by WTN-successor Associated Press Television News, which entered the video news field long after UPI left it Years of mismanagement, missed opportunities and continual wage and staff cuts followed By 1984, UPI had descended into the first of two Chapter 11 bankruptcies. Mario Vázquez Raña, a Mexican media magnate, with a nominal American minority partner, Houston real estate developer Joseph Russo, purchased UPI out of bankruptcy for $40 million, losing millions during his short tenure, and firing numerous high level staff.In 1988, Vázquez Raña sold UPI to Infotechnology, Inc., an information technology and venture capital company and parent company of cable TV’s Financial News Network, both headed by Earl Brian, who also became UPI chairman. In early 1991, Infotechnology itself filed for bankruptcy, announced layoffs at UPI and sought to terminate certain employee benefits in an attempt to keep UPI afloat At that point, UPI was down to 585 employees Later that year, UPI filed for bankruptcy for the second time, asking for relief from $50 million in debt so that it could be sale-able In 1992, a group of Saudi investors, ARA Group International (AGI), bought the bankrupt UPI for $4 million.By 1998, UPI had fewer than 250 employees and 12 offices. Although the Saudi-based investors claimed to have poured more than $120 million into UPI, it had failed to turn a profit. The company had begun to sell Internet-adapted products to such websites as Excite and Yahoo. At that point, UPI CEO Arnaud de Borchgrave orchestrated UPI’s exit from its last major media niche, the broadcast news business that United Press had initiated in the 1930s. De Borchgrave maintained that “what was brilliant pioneering work on the part of UPI prior to World War II, with radio news, is now a static quantity and so far as I’m concerned, certainly doesn’t fit into my plans for the future”. He sought to shift UPI’s dwindling resources into Internet-based delivery of newsletter services, focusing more on technical and diplomatic specialties than on general news. The rump UPI thus sold the client list of its still-significant radio network and broadcast wire to its former rival, the AP

=== Current ownership === UPI was purchased in May 2000 by News World Communications, a media conglomerate founded by Unification movement founder Sun Myung Moon, which also owned The Washington Times and various newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America. The next day, UPI’s White House correspondent, Helen Thomas, resigned her position, after working for UPI for 57 years.In 2007 as part of a restructuring to keep UPI in business and profitable, management cut 11 staff from its Washington, D.C. office and no longer has a reporter in the White House press corps or a bureau covering the United Nations. UPI spokespersons and press releases said the company would be focusing instead on expanding operations in the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa, and reporting on security threats, intelligence and energy issues. In 2008, UPI began UPIU, a journalism mentoring platform for students and journalism schools, that allows recent college graduates to post their work on the site, but does not pay for stories == UPI sports awards == United Press International conferred sports awards annually until 1996. The awards were given to basketball players, basketball coaches, football players and athletes in general The different awards were: UPI Athlete of the Year === Basketball === UPI College Basketball Coach of the Year UPI College Basketball Player of the Year === Football === UPI College Football Player of the Year UPI College Lineman of the Year UPI NFC Player of the Year UPI AFL-AFC Player of the Year UPI NFL Rookie of the Year UPI NFL Player of the Year == Notable alumni == While much of normal news agency work is little publicized, many UP/UPI news staffers have gained fame, either while with the agency or in later careers. They include journalists, news executives, novelists and high government officials Among them: David Belnap, UPI Latin American Bureau Chief and later Foreign Desk Editor for the Los Angeles Times Arnaud de Borchgrave, veteran foreign correspondent and UPI executive Myram Borders, longtime Las Vegas bureau manager who broke the story of Elvis Presley’s marriage David Brinkley, co-anchor of NBC’s Huntley-Brinkley Report and anchor of ABC’s This Week Lucien Carr, contemporary of Allen Ginsberg and Jack Keroac in the Beat Generation movement Raymond Clapper, originator of the term “smoked-filled room” Richard Cohen, Washington Post columnist Charles Collingwood, CBS News anchor, host of A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy Gail Collins, New York Times columnist Marie Colvin, long-time war correspondent for The Sunday Times Bob Considine, author of Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo and ABC and CBS radio anchor Kent Cooper, who later became the longtime GM of rival Associated Press Walter Cronkite, long-time anchor of the CBS Evening News Bill Downs, CBS and ABC reporter, first to deliver a live broadcast from Normandy after D-Day Allen Drury, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Stephen Early, White House Press Secretary for Franklin D. Roosevelt Marc S. Ellenbogen, President, The Prague Society for International Cooperation; Chair, Global Panel Foundation Oscar Fraley, Untouchables co-author Thomas Friedman, Three-time Pulitzer Prize-winning New York Times columnist Joseph L. Galloway, military author Martha Gellhorn, legendary war correspondent Henry Tilton Gorrell, filed first report on D-Day Richard Helms, onetime CIA Director, who interviewed Adolf Hitler for United Press during the 1936 Olympics Seymour Hersh, Pulitzer-Prize winning reporter for The New York Times, the AP and The New Yorker Don Hewitt, 60 Minutes creator and producer; worked for UP Newspictures predecessor Acme

Newsphotos Tony Hillerman, novelist Les Hinton, ex-Dow Jones CEO Richard C. Hottelet, CBS News United Nations correspondent, last-surviving of the Murrow Boys Brit Hume, ABC News White House Correspondent and Fox News anchor David Hume Kennerly, 1970s White House photographer Edward M. Korry, U.S. Ambassador to Ethiopia and Chile Brian Lamb, C-SPAN founder Larry LeSueur, CBS News and Voice of America White House Correspondent, two-time Peabody Award winner Elmer Lower, early ABC News president Eugene Lyons, former UP correspondent to Moscow, first Western journalist to interview Joseph Stalin Jim McGlincy, reporter for the New York Post, New York Daily News, Newsweek and CBS News Knowlton Nash, Canadian journalist, senior anchor of CBC Television’s flagship news program, The National Ron Nessen, White House Press Secretary for Gerald Ford Edwin Newman, CBS and NBC anchor, moderator of 1976 and 1984 presidential debates Keith Olbermann, correspondent and host for CNN, ESPN, MSNBC, Current TV, and GQ magazine Eugene Patterson, Pulitzer Prize–winning newspaper editor and columnist Doc Quigg, journalist George Reedy, White House Press Secretary for Lyndon Johnson Harrison Salisbury, Pulitzer-Prize winner, creator of The New York Times op-ed page Reese Schonfeld, co-founder of CNN Robert J. Serling, novelist and brother of Rod Serling Eric Sevareid, CBS News reporter, three-time Peabody Award winner Neil Sheehan, reporter who broke the Pentagon Papers story for The New York Times Lewis Shollenberger, CBS News reporter, ABC News, Director of Radio Liberty Daniel Silva, novelist and former CNN producer H. Allen Smith, best-selling author Howard K. Smith, ABC Evening News anchor Stan Stearns, photographer, known for picture of John F. Kennedy Jr. saluting his father’s casket Cyrus Leo Sulzberger II, Pulitzer-Prize winning reporter for The New York Times Helen Thomas, UPI reporter from 1943 until 2000 – UPI White House Correspondent from 1961 until 2000 Stanley Tretick, founding photographer, People magazine Hubert van Es, Saigon evacuation photographer Kate Webb, war correspondent, first to reach Saigon during Tet Offensive Wee Kim Wee, 4th President of Singapore Weegee, Naked City photographer Paul White, the founding director of CBS News Steve Wilstein, who later broke the steroids scandals in baseball for the APUPI reporters and photographers have won ten Pulitzer Prizes: Russell Jones (International Reporting, 1957) Andrew Lopez (News Photography, 1960) Yasushi Nagao (News Photography, 1961) Merriman Smith (National Reporting, 1964) Kyoichi Sawada (News Photography, 1966) Toshio Sakai (Feature Photography, 1968) Lucinda Franks and Thomas Powers (National Reporting, 1971) David Hume Kennerly (Feature Photography, 1972) John H. Blair (Spot News Photography, 1978) Jahangir Razmi, (Spot News Photography, 1980) == Key UP/UPI product and technical innovation dates == In 1908, UP began offering feature stories and using reporter bylines In 1915 UP begins to use teleprinters, more recently known as Teletype machines In the 1930s and 1940s, UP Newspictures predecessor agency Acme developed the International Unifax machine, the first automatic picture receiver The “Ocean Press”, a news service for ocean liners, was founded in the 1930s, as a corporate subsidiary of Scripps. It used copy from United Press and later United Press International By 1959, it had 125 subscriber ships In 1935, UP was the first major news service to offer news to broadcasters In 1945 UP offered the first all-sports wire In 1948 UP started the first international

television news film service. Originally named “UP Movietone”, in view of a partnership with the Movietone News service of 20th Century Fox, it went through several partnerships and name changes and was known as United Press International Television News or simply as UPITN, a name which also credited UPI’s film and video service partner at the time, Britain’s ITN television news service In 1951 UP offered the first teletypesetter (TTS) service, enabling newspapers to automatically set and justify type from wire transmissions In 1952 UP absorbed the Scripps-owned Acme photo service to form UP Newspictures In 1958 United Press absorbed Hearst’s INS to create UPI In 1958 UPI created the first wire service audio network, an offshoot of the film service above. UPI Audio provided news material to radio stations. It was renamed United Press International Radio Network in 1983 In 1974, UPI launched the first “high-speed” data newswire—operating at 1,200 WPM In 1978, UPI launched the first cable TV news network, UPI Newstime, using SSTV technology via satellite to relay the channel to cable TV companies nationwide in the USA In 1979, UPI along with Telecomputing Corp of America began making the UPI world news report available to owners of home computers In 1982, UPI pioneered a coding system allowing clients to choose stories based on topic, subtopic and location == See also == List of UPI reporters List of online image archives List of news agencies

Civil rights movement | Wikipedia audio article

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long movement with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already enjoyed. With roots starting in the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct actions and grassroots protests organized from the mid-1950s until 1968. Encompassing strategies, various groups, and organized social movements to accomplish the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination in the United States, the movement, using major nonviolent campaigns, eventually secured new recognition in federal law and federal protection of all Americans After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and constitutional rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had recently been enslaved. For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were increasingly deprived of civil rights, often under Jim Crow laws, and subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites in the South. Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country. The lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, and the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; “sit-ins” such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children’s Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities Moderates in the movement worked with Congress to achieve the passage of several significant pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory practices and authorized oversight and enforcement by the federal government The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expressly banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices; ended unequal application of voter registration requirements; and prohibited racial segregation in schools, at the workplace, and in public accommodations. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of registration and elections in areas with historic under-representation of minorities as voters. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to take action From 1964 through 1970, a wave of inner-city riots in black communities undercut support from the white middle class, but increased support from private foundations. The emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence. Instead, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws gained through the nonviolent movement, political and economic self-sufficiency had to be developed in the black community Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in non-violent, moral leadership However, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to any one person, organization, or strategy == Background == Before the American Civil War, almost four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only white men of property could vote, and the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S citizenship to whites only. But some free states of the North extended the franchise and other rights of citizenship to African Americans. Following the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment (1865) that ended slavery; the 14th Amendment (1868) that gave African-Americans citizenship, adding their total population

of four million to the official population of southern states for Congressional apportionment; and the 15th Amendment (1870) that gave African-American males the right to vote (only males could vote in the U.S. at the time). From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South after the end of slavery. Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy. In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U.S. Army, and U.S Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, initiated a campaign to repress the KKK under the Enforcement Acts. Some states were reluctant to enforce the federal measures of the act. In addition, by the early 1870s, other white supremacist and insurgent paramilitary groups arose that violently opposed African-American legal equality and suffrage, intimidating and suppressing black voters, and assassinating Republican officeholders. However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to get involved. Many Republican governors were afraid of sending black militia troops to fight the Klan for fear of war.After the disputed election of 1876 resulted in the end of Reconstruction and federal troops were withdrawn, whites in the South regained political control of the region’s state legislatures They continued to intimidate and violently attack blacks before and during elections to suppress their voting, but the last African Americans were elected to Congress from the South before disenfranchisement of blacks by states throughout the region, as described below From 1890 to 1908, southern states passed new constitutions and laws to disenfranchise African Americans and many poor whites by creating barriers to voter registration; voting rolls were dramatically reduced as blacks and poor whites were forced out of electoral politics. After the landmark Supreme Court case of Smith v. Allwright (1944), which prohibited white primaries, progress was made in increasing black political participation in the Rim South and Acadiana – although almost entirely in urban areas and a few rural localities where most blacks worked outside plantations The status quo ante of excluding African Americans from the political system lasted in the remainder of the South, especially North Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama, until national civil rights legislation was passed in the mid-1960s to provide federal enforcement of constitutional voting rights. For more than sixty years, blacks in the South were essentially excluded from politics, unable to elect anyone to represent their interests in Congress or local government Since they could not vote, they could not serve on local juries During this period, the white-dominated Democratic Party maintained political control of the South. With whites controlling all the seats representing the total population of the South, they had a powerful voting bloc in Congress The Republican Party—the “party of Lincoln” and the party to which most blacks had belonged—shrank to insignificance except in remote Unionist areas of Appalachia and the Ozarks as black voter registration was suppressed. Until 1965, the “Solid South” was a one-party system under the white Democrats. Excepting the previously noted historic Unionist strongholds the Democratic Party nomination was tantamount to election for state and local office. In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, to dine at the White House, making him the first African American to attend an official dinner there “The invitation was roundly criticized by southern politicians and newspapers.” Washington persuaded the president to appoint more blacks to federal posts in the South and to try to boost African-American leadership in state Republican organizations. However, these actions were resisted by both white Democrats and white Republicans as an unwanted federal intrusion into state politics During the same time as African Americans were being disenfranchised, white southerners imposed racial segregation by law. Violence against blacks increased, with numerous lynchings through the turn of the century. The system of de jure state-sanctioned racial discrimination and oppression that emerged from the post-Reconstruction South became known as the “Jim Crow” system The United States Supreme Court, made up almost entirely of Northerners, upheld the constitutionality of those state laws that required racial segregation in public facilities in its 1896 decision Plessy v. Ferguson, legitimizing them through the “separate but equal” doctrine. Segregation, which began with slavery, continued with Jim Crow laws, with signs used to show blacks where they could legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat. For those places that were racially mixed, non-whites had to wait until all white customers were served first. Elected in 1912,

President Woodrow Wilson gave in to demands by Southern members of his cabinet and ordered segregation of workplaces throughout the federal government.The early 20th century is a period often referred to as the “nadir of American race relations”, when the number of lynchings was highest. While tensions and civil rights violations were most intense in the South, social discrimination affected African Americans in other regions as well. At the national level, the Southern bloc controlled important committees in Congress, defeated passage of federal laws against lynching, and exercised considerable power beyond the number of whites in the South Characteristics of the post-Reconstruction period: Racial segregation. By law, public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate “white” and “colored” domains. Characteristically, those for colored were underfunded and of inferior quality Disenfranchisement. When white Democrats regained power, they passed laws that made voter registration more restrictive, essentially forcing black voters off the voting rolls. The number of African-American voters dropped dramatically, and they were no longer able to elect representatives From 1890 to 1908, Southern states of the former Confederacy created constitutions with provisions that disfranchised tens of thousands of African Americans, and U.S. states such as Alabama disenfranchised poor whites as well Exploitation. Increased economic oppression of blacks through the convict lease system, Latinos, and Asians, denial of economic opportunities, and widespread employment discrimination Violence. Individual, police, paramilitary, organizational, and mob racial violence against blacks (and Latinos in the Southwest and Asians in California) African Americans and other ethnic minorities rejected this regime. They resisted it in numerous ways and sought better opportunities through lawsuits, new organizations, political redress, and labor organizing (see the African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954)). The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 It fought to end race discrimination through litigation, education, and lobbying efforts Its crowning achievement was its legal victory in the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education (1954) when the Court rejected separate white and colored school systems and, by implication, overturned the “separate but equal” doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896. Segregation had continued intact into the mid-1950s. Following the unanimous Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that ruled that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional, many states began to gradually integrate their schools, but some areas of the South resisted by closing public schools altogether The integration of Southern public libraries followed demonstrations and protests that used techniques seen in other elements of the larger civil rights movement. This included sit-ins, beatings, and white resistance. For example, in 1963 in the city of Anniston, Alabama, two black ministers were brutally beaten for attempting to integrate the public library. Though there was resistance and violence, the integration of libraries was generally quicker than the integration of other public institutions The situation for blacks outside the South was somewhat better (in most states they could vote and have their children educated, though they still faced discrimination in housing and jobs). From 1910 to 1970, African Americans sought better lives by migrating north and west out of the South. A total of nearly seven million blacks left the South in what was known as the Great Migration, most during and after World War II. So many people migrated that the demographics of some previously black-majority states changed to white majority (in combination with other developments). The rapid influx of blacks altered the demographics of Northern cities; happening at a period of expanded immigration from Europe, it added to social competition and tensions, with the new migrants and immigrants battling for place in jobs and housing Reflecting social tensions after World War I, as veterans struggled to return to the workforce and labor unioins were organizing, the Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the U.S. as a result of white race riots against blacks that took place in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919 and the Omaha race riot of 1919. Stereotypic schemas of Southern blacks were used to attribute issues in urban areas, such as crime and disease, to the presence of African-Americans. Overall, African Americans in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Within employment, economic opportunities

for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility. Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of “targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering”. The Great Migration resulted in many African Americans becoming urbanized, and they began to realign from the Republican to the Democratic Party, especially because of opportunities under the New Deal of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Substantially under pressure from African-American supporters who began the March on Washington Movement, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued the first federal order banning discrimination and created the Fair Employment Practice Committee Black veterans of the military after both World Wars pressed for full civil rights and often led activist movements. In 1948, they gained integration in the military under President Harry Truman, who issued Executive Order 9981 to accomplish it Housing segregation was a nationwide problem, widespread outside the South. Although the federal government had become increasingly involved in mortgage lending and development in the 1930s and 1940s, it did not reject the use of race-restrictive covenants until 1950, in part because of provisions by the Solid South Democrats in Congress. Suburbanization became connected with white flight by this time, because whites were better established economically to move to newer housing. The situation was perpetuated by real estate agents’ continuing racial discrimination. In particular, from the 1930s to the 1960s, the National Association of Real Estate Boards (NAREB) issued guidelines that specified that a realtor “should never be instrumental in introducing to a neighborhood a character or property or occupancy, members of any race or nationality, or any individual whose presence will be clearly detrimental to property values in a neighborhood.” The result was the development of all-black ghettos in the North, where much housing was older, as well as South.Invigorated by the victory of Brown and frustrated by the lack of immediate practical effect, private citizens increasingly rejected gradualist, legalistic approaches as the primary tool to bring about desegregation. They were faced with “massive resistance” in the South by proponents of racial segregation and voter suppression In defiance, African-American activists adopted a combined strategy of direct action, nonviolence, nonviolent resistance, and many events described as civil disobedience, giving rise to the civil rights movement of 1954 to 1968 == The beginnings of direct action (1950s) == The strategy of public education, legislative lobbying, and litigation that had typified the civil rights movement during the first half of the 20th century broadened after Brown to a strategy that emphasized “direct action”: boycotts, sit-ins, Freedom Rides, marches or walks, and similar tactics that relied on mass mobilization, nonviolent resistance, standing in line, and, at times, civil disobedience.Churches, local grassroots organizations, fraternal societies, and black-owned businesses mobilized volunteers to participate in broad-based actions This was a more direct and potentially more rapid means of creating change than the traditional approach of mounting court challenges used by the NAACP and others In 1952, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL), led by T. R. M. Howard, a black surgeon, entrepreneur, and planter, organized a successful boycott of gas stations in Mississippi that refused to provide restrooms for blacks. Through the RCNL, Howard led campaigns to expose brutality by the Mississippi state highway patrol and to encourage blacks to make deposits in the black-owned Tri-State Bank of Nashville which, in turn, gave loans to civil rights activists who were victims of a “credit squeeze” by the White Citizens’ Councils.After Claudette Colvin was arrested for not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus in March 1955, a bus boycott was considered and rejected But when Rosa Parks was arrested in December, Jo Ann Gibson Robinson of the Montgomery Women’s Political Council put the bus boycott protest in motion. Late that night, she, John Cannon (chairman of the Business Department at Alabama State University) and others mimeographed and distributed thousands of leaflets calling for a boycott. The eventual success of the boycott made its spokesman Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. a nationally known figure. It also inspired other bus boycotts, such as the successful Tallahassee, Florida boycott of 1956–57.In 1957, Dr. King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy, the leaders of the Montgomery Improvement Association, joined with other church leaders who had led similar boycott efforts, such as Rev. C. K Steele of Tallahassee and Rev. T. J. Jemison

of Baton Rouge, and other activists such as Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, Ella Baker, A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Stanley Levison, to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The SCLC, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, did not attempt to create a network of chapters as the NAACP did. It offered training and leadership assistance for local efforts to fight segregation. The headquarters organization raised funds, mostly from Northern sources, to support such campaigns It made nonviolence both its central tenet and its primary method of confronting racism In 1959, Septima Clarke, Bernice Robinson, and Esau Jenkins, with the help of Myles Horton’s Highlander Folk School in Tennessee, began the first Citizenship Schools in South Carolina’s Sea Islands. They taught literacy to enable blacks to pass voting tests. The program was an enormous success and tripled the number of black voters on Johns Island. SCLC took over the program and duplicated its results elsewhere == History == === Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 === In the spring of 1951, black students in Virginia protested their unequal status in the state’s segregated educational system. Students at Moton High School protested the overcrowded conditions and failing facility. Some local leaders of the NAACP had tried to persuade the students to back down from their protest against the Jim Crow laws of school segregation When the students did not budge, the NAACP joined their battle against school segregation The NAACP proceeded with five cases challenging the school systems; these were later combined under what is known today as Brown v. Board of Education.On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that mandating, or even permitting, public schools to be segregated by race was unconstitutional. The Court stated that the segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the Negro group The lawyers from the NAACP had to gather plausible evidence in order to win the case of Brown vs. Board of Education. Their method of addressing the issue of school segregation was to enumerate several arguments. One pertained to having exposure to interracial contact in a school environment. It was argued that interracial contact would, in turn, help prepare children to live with the pressures that society exerts in regards to race and thereby afford them a better chance of living in a democracy In addition, another argument emphasized how “‘education’ comprehends the entire process of developing and training the mental, physical and moral powers and capabilities of human beings”.Risa Goluboff wrote that the NAACP’s intention was to show the Courts that African American children were the victims of school segregation and their futures were at risk The Court ruled that both Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which had established the “separate but equal” standard in general, and Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899), which had applied that standard to schools, were unconstitutional The federal government filed a friend of the court brief in the case urging the justices to consider the effect that segregation had on America’s image in the Cold War. Secretary of State Dean Acheson was quoted in the brief stating that “The United States is under constant attack in the foreign press, over the foreign radio, and in such international bodies as the United Nations because of various practices of discrimination in this country.” The following year, in the case known as Brown II, the Court ordered segregation to be phased out over time, “with all deliberate speed” Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) did not overturn Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Plessy v. Ferguson was segregation in transportation modes. Brown v. Board of Education dealt with segregation in education Brown v. Board of Education did set in motion the future overturning of ‘separate but equal’ On May 18, 1954, Greensboro, North Carolina, became the first city in the South to publicly announce that it would abide by the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education ruling “It is unthinkable,’ remarked School Board Superintendent Benjamin Smith, ‘that we will try to [override] the laws of the United States.” This positive reception for Brown, together

with the appointment of African American Dr David Jones to the school board in 1953, convinced numerous white and black citizens that Greensboro was heading in a progressive direction. Integration in Greensboro occurred rather peacefully compared to the process in Southern states such as Alabama, Arkansas, and Virginia where “massive resistance” was practiced by top officials and throughout the states. In Virginia, some counties closed their public schools rather than integrate, and many white Christian private schools were founded to accommodate students who used to go to public schools. Even in Greensboro, much local resistance to desegregation continued, and in 1969, the federal government found the city was not in compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Transition to a fully integrated school system did not begin until 1971.Many Northern cities also had de facto segregation policies, which resulted in a vast gulf in educational resources between black and white communities. In Harlem, New York, for example, neither a single new school was built since the turn of the century, nor did a single nursery school exist – even as the Second Great Migration was causing overcrowding. Existing schools tended to be dilapidated and staffed with inexperienced teachers. Brown helped stimulate activism among New York City parents like Mae Mallory who, with the support of the NAACP, initiated a successful lawsuit against the city and state on Brown’s principles. Mallory and thousands of other parents bolstered the pressure of the lawsuit with a school boycott in 1959 During the boycott, some of the first freedom schools of the period were established. The city responded to the campaign by permitting more open transfers to high-quality, historically-white schools. (New York’s African-American community, and Northern desegregation activists generally, now found themselves contending with the problem of white flight, however.) === Emmett Till’s murder, 1955 === Emmett Till, a 14-year old African American from Chicago, visited his relatives in Money, Mississippi, for the summer. He allegedly had an interaction with a white woman, Carolyn Bryant, in a small grocery store that violated the norms of Mississippi culture, and Bryant’s husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam brutally murdered young Emmett Till. They beat and mutilated him before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Three days later, Till’s body was discovered and retrieved from the river. Mamie Till, Emmett’s Mother, “brought him home to Chicago and insisted on an open casket. Tens of thousands filed past Till’s remains, but it was the publication of the searing funeral image in Jet, with a stoic Mamie gazing at her murdered child’s ravaged body, that forced the world to reckon with the brutality of American racism.” Vann R. Newkirk wrote: “The trial of his killers became a pageant illuminating the tyranny of white supremacy”. The state of Mississippi tried two defendants, but they were speedily acquitted by an all-white jury.”Emmett’s murder,” historian Tim Tyson writes, “would never have become a watershed historical moment without Mamie finding the strength to make her private grief a public matter.” The visceral response to his mother’s decision to have an open-casket funeral mobilized the black community throughout the U.S. “Young black people such as Julian Bond, Joyce Ladner and others who were born around the same time as Till were galvanized into action by the murder and trial.” They often see themselves as the “Emmett Till Generation.” One hundred days after Emmett Till’s murder, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus in Alabama—indeed, Parks told Mamie Till that “the photograph of Emmett’s disfigured face in the casket was set in her mind when she refused to give up her seat on the Montgomery bus.” The glass topped casket that was used for Till’s Chicago funeral was found in a cemetery garage in 2009. Till had been reburied in a different casket after being exhumed in 2005. Till’s family decided to donate the original casket to the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American Culture and History, where it is now on display. Decades after his murder in 2017, Bryant disclosed that she had fabricated her story in 1955 === Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956 === On December 1, 1955, nine months after a 15-year-old high school student, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and was arrested, Rosa Parks did the same thing. Parks soon became the symbol of the resulting Montgomery Bus Boycott and received national publicity She was later hailed as the “mother of the

civil rights movement” Parks was secretary of the Montgomery NAACP chapter and had recently returned from a meeting at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee where nonviolence as a strategy was taught by Myles Horton and others. After Parks’ arrest, African Americans gathered and organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott to demand a bus system in which passengers would be treated equally The organization was led by Jo Ann Robinson, a member of the Women’s Political Council who had been waiting for the opportunity to boycott the bus system. Following Rosa Park’s arrest, Jo Ann Robinson mimeographed 52,500 leaflets calling for a boycott. They were distributed around the city and helped gather the attention of civil rights leaders. After the city rejected many of their suggested reforms, the NAACP, led by E. D. Nixon, pushed for full desegregation of public buses. With the support of most of Montgomery’s 50,000 African Americans, the boycott lasted for 381 days, until the local ordinance segregating African Americans and whites on public buses was repealed. Ninety percent of African Americans in Montgomery partook in the boycotts, which reduced bus revenue significantly, as they comprised the majority of the riders. In November 1956, the United State Supreme Court upheld a district court ruling in the case of Browder v. Gayle and ordered Montgomery’s buses desegregated, ending the boycott.Local leaders established the Montgomery Improvement Association to focus their efforts. Martin Luther King Jr was elected President of this organization The lengthy protest attracted national attention for him and the city. His eloquent appeals to Christian brotherhood and American idealism created a positive impression on people both inside and outside the South === Desegregating Little Rock Central High School, 1957 === A crisis erupted in Little Rock, Arkansas, when Governor of Arkansas Orval Faubus called out the National Guard on September 4 to prevent entry to the nine African-American students who had sued for the right to attend an integrated school, Little Rock Central High School. Under the guidance of Daisy Bates, the nine students had been chosen to attend Central High because of their excellent grades On the first day of school, 15-year-old Elizabeth Eckford was the only one of the nine students who showed up because she did not receive the phone call about the danger of going to school. A photo was taken of Eckford being harassed by white protesters outside the school, and the police had to take her away in a patrol car for her protection. Afterwards, the nine students had to carpool to school and be escorted by military personnel in jeeps Faubus was not a proclaimed segregationist The Arkansas Democratic Party, which then controlled politics in the state, put significant pressure on Faubus after he had indicated he would investigate bringing Arkansas into compliance with the Brown decision. Faubus then took his stand against integration and against the Federal court ruling. Faubus’ resistance received the attention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was determined to enforce the orders of the Federal courts Critics had charged he was lukewarm, at best, on the goal of desegregation of public schools But, Eisenhower federalized the National Guard in Arkansas and ordered them to return to their barracks. Eisenhower deployed elements of the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock to protect the students The students attended high school under harsh conditions. They had to pass through a gauntlet of spitting, jeering whites to arrive at school on their first day, and to put up with harassment from other students for the rest of the year Although federal troops escorted the students between classes, the students were teased and even attacked by white students when the soldiers were not around. One of the Little Rock Nine, Minnijean Brown, was suspended for spilling a bowl of chilli on the head of a white student who was harassing her in the school lunch line. Later, she was expelled for verbally abusing a white female student.Only Ernest Green of the Little Rock Nine graduated from Central High School. After the 1957–58 school year was over, Little Rock closed its public school system completely rather than continue to integrate. Other school systems across the South followed suit === The method of Nonviolence and Nonviolence Training === During the time period considered to be the “African-American civil rights” era, the predominant use of protest was nonviolent, or peaceful Often referred to as pacifism, the method of nonviolence is considered to be an attempt to impact society positively. Although acts of racial discrimination have occurred historically throughout the United States, perhaps the most violent regions have been in the former Confederate states. During the 1950s and 1960s,

the nonviolent protesting of the civil rights movement caused definite tension, which gained national attention In order to prepare for protests physically and psychologically, demonstrators received training in nonviolence. According to former civil rights activist Bruce Hartford, there are two main branches of nonviolence training There is the philosophical method, which involves understanding the method of nonviolence and why it is considered useful, and there is the tactical method, which ultimately teaches demonstrators “how to be a protestor—how to sit-in, how to picket, how to defend yourself against attack, giving training on how to remain cool when people are screaming racist insults into your face and pouring stuff on you and hitting you” (Civil Rights Movement Veterans). The philosophical method of nonviolence, in the American civil rights movement, was largely inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s “non-cooperation” with the British colonists in India, which was intended to gain attention so that the public would either “intervene in advance,” or “provide public pressure in support of the action to be taken” (Erikson, 415). As Hartford explains it, philosophical nonviolence training aims to “shape the individual person’s attitude and mental response to crises and violence” (Civil Rights Movement Veterans) Hartford and activists like him, who trained in tactical nonviolence, considered it necessary in order to ensure physical safety, instill discipline, teach demonstrators how to demonstrate, and form mutual confidence among demonstrators (Civil Rights Movement Veterans).For many, the concept of nonviolent protest was a way of life, a culture. However, not everyone agreed with this notion. James Forman, former SNCC (and later Black Panther) member and nonviolence trainer, was among those who did not. In his autobiography, The Making of Black Revolutionaries, Forman revealed his perspective on the method of nonviolence as “strictly a tactic, not a way of life without limitations.” Similarly, Robert Moses, who was also an active member of SNCC, felt that the method of nonviolence was practical. When interviewed by author Robert Penn Warren, Moses said “There’s no question that he [Martin Luther King Jr.] had a great deal of influence with the masses But I don’t think it’s in the direction of love. It’s in a practical direction . . .” (Who Speaks for the Negro? Warren) === Robert F. Williams and the debate on nonviolence, 1959–1964 === The Jim Crow system employed “terror as a means of social control,” with the most organized manifestations being the Ku Klux Klan and their collaborators in local police departments This violence played a key role in blocking the progress of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s. Some black organizations in the South began practicing armed self-defense The first to do so openly was the Monroe, North Carolina, chapter of the NAACP led by Robert F. Williams. Williams had rebuilt the chapter after its membership was terrorized out of public life by the Klan. He did so by encouraging a new, more working-class membership to arm itself thoroughly and defend against attack. When Klan nightriders attacked the home of NAACP member Dr. Albert Perry in October 1957, Williams’ militia exchanged gunfire with the stunned Klansmen, who quickly retreated The following day, the city council held an emergency session and passed an ordinance banning KKK motorcades. One year later, Lumbee Indians in North Carolina would have a similarly successful armed stand-off with the Klan (known as the Battle of Hayes Pond) which resulted in KKK leader James W. “Catfish” Cole being convicted of incitement to riot.After the acquittal of several white men charged with sexually assaulting black women in Monroe, Williams announced to United Press International reporters that he would “meet violence with violence” as a policy. Williams’ declaration was quoted on the front page of The New York Times, and The Carolina Times considered it “the biggest civil rights story of 1959.” NAACP National chairman Roy Wilkins immediately suspended Williams from his position, but the Monroe organizer won support from numerous NAACP chapters across the country. Ultimately, Wilkins resorted to bribing influential organizer Daisy Bates to campaign against Williams at the NAACP national convention and the suspension was upheld. The convention nonetheless passed a resolution which stated: “We do not deny, but reaffirm the right of individual and collective self-defense against unlawful assaults.” Martin Luther King Jr. argued for Williams’ removal, but Ella Baker and WEB Dubois both publicly praised the Monroe leader’s position Williams—along with his wife, Mabel Williams—continued to play a leadership role in the Monroe movement, and to some degree, in the national movement

The Williamses published The Crusader, a nationally circulated newsletter, beginning in 1960, and the influential book Negroes With Guns in 1962. Williams did not call for full militarization in this period, but “flexibility in the freedom struggle.” Williams was well-versed in legal tactics and publicity, which he had used successfully in the internationally known “Kissing Case” of 1958, as well as nonviolent methods, which he used at lunch counter sit-ins in Monroe—all with armed self-defense as a complementary tactic Williams led the Monroe movement in another armed stand-off with white supremacists during an August 1961 Freedom Ride; he had been invited to participate in the campaign by Ella Baker and James Forman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The incident (along with his campaigns for peace with Cuba) resulted in him being targeted by the FBI and prosecuted for kidnapping; he was cleared of all charges in 1976. Meanwhile, armed self-defense continued discreetly in the Southern movement with such figures as SNCC’s Amzie Moore, Hartman Turnbow, and Fannie Lou Hamer all willing to use arms to defend their lives from nightrides Taking refuge from the FBI in Cuba, the Willamses broadcast the radio show “Radio Free Dixie” throughout the eastern United States via Radio Progresso beginning in 1962. In this period, Williams advocated guerilla warfare against racist institutions, and saw the large ghetto riots of the era as a manifestation of his strategy University of North Carolina historian Walter Rucker has written that “the emergence of Robert F Williams contributed to the marked decline in anti-black racial violence in the U.S….After centuries of anti-black violence, African Americans across the country began to defend their communities aggressively—employing overt force when necessary. This in turn evoked in whites real fear of black vengeance…” This opened up space for African Americans to use nonviolent demonstration with less fear of deadly reprisal. Of the many civil rights activists who share this view, the most prominent was Rosa Parks. Parks gave the eulogy at Williams’ funeral in 1996, praising him for “his courage and for his commitment to freedom,” and concluding that “The sacrifices he made, and what he did, should go down in history and never be forgotten.” === Sit-ins, 1958–1960 === In July 1958, the NAACP Youth Council sponsored sit-ins at the lunch counter of a Dockum Drug Store in downtown Wichita, Kansas. After three weeks, the movement successfully got the store to change its policy of segregated seating, and soon afterwards all Dockum stores in Kansas were desegregated. This movement was quickly followed in the same year by a student sit-in at a Katz Drug Store in Oklahoma City led by Clara Luper, which also was successful.Mostly black students from area colleges led a sit-in at a Woolworth’s store in Greensboro, North Carolina. On February 1, 1960, four students, Ezell A. Blair Jr., David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, and Franklin McCain from North Carolina Agricultural & Technical College, an all-black college, sat down at the segregated lunch counter to protest Woolworth’s policy of excluding African Americans from being served food there The four students purchased small items in other parts of the store and kept their receipts, then sat down at the lunch counter and asked to be served. After being denied service, they produced their receipts and asked why their money was good everywhere else at the store, but not at the lunch counter.The protesters had been encouraged to dress professionally, to sit quietly, and to occupy every other stool so that potential white sympathizers could join in. The Greensboro sit-in was quickly followed by other sit-ins in Richmond, Virginia; Nashville, Tennessee; and Atlanta, Georgia The most immediately effective of these was in Nashville, where hundreds of well organized and highly disciplined college students conducted sit-ins in coordination with a boycott campaign As students across the south began to “sit-in” at the lunch counters of local stores, police and other officials sometimes used brutal force to physically escort the demonstrators from the lunch facilities The “sit-in” technique was not new—as far back as 1939, African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker organized a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, Virginia, library. In 1960 the technique succeeded in bringing national attention to the movement On March 9, 1960, an Atlanta University Center group of students released An Appeal for Human Rights as a full page advertisement in newspapers, including the Atlanta Constitution, Atlanta Journal, and Atlanta Daily World. Known as the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights (COAHR), the group initiated the Atlanta Student Movement and began to lead sit-ins starting on March 15, 1960. By the end of 1960, the process of sit-ins had spread to every southern and border state, and even to facilities in Nevada, Illinois, and Ohio that discriminated against blacks

Demonstrators focused not only on lunch counters but also on parks, beaches, libraries, theaters, museums, and other public facilities. In April 1960 activists who had led these sit-ins were invited by SCLC activist Ella Baker to hold a conference at Shaw University, a historically black university in Raleigh, North Carolina This conference led to the formation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). SNCC took these tactics of nonviolent confrontation further, and organized the freedom rides. As the constitution protected interstate commerce, they decided to challenge segregation on interstate buses and in public bus facilities by putting interracial teams on them, to travel from the North through the segregated South === Freedom Rides, 1961 === Freedom Rides were journeys by civil rights activists on interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454 (1960), which ruled that segregation was unconstitutional for passengers engaged in interstate travel. Organized by CORE, the first Freedom Ride of the 1960s left Washington D.C. on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.During the first and subsequent Freedom Rides, activists travelled through the Deep South to integrate seating patterns on buses and desegregate bus terminals, including restrooms and water fountains. That proved to be a dangerous mission In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was firebombed, forcing its passengers to flee for their lives In Birmingham, Alabama, an FBI informant reported that Public Safety Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor gave Ku Klux Klan members fifteen minutes to attack an incoming group of freedom riders before having police “protect” them. The riders were severely beaten “until it looked like a bulldog had got a hold of them.” James Peck, a white activist, was beaten so badly that he required fifty stitches to his head.In a similar occurrence in Montgomery, Alabama, the Freedom Riders followed in the footsteps of Rosa Parks and rode an integrated Greyhound bus from Birmingham. Although they were protesting interstate bus segregation in peace, they were met with violence in Montgomery as a large, white mob attacked them for their activism They caused an enormous, 2-hour long riot which resulted in 22 injuries, five of whom were hospitalized.Mob violence in Anniston and Birmingham temporarily halted the rides SNCC activists from Nashville brought in new riders to continue the journey from Birmingham to New Orleans. In Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station, a mob charged another bus load of riders, knocking John Lewis unconscious with a crate and smashing Life photographer Don Urbrock in the face with his own camera A dozen men surrounded James Zwerg, a white student from Fisk University, and beat him in the face with a suitcase, knocking out his teeth.On May 24, 1961, the freedom riders continued their rides into Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested for “breaching the peace” by using “white only” facilities. New Freedom Rides were organized by many different organizations and continued to flow into the South. As riders arrived in Jackson, they were arrested. By the end of summer, more than 300 had been jailed in Mississippi When the weary Riders arrive in Jackson and attempt to use “white only” restrooms and lunch counters they are immediately arrested for Breach of Peace and Refusal to Obey an Officer. Says Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett in defense of segregation: “The Negro is different because God made him different to punish him.” From lockup, the Riders announce “Jail No Bail”—they will not pay fines for unconstitutional arrests and illegal convictions—and by staying in jail they keep the issue alive. Each prisoner will remain in jail for 39 days, the maximum time they can serve without loosing [sic] their right to appeal the unconstitutionality of their arrests, trials, and convictions After 39 days, they file an appeal and post bond The jailed freedom riders were treated harshly, crammed into tiny, filthy cells and sporadically beaten. In Jackson, some male prisoners were forced to do hard labor in 100 °F heat. Others were transferred to the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, where they were treated to harsh conditions. Sometimes the men were suspended by “wrist breakers” from the walls. Typically, the windows of their cells were shut tight on hot days, making it hard for them to breathe Public sympathy and support for the freedom riders led John F. Kennedy’s administration to order the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to issue a new desegregation order When the new ICC rule took effect on November

1, 1961, passengers were permitted to sit wherever they chose on the bus; “white” and “colored” signs came down in the terminals; separate drinking fountains, toilets, and waiting rooms were consolidated; and lunch counters began serving people regardless of skin color The student movement involved such celebrated figures as John Lewis, a single-minded activist; James Lawson, the revered “guru” of nonviolent theory and tactics; Diane Nash, an articulate and intrepid public champion of justice; Bob Moses, pioneer of voting registration in Mississippi; and James Bevel, a fiery preacher and charismatic organizer, strategist, and facilitator. Other prominent student activists included Charles McDew, Bernard Lafayette, Charles Jones, Lonnie King, Julian Bond, Hosea Williams, and Stokely Carmichael === Voter registration organizing === After the Freedom Rides, local black leaders in Mississippi such as Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, Medgar Evers, and others asked SNCC to help register black voters and to build community organizations that could win a share of political power in the state. Since Mississippi ratified its new constitution in 1890 with provisions such as poll taxes, residency requirements, and literacy tests, it made registration more complicated and stripped blacks from voter rolls and voting. In addition, violence at the time of elections had earlier suppressed black voting By the mid-20th century, preventing blacks from voting had become an essential part of the culture of white supremacy. In June and July of 1959, members of the black community in Fayette County, TN formed the Fayette County Civic and Welfare League to spur voting. At the time, there were 16,927 blacks in the county, yet only 17 of them had voted in the previous seven years. Within a year, some 1,400 blacks had registered, and the white community responded with harsh economic reprisals Using registration rolls, the White Citizens Council circulated a blacklist of all registered black voters, allowing banks, local stores and gas stations to conspire to deny registered black voters basic services. What’s more, sharecropping blacks who registered to vote were summarily evicted from their homes. All in all, the number of evictions came to 257 families, many of whom were forced to live in a makeshift Tent City for well over a year Finally, in December 1960, the Justice Department invoked its powers authorized by the Civil Rights Act of 1957 to file a suit against seventy parties accused of violating the civil rights of black Fayette County citizens. In the following year the first voter registration project in McComb and the surrounding counties in the Southwest corner of the state. Their efforts were met with violent repression from state and local lawmen, the White Citizens’ Council, and the Ku Klux Klan. Activists were beaten, there were hundreds of arrests of local citizens, and the voting activist Herbert Lee was murdered.White opposition to black voter registration was so intense in Mississippi that Freedom Movement activists concluded that all of the state’s civil rights organizations had to unite in a coordinated effort to have any chance of success. In February 1962, representatives of SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP formed the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). At a subsequent meeting in August, SCLC became part of COFO.In the Spring of 1962, with funds from the Voter Education Project, SNCC/COFO began voter registration organizing in the Mississippi Delta area around Greenwood, and the areas surrounding Hattiesburg, Laurel, and Holly Springs. As in McComb, their efforts were met with fierce opposition—arrests, beatings, shootings, arson, and murder. Registrars used the literacy test to keep blacks off the voting roles by creating standards that even highly educated people could not meet In addition, employers fired blacks who tried to register, and landlords evicted them from their rental homes. Despite these actions, over the following years, the black voter registration campaign spread across the state Similar voter registration campaigns—with similar responses—were begun by SNCC, CORE, and SCLC in Louisiana, Alabama, southwest Georgia, and South Carolina. By 1963, voter registration campaigns in the South were as integral to the Freedom Movement as desegregation efforts. After the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protecting and facilitating voter registration despite state barriers became the main effort of the movement. It resulted in passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which had provisions to enforce the constitutional right to vote for all citizens === Integration of Mississippi universities, 1956–1965 ===

Beginning in 1956, Clyde Kennard, a black Korean War-veteran, wanted to enroll at Mississippi Southern College (now the University of Southern Mississippi) under the G.I. Bill at Hattiesburg Dr. William David McCain, the college president, used the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, in order to prevent his enrollment by appealing to local black leaders and the segregationist state political establishment.The state-funded organization tried to counter the civil rights movement by positively portraying segregationist policies. More significantly, it collected data on activists, harassed them legally, and used economic boycotts against them by threatening their jobs (or causing them to lose their jobs) to try to suppress their work Kennard was twice arrested on trumped-up charges, and eventually convicted and sentenced to seven years in the state prison. After three years at hard labor, Kennard was paroled by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. Journalists had investigated his case and publicized the state’s mistreatment of his colon cancer.McCain’s role in Kennard’s arrests and convictions is unknown. While trying to prevent Kennard’s enrollment, McCain made a speech in Chicago, with his travel sponsored by the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission. He described the blacks’ seeking to desegregate Southern schools as “imports” from the North. (Kennard was a native and resident of Hattiesburg.) McCain said: We insist that educationally and socially, we maintain a segregated society…In all fairness, I admit that we are not encouraging Negro voting…The Negroes prefer that control of the government remain in the white man’s hands Note: Mississippi had passed a new constitution in 1890 that effectively disfranchised most blacks by changing electoral and voter registration requirements; although it deprived them of constitutional rights authorized under post-Civil War amendments, it survived U.S. Supreme Court challenges at the time. It was not until after passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act that most blacks in Mississippi and other southern states gained federal protection to enforce the constitutional right of citizens to vote In September 1962, James Meredith won a lawsuit to secure admission to the previously segregated University of Mississippi. He attempted to enter campus on September 20, on September 25, and again on September 26. He was blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett, who said, “[N]o school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your Governor.” The Fifth U.S Circuit Court of Appeals held Barnett and Lieutenant Governor Paul B. Johnson Jr. in contempt, ordering them arrested and fined more than $10,000 for each day they refused to allow Meredith to enroll Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent in a force of U.S. Marshals. On September 30, 1962, Meredith entered the campus under their escort Students and other whites began rioting that evening, throwing rocks and firing on the U.S. Marshals guarding Meredith at Lyceum Hall. Two people, including a French journalist, were killed; 28 marshals suffered gunshot wounds, and 160 others were injured. President John F. Kennedy sent regular U.S. Army forces to the campus to quell the riot. Meredith began classes the day after the troops arrived.Kennard and other activists continued to work on public university desegregation. In 1965 Raylawni Branch and Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong became the first African-American students to attend the University of Southern Mississippi. By that time, McCain helped ensure they had a peaceful entry. In 2006, Judge Robert Helfrich ruled that Kennard was factually innocent of all charges for which he had been convicted in the 1950s === Albany Movement, 1961–62 === The SCLC, which had been criticized by some student activists for its failure to participate more fully in the freedom rides, committed much of its prestige and resources to a desegregation campaign in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961 King, who had been criticized personally by some SNCC activists for his distance from the dangers that local organizers faced—and given the derisive nickname “De Lawd” as a result—intervened personally to assist the campaign led by both SNCC organizers and local leaders The campaign was a failure because of the canny tactics of Laurie Pritchett, the local police chief, and divisions within the black community. The goals may not have been specific enough. Pritchett contained the marchers without violent attacks on demonstrators that inflamed national opinion. He also arranged for arrested demonstrators to be taken to jails in surrounding communities, allowing plenty of room to remain in his jail. Prichett also foresaw King’s presence as a danger and forced his release to avoid King’s rallying the black community

King left in 1962 without having achieved any dramatic victories. The local movement, however, continued the struggle, and it obtained significant gains in the next few years === Birmingham campaign, 1963 === The Albany movement was shown to be an important education for the SCLC, however, when it undertook the Birmingham campaign in 1963. Executive Director Wyatt Tee Walker carefully planned the early strategy and tactics for the campaign It focused on one goal—the desegregation of Birmingham’s downtown merchants, rather than total desegregation, as in Albany The movement’s efforts were helped by the brutal response of local authorities, in particular Eugene “Bull” Connor, the Commissioner of Public Safety. He had long held much political power but had lost a recent election for mayor to a less rabidly segregationist candidate Refusing to accept the new mayor’s authority, Connor intended to stay in office The campaign used a variety of nonviolent methods of confrontation, including sit-ins, kneel-ins at local churches, and a march to the county building to mark the beginning of a drive to register voters. The city, however, obtained an injunction barring all such protests Convinced that the order was unconstitutional, the campaign defied it and prepared for mass arrests of its supporters. King elected to be among those arrested on April 12, 1963.While in jail, King wrote his famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail” on the margins of a newspaper, since he had not been allowed any writing paper while held in solitary confinement Supporters appealed to the Kennedy administration, which intervened to obtain King’s release King was allowed to call his wife, who was recuperating at home after the birth of their fourth child and was released early on April 19 The campaign, however, faltered as it ran out of demonstrators willing to risk arrest James Bevel, SCLC’s Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education, then came up with a bold and controversial alternative: to train high school students to take part in the demonstrations. As a result, in what would be called the Children’s Crusade, more than one thousand students skipped school on May 2 to meet at the 16th Street Baptist Church to join the demonstrations. More than six hundred marched out of the church fifty at a time in an attempt to walk to City Hall to speak to Birmingham’s mayor about segregation They were arrested and put into jail.In this first encounter, the police acted with restraint On the next day, however, another one thousand students gathered at the church. When Bevel started them marching fifty at a time, Bull Connor finally unleashed police dogs on them and then turned the city’s fire hoses water streams on the children. National television networks broadcast the scenes of the dogs attacking demonstrators and the water from the fire hoses knocking down the schoolchildren Widespread public outrage led the Kennedy administration to intervene more forcefully in negotiations between the white business community and the SCLC. On May 10, the parties announced an agreement to desegregate the lunch counters and other public accommodations downtown, to create a committee to eliminate discriminatory hiring practices, to arrange for the release of jailed protesters, and to establish regular means of communication between black and white leaders Not everyone in the black community approved of the agreement—the Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth was particularly critical, since he was sceptical about the good faith of Birmingham’s power structure from his experience in dealing with them. Parts of the white community reacted violently. They bombed the Gaston Motel, which housed the SCLC’s unofficial headquarters, and the home of King’s brother, the Reverend A. D. King. In response, thousands of blacks rioted, burning numerous buildings and one of them stabbed and wounded a police officer Kennedy prepared to federalize the Alabama National Guard if the need arose. Four months later, on September 15, a conspiracy of Ku Klux Klan members bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, killing four young girls === “Rising tide of discontent” and Kennedy’s response, 1963 === Birmingham was only one of over a hundred cities rocked by the chaotic protest that spring and summer, some of them in the North During the March on Washington, Martin Luther King would refer to such protests as “the whirlwinds of revolt.” In Chicago, blacks rioted through the South Side in late May after a white police officer shot a fourteen-year-old black boy who was fleeing the scene of a robbery Violent clashes between black activists and white workers took place in both Philadelphia and Harlem in successful efforts to integrate state construction projects. On June 6, over a thousand whites attacked a sit-in in Lexington,

North Carolina; blacks fought back and one white man was killed. Edwin C. Berry of the National Urban League warned of a complete breakdown in race relations: “My message from the beer gardens and the barbershops all indicate the fact that the Negro is ready for war.”In Cambridge, Maryland, a working‐class city on the Eastern Shore, Gloria Richardson of SNCC led a movement that pressed for desegregation but also demanded low‐rent public housing, job‐training, public and private jobs, and an end to police brutality. On June 11, struggles between blacks and whites escalated into violent rioting, leading Maryland Governor J. Millard Tawes to declare martial law. When negotiations between Richardson and Maryland officials faltered, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy directly intervened to negotiate a desegregation agreement. Richardson felt that the increasing participation of poor and working-class blacks was expanding both the power and parameters of the movement, asserting that “the people as a whole really do have more intelligence than a few of their leaders.ʺIn their deliberations during this wave of protests, the Kennedy administration privately felt that militant demonstrations were ʺbad for the countryʺ and that “Negroes are going to push this thing too far.” On May 24, Robert Kennedy had a meeting with prominent black intellectuals to discuss the racial situation. The blacks criticized Kennedy harshly for vacillating on civil rights, and said that the African-American community’s thoughts were increasingly turning to violence. The meeting ended with ill will on all sides. Nonetheless, the Kennedys ultimately decided that new legislation for equal public accommodations was essential to drive activists “into the courts and out of the streets.” On June 11, 1963, George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, tried to block the integration of the University of Alabama. President John F. Kennedy sent a military force to make Governor Wallace step aside, allowing the enrollment of Vivian Malone Jones and James Hood. That evening, President Kennedy addressed the nation on TV and radio with his historic civil rights speech, where he lamented “a rising tide of discontent that threatens the public safety.” He called on Congress to pass new civil rights legislation, and urged the country to embrace civil rights as “a moral issue…in our daily lives.” In the early hours of June 12, Medgar Evers, field secretary of the Mississippi NAACP, was assassinated by a member of the Klan. The next week, as promised, on June 19, 1963, President Kennedy submitted his Civil Rights bill to Congress === March on Washington, 1963 === A. Philip Randolph had planned a march on Washington, D.C., in 1941 to support demands for elimination of employment discrimination in defense industries; he called off the march when the Roosevelt administration met the demand by issuing Executive Order 8802 barring racial discrimination and creating an agency to oversee compliance with the order.Randolph and Bayard Rustin were the chief planners of the second march, which they proposed in 1962. In 1963, the Kennedy administration initially opposed the march out of concern it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, Randolph and King were firm that the march would proceed With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. Concerned about the turnout, President Kennedy enlisted the aid of white church leaders and Walter Reuther, president of the UAW, to help mobilize white supporters for the march.The march was held on August 28, 1963. Unlike the planned 1941 march, for which Randolph included only black-led organizations in the planning, the 1963 march was a collaborative effort of all of the major civil rights organizations, the more progressive wing of the labor movement, and other liberal organizations. The march had six official goals: meaningful civil rights laws a massive federal works program full and fair employment decent housing the right to vote adequate integrated education.Of these, the march’s major focus was on passage of the civil rights law that the Kennedy administration had proposed after the upheavals in Birmingham National media attention also greatly contributed to the march’s national exposure and probable impact. In the essay “The March on Washington and Television News,” historian William Thomas notes: “Over five hundred cameramen, technicians, and correspondents from the major networks were set to cover the event. More cameras would be set up than had filmed the last presidential

inauguration. One camera was positioned high in the Washington Monument, to give dramatic vistas of the marchers”. By carrying the organizers’ speeches and offering their own commentary, television stations framed the way their local audiences saw and understood the event The march was a success, although not without controversy. An estimated 200,000 to 300,000 demonstrators gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial, where King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. While many speakers applauded the Kennedy administration for the efforts it had made toward obtaining new, more effective civil rights legislation protecting the right to vote and outlawing segregation, John Lewis of SNCC took the administration to task for not doing more to protect southern blacks and civil rights workers under attack in the Deep South After the march, King and other civil rights leaders met with President Kennedy at the White House. While the Kennedy administration appeared sincerely committed to passing the bill, it was not clear that it had enough votes in Congress to do so. However, when President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, the new President Lyndon Johnson decided to use his influence in Congress to bring about much of Kennedy’s legislative agenda === Malcolm X joins the movement, 1964–1965 === In March 1964, Malcolm X (el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz), national representative of the Nation of Islam, formally broke with that organization, and made a public offer to collaborate with any civil rights organization that accepted the right to self-defense and the philosophy of Black nationalism (which Malcolm said no longer required Black separatism). Gloria Richardson, head of the Cambridge, Maryland, chapter of SNCC, and leader of the Cambridge rebellion, an honored guest at The March on Washington, immediately embraced Malcolm’s offer. Mrs Richardson, “the nation’s most prominent woman [civil rights] leader,” told The Baltimore Afro-American that “Malcolm is being very practical…The federal government has moved into conflict situations only when matters approach the level of insurrection. Self-defense may force Washington to intervene sooner.” Earlier, in May 1963, writer and activist James Baldwin had stated publicly that “the Black Muslim movement is the only one in the country we can call grassroots, I hate to say it…Malcolm articulates for Negroes, their suffering…he corroborates their reality…” On the local level, Malcolm and the NOI had been allied with the Harlem chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) since at least 1962 On March 26, 1964, as the Civil Rights Act was facing stiff opposition in Congress, Malcolm had a public meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. at the Capitol. Malcolm had tried to begin a dialog with Dr. King as early as 1957, but King had rebuffed him. Malcolm had responded by calling King an “Uncle Tom”, saying he had turned his back on black militancy in order to appease the white power structure But the two men were on good terms at their face-to-face meeting. There is evidence that King was preparing to support Malcolm’s plan to formally bring the U.S. government before the United Nations on charges of human rights violations against African Americans. Malcolm now encouraged Black nationalists to get involved in voter registration drives and other forms of community organizing to redefine and expand the movement.Civil rights activists became increasingly combative in the 1963 to 1964 period, seeking to defy such events as the thwarting of the Albany campaign, police repression and Ku Klux Klan terrorism in Birmingham, and the assassination of Medgar Evers. The latter’s brother Charles Evers, who took over as Mississippi NAACP Field Director, told a public NAACP conference on February 15, 1964, that “non-violence won’t work in Mississippi…we made up our minds…that if a white man shoots at a Negro in Mississippi, we will shoot back.” The repression of sit-ins in Jacksonville, Florida, provoked a riot in which black youth threw Molotov cocktails at police on March 24, 1964. Malcolm X gave numerous speeches in this period warning that such militant activity would escalate further if African Americans’ rights were not fully recognized In his landmark April 1964 speech “The Ballot or the Bullet”, Malcolm presented an ultimatum to white America: “There’s new strategy coming

in. It’ll be Molotov cocktails this month, hand grenades next month, and something else next month. It’ll be ballots, or it’ll be bullets.”As noted in the PBS documentary Eyes on the Prize, “Malcolm X had a far reaching effect on the civil rights movement. In the South, there had been a long tradition of self reliance. Malcolm X’s ideas now touched that tradition”. Self-reliance was becoming paramount in light of the 1964 Democratic National Convention’s decision to refuse seating to the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) and instead to seat the regular state delegation, which had been elected in violation of the party’s own rules, and by Jim Crow law instead. SNCC moved in an increasingly militant direction and worked with Malcolm X on two Harlem MFDP fundraisers in December 1964 When Fannie Lou Hamer spoke to Harlemites about the Jim Crow violence that she’d suffered in Mississippi, she linked it directly to the Northern police brutality against blacks that Malcolm protested against; When Malcolm asserted that African Americans should emulate the Mau Mau army of Kenya in efforts to gain their independence, many in SNCC applauded.During the Selma campaign for voting rights in 1965, Malcolm made it known that he’d heard reports of increased threats of lynching around Selma In late January he sent an open telegram to George Lincoln Rockwell, the head of the American Nazi Party, stating: “if your present racist agitation against our people there in Alabama causes physical harm to Reverend King or any other black Americans…you and your KKK friends will be met with maximum physical retaliation from those of us who are not handcuffed by the disarming philosophy of nonviolence.”The following month, the Selma chapter of SNCC invited Malcolm to speak to a mass meeting there. On the day of Malcolm’s appearance, President Johnson made his first public statement in support of the Selma campaign Paul Ryan Haygood, a co-director of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, credits Malcolm with a role in gaining support by the federal government Haygood noted that “shortly after Malcolm’s visit to Selma, a federal judge, responding to a suit brought by the Department of Justice, required Dallas County, Alabama, registrars to process at least 100 Black applications each day their offices were open.” === St. Augustine, Florida, 1963–64 === St. Augustine was famous as the “Nation’s Oldest City”, founded by the Spanish in 1565 It became the stage for a great drama leading up to the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. A local movement, led by Dr Robert B. Hayling, a black dentist and Air Force veteran affiliated with the NAACP, had been picketing segregated local institutions since 1963. In the fall of 1964, Hayling and three companions were brutally beaten at a Ku Klux Klan rally Nightriders shot into black homes, and teenagers Audrey Nell Edwards, JoeAnn Anderson, Samuel White, and Willie Carl Singleton (who came to be known as “The St. Augustine Four”) sat in at a local Woolworth’s lunch counter, seeking to get served. They were arrested and convicted of trespassing, and sentenced to six months in jail and reform school. It took a special act of the governor and cabinet of Florida to release them after national protests by the Pittsburgh Courier, Jackie Robinson, and others In response to the repression, the St. Augustine movement practiced armed self-defense in addition to nonviolent direct action. In June 1963, Dr. Hayling publicly stated that “I and the others have armed. We will shoot first and answer questions later. We are not going to die like Medgar Evers.” The comment made national headlines. When Klan nightriders terrorized black neighborhoods in St. Augustine, Hayling’s NAACP members often drove them off with gunfire In October 1963, a Klansman was killed.In 1964, Dr. Hayling and other activists urged the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to come to St. Augustine. Four prominent Massachusetts women – Mary Parkman Peabody, Esther Burgess, Hester Campbell (all of whose husbands were Episcopal bishops), and Florence Rowe (whose husband was vice president of John Hancock Insurance Company) – also came to lend their support. The arrest of Mrs. Peabody, the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, for attempting to eat at the segregated Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge in an integrated group, made front-page news across the country and brought the movement in St. Augustine to the attention of the world Widely publicized activities continued in the ensuing months. When Dr. King was arrested, he sent a “Letter from the St. Augustine Jail”

to a northern supporter, Rabbi Israel Dresner A week later, in the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history took place, while they were conducting a pray-in at the segregated Monson Motel. A well-known photograph taken in St. Augustine shows the manager of the Monson Motel pouring muriatic acid in the swimming pool while blacks and whites are swimming in it. The horrifying photograph was run on the front page of a Washington newspaper the day the Senate were to vote on passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 === Chester School Protests, Spring 1964 === In the early 1960s, racial unrest and civil rights protests led by George Raymond of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP) and Stanley Branche of the Committee for Freedom Now (CFFN) made Chester, Pennsylvania one of the key battlegrounds of the civil rights movement. James Farmer, the national director of the Congress of Racial Equality called Chester “the Birmingham of the North”.In 1962, Branche and the CFFN focused on improving conditions at the predominantly black Franklin Elementary school in Chester Although the school was built to house 500 students, it had become overcrowded with 1,200 students. The school’s average class-size was 39, twice the number of nearby all-white schools. The school was built in 1910 and had never been updated. Only two bathrooms were available for the entire school. In November 1963, CFFN protesters blocked the entrance to Franklin Elementary school and the Chester Municipal Building resulting in the arrest of 240 protesters. Following public attention to the protests stoked by media coverage of the mass arrests, the mayor and school board negotiated with the CFFN and NAACP. The Chester Board of Education agreed to reduce class sizes at Franklin school, remove unsanitary toilet facilities, relocate classes held in the boiler room and coal bin and repair school grounds.Emboldened by the success of the Franklin Elementary school demonstrations, the CFFN recruited new members, sponsored voter registration drives and planned a citywide boycott of Chester schools. Branche built close ties with students at nearby Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania Military College and Cheyney State College in order to ensure large turnouts at demonstrations and protests. Branche invited Dick Gregory and Malcolm X to Chester to participate in the “Freedom Now Conference” and other national civil rights leaders such as Gloria Richardson came to Chester in support of the demonstrations.In 1964, a series of almost nightly protests brought chaos to Chester as protestors argued that the Chester School Board had de facto segregation of schools. The mayor of Chester, James Gorbey, issued “The Police Position to Preserve the Public Peace”, a ten-point statement promising an immediate return to law and order. The city deputized firemen and trash collectors to help handle demonstrators The State of Pennsylvania deployed 50 state troopers to assist the 77-member Chester police force. The demonstrations were marked by violence and charges of police brutality. Over six hundred people were arrested over a two month period of civil rights rallies, marches, pickets, boycotts and sit-ins. Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton became involved in the negotiations and convinced Branche to obey a court-ordered moratorium on demonstrations. Scranton created the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission to conduct hearings on the de facto segregation of public schools. All protests were discontinued while the commission held hearings during the summer of 1964.In November 1964, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission concluded that the Chester School Board had violated the law and ordered the Chester School District to desegregate the city’s six predominantly African-American schools. The city appealed the ruling, which delayed implementation === Freedom Summer, 1964 === In the summer of 1964, COFO brought nearly 1,000 activists to Mississippi—most of them white college students—to join with local black activists to register voters, teach in “Freedom Schools,” and organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP).Many of Mississippi’s white residents deeply resented the outsiders and attempts to change their society. State and local governments, police, the White Citizens’ Council and the Ku Klux Klan used arrests, beatings, arson, murder, spying, firing, evictions, and other forms of intimidation and harassment to oppose the project and prevent blacks from registering to vote or achieving social equality On June 21, 1964, three civil rights workers disappeared: James Chaney, a young black Mississippian

and plasterer’s apprentice; and two Jewish activists, Andrew Goodman, a Queens College anthropology student; and Michael Schwerner, a CORE organizer from Manhattan’s Lower East Side. They were found weeks later, murdered by conspirators who turned out to be local members of the Klan, some of them members of the Neshoba County sheriff’s department This outraged the public, leading the U.S Justice Department along with the FBI (the latter which had previously avoided dealing with the issue of segregation and persecution of blacks) to take action. The outrage over these murders helped lead to the passage of the Civil Rights Act From June to August, Freedom Summer activists worked in 38 local projects scattered across the state, with the largest number concentrated in the Mississippi Delta region. At least 30 Freedom Schools, with close to 3,500 students, were established, and 28 community centers set up.Over the course of the Summer Project, some 17,000 Mississippi blacks attempted to become registered voters in defiance of the red tape and forces of white supremacy arrayed against them—only 1,600 (less than 10%) succeeded. But more than 80,000 joined the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), founded as an alternative political organization, showing their desire to vote and participate in politics.Though Freedom Summer failed to register many voters, it had a significant effect on the course of the civil rights movement It helped break down the decades of people’s isolation and repression that were the foundation of the Jim Crow system. Before Freedom Summer, the national news media had paid little attention to the persecution of black voters in the Deep South and the dangers endured by black civil rights workers. The progression of events throughout the South increased media attention to Mississippi.The deaths of affluent northern white students and threats to other northerners attracted the full attention of the media spotlight to the state. Many black activists became embittered, believing the media valued lives of whites and blacks differently. Perhaps the most significant effect of Freedom Summer was on the volunteers, almost all of whom—black and white—still consider it to have been one of the defining periods of their lives === Civil Rights Act of 1964 === Although President Kennedy had proposed civil rights legislation and it had support from Northern Congressmen and Senators of both parties, Southern Senators blocked the bill by threatening filibusters. After considerable parliamentary maneuvering and 54 days of filibuster on the floor of the United States Senate, President Johnson got a bill through the Congress On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned discrimination based on “race, color, religion, sex or national origin” in employment practices and public accommodations. The bill authorized the Attorney General to file lawsuits to enforce the new law. The law also nullified state and local laws that required such discrimination === Harlem riot of 1964 === When police shot an unarmed black teenager in Harlem in July 1964, tensions escalated out of control. Residents were frustrated with racial inequalities. Rioting broke out, and Bedford-Stuyvesant, a major black neighborhood in Brooklyn erupted next. That summer, rioting also broke out in Philadelphia, for similar reasons. The riots were on a much smaller scale than what would occur in 1965 and later Washington responded with a pilot program called Project Uplift. Thousands of young people in Harlem were given jobs during the summer of 1965. The project was inspired by a report generated by HARYOU called Youth in the Ghetto. HARYOU was given a major role in organizing the project, together with the National Urban League and nearly 100 smaller community organizations. Permanent jobs at living wages were still out of reach of many young black men === Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, 1964 === Blacks in Mississippi had been disfranchised by statutory and constitutional changes since the late 19th century. In 1963 COFO held a Freedom Vote in Mississippi to demonstrate the desire of black Mississippians to vote More than 80,000 people registered and voted in the mock election, which pitted an integrated slate of candidates from the “Freedom Party” against the official state Democratic Party candidates In 1964, organizers launched the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to challenge the all-white official party. When Mississippi voting registrars refused to recognize their

candidates, they held their own primary. They selected Fannie Lou Hamer, Annie Devine, and Victoria Gray to run for Congress, and a slate of delegates to represent Mississippi at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.The presence of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in Atlantic City, New Jersey, was inconvenient, however, for the convention organizers. They had planned a triumphant celebration of the Johnson administration’s achievements in civil rights, rather than a fight over racism within the Democratic Party. All-white delegations from other Southern states threatened to walk out if the official slate from Mississippi was not seated. Johnson was worried about the inroads that Republican Barry Goldwater’s campaign was making in what previously had been the white Democratic stronghold of the “Solid South”, as well as support that George Wallace had received in the North during the Democratic primaries Johnson could not, however, prevent the MFDP from taking its case to the Credentials Committee There Fannie Lou Hamer testified eloquently about the beatings that she and others endured and the threats they faced for trying to register to vote. Turning to the television cameras, Hamer asked, “Is this America?” Johnson offered the MFDP a “compromise” under which it would receive two non-voting, at-large seats, while the white delegation sent by the official Democratic Party would retain its seats. The MFDP angrily rejected the “compromise.” The MFDP kept up its agitation at the convention after it was denied official recognition When all but three of the “regular” Mississippi delegates left because they refused to pledge allegiance to the party, the MFDP delegates borrowed passes from sympathetic delegates and took the seats vacated by the official Mississippi delegates. National party organizers removed them. When they returned the next day, they found convention organizers had removed the empty seats that had been there the day before. They stayed and sang “freedom songs” The 1964 Democratic Party convention disillusioned many within the MFDP and the civil rights movement, but it did not destroy the MFDP The MFDP became more radical after Atlantic City. It invited Malcolm X to speak at one of its conventions and opposed the war in Vietnam === Selma Voting Rights Movement === SNCC had undertaken an ambitious voter registration program in Selma, Alabama, in 1963, but by 1965 little headway had been made in the face of opposition from Selma’s sheriff, Jim Clark After local residents asked the SCLC for assistance, King came to Selma to lead several marches, at which he was arrested along with 250 other demonstrators. The marchers continued to meet violent resistance from police. Jimmie Lee Jackson, a resident of nearby Marion, was killed by police at a later march in February 17, 1965. Jackson’s death prompted James Bevel, director of the Selma Movement, to initiate and organize a plan to march from Selma to Montgomery, the state capital On March 7, 1965, acting on Bevel’s plan, Hosea Williams of the SCLC and John Lewis of SNCC led a march of 600 people to walk the 54 miles (87 km) from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery. Six blocks into the march, at the Edmund Pettus Bridge where the marchers left the city and moved into the county, state troopers and local county law enforcement, some mounted on horseback, attacked the peaceful demonstrators with billy clubs, tear gas, rubber tubes wrapped in barbed wire, and bull whips. They drove the marchers back into Selma. Lewis was knocked unconscious and dragged to safety. At least 16 other marchers were hospitalized. Among those gassed and beaten was Amelia Boynton Robinson, who was at the center of civil rights activity at the time The national broadcast of the news footage of lawmen attacking unresisting marchers’ seeking to exercise their constitutional right to vote provoked a national response, and hundreds of people from all over the country came for a second march. These marchers were turned around by Dr. King at the last minute so as not to violate a federal injunction With the support of James Forman and other SNCC leaders, activists throughout the country committed civil disobedience for Selma, particularly in Montgomery and at the White House. The marchers were able to lift the injunction and obtain protection from federal troops, permitting them to make the march across Alabama without incident two weeks later The evening of a second march on March 9 to the site of Bloody Sunday, local whites attacked Rev. James Reeb, a voting rights supporter He died of his injuries in a Birmingham hospital March 11. On March 25, four Klansmen shot and killed Detroit homemaker Viola Liuzzo as she drove marchers back to Selma at night after the successfully completed march to

Montgomery === Voting Rights Act, 1965 === Eight days after the first march, but before the final march, President Johnson delivered a televised address to support the voting rights bill he had sent to Congress. In it he stated: Their cause must be our cause too. Because it is not just Negroes, but really it is all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome On August 6, Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which suspended literacy tests and other subjective voter registration tests It authorized Federal supervision of voter registration in states and individual voting districts where such tests were being used and where African Americans were historically under-represented in voting rolls compared to the eligible population. African Americans who had been barred from registering to vote finally had an alternative to taking suits to local or state courts, which had seldom prosecuted their cases to success. If discrimination in voter registration occurred, the 1965 act authorized the Attorney General of the United States to send Federal examiners to replace local registrars Within months of the bill’s passage, 250,000 new black voters had been registered, one-third of them by federal examiners. Within four years, voter registration in the South had more than doubled. In 1965, Mississippi had the highest black voter turnout at 74% and led the nation in the number of black public officials elected. In 1969, Tennessee had a 92.1% turnout among black voters; Arkansas, 77.9%; and Texas, 73.1% Several whites who had opposed the Voting Rights Act paid a quick price. In 1966 Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma, Alabama, infamous for using cattle prods against civil rights marchers, was up for reelection. Although he took off the notorious “Never” pin on his uniform, he was defeated. At the election, Clark lost as blacks voted to get him out of office Blacks’ regaining the power to vote changed the political landscape of the South. When Congress passed the Voting Rights Act, only about 100 African Americans held elective office, all in northern states. By 1989, there were more than 7,200 African Americans in office, including more than 4,800 in the South Nearly every Black Belt county (where populations were majority black) in Alabama had a black sheriff. Southern blacks held top positions in city, county, and state governments Atlanta elected a black mayor, Andrew Young, as did Jackson, Mississippi, with Harvey Johnson Jr., and New Orleans, with Ernest Morial Black politicians on the national level included Barbara Jordan, elected as a Representative from Texas in Congress, and President Jimmy Carter appointed Andrew Young as United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Julian Bond was elected to the Georgia State Legislature in 1965, although political reaction to his public opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War prevented him from taking his seat until 1967. John Lewis was first elected in 1986 to represent Georgia’s 5th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, where he has served since 1987 === Watts riot of 1965 === The new Voting Rights Act of 1965 had no immediate effect on living conditions for poor blacks A few days after the act became law, a riot broke out in the South Central Los Angeles neighborhood of Watts. Like Harlem, Watts was a majority-black neighborhood with very high unemployment and associated poverty Its residents confronted a largely white police department that had a history of abuse against blacks.While arresting a young man for drunk driving, police officers argued with the suspect’s mother before onlookers. The spark triggered a massive destruction of property through six days of rioting. Thirty-four people were killed and property valued at about $30 million was destroyed, making the Watts Riots among the most expensive in American history With black militancy on the rise, ghetto residents directed acts of anger at the police. Black residents growing tired of police brutality continued to riot. Some young people joined groups such as the Black Panthers, whose popularity was based in part on their reputation for confronting police officers. Riots among blacks occurred in 1966 and 1967 in cities such as Atlanta, San Francisco, Oakland, Baltimore, Seattle, Tacoma, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Columbus, Newark, Chicago, New York City (specifically

in Brooklyn, Harlem and the Bronx), and worst of all in Detroit === Fair housing movements, 1966–1968 === The first major blow against housing segregation in the era, the Rumford Fair Housing Act, was passed in California in 1963. It was overturned by white California voters and real estate lobbyists the following year with Proposition 14, a move which helped precipitate the Watts Riots. In 1966, the California Supreme Court invalidated Proposition 14 and reinstated the Fair Housing Act.Working and organizing for fair housing laws became a major project of the movement over the next two years, with Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel, and Al Raby leading the Chicago Freedom Movement around the issue in 1966. In the following year, Father James Groppi and the NAACP Youth Council also attracted national attention with a fair housing campaign in Milwaukee Both movements faced violent resistance from white homeowners and legal opposition from conservative politicians The Fair Housing Bill was the most contentious civil rights legislation of the era. Senator Walter Mondale, who advocated for the bill, noted that over successive years, it was the most filibustered legislation in U.S. history It was opposed by most Northern and Southern senators, as well as the National Association of Real Estate Boards. A proposed “Civil Rights Act of 1966” had collapsed completely because of its fair housing provision. Mondale commented that: A lot of civil rights [legislation] was about making the South behave and taking the teeth from George Wallace, [but] this came right to the neighborhoods across the country. This was civil rights getting personal === Nationwide riots of 1967 === In 1967 riots broke out in black neighborhoods in more than 100 U.S. cities, including Detroit, Newark, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Washington, D.C. The largest of these was the 1967 Detroit riot In Detroit, a large black middle class had begun to develop among those African Americans who worked at unionized jobs in the automotive industry. These workers complained of persisting racist practices, iimiting the jobs they could have and opportunities for promotion. The United Auto Workers channelled these complaints into bureaucratic and ineffective grievance procedures. Violent white mobs enforced the segregation of housing up through the 1960s Blacks who were not upwardly mobile were living in substandard conditions, subject to the same problems as poor African Americans in Watts and Harlem When white Detroit Police Department (DPD) officers shut down an illegal bar and arrested a large group of patrons during the hot summer, furious black residents rioted. Rioters looted and destroyed property while snipers engaged in firefights from rooftops and windows, undermining the DPD’s ability to curtail the disorder In response, the Michigan Army National Guard and U.S. Army paratroopers were deployed to reinforce the DPD and protect Detroit Fire Department (DFD) firefighters from attacks while putting out fires. Residents reported that police officers and National Guardsmen shot at black civilians and suspects indiscriminately After five days, 43 people had been killed, hundreds injured, and thousands left homeless; $40 to $45 million worth of damage was caused.State and local governments responded to the riot with a dramatic increase in minority hiring In the aftermath of the turmoil, the Greater Detroit Board of Commerce also launched a campaign to find jobs for ten thousand “previously unemployable” persons, a preponderant number of whom were black. Governor George Romney immediately responded to the riot of 1967 with a special session of the Michigan legislature where he forwarded sweeping housing proposals that included not only fair housing, but “important relocation, tenants’ rights and code enforcement legislation.” Romney had supported such proposals in 1965, but abandoned them in the face of organized opposition. The laws passed both houses of the legislature. Historian Sidney Fine wrote that: The Michigan Fair Housing Act, which took effect on November 15, 1968, was stronger than the federal fair housing law…It is probably more than a coincidence that the state that had experienced the most severe racial disorder of the 1960s also adopted one of the strongest state fair housing acts President Johnson created the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders in response to nationwide wave of riots. The commission’s final report called for major reforms in employment and public policy in black communities. It warned that the United States was moving toward separate white and black societies

=== Memphis, King assassination and the Poor People’s March 1968 === Rev. James Lawson invited King to Memphis, Tennessee, in March 1968 to support a sanitation workers’ strike. These workers launched a campaign for union representation after two workers were accidentally killed on the job; they were seeking fair wages and improved working conditions. King considered their struggle to be a vital part of the Poor People’s Campaign he was planning A day after delivering his stirring “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” sermon, which has become famous for his vision of American society, King was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Riots broke out in black neighborhoods in more than 110 cities across the United States in the days that followed, notably in Chicago, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C The day before King’s funeral, April 8, Coretta Scott King and three of the King children led 20,000 marchers through the streets of Memphis, holding signs that read, “Honor King: End Racism” and “Union Justice Now”. Armed National Guardsmen lined the streets, sitting on M-48 tanks, to protect the marchers, and helicopters circled overhead. On April 9, Mrs. King led another 150,000 people in a funeral procession through the streets of Atlanta. Her dignity revived courage and hope in many of the Movement’s members, confirming her place as the new leader in the struggle for racial equality Coretta Scott King said, [Martin Luther King Jr.] gave his life for the poor of the world, the garbage workers of Memphis and the peasants of Vietnam. The day that Negro people and others in bondage are truly free, on the day want is abolished, on the day wars are no more, on that day I know my husband will rest in a long-deserved peace Rev. Ralph Abernathy succeeded King as the head of the SCLC and attempted to carry forth King’s plan for a Poor People’s March. It was to unite blacks and whites to campaign for fundamental changes in American society and economic structure. The march went forward under Abernathy’s plainspoken leadership but did not achieve its goals === Civil Rights Act of 1968 === As 1968 began, the fair housing bill was being filibustered once again, but two developments revived it. The Kerner Commission report on the 1967 ghetto riots was delivered to Congress on March 1, and it strongly recommended “a comprehensive and enforceable federal open housing law” as a remedy to the civil disturbances The Senate was moved to end their filibuster that week.As the House of Representatives deliberated the bill in April, Dr. King was assassinated, and the largest wave of unrest since the Civil War swept the country. Senator Charles Mathias wrote that: some Senators and Representatives publicly stated they would not be intimidated or rushed into legislating because of the disturbances Nevertheless, the news coverage of the riots and the underlying disparities in income, jobs, housing, and education, between White and Black Americans helped educate citizens and Congress about the stark reality of an enormous social problem. Members of Congress knew they had to act to redress these imbalances in American life to fulfil the dream that King had so eloquently preached The House passed the legislation on April 10, and President Johnson signed it the next day. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, and national origin. It also made it a federal crime to “by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone…by reason of their race, color, religion, or national origin.” == Movements, politics, and white reactions == === Grassroots leadership === While most popular representations of the movement are centered on the leadership and philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr., some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to one person, organization, or strategy. Sociologist Doug McAdam has stated that, “in King’s case, it would be inaccurate to say that he was the leader of the modern civil rights movement…but more importantly, there was no singular civil rights movement The movement was, in fact, a coalition of thousands of local efforts nationwide, spanning several decades, hundreds of discrete groups, and all manner of strategies and tactics—legal,

illegal, institutional, non-institutional, violent, non-violent. Without discounting King’s importance, it would be sheer fiction to call him the leader of what was fundamentally an amorphous, fluid, dispersed movement.” Decentralized grassroots leadership has been a major focus of movement scholarship in recent decades through the work of historians John Dittmer, Charles Payne, Barbara Ransby, and others === Black power (1966–1968) === During the Freedom Summer campaign of 1964, numerous tensions within the civil rights movement came to the forefront. Many blacks in SNCC developed concerns that white activists from the North were taking over the movement The participation by numerous white students was not reducing the amount of violence that SNCC suffered, but seemed to exacerbate it Additionally, there was profound disillusionment at Lyndon Johnson’s denial of voting status for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic National Convention. Meanwhile, during CORE’s work in Louisiana that summer, that group found the federal government would not respond to requests to enforce the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, or to protect the lives of activists who challenged segregation The Louisiana campaign survived by relying on a local African-American militia called the Deacons for Defense and Justice, who used arms to repel white supremacist violence and police repression. CORE’s collaboration with the Deacons was effective in disrupting Jim Crow in numerous Louisiana areas.In 1965, SNCC helped organize an independent political party, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO), in the heart of the Alabama Black Belt, also Klan territory. It permitted its black leaders to openly promote the use of armed self-defense. Meanwhile, the Deacons for Defense and Justice expanded into Mississippi and assisted Charles Evers’ NAACP chapter with a successful campaign in Natchez. Charles had taken the lead after his brother Medgar Evers was assassinated in 1963. The same year, the 1965 Watts Rebellion took place in Los Angeles. Many black youth were committed to the use of violence to protest inequality and oppression During the March Against Fear in 1966, initiated by James Meredith, SNCC and CORE fully embraced the slogan of “black power” to describe these trends towards militancy and self-reliance In Mississippi, Stokely Carmichael declared, “I’m not going to beg the white man for anything that I deserve, I’m going to take it. We need power.”Some people engaging in the Black Power movement claimed a growing sense of black pride and identity. In gaining more of a sense of a cultural identity, blacks demanded that whites no longer refer to them as “Negroes” but as “Afro-Americans,” similar to other ethnic groups, such as Irish Americans and Italian Americans. Until the mid-1960s, blacks had dressed similarly to whites and often straightened their hair. As a part of affirming their identity, blacks started to wear African-based dashikis and grow their hair out as a natural afro. The afro, sometimes nicknamed the “‘fro,” remained a popular black hairstyle until the late 1970s. Other variations of traditional African styles have become popular, often featuring braids, extensions, and dreadlocks The Black Panther Party (BPP), which was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California, in 1966, gained the most attention for Black Power nationally. The group began following the revolutionary pan-Africanism of late-period Malcolm X, using a “by-any-means necessary” approach to stopping inequality They sought to rid African-American neighborhoods of police brutality and to establish socialist community control in the ghettos. While they conducted armed confrontation with police, they also set up free breakfast and healthcare programs for children. Between 1968 and 1971, the BPP was one of the most important black organizations in the country and had support from the NAACP, SCLC, Peace and Freedom Party, and others.Black Power was taken to another level inside prison walls. In 1966, George Jackson formed the Black Guerrilla Family in the California San Quentin State Prison The goal of this group was to overthrow the white-run government in America and the prison system. In 1970, this group displayed their dedication after a white prison guard was found not guilty of shooting and killing three black prisoners from the prison tower. They retaliated by killing a white prison guard Numerous popular cultural expressions associated with black power appeared at this time. Released in August 1968, the number one Rhythm & Blues single for the Billboard Year-End list was James Brown’s “Say It Loud – I’m Black and I’m Proud”. In October 1968, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, while being awarded the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968

Summer Olympics, donned human rights badges and each raised a black-gloved Black Power salute during their podium ceremony King was not comfortable with the “Black Power” slogan, which sounded too much like black nationalism to him. When King was assassinated in 1968, Stokely Carmichael said that whites had murdered the one person who would prevent rampant rioting and that blacks would burn every major city to the ground. Riots broke out in more than 100 cities across the country Some cities did not recover from the damage for more than a generation; other city neighborhoods never recovered === Black conservatism === Despite the common notion that the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and Black Power only conflicted with each other and were the only ideologies of the civil rights movement, there were other sentiments felt by many blacks. Fearing the events during the movement were occurring too quickly, there were some blacks who felt that leaders should take their activism at a slower pace. Others had reservations on how focused blacks were on the movement and felt that such attention was better spent on reforming issues within the black community Those who blatantly rejected integration had various rationales for doing so, such as fearing a change in the status quo they had been used to for so long or fearing for their safety if they found themselves in environments where whites were much more present. Some defended segregation for the sake of keeping ties with the white power structure from which many relied on for social and economic mobility above other blacks. Based on her interpretation of a 1966 study made by Donald Matthews and James Prothro detailing the relative percentage of blacks for integration, against it or feeling something else, Lauren Winner asserts that: Black defenders of segregation look, at first blush, very much like black nationalists, especially in their preference for all-black institutions; but black defenders of segregation differ from nationalists in two key ways First, while both groups criticize NAACP-style integration, nationalists articulate a third alternative to integration and Jim Crow, while segregationists preferred to stick with the status quo. Second, absent from black defenders of segregation’s political vocabulary was the demand for self-determination. They called for all-black institutions, but not autonomous all-black institutions; indeed, some defenders of segregation asserted that black people needed white paternalism and oversight in order to thrive Oftentimes, African-American community leaders would be staunch defenders of segregation Church ministers, businessmen and educators were among those who wished to keep segregation and segregationist ideals in order to retain the privileges they gained from patronage from whites, such as monetary gains. In addition, they relied on segregation to keep their jobs and economies in their communities thriving It was feared that if integration became widespread in the South, black-owned businesses and other establishments would lose a large chunk of their customer base to white-owned businesses, and many blacks would lose opportunities for jobs that were presently exclusive to their interests. On the other hand, there were the everyday, average black people who criticized integration as well. For them, they took issue with different parts of the civil rights movement and the potential for blacks to exercise consumerism and economic liberty without hindrance from whites.For Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and other leading activists and groups during the movement, these opposing viewpoints acted as an obstacle against their ideas. These different views made such leaders’ work much harder to accomplish, but they were nonetheless important in the overall scope of the movement For the most part, the black individuals who had reservations on various aspects of the movement and ideologies of the activists were not able to make a game-changing dent in their efforts, but the existence of these alternate ideas gave some blacks an outlet to express their concerns about the changing social structure === Avoiding the “Communist” label === On December 17, 1951, the Communist Party–affiliated Civil Rights Congress delivered the petition We Charge Genocide: “The Crime of Government Against the Negro People”, often shortened to We Charge Genocide, to the United Nations in 1951, arguing that the U.S. federal government, by its failure to act against lynching in the United States, was guilty of genocide under Article II of the UN Genocide Convention The petition was presented to the United Nations at two separate venues: Paul Robeson, concert singer and activist, to a UN official in New York City, while William L. Patterson, executive director of the CRC, delivered copies of the drafted petition to a UN delegation in Paris.Patterson, the editor of the petition, was a leader in the Communist Party USA and head of the International Labor Defense, a group that offered legal representation to communists, trade unionists, and African Americans in cases involving issues

of political or racial persecution. The ILD was known for leading the defense of the Scottsboro boys in Alabama in 1931, where the Communist Party had considerable influence among African Americans in the 1930s. This had largely declined by the late 1950s, although they could command international attention. As earlier civil rights figures such as Robeson, Du Bois and Patterson became more politically radical (and therefore targets of Cold War anti-Communism by the U.S. Government), they lost favor with both mainstream Black America and the NAACP.In order to secure a place in the mainstream and gain the broadest base, the new generation of civil rights activists believed they had to openly distance themselves from anything and anyone associated with the Communist party According to Ella Baker, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference adopted “Christian” into its name to deter charges of Communism The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover had been concerned about communism since the early 20th century, and continued to label as “Communist” or “subversive” some of the civil rights activists, whom it kept under close surveillance. In the early 1960s, the practice of distancing the civil rights movement from “Reds” was challenged by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee who adopted a policy of accepting assistance and participation by anyone, regardless of political affiliation, who supported the SNCC program and was willing to “put their body on the line.” At times this political openness put SNCC at odds with the NAACP === Kennedy administration, 1961–1963 === For the first two years of the Kennedy administration, civil rights activists had mixed opinions of both the president and attorney general, Robert F. Kennedy. A well of historical skepticism toward liberal politics had left African Americans with a sense of uneasy disdain for any white politician who claimed to share their concerns for freedom, particularly ones connected to the historically pro-segregationist Democratic Party. Still, many were encouraged by the discreet support Kennedy gave to Dr. King, and the administration’s willingness, after dramatic pressure from civil disobedience, to bring forth racially progressive initiatives Many of the initiatives resulted from Robert Kennedy’s passion. The younger Kennedy gained a rapid education in the realities of racism through events such as the Baldwin-Kennedy meeting. The president came to share his brother’s sense of urgency on the matter, resulting in the landmark Civil Rights Address of June 1963 and the introduction of the first major civil rights act of the decade.Robert Kennedy first became concerned with civil rights in mid-May 1961 during the Freedom Rides, when photographs of the burning bus and savage beatings in Anniston and Birmingham were broadcast around the world. They came at an especially embarrassing time, as President Kennedy was about to have a summit with the Soviet premier in Vienna. The White House was concerned with its image among the populations of newly independent nations in Africa and Asia, and Robert Kennedy responded with an address for Voice of America stating that great progress had been made on the issue of race relations. Meanwhile, behind the scenes, the administration worked to resolve the crisis with a minimum of violence and prevent the Freedom Riders from generating a fresh crop of headlines that might divert attention from the President’s international agenda. The Freedom Riders documentary notes that, “The back burner issue of civil rights had collided with the urgent demands of Cold War realpolitik.”On May 21, when a white mob attacked and burned the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, where King was holding out with protesters, Robert Kennedy telephoned King to ask him to stay in the building until the U.S. Marshals and National Guard could secure the area. King proceeded to berate Kennedy for “allowing the situation to continue” King later publicly thanked Kennedy for deploying the force to break up an attack which might otherwise have ended King’s life With a very small majority in Congress, the president’s ability to press ahead with legislation relied considerably on a balancing game with the Senators and Congressmen of the South Without the support of Vice-President Johnson, a former Senator who had years of experience in Congress and longstanding relations there, many of the Attorney-General’s programs would not have progressed By late 1962, frustration at the slow pace of political change was balanced by the movement’s strong support for legislative initiatives, including administrative representation across all U.S. Government departments and greater access to the ballot box. From squaring off against Governor George Wallace, to “tearing into” Vice-President Johnson (for failing to desegregate areas of the administration), to threatening corrupt white Southern judges with disbarment, to desegregating interstate transport, Robert Kennedy came to be consumed

by the civil rights movement. He continued to work on these social justice issues in his bid for the presidency in 1968 On the night of Governor Wallace’s capitulation to African-American enrollment at the University of Alabama, President Kennedy gave an address to the nation, which marked the changing tide, an address that was to become a landmark for the ensuing change in political policy as to civil rights. In 1966, Robert Kennedy visited South Africa and voiced his objections to apartheid, the first time a major US politician had done so: At the University of Natal in Durban, I was told the church to which most of the white population belongs teaches apartheid as a moral necessity. A questioner declared that few churches allow black Africans to pray with the white because the Bible says that is the way it should be, because God created Negroes to serve. “But suppose God is black”, I replied. “What if we go to Heaven and we, all our lives, have treated the Negro as an inferior, and God is there, and we look up and He is not white? What then is our response?” There was no answer. Only silence Robert Kennedy’s relationship with the movement was not always positive. As attorney general, he was called to account by activists—who booed him at a June 1963 speech—for the Justice Department’s own poor record of hiring blacks. He also presided over FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and his COINTELPRO program This program ordered FBI agents to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize” the activities of Communist front groups, a category in which the paranoid Hoover included most civil rights organizations Kennedy personally authorized some of the programs. According to Tim Weiner, “RFK knew much more about this surveillance than he ever admitted.” Although Kennedy only gave approval for limited wiretapping of Dr. King’s phones “on a trial basis, for a month or so.” Hoover extended the clearance so his men were “unshackled” to look for evidence in any areas of the black leader’s life they deemed important;they then used this information to harass King Kennedy directly ordered surveillance on James Baldwin after their antagonistic racial summit in 1963 === American Jewish community and the civil rights movement === Many in the Jewish community supported the civil rights movement. In fact, statistically Jews were one of the most actively involved non-black groups in the Movement. Many Jewish students worked in concert with African Americans for CORE, SCLC, and SNCC as full-time organizers and summer volunteers during the Civil Rights era. Jews made up roughly half of the white northern volunteers involved in the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer project and approximately half of the civil rights attorneys active in the South during the 1960s.Jewish leaders were arrested while heeding a call from Martin Luther King Jr. in St. Augustine, Florida, in June 1964, where the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history took place at the Monson Motor Lodge—a nationally important civil rights landmark that was demolished in 2003 so that a Hilton Hotel could be built on the site. Abraham Joshua Heschel, a writer, rabbi, and professor of theology at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York, was outspoken on the subject of civil rights He marched arm-in-arm with Dr. King in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march. In the 1964 murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, the two white activists killed, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were both Jewish Brandeis University, the only nonsectarian Jewish-sponsored college university in the world, created the Transitional Year Program (TYP) in 1968, in part response to Rev. Dr Martin Luther King’s assassination. The faculty created it to renew the university’s commitment to social justice. Recognizing Brandeis as a university with a commitment to academic excellence, these faculty members created a chance to disadvantaged students to participate in an empowering educational experience The American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, and Anti-Defamation League (ADL) actively promoted civil rights. While Jews were very active in the civil rights movement in the South, in the North, many had experienced a more strained relationship with African Americans. In communities experiencing white flight, racial rioting, and urban decay, Jewish Americans were more often the last remaining whites in the communities most affected. It has been argued that with Black militancy and the Black Power movements on the rise, “Black Anti-Semitism” increased leading to strained relations between Blacks and Jews in Northern communities. In New York City, most notably, there was a major socio-economic class difference in the perception of African

Americans by Jews. Jews from better educated Upper Middle Class backgrounds were often very supportive of African American civil rights activities while the Jews in poorer urban communities that became increasingly minority were often less supportive largely in part due to more negative and violent interactions between the two groups According to political scientist Michael Rogin, Jewish-Black hostility was a two-way street extending to earlier decades. In the post-World War II era, Jews were granted white privilege and most moved into the middle-class while Blacks were left behind in the ghetto. Urban Jews engaged in the same sort of conflicts with Blacks—over integration busing, local control of schools, housing, crime, communal identity, and class divides—that other white ethnics did, leading to Jews participating in white flight. The culmination of this was the 1968 New York City teachers’ strike, pitting largely Jewish schoolteachers against predominantly Black parents in Brownsville, New York ==== Profile ==== Many Jewish individuals in the Southern states who supported civil rights for African Americans tended to keep a low profile on “the race issue”, in order to avoid attracting the attention of the anti-Black and antisemitic Ku Klux Klan. However, Klan groups exploited the issue of African-American integration and Jewish involvement in the struggle to launch acts of violent antisemitism. As an example of this hatred, in one year alone, from November 1957 to October 1958, temples and other Jewish communal gatherings were bombed and desecrated in Atlanta, Nashville, Jacksonville, and Miami, and dynamite was found under synagogues in Birmingham, Charlotte, and Gastonia, North Carolina. Some rabbis received death threats, but there were no injuries following these outbursts of violence === White backlash === King reached the height of popular acclaim during his life in 1964, when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. His career after that point was filled with frustrating challenges The liberal coalition that had gained passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 began to fray King was becoming more estranged from the Johnson administration. In 1965 he broke with it by calling for peace negotiations and a halt to the bombing of Vietnam. He moved further left in the following years, speaking of the need for economic justice and thoroughgoing changes in American society. He believed change was needed beyond the civil rights gained by the movement King’s attempts to broaden the scope of the civil rights movement were halting and largely unsuccessful, however. King made several efforts in 1965 to take the Movement north to address housing discrimination. SCLC’s campaign in Chicago publicly failed, as Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley marginalized SCLC’s campaign by promising to “study” the city’s problems In 1966, white demonstrators holding “white power” signs in notoriously racist Cicero, a suburb of Chicago, threw stones at marchers demonstrating against housing segregation.Politicians and journalists quickly blamed this white backlash on the movement’s shift towards Black Power in the mid-1960s; today most scholars view backlash as a phenomenon that was already developing in the mid-1950s, embodied in the “massive resistance” movement of the South where even the few moderate white leaders (including George Wallace, who had once been endorsed by the NAACP) shifted to openly racist positions. Northern racists opposed the southerners on a regional and cultural basis, but also held segregationist attitudes which became more pronounced as the civil rights movement headed North. For instance, prior to the Watts riot, California whites had already mobilized to repeal the state’s 1963 fair housing law.Even so, the backlash was not sufficient at the time to roll back major civil rights victories or swing the country into reaction. Social historians Matthew Lassiter and Barbara Ehrenreich note that backlash’s primary constituency was suburban and middle-class, but not working-class whites: “among the white electorate, one half of blue-collar voters…cast their ballot for [the liberal presidential candidate] Hubert Humphrey in 1968…only in the South did George Wallace draw substantially more blue-collar than white-collar support.” === African-American women in the movement === Women often acted as leaders in the civil rights movement and led organizations that contributed to the cause of civil rights African-American women stepped into the roles that men had previously held. Women were members of the NAACP because they believed it could

help them contribute to the cause of civil rights. Women involved with the Black Panthers would lead meetings, edit the Black Panther newspaper, and advocated for childcare and sexual freedom. Women involved with SNCC helped to organize sit-ins and the Freedom Rides, as well as keeping the organization together Women also formed church groups, bridge clubs, and professional organizations, such as the National Council of Negro Women, to help achieve freedom for themselves and their race. Some women who participated in these organizations lost their jobs because of their involvement ==== Discrimination ==== Many women in the movement experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment within the movement. In the SCLC, Ella Baker’s input was discouraged in spite of her being the oldest and most experienced person on the staff. Within the ministers’ patriarchal hierarchy, age and experience were actually considered detriments for a woman. Her role as an executive was only assigned as a placeholder for a male leader. Women that worked under SNCC did the clerical work and were not consistently given leadership positions. Women who worked in multiple civil rights organizations noted that males tended to become the leaders and women “faded into the background” and the men of the movement did not acknowledge the gender discrimination present in the organization Much of the reasoning for the lesser role that women took in the movement was that it was time for black men to take on a role as a leader now that they had the opportunity Women got very little recognition for their roles in the civil rights movement despite the fact that they were heavily involved with the participation and planning === Long-run impact === A 2018 study in the American Journal of Political Science found that civil rights protest activity had a meaningful persistent impact on attitudes in the long-run. The study found that “whites from counties that experienced historical civil rights protests are more likely to identify as Democrats and support affirmative action, and less likely to harbor racial resentment against blacks… counties that experienced civil rights protests are associated with greater Democratic Party vote shares even today.” == Johnson administration: 1963–1968 == Lyndon Johnson made civil rights one of his highest priorities, coupling it with a whites war on poverty. However in creasing the shrill opposition to the War in Vietnam, coupled with the cost of the war, undercut support for his domestic programs.Under Kennedy, major civil rights legislation had been stalled in Congress his assassination changed everything On one hand president Lyndon Johnson was a much more skillful negotiator than Kennedy but he had behind him a powerful national momentum demanding immediate action on moral and emotional grounds. Demands for immediate action originated from unexpected directions, especially white Protestant church groups The Justice Department, led by Robert Kennedy, moved from a posture of defending Kennedy from the quagmire minefield of racial politics to acting to fulfill his legacy. The violent death and public reaction dramatically moved the moderate Republicans, led by Senator Everett McKinley Dirksen, whose support was the margin of victory for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The act immediately ended de jure (legal) segregation and the era of Jim Crow.With the civil rights movement at full blast, Lyndon Johnson coupled black entrepreneurship with his war on poverty, setting up special program in the Small Business Administration, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and other agencies. This time there was money for loans designed to boost minority business ownership Richard Nixon greatly expanded the program, setting up the Office of Minority Business Enterprise (OMBE) in the expectation that black entrepreneurs would help defuse racial tensions and possibly support his reelection == Prison reform == === Gates v. Collier === Conditions at the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, then known as Parchman Farm, became part of the public discussion of civil rights after activists were imprisoned there In the spring of 1961, Freedom Riders came to the South to test the desegregation of public facilities. By the end of June 1963, Freedom Riders had been convicted in Jackson, Mississippi. Many were jailed in Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman. Mississippi employed the trusty system, a hierarchical order of inmates that used some inmates to control and enforce punishment of other inmates.In 1970 the civil rights lawyer Roy Haber began

taking statements from inmates. He collected 50 pages of details of murders, rapes, beatings and other abuses suffered by the inmates from 1969 to 1971 at Mississippi State Penitentiary In a landmark case known as Gates v. Collier (1972), four inmates represented by Haber sued the superintendent of Parchman Farm for violating their rights under the United States Constitution Federal Judge William C. Keady found in favor of the inmates, writing that Parchman Farm violated the civil rights of the inmates by inflicting cruel and unusual punishment. He ordered an immediate end to all unconstitutional conditions and practices. Racial segregation of inmates was abolished, as was the trusty system, which allowed certain inmates to have power and control over others.The prison was renovated in 1972 after the scathing ruling by Judge Keady, who wrote that the prison was an affront to “modern standards of decency.” Among other reforms, the accommodations were made fit for human habitation. The system of trusties was abolished. (The prison had armed lifers with rifles and given them authority to oversee and guard other inmates, which led to many abuses and murders.)In integrated correctional facilities in northern and western states, blacks represented a disproportionate number of the prisoners, in excess of their proportion of the general population. They were often treated as second-class citizens by white correctional officers. Blacks also represented a disproportionately high number of death row inmates. Eldridge Cleaver’s book Soul on Ice was written from his experiences in the California correctional system; it contributed to black militancy == Cold War == There was an international context for the actions of the U.S. federal government during these years. Soviet media frequently covered racial discrimination in the U.S. Deeming American criticism of Soviet Union human rights abuses as hypocritical the Soviets would respond with “And you are lynching Negroes”. In his 1934 book Russia Today: What Can We Learn from It?, Sherwood Eddy wrote: “In the most remote villages of Russia today Americans are frequently asked what they are going to do to the Scottsboro Negro boys and why they lynch Negroes.”In Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy, the historian Mary L. Dudziak wrote that Communists critical of the United States accused the nation for its hypocrisy in portraying itself as the “leader of the free world,” when so many of its citizens were subjected to severe racial discrimination and violence; she argued that this was a major factor in moving the government to support civil rights legislation == In popular culture == The 1954 to 1968 civil rights movement contributed strong cultural threads to American and international theater, song, film, television, and folk art == Activist organizations == National/regional civil rights organizations Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Deacons for Defense and Justice Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) Organization of Afro-American Unity Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Southern Conference Educational Fund (SCEF) Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC)National economic empowerment organizations Operation Breadbasket Urban LeagueLocal civil rights organizations Albany Movement (Albany, GA) Council of Federated Organizations (Mississippi) Montgomery Improvement Association (Montgomery, AL) Regional Council of Negro Leadership (Mississippi) Women’s Political Council (Montgomery, AL) == Individual activists == == See also == List of civil rights leaders List of Kentucky women in the civil rights era Photographers of the American civil rights movement “We Shall Overcome”, unofficial movement anthemHistory preservation: Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders National Monument

Read’s Drug Store (Baltimore), site of a 1955 desegregation sit-in Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project Television News of the Civil Rights Era 1950–1970Post–civil rights movement: Black Lives Matter Post–civil rights era in African-American history == Notes == == References == == Bibliography == Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice Oxford Press Back, Adina “Exposing the Whole Segregation Myth: The Harlem Nine and New York City Schools” in Freedom north: Black freedom struggles outside the South, 1940–1980, Jeanne Theoharis, Komozi Woodard, eds.(Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) Bartley, Abel A. Keeping the Faith: Race, Politics and Social Development in Jacksonville, 1940–1970 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000) Bass, S. Jonathan (2001) Blessed Are The Peacemakers: Martin Luther King Jr., Eight White Religious Leaders, and the “Letter from Birmingham Jail” Baton Rouge: LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-2655-1 Beito, David T. and Beito, Linda Royster, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard’s Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power, University of Illinois Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-252-03420-6 Branch, Taylor. Parting the waters: America in the King years, 1954–1963. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988 Breitman, George ed. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements (Grove Press, 1965) Brown, Jennie Medgar Evers, Holloway House Publishing, 1994 Bryant, Nicholas Andrew The Bystander: John F. Kennedy And the Struggle for Black Equality (Basic Books, 2006) Cannato, Vincent “The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and his struggle to save New York” Better Books, 2001. ISBN 0-465-00843-7 Carson, Clayborne (1981). In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-44727-1 Chafe, William Henry (1980). Civilities and civil rights : Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black struggle for freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-502625-2 Chafe, William Henry (2003). The Unfinished Journey: America since World War II. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515049-0 Cleaver, Eldridge (1967). Soul on Ice. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Crump, Spencer Black riot in Los Angeles: the story of the Watts tragedy (1966) Davis, Townsend (1998). Weary Feet, Rested Souls: A Guided History of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: W. W. Norton & Company ISBN 978-0-393-04592-5 Dudziak, M.L.: Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy Erikson, Erik (1969). Gandhi’s Truth: On the Origins of Militant Nonviolence. New York City: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31034-4 Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Struggles in the Civil Rights Movement (University of North Carolina Press, 1997) Fine, Sidney Expanding the Frontier of Civil Rights: Michigan, 1948–1968 (Wayne State University Press, 2000) Finkelman, Paul, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of African American History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516779-5 Forman, James (1972). The Making of Black Revolutionaries. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-940880-10-8 Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) Gershenhorn, Jerry (2018). Louis Austin and The Carolina Times: A Life in the Long Black Freedom Struggle. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press

Goluboff, Risa L. The Lost Promise of Civil Rights, Harvard University Press, MA: Cambridge, 2007 Gregg, Khyree. A Concise Chronicle History of the African-American People Experience in America. Henry Epps Hague, Euan; Sebesta, Edward H.; Beirich, Heidi (2008). Neo-Confederacy: A Critical Introduction. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71837-1 Hill, Lance The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement (University of North Carolina Press, 2006) Hilty, James (2000). Robert Kennedy: Brother Protector. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-4399-0519-7 Hoose, Phillip (2009). Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice. New York: Melanie Kroupa Books/Farrar Straus Giroux. ISBN 978-0-312-66105-2 Houston, Benjamin (2012). The Nashville Way: Racial Etiquette and the Struggle for Social Justice in a Southern City. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-4326-6 Jackson, Thomas F. (July 17, 2013). From Civil Rights to Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0000-3 Klarman, Michael J., Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Movement [electronic resource] : abridged edition of From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2007 Levy, Peter B. “The Dream Deferred: The Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., and the Holy Week Uprisings of 1968” in Baltimore ’68 : Riots and Rebirth in an American city (Temple University Press, 2011) Lewis, John (1998). Walking With the Wind Simon & Schuster Locke, Hubert G. The Detroit riot of 1967 (Wayne State University Press, 1969) Logan, Rayford,The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. New York: Da Capo Press, 1997 McAdam, Doug (1988). Freedom Summer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504367-9 Marable, Manning Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (Penguin Books, 2011) Matusow, Allen J. “From Civil Rights to Black Power: The Case of SNCC” in Twentieth Century America: Recent Interpretations (Harcourt Press, 1972) Pinkney, Alphnso and Woock, Roger Poverty and Politics in Harlem, College & University Press Services, Inc., 1970 Piven, Francis Fox and Cloward, Richard Regulating the Poor (Random House 1971) Piven, Francis Fox and Cloward, Richard Poor People’s Movements: How They Succeed, How They Fail (Random House, 1977) Ransby, Barbara Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (University of North Carolina Press, 2003) Reeves, Richard (1993). President Kennedy: Profile of Power. New York: Simon & Schuster ISBN 978-0-671-64879-4 Robinson, Jo Ann & Garrow, David J. (forward by Coretta Scott King) The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It (1986) ISBN 0-394-75623-1 Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press Rosenberg, Jonathan; Karabell, Zachary (2003) Kennedy, Johnson, and the Quest for Justice: The Civil Rights Tapes. WW Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-05122-3 Saito, Leland T. (1998). Race and Politics: Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites in a Los Angeles Suburb. University of Illinois Press Schultz, Jeffrey D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. ISBN 978-1-57356-148-8 Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. (2002) [1978] Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 978-0-618-21928-5 Schoen, Douglas (2015). The Nixon Effect: How His Presidency Has Changed American Politics Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-800-6 Self, Robert O. (2005). American Babylon:

Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-4417-3 Smith, Jean Edward (2001). Grant. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-1701-9 Stephens, Otis H. Jr.; Scheb, John M. II (2007) American Constitutional Law: Civil Rights and Liberties. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-09705-1 Strain, Christopher Pure Fire:Self-Defense as Activism in the Civil Rights Era (University of Georgia Press, 2005) Tucker, William H. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, University of Illinois Press (May 30, 2007) Tyson, Timothy B. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of “Black Power” (University of North Carolina Press, 1999) Umoja, Akinyele We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement (NYU Press, 2013) Weems, Robert E. Jr., Business in Black and White: American Presidents and Black Entrepreneurs (2009) Weiner, Melissa F. (2010). Power, Protest, and the Public Schools: Jewish and African American Struggles in New York City. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4772-5 Wendt, Simon The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights (University of Florida Press, 2007) Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954–1965. Penguin Books, 1987. ISBN 0-14-009653-1 Winner, Lauren F. “Doubtless Sincere: New Characters in the Civil Rights Cast.” In The Role of Ideas in the Civil Rights South, edited by Ted Ownby. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2002 Woodward, C. Vann The Strange Career of Jim Crow, 3rd rev. ed. (Oxford University Press, 1974) Young, Coleman Hard Stuff: The Autobiography of Mayor Coleman Young (1994) Zarefsky, David President Johnson’s war on poverty: Rhetoric and history (2005) == Further reading == === Historiography and memory === Armstrong, Julie Buckner, ed. (2015). The Cambridge Companion to American Civil Rights Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp xxiv, 209. ISBN 978-1-316-24038-0 Catsam, Derek (January 2008). “The Civil Rights Movement and the Presidency in the Hot Years of the Cold War: A Historical and Historiographical Assessment”. History Compass. 6 (1): 314–344 doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2007.00486.x Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita; Lang, Clarence (Spring 2007). “The ‘Long Movement’ as Vampire: Temporal and Spatial Fallacies in Recent Black Freedom Studies”. The Journal of African American History. 92 (2): 265–288 Eagles, Charles W. (November 2000). “Toward New Histories of the Civil Rights Era”. The Journal of Southern History. 66 (4): 815–848 doi:10.2307/2588012. JSTOR 2588012 Fairclough, Adam (December 1990). “Historians and the Civil Rights Movement”. Journal of American Studies. 24 (3): 387–398 Frost, Jennifer (May 2012). “Using ‘Master Narratives’ to Teach History: The Case of the Civil Rights Movement” (PDF). History Teacher. 45 (3): 437–446 Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd (March 2005). “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past” (PDF). The Journal of American History. 91 (4): 1233–1263. doi:10.2307/3660172 JSTOR 3660172 Lawson, Steven F. (April 1991). “Freedom Then, Freedom Now: The Historiography of the Civil Rights Movement”. The American Historical Review. 96 (2): 456–471. doi:10.2307/2163219 JSTOR 2163219

Lawson, Steven F.; Payne, Charles M. (1998) Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945–1968 Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9053-4 Lawson, Steven F. (2003). Civil Rights Crossroads: Nation, Community, and the Black Freedom Struggle University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2693-7 Payne, Charles M. (2007). “Bibliographic Essay: The Social Construction of History”. I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle. University of California Press. pp. 413–442. ISBN 978-0-520-25176-2 Robinson, Armstead L.; Sullivan, Patricia, eds. (1991). New Directions in Civil Rights Studies. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-1319-3 Sandage, Scott A. (June 1993). “A Marble House Divided: The Lincoln Memorial, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Politics of Memory, 1939–1963” (PDF). The Journal of American History. 80 (1): 135–167. doi:10.2307/2079700. JSTOR 2079700. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015 Strickland, Arvarh E.; Weems, Robert E., eds (2001). The African American Experience: An Historiographical and Bibliographical Guide Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-29838-7 Zamalin, Alex (2015). African American Political Thought and American Culture: The Nation’s Struggle for Racial Justice. Springer. pp xii, 192. ISBN 978-1-137-52810-0 === Autobiographies and memoirs === Carson, Clayborne; Garrow, David J.; Kovach, Bill; Polsgrove, Carol, eds. Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism 1941–1963 and Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism 1963–1973. New York: Library of America, 2003. ISBN 1-931082-28-6 and ISBN 1-931082-29-4 Dann, Jim. Challenging the Mississippi Firebombers, Memories of Mississippi 1964–65. Baraka Books, 2013. ISBN 978-1-926824-87-1 Holsaert, Faith et al. Hands on the Freedom Plow Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC. University of Illinois Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-252-03557-9 Malcolm X (with the assistance of Alex Haley) The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Random House, 1965. Paperback ISBN 0-345-35068-5 Hardcover ISBN 0-345-37975-6 == External links == Civil Rights Digital Library – Provided by the Digital Library of Georgia Civil Rights Movement Veterans ~ Provides movement history, personal stories, documents, and photos. Hosted by Tougaloo College Civil Rights in America – Provided by The National Archives of the United Kingdom Television News of the Civil Rights Era 1950–1970 – Provided by the University of Virginia Provided by the Library of Congress: The Civil Rights Era – Part of The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship presentation Voices of Civil Rights – A project with the collaboration of AARP and the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) We Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the

Civil Rights Movement – Provided by the National Park Service Provided by Southern Poverty Law Center: “Teaching the Movement: The State Standards We Deserve” – Part of “Teaching Tolerance” project published on September 19, 2011 “Teaching Tolerance Publishes Guide for Teaching the Civil Rights Movement” – Part of “Teaching Tolerance” project published on March 26, 2014 “Teaching the Movement 2014: The State of Civil Rights Education in the United States” – Part of “Teaching Tolerance” project published in 2014 Civil Rights Teaching – Provided by Teaching for Change, a 501(c)(3) organization SNCC Digital Gateway – Profiles and primary documents on the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the national civil rights movement organization led by young people A project of the SNCC Legacy Project, Duke’s Center for Documentary Studies, and Duke University Libraries

Press Conference: Can We Harness Technology to Protect the Ocean?

>> Okay Okay, well, good afternoon, everyone and welcome those who are watching online My name is Dominic Kailash Nath Waughray and I am the managing director of the World Economic Forum and we are here in New York at the summit We have a very special moment for the next 25 minutes or so, where we are delighted to announce a new affiliate centre in our network of centres for the Fourth Industrial Revolution and this particular centre is the first of its kind with a thematic dimension, particularly around innovation to save the oceans Ocean and biodiversity As you know the ocean is under immention pressure notably due to climate change, but also because of challenges it faces from resource depletion, overuse, shipping pollution and many other activities We have seen here in New York, a lot of the tension on climate and biodiversity and land use, yet sometimes we forget that over 90% of the earth’s surface is ocean and it’s a vital part of the earth’s systems for regulating climate, absorbing carbon and for many other things For that reason, it’s ripe for a look at how the technologies of the fourth Industrial Revolution can be Nash necessaried to minimise the risks and maximise the opportunities for our society in terms of safeguarding the oceans for the future in line with the ocean SDG We are so delighted with the panel here who will talk a little bit about the centre and about our network of centres and about the engagement particularly of Aker Group who are one of the key sponsors and champions of the centre in Norway So, may I introduce, B?rge, who is the President of the World Economic Forum to my mediate left, Annie Brett, who is a Hommffman fellow and linked to the Stanford group for oceans ?YVIND: Who is the President and CEO of that and with impeccable timing That is the mark of a true ambassador, Vidar Helgesen, who is special envoy to the high level panel on building a sustainable ocean economy So welcome all and if I can turn to Borge, to introduce the concept of the centres for the Fourth Industrial Revolution and to outline the role of the forum in terms of public private partnerships Borge BORGE:Thank you, Dominic and to the rest of the panel for joining us and also to the audience for something that I think is quite historic, as many of you know, the World Economic Forum has taken leadership when it comes to the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the new technologies that we know that will also be shaping this century I think when we are now witnessing this trade conflict between the two largest economies in the world, the US and China, together more than 40% of the global GDP, I think it’s not only about trade, I think an underlying factor here is who is going to be in control of the new technologies and there is correlation between being in control of the technologies and also global influence and also economic growth to move forward What we have tried, when we have taken leadership in the area of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, as the World Economic Forum, as an international organisation for public-private Corporation is that we feel these technologies should also work in the centre interests of human kind These technologies will, are very consequential, but we lack traffic rules in many of these areas, but we also think that this technology can also support the sustainable development cause We will not reach the sustainable development goals without also mobilising the new technologies I think in the area of the environment, sustainability and oceans, the new technologies can have huge impact and potentially positive impact If you can use robotic, internet of things, artificial intelligence to also address clay,

biodiversity, cleaning up rivers and oceans it has a huge potential – climate change So what we have done at our main centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution is in San Francisco, but we also have then centre sister centres and affiliated centres around the world We have one in Beijing and Tokyo and Mumbai and we have opened up the first affiliated centre in the UAE and in Colombia The first one in Europe will be in Oslo I am very pleased by that, of course, it’s also very happy that its about nature and oceans is thematic focus on this, as dom ic Dominic so eloquently, underlining the oceans are so important for all of our plant and we are not on a sustainable track when it comes to oceans either This perspective is, at least is an illustration that they can be more plastic in the ocean than there are fish by 2050 is totally unacceptable and like a scary scenario that has to be avoided I think the centre in Oslo with all of the competence that is also in Norway, on oceans and clean oceans and the blue economy is a huge opportunity And, thank you to Aker, but also to my former colleague, Vidar, for being so passionate about this and I think it’s incredible that it’s now really happening and it’s taking place and it couldn’t be a better timing, because it’s also in the run-up to the big oceans conference that Norway will be hosting, I think it’s in October, so this is a particularly happy moment also for the World Economic Forum >> Thank you, perhaps we can turn to OyvenEriksen, the CEO of Aker Perhaps there is a couple of things that people might be interested Not least will the centre on biodiversity do and why are you personally and through Aker group involved Perhaps you can help provide some thoughts to those sorts of questions >> ?YVIND: OYVIND:I would be happy to do so, but first I would like to thank the World Economic Forum for establishing the centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in Norway and I would like to thank the Norwegian Government for the strong support for this initiative As B?rge, briefly explained, no Norway is a country that is largely based on the natural resources in the oceanorge, briefly explained, no Norway is a country that is largely based on the natural resources in the ocean and the Aker group has operated for almost 180 years in a wide range of ocean-related industries As a consequence we have built up a significant experience, competency and technology base, which, today, is used primarily for commercial reasons As business enterprises, we also have to change and I sincerely hope that this centre will facilitate a dialogue and execute projects which will make a difference, but will also help business enterprises like the Aker Group to make the right decisions going forward So, Norway is, from my perspective, an ideal location for centre, with a global mandate for ocean and environment Aker has taken this initiative due to our history, due to our competencies and due to our wish to make a difference going forward But it’s important also to highlight that our main role is to facilitate a collaboration with all of the stakeholders So, going forwards, the centre will invite Governments, business enterprises, international organisations and other stakeholders to define and execute specific use cases or

projects What inspired me in particular to work for this initiative was what I learned when I visited the main centre in San Francisco, because there is a lot of resources, a lot of processes, a lot of talk about the need for change in order to save the environment going forward, but what I learned in San Francisco was how impatient the centre is to deliver tangible results and that resonates well with a business leader like myself, that we need to demonstrate, not only results for the environment, but results for the environment, which combines commercial interests So, this centre will prioritise, hopefully, projects which will improve ocean economy, just as much as ocean industries to operate in a more sustainable way going forward So, to answer your question about how will the centre operate and what will we focus on? It’s fair to say that this is early days We have the main theme ocean and environment But, the method of work will, as I said, be to invite business partners and others to execute use cases and projects jointly with us From an Aker perspective, I believe that the main priorities, should be to focus on technologies, which will help ocean related industries to operate in a more sustainable way The second focus area should be to apply big data to the monitoring and managing of natural resources and a third headline for use cases should be how technology can help us to protect marine biodiversity I mentioned three headlines, hopefully a number of use cases and engagement going forward But to round off, what is equally important is the invitation for collaboration, because today, my experience is that there is a lot of engagement, but we are discussing how to save the ocean in silos So if companies like Aker can join forces with Government, international organisations a and others to deliver tangible results, hopefully we can inspire others to follow DOMINIC: Thank you so much, Mr Eriksen I can guarantee having a leading businessmen like oif Eriksen – Oyvind Eriksen, the focus will be at the heart It’s been a fabulous experience That is the element of the public and private, that is the Essen of the World Economic Forum’s collaborative platform It’s so exciting to have a thematic centre for the global good around oceans and biodiversity I can’t think of a better place than Norway given the history and engagement with ocean activity and as you rightly mention, both on the industry side and in terms of some of the global challenges facing the SDG, for oceans, this idea of big data and tackling some of the problems like illegal fishing and some of the industrial challenges that the ocean faces to make them more sustainable, drawing in the latest technologies for the benefit of society and minimising risks All of these, Vidar Helgesen, are things you are grap eming with for the high level panel to the ocean and the sustainable economy It would be fascinating I think for those listening and watching as to how you see the use and creation of a centre for ocean and climate ocean and bio diversity and the latest Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies What kind of role can it play to further the agenda you are so deeply involved in with Governments and the international community about the ocean? VIDAR: Well, first of all, it’s very clear that we need innovations We need innovations in technology, we need evaluations in finance and innovations in governance

and as things are changing faster both in terms of the technology and in terms of the ocean itself, we need new knowledge and we need ever updated knowledge and we need to make that available, we made to learn from it and we need to accelerate the solutions and I think this centre can play a very important role in that I like – I would like to, apart from congratulating the World Economic Forum and Aker on this centre, I would like to say that the role that the forum has taken in promoting knowledge, reflection and responsible application of Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies is really important These are technologies with a potential to change so much in fundamental ways and we don’t have the predictions yet We don’t really know in which ways but we know they can really be fundamental That means of course that they can be be a seller yettor technologies for – be a sellerrator technologies for good or bad If they are accelerating business as usual that is going to be bad and a there is a lot of bad in the ocean these days What we need to do is really to apply new technologies for the necessary innovations and the necessary solutions I have high hopes that the Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies is designed well and applied well can be of really high importance, because there is a lot of innovations required in terms of technologies, but also for govern ance, as oceans are changing we need updated information and knowledge It’s more important than ever that we base ocean policies on the best available knowledge and analysis and, as the oceans are changing faster, having that updated is more important and not least we will not be able to manage the oceans better unless we collaborate across borders and having data available, shared, and in a format that will enable Governments as well to communicate and act in concert, between neighbours regionally and globally That is going to be very important So, I see a, I certainly see that this is a centre that can be very important for business, provide solutions relevant for business and boosting sustainable ocean business, but I think it can also be important for improving ocean governance and ocean policy DOMINIC: Thank you so much For those who might be quite so familiar, perhaps just a small sketch of what the high level panel is about and how there might be some ability to help drive forward some of the recommendation s or thoughts that the Pam is coming up with through this – panel is coming up with through this centre >> The high level panel is convened by the Norwegian Prime Minister and what they seek to do, again based on knowledge, based on a group of really world-leading scientists doing a lot of research work right now, come up with a to do list for the ocean an action list, action item list on what the world needs to do to ensure that we can harvest the benefits of the ocean We need to produce more from the ocean if we are to achieve the SDGs, but that is why we need to take bet err care of it, because today the ocean might be nearing very critical tipping points that will be undermining life in the ocean, life on the planet and undermining business opportunities Yesterday we presented the first report from the panel and a call to action from the panel, pointing to the ocean as a solution to climate change We all know it’s a victim of climate change, but yesterday we put forward very good scientific paper quantifying how much ocean industries can contribute towards the 1.5 degree target and ocean industries in energy, shipping, sea food, carbon capture and storage and nature-based solutions can deliver up to 20% of what we need to achieve the 1.5 degree target That will again require scaling up and speeding up and new technologies will definitely be helpful in achieving just that DOMINIC: Thank you so much and thank you for your leadership and work as a special ebb VOIP for the Prime Minister of Norway on the high level panel It’s an extraordinary report and I would

commend you to read it and particularly with such an important year a head in June in 2020, there is a very important united nations United Nations meeting, the second global summit for the ocean in Lisbon with this high level panel will be producing important recommendation s for the ocean SDG, so thank you for that Now, Annie Brett, Dr Annie Brett, no pressure, but you are the face of the work from the research community, between oceans and new technologies, you are an Hoffman fellow for the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the Earth and you have been working in our San Francisco office for the Fourth Industrial Revolution that Mr Erikes negotiation referred to on challenges that the ocean faces and the need for Fourth Industrial Revolution innovation So without letting us down and saying it’s all very terribly difficult it would be fabulous if you could provide some thoughts for a non-technical audience from some of the research you have been involved with to inspire the brain cells to start thinking how this curious combination of oceans and technology mite link itself up together, any ANNIE: Thank you, Dominic I am a marine scientist and a lawyer and before that I was one of the youngest commercial vessel captains in the world So, in all of these different areas of the ocean I have worked in, our relationship with the ocean is fundamentally defined by really our lack of information about it So, xherpationly, as a sailor I was using charts that were based on surveys done in the early 1900s by Sextant and they have not been updated to this day, despite wild inbe a yais that remain Less than 20% of the ocean has even been observed by a human let alone researched and understood This is obviously a huge hurdle to our fundamentally ability to effectively manage ocean ecosystems So the Fourth Industrial Revolution really presents an opportunity to begin to change this relationship and fill these pervasive knowledge gaps And so, as an Hoffman fellow I work with Sandford and the San Francisco Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution to bring’ merging technologies to bear on these previously intractable problems So we have been focussed on a number of different issue areas from illegal fishing to marine management to questions about data more broadly And so, for instance in the illegal fishing space, illegal fishing is a huge economic problem with estimates that it cost the world about 23 billion dollars a year in losses annually, plus the associated human rights abuses and other associated crime issues So it’s a huge problem The ocean community has been unable to solve, because illegal fishing happens far away from where we can see it, but we are finding if we bring to bear a number of advance sensing technologies from satellites to drones to underwater robots to GPS and camera devices on vessels, to blockchain to trace fish throughout the supply chain When you bring the technologies together and couple them with advanced artificial intelligence analyticals we are able not only to understand ecosystems bet er but really for the first chin to identify illegal behaviour in the most distant regions of ocean that we could never see before So the potential for the Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies is enormous and in San Francisco we are working with Ocean Action to really elevate the work throughout the global policy dialogue It’s also not a silver bullet As we go forward we need appropriate governance solutions that support these innovative technologies, but also allow Governments to overcome the barriers to implementation and adoption of technologies and that mitigate the potential consequences which are real So centres like this Norway centre are really exciting because they are a critical part of the landscape of figuring out what the governance infrastructure looks like and how we can maximise the potential of the Fourth Industrial Revolution So, it’s a critical time for the oceans, in terms of ocean health It’s also a critical time for emerging technologies I don’t think have a better time you could be launching the centre and we look forward to working closely with the Norwegian centre to tackle the issues and ensure we have a sustainable ocean in the future DeBlasio DeBlasio thank you very much — DOMINIC: Thank you very much How old were you when you were the shipping captain? ANNIE: I was 22 Far too young DOMINIC: That gives you an introduction We have time for one or two questions if there is any from the audience Yes please and reminders who you are and then is your question You have ten seconds to

think more deeply about your question as the microphone approaches >> So, Catherine Cunningham with Eurovision and also Thrive Global I am so thrilled about this centre, it’s just a beautiful representation of what the WEF can do to convene public and private partners in a way that has a tanible impact on the natural world which I care so deeply about and obviously you do too So my question is, with the centre, you have this opportunity to use all of these different technologies to track behaviour and I am thinking of illegal fishing Do you have also resonance and enthusiasm from the fishing community and from these businesses to engage this convergence of technologies for sensing on the ships and essentially being a watchdog for illegal fishing operations Does the industry as a whole see this as a healthy move and how can you inspire then this tranz border sort of engagement, because it seem, if you have got this opportunity to track illegal fishing operations and inform those policy leaders about this, at the ports where these ships then stop, you have an opportunity for local leaders to say, issue fir has been fished illegally and we are not going to allow you to stop at these ports But that only works if you have this transboundary infrastructure in place I would welcome anyone in the panel to really address that How you sort of inspire the fishing community themselves to see it not just a watchdog but an opportunity for inspiring healthy oceans DOMINIC: I will check does anyone else have any questions Shall we take yours and package them together? >> Thank you I report for Copenhagen Post and other media outlets Congratulation s, it’s a massive initiative So it was said all life came from the oceans and as Mr Vidar Helgesen just said it might end and we are in deep trouble Since people’s behaviour is not changing, the only chance is when Governments and scientists are working together So, what are the most important action steps you are planning to do in the next couple of years and my question goes to our nautic lady, Annie Brett While you were diving down in the oceans or, so we will be learning about new species in the oceans with your work Thank you DOMINIC: Thank you very much So perhaps Mr Eriksen and special envoy Helgesen you can pick up on industry engagement and perhaps some of the policy recommendation s and Anna, – Annie you can close us out with the experiences of the dive ?YVIND: OYVIND:Let me kick off and answer your first question I am sure the answer is yes that the fishing industry will see the opportunity to engage and contribute It’s early days, we have not yet invited the industry in general to this dialogue, but I can answer the question more specifically on behalf of our own fishery business, a company archiving krill in the an Antarctic ocean and processing krill into different project, including Omega 3 That company has already committed to pay playing a leading role in projects and use cases applicable to the fishing industry VIDAR: I think the illegal fishing issue really is extremely good example of how technological innovation and good old traditional governance can play, can work in tandem On illegal fishing one of the most important international agreements in recent years is the ports date measures agreement, which is an agreement for port states to take action against the landing of illegal fishing Now, since a lot of that takes place in countries with fairly weak governance, you need monitoring and control where new technologies can be immensely important, global fishing watchdog being one example already You need enforcement where new technologies

can be immensely helpful You also need capacity building in these countries where new technologies can also be helpful, so for reinforcing what Governments have already done and are doing to try to get illegal fishing under control, this centre, I think can play a very important role in taking forward technological solutions that can underpin governance I, to the other part of the question, yes it’s early but I have no doubt that fishing communities around the world would definitely be interested in making use of the best available technologies My favourite is Fish Face, the facial recognition for fish, which is actually a great tool for sustainability in fisheries From your iPhone up to installations on bigger fishing vessels DOMINIC: Fantastic People watching this will be going back and looking for Fish Face, so well done for that call out Thank you, we will ask our President of the World Economic Forum to close us out with a final thank you, but Annie Brett, just briefly some impression, some of us have maybe not had the experience of the open ocean as a sea captain or a dive A reflection or a thought from you about the wonderful ecosystem we are trying to protect and sustainably utilise? ANNIE: Absolutely I think the most salient thing to say is just how vast the ocean is and how little we know about it I remember nights sailing when a strange creature would rise up above the surface glowing with bioluminesence and we would take pictures and send to researchers and no one would have seen it Discovering new species is common, any time you go on a deep dive you discover a new species, so there is a huge amount to be discovered and a lot of potential, but it means it’s critical we begin to fill the scientific gaps before we move forward with a lot of the extractive uses and other kinds of potential uses of the ocean that may impair those ecosystems DOMINIC: Thank you special enVOIP and thank you – special envoy and thank you, Oyvind Eriksen and Borge, perhaps you can have some follow up thoughts Elle BORGE:Just so following up on the discovery, there is so much to discover in our oceans and the new technologies give us the right tools to do so At the same time there are spaces that we maybe have not yet discovered, as you were alluding to, we had this panel on by Yeo diversity that was just presented, saying that, this year, we can then see that a million species can go extipth because of human behaviour – extinct A million species, if you lose one species, it’s not coming back, what kind of legacy to leave for coming generations In some of this business, also the future of medicine and new discover discovery s can be in this species So I think this is telling us about how important it is to know, also keep our oceans clean, to save our oceans, but also to underline, I think we can harvest more from the oceans in the future in the blue economy, because we need for food, there are more people, but it then has to be done in the strategic way, so we can harvest it sustainably and this is one of the things that I hope the centre can add knowledge into the whole blue economy So, for me, this started a year ago when this idea came up and what I also learned is if you want to get things done, sometimes you have to turn to the private sector, to their business models and their speed, because they are working very fast, so thank you to Oyvind and Aker for that and this is, of course I am not objective, but what I like about the World Economic Forum as an international organisation for public-private co-operation w can he move fast when we get the support from Governments and also from business and I am really proud that we

know – we now have assigned this centre and I think it’s going to add to the clust err of the – cluster of the four centres we are building Thank you and congratulation s DOMINIC: Thank you APPLAUSE End of session

Hudson Motor Car Company | Wikipedia audio article

The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, Michigan, from 1909 to 1954. In 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator Corporation to form American Motors (AMC). The Hudson name was continued through the 1957 model year, after which it was discontinued == Company strategy == The name “Hudson” came from Joseph L. Hudson, a Detroit department store entrepreneur and founder of Hudson’s department store, who provided the necessary capital and gave permission for the company to be named after him. A total of eight Detroit businessmen formed the company on February 20, 1909, to produce an automobile which would sell for less than US$1,000 (equivalent to approximately $27,281 in 2017 funds) One of the chief “car men” and organizer of the company was Roy D. Chapin, Sr., a young executive who had worked with Ransom E. Olds (Chapin’s son, Roy Jr., would later be president of Hudson-Nash descendant American Motors Corp. in the 1960s). The company quickly started production, with the first car driven out of a small factory in Detroit on July 3, 1909 at Mack Avenue and Beaufait Street in Detroit, occupying the old Aerocar factory.The new Hudson “Twenty” was one of the first low-priced cars on the American market and very successful with more than 4,000 sold the first year The 4,508 units made in 1910 was the best first year’s production in the history of the automobile industry and put the newly formed company in 17th place industry-wide, “a remarkable achievement at a time” when there were hundreds of makes being marketed.Successful sales volume required a larger factory. A new facility was built on a 22-acre parcel at Jefferson Avenue and Conner Avenue in Detroit’s Fairview section that was diagonally across from the Chalmers Automobile plant. The land was the former farm of D. J. Campau. Until the late 1920s, bodies for Hudson cars were built by Biddle & Smart. On 1 July 1926, Hudson’s new $10 million body plant was completed where the automaker could now build the all-steel closed bodies for both the Hudson and Essex models. It was designed by the firm of renowned industrial architect Albert Kahn with 223,500 square feet and opened on October 29, 1910 Production in 1911 increased to 6,486. For 1914 Hudsons for the American market were now left hand drive The company had a number of firsts for the auto industry; these included dual brakes, the use of dashboard oil-pressure and generator warning lights, and the first balanced crankshaft, which allowed the Hudson straight-six engine, dubbed the “Super Six” (1916), to work at a higher rotational speed while remaining smooth, developing more power for its size than lower-speed engines. The Super Six was the first engine built by Hudson, previously Hudson had developed engine designs and then had them manufactured by Continental Motors Company. Most Hudsons until 1957 had straight-6 engines. The dual brake system used a secondary mechanical emergency brake system, which activated the rear brakes when the pedal traveled beyond the normal reach of the primary system; a mechanical parking brake was also used. Hudson transmissions also used an oil bath and cork clutch mechanism that proved to be as durable as it was smooth At their peak in 1929, Hudson and Essex produced a combined 300,000 cars in one year, including contributions from Hudson’s other factories in Belgium and England; a factory had been built in 1925 in Brentford in London. Hudson was the third largest U.S. car maker that year, after Ford Motor Company and Chevrolet == Essex and Terraplane == In 1919, Hudson introduced the Essex brand line of automobiles; the line was originally for budget minded buyers, designed to compete with Ford and Chevrolet, as opposed to the more up-scale Hudson line. The Essex found great success by offering one of the first affordable sedans, and combined Hudson and Essex sales moved from seventh in the U.S to third by 1925.In 1932, Hudson began phasing out its Essex nameplate for the modern Terraplane brand name. The new line was launched on July 21, 1932, with a promotional christening by Amelia Earhart. For 1932 and 1933, the restyled cars were named Essex-Terraplane; from 1934 as Terraplane, until 1938 when the Terraplane was renamed the Hudson 112. Hudson also began

assembling cars in Canada, contracting Canada Top and Body to build the cars in their Tilbury, Ontario, plant. In England Terraplanes built at the Brentford factory were still being advertised in 1938.An optional accessory on some 1935-1938 Hudson and Terraplane models was a steering column-mounted electric gear pre-selector and electro-mechanical automatic shifting system, known as the “Electric Hand”, manufactured by the Bendix Corporation. This took the place of the floor-mounted shift lever, but required conventional clutch actions Cars equipped with Electric Hand also carried a conventional shift lever in clips under the dash, which could be pulled out and put to use in case the Electric Hand should ever fail. Hudson was also noted for offering an optional vacuum-powered automatic clutch, starting in the early 1930s == Hudson Eight == For the 1930 model year Hudson debuted a new flathead inline eight cylinder engine with block and Crankcase cast as a unit and fitted with two cylinder heads. A 2.75 inch bore and 4.5 inch stroke displaced 218.8 cubic inches developing 80 HP at 3,600 RPM with the standard 5.78:1 Compression ratio. The 5 Main bearing Crankshaft had 8 integral counterweights, an industry first, and also employed a Lanchester vibration damper. Four rubber blocks were used at engine mount points. A valveless oil pump improved the Hudson splash lubrication system The new eights were the only engine offering in the Hudson line, supplanting the Super Six, which soldiered on in the Essex models.At the 1931 Indianapolis 500, Buddy Marr’s #27 Hudson Special (with Winfield carburetion]]) finished tenth == 1936–1942 == In 1936, Hudson revamped its cars, introducing a new “radial safety control” / “rhythmic ride” suspension which suspended the live front axle from two steel bars, as well as from leaf springs. Doing this allowed the use of longer, softer leaf springs (“rhythmic ride”), and prevented bumps and braking from moving the car off course. The 1936 Hudsons were also considerably larger inside than competitive cars — Hudson claimed a 145-cubic-foot (4.1 m3) interior, comparing it to 121 cubic feet (3.4 m3) in the “largest of other popular cars.” (According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) measurements, the cavernous Chrysler LHS only reached 126 cubic feet or 3.6 cubic metres) With the optional bulging trunk lid, the Hudsons could store 21 cubic feet (0.59 m3) of luggage (the LHS, 19 cubic feet or 0.54 cubic metres), though that might have been an optimistic measurement The 1936 engines were powerful for the time, from 93 to 124 horsepower (69 to 92 kilowatts; 94 to 126 metric horsepower) The 1939 models joined other American cars in the use of a column-mounted gearshift lever This freed front-seat passenger space and remained the industry standard through the 1960s, when “bucket seats” came into vogue Hudson became the first car manufacturer to use foam rubber in its seats. The Hudson Terraplane was dropped. For 1940 Hudson introduced coil spring independent front suspension, aircraft style shock absorbers mounted within the front springs and true center-point steering on all its models, a major advance in performance among cars in this price range. Despite all these changes, Hudson sales for 1940 were lower than 1939 and the company lost money again. The advent of military contracts the following year brought relief The 1941 Hudsons retained the front end styling of the 1940 models but the bodies were new with 5.5 inches added to their length giving more legroom. A new manual 3 speed syncromesh transmission was quieter with all helical gears. Wheelbases increased by 3 inches, with offerings of 116, 121 and 128 inches, and height was decreased with flatter roofs. Convertibles

now had a power operated top. Big Boy trucks now used the 128 inch wheelbase. In 1942 in response to General Motors’ Hydramatic automatic transmission, Hudson introduced its “Drive-Master” system. Drive-Master was a more sophisticated combination of the concepts used in the Electric Hand and the automatic clutch. At the touch of a button, Drive-Master offered the driver a choice of three modes of operation: ordinary, manual shifting and clutching; manual shifting with automatic clutching; and automatic shifting with automatic clutching. All this was accomplished by a large and complicated mechanism located under the hood. They worked well, and in fully automatic mode served as a good semi-automatic transmission. When coupled with an automatic overdrive, Drive-Master became known as Super-Matic Re-engineering of the frame rear end to use lower springs reduced car height by 1.5 inches Sheet metal “spats” on the lower body now covered the running boards and new wider front and rear fenders accommodated this == Female designer == As the role of women increased in car-purchase decisions, automakers began to hire female designers. Hudson, wanting a female perspective on automotive design, hired Elizabeth Ann Thatcher in 1939, one of America’s first female automotive designers. Her contributions to the 1941 Hudson included exterior trim with side lighting, interior instrument panel, interiors and interior trim fabrics. She designed for Hudson from 1939 into 1941, leaving the company when she married Joe Oros, then a designer for Cadillac. He later became head of the design team at Ford that created the Mustang == World War II == As ordered by the Federal government, Hudson ceased auto production from 1942 until 1945 in order to manufacture material during World War II, including aircraft parts and naval engines, and anti-aircraft guns. The Hudson “Invader” engine powered many of the landing craft used on the D-Day invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 During World War II Hudson had also an aircraft division which produced ailerons for one large eastern airplane builder. The plant was capable of large scale production of wings and ailerons as well as other airplane parts. On May 22, 1941, Hudson was given a contract for the Oerlikon 20 mm cannon with the Jefferson Avenue Plant, on Jefferson Avenue and Connor Avenue, responsible to convert the original Swiss drawings to American production standards The company produced 33,201 Oerlikons for the United States Navy with the original mechanism continued in use without major change and with complete inter-changeability of parts until the end of the war. Hudson also manufactured millions of other weaponry and vehicle parts for the war effort. Hudson ranked 83rd among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts == 1946–1954 == Production resumed after the war and included a 128-inch (3,251 mm) wheelbase 3/4-ton pickup truck.In 1948, the company launched their “step-down” bodies, which lasted through the 1954 model year. The term step-down referred to Hudson’s placement of the passenger compartment down inside the perimeter of the frame; riders stepped down into a floor that was surrounded by the perimeter of the car’s frame. The result was not only a safer car, and greater passenger comfort as well, but, through a lower center of gravity, good-handling car. In time almost all U.S. automakers would embrace it as a means of building bodies. Automotive author Richard Langworth described the step-down models as the greatest autos of the era in articles for Consumer Guide and Collectible Automobile.For the 1951 model year the 6 cylinder engine got a new block with thicker walls and other improvements to boost Horsepower by almost 18% and torque by 28.5% making Hudson a hot performer again. The GM-supplied 4 speed

Hydramatic automatic transmission was now optional in Hornets and Commodore Custom 6s and 8s Hudson’s strong, light-weight bodies, combined with its high-torque inline six-cylinder engine technology, made the company’s 1951–54 Hornet an auto racing champion, dominating NASCAR in 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954 Herb Thomas won the 1951 and 1954 Southern 500s and Dick Rathmann won in 1952. Some NASCAR records set by Hudson in the 1950s (e.g. consecutive wins in one racing season) still stand even today. Hudson cars also did very well in races sanctioned by the AAA Contest Board from 1952 to 1954 with Marshall Teague winning the 1952 AAA Stock Car Championship and Frank Mundy in 1953. Often Hudsons finished in most of the top positions in races. Later, these cars met with some success in drag racing, where their high power-to-weight ratio worked to their advantage. Hudsons enjoyed success both in NHRA trials and local dirt track events As the post-war marketplace shifted from a seller’s to a buyer’s market the smaller U.S automakers, such as Hudson and Nash, found it increasingly difficult to compete with the Big Three (Ford, GM and Chrysler) during the 1950s. The sales war between Ford and General Motors conducted during 1953 and 1954 had left little business for the much smaller “independent” automakers trying to compete against the standard models offered by the domestic Big Three. The Big Three could afford constant development and styling changes, so that their cars looked fresh every year, whereas the smaller manufacturers could only afford gradual change. Hudson’s once innovative “step-down” unit body construction, while sturdy and innovative, also made restyling difficult and expensive. Although Hudsons dominated racing during this period, their feats did little to affect showroom traffic Sales fell each year from 1951 to 1954 and only Korean War military contracts kept the company afloat. On March 20, 1954, the Hudson Motor Car Company reported a loss of $10,411,060 in 1953 as compared with a profit of $8,307,847 in 1952. After the company’s high-priced Jet compact car line failed to capture buyers in its second straight year, Hudson was acquired by Nash-Kelvinator (makers of Nash and Rambler) automobiles in 1954 == 1954–1957 == On May 1, 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator Corporation to become American Motors. The Hudson factory, located in Detroit, Michigan, was converted to military contract production at the end of the model year, and the remaining three years of Hudson production took place in Kenosha, Wisconsin For 1955, both Hudson and Nash senior models were built on a common automobile platform using styling themes by Pinin Farina, Edmund E. Anderson, and Frank Spring. Common-body shell production for competing makes of automobiles was a manufacturing technique that had been used by the Big Three for decades. Although the 1955 Hudson used the inner body shell of the Nash, the car incorporated a front cowl originally designed by Spring and the Hudson team to be put on the 1954 Step-Down platform. The 1955 models also used the Hudson dashboard, “triple safe brakes” and the Nash Weather Eye heater with Harrison Radiator Corporation-supplied lower cost Freon/compressor type air conditioning Hudson dealers also sold Rambler and Metropolitan models under the Hudson brand. When sold by Hudson dealers, both cars were identified as Hudson vehicles via hood/grille emblems and horn buttons. Hudson Ramblers also received “H” symbols on fuel filler caps (and, in 1956, also on hubcaps). For 1957, Rambler and Metropolitan became makes in their own rights, and no longer were identified as Hudson or Nash For 1956, design of the senior Hudsons was given over to designer Richard Arbib, which resulted in the “V-Line” styling motif, a combination of “V” motifs that carried Hudson’s triangular corporate logo theme. Sales fell below 1955 figures. For 1957, Hudson dropped

the shorter-wheelbase Wasp line, selling only the Hornet Custom and Super, which featured a lowered profile and slightly updated styling With a wider front track than Nash used, Hudson was the better handling car, and was powered by the famed 308 cu in (5.0 L) Hornet Six with the optional high-compression cylinder head and dual-carburetor manifold (“Twin-H Power”); the Twin H would disappear at the end of the 1956 model year.The Wasp used the 202 cu in (3.3 L) L-head Jet Six engine (up to 130 hp (97 kW)) and this model (in sedan version) was Hudson’s top seller. For 1955, for the first time Hudson offered a V8 engine, a Packard-designed and -built 320 cu in (5.2 L) engine rated at 208 hp (155 kW) purchased by Hudson and Nash. All cars with the Packard V8 also used Packard’s Ultramatic automatic transmission as an option costing $494 (equivalent to approximately $4,454); the Nash 3-speed manual was also available at US$295 == End of the line == The last Hudson rolled off the Kenosha assembly line on June 25, 1957. There were no ceremonies, because at that point there was still hope of continuing the Hudson and Nash names into the 1958 model year on the Rambler chassis as deluxe, longer-wheelbase senior models The combined Nash and Hudson production volume was not sufficient to justify all new design and tooling, so the Rambler’s platform was expected to be adopted to the longer cars One major trade magazine said rumors of discontinuance were false and the 1958 Hudsons and Nashes “would be big and smart”. Factory styling photographs show designs for a 1958 Hudson (and Nash) line based on a longer-wheelbase 1958 Rambler. Front-end prototype photos show separate Hudson and Nash styling themes.AMC’s President George W. Romney came to the conclusion that the only way to compete with the “Big Three” (General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler) was to stake the future of AMC on a new smaller-sized car line. Neither Hudson nor Nash brand names had as much positive market recognition as the successful Rambler and their sales were lagging. Together with AMC’s chief engineer Meade Moore, Romney had completely phased out the Nash and Hudson brands at the end of 1957. The decision to retire the brands came so quickly that preproduction photographs of the eventual 1958 Rambler Ambassador show both Nash- and Hudson-badged versions. The Rambler brand was selected for further development and promotion while focusing exclusively on compact cars.Eventually, however, something close to the Hudson design was chosen for the 1958 Rambler Ambassador. Hudson brand enthusiasts will note the triangular grille guard and 1957-like fender “gun sights” and the fast-selling 1958 Rambler Customs wore 1957 Hudson-styled front-fender trim == South Africa == Hudson cars were assembled from complete knock down (CKD) kits in South Africa by Stanley Motors in Natalspruit (Mpumalanga) == Legacy == For the 1970 model year, American Motors revived the “Hornet” model name for its new series of compact cars (the AMC Hornet). AMC was later purchased by Chrysler, which at one time considered reintroducing the Hornet name in the Dodge model line (See: Dodge Hornet) The last Hudson dealership was Miller Motors in Ypsilanti, Michigan, which is now part of the Ypsilanti Automotive Heritage Museum The Hostetler Hudson Auto Museum in Shipshewana, Indiana features a collection of restored Hudsons. Eldon Hostetler was an inventor who owned a Hudson as a teenager and later purchased Hudson cars and restored them.A restored Hudson Dealership sign still occupies its original site on Highway 32 in Chico, California.The 2006 film, Disney/Pixar’s Cars, features a character named Doc Hudson, represented as a 1951 Hudson Hornet The Hermes, a recurring car model featured in Rockstar Games’ Grand Theft Auto video

game series, is based on the 1951 Hudson Hornet == Models

Lecture 14: Tf/Fg/SM based strategies and its exploration

Welcome back. We are discussing several problem-based approaches of a given target molecule And we have talked that transformation-based approaches starting material based approaches and functional group-based approaches are the key core three strategies which can be combined together efficiently to solve numerous problems, as discussed in the earlier lectures Now, in continuation with the same thing, we will now try to provide you a similar problem, but you need to figure it out the target structure in very closely. So, the six-member ring is there, and in addition, you have a seven-member ring. Then, I am trying to draw 1 2 3 4. So, this is the target molecule, just try to draw the target molecule and then, this target molecule is bit complex; you have a bridge structure from here Now, in reality, the structure which was given here, it’s not a simple structure as it looks-the six-member ring. Then, you have a seven-member ring; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Then, you are having a five-member bridged; 1 2 3 4 5 So, now there are cyclic structures connected in a different way. Probably a topologically distinct molecule. But eventually, we will be just trying to analyze the molecule in a very straightforward retro by normal functional group-based approaches. Let us first do the very conventional retro, and then, you will realize and how this retro is so powerful The only thing if you check in the molecule, you will find that a probably an Aldol kind of transformation is useful to make this target molecule. Now, how? I will try to draw the structure. So, this is OBn; Bn is Benzyl I am writing it Bn is Benzyl; CH2 Ph it’s an abbreviated form Then, from this part, you can make a hanging Aldehyde, Aldehyde appendage. Then, you can put something like this and then, you will try to make the bridge; try to make the bridge Now we say that we are doing a disconnection here. Now, this is a Methylene compound adjacent to a carbonyl and close proximity. You have a Carbonyl or Aldehyde group. So, basically is an Aldol Reaction. It is an Aldol Transformation Now, the structural simplicity is basically until, and unless you draw the Aldol retro, it’s not visible; it sometimes means you try to make a visible or visual communication with this target molecule and then try to simplify the main target structure. Now this structure, we will write it in a simplified form If you write it, now you see the structure is basically nothing but a 6-6 molecule fused together, is not it? See the analogy; this

is the OMe; this is the fused, common fuse together, 1 2 3 4 5 6. So, the Ketone, this red color Ketone is basically this, and then, you are doing it an Aldol reaction with this Alde Hyde to this. So, this is the Aldol reaction we are doing Now this compound has been rewritten in this way. So, that is what the structure looks pretty complex. Now once it is simplified, you are quite comfortable. Now it looks quite comfortable, and then, probably, you can design a very straight forward retro based on a known starting material This starting material is known is a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7; 7 Methoxy-Beta tetralone. That was already known, and probably this is a beta-tetralone derivative, it’s a commercially also available; Beta-tetralone derivative. It could be a very good starting material. Now, what exactly you want to do it, you will be doing a successive round of alkylation to put these functional groups Now, remember you have a Methylene group here as well as here, fine. Now out of these Methylene groups, this Methylene group is most acidic because it is a Benzylic also. So now you realize that. if you start with this compound again, we will draw the parent compound, and you both the hydrogen’s you will basically be replaced by some carbon-containing electrophile, that will be given you this target. This target will then undergo Intramolecular Aldol reaction to give you the final target, is not it So, let us start the forward synthesis The 7 Methoxy-betatetralone derivatives, which you choose. As you are doing the successive round of alkylation, so, LDA 1 equivalent Now, what are the groups that need to be introduced? The first one is Benzyl …BnO-CH2Cl, this is called Benzyl Oxy Methyl Chloride or abbreviated as BOM Chloride So, the first round of alkylation, we get OBn. The second group which you need to introduce must have a CH2CHO. In principle you can use this kind of chloro acetaldehyde, is possible definitely possible, but sometimes this reagent might not be easily available; So, what you do, you can try to take another source or another electrophile, which will give you this particular functional group So, alternatively, we will be using this reagent condition, will be using LDA and Allyl Bromide; Allyl Bromide is a very cheap material, cheap starting material, and then, you will basically do another round of alkylation to get this all-carbon quaternary center here, fine Then as the situation demands, you need to do an oxidative cleavage here to remove this

one of this carbon to get an Aldehyde. So, do an original analysis; your Methoxy group will always be there; you will do a unique analysis, and then, you are getting this compound Now this compound you can, try to go back to the original retro it’s nothing but this, you try to draw it in this way and then, do an intramolecular Aldol. You can now finish it off the retro in an elegant way So, that was basically a very useful simplification So, once we have a complex structure, that is why we are always saying that the retrosynthetic pathways are so powerful. So, you have to start visually communicating with the molecule and once you try to finish the chemical logic Then you simplify the starting material or the intermediate and then, you complete the forward synthesis, and the entire event is a very pleasing exercise And next, we will be basically trying to use a similar kind of strategy would be using multiple transformation based strategies It is sometimes a transformation that you required is to be combined. A couple of transformations like 3- 4 transformations should be combined together. But until now, we have not discussed any complex structure. It is basically a simple structure where you can just play with 2- 3 functional groups or 2- 3 transformation This particular target, which we will be discussing now, we will be using 2-3 transformations together, and I am sure all the transformations have been known to you as earlier discussed Is a target molecule that contains a Phenyl ring, and here it’s having an appendage which is having a -CN; CH2OH and an isopropyl group So, this carbon is a quaternary carbon, with all carbon quaternary; the Phenyl -CN, CH2OH So, to do this, I will do a functional group addition or a functional group interconversion, which is a purely FGA based approach. To do well initially, if we found somewhere the alcohol is given in the target molecule, it means that the alcohol needs to be protected Normally, Alcohol protection, as we have not discussed, but we will do it a little bit later on. But alcohol is not a good functional group which you can keep as free because acidic hydrogen play some important role. So, alcohol-free is always not recommended; you can just protect it; the suitable protecting group. Pg stands for Protecting group; we will be talking about many protecting groups a little bit later on when you talk about functional group-based strategies in detail, Protection group Next, you will try to figure it out other FGI based approaches and then, we said that this compound could be potentially created from an Oxime, which can give you cyanide Now Oximes basically have such structure…Aldoxime means Aldehyde Oxime. Now, Aldoxime, if you treat with a dehydrating agent, namely Phosphorus pentoxide, this water will be eliminated, and you get the nitrile compound. So, what is this? This is basically a functional group interconversion Now, Aldoxime means you need to have an Aldehyde; otherwise, you won’t get Aldoxime. So, this is again a FGA or FGI to come back to the parent aldehyde CHO. This isopropyl remains similar, and this group you put it as is a

suitable protecting group. So, we are here Now, this carbon is all carbon quaternary carbon The next retro was again based on a very conventional reaction, which we discussed many times in our coursework. We said a Meinwald kind of rearrangement would give you this Aldehyde So, is a Meinwald rearrangement was used as a main transformation, Now you know the mechanism of Meinwald rearrangement, and you can basically figure it out, how this transformation takes place So, next, you need to make this epoxide, simple job. You can now just make this alcohol free, and then, if you have this kind of compound, this kind of allelic alcohol you can easily make it, this is a FGI. So the manual transformation, as we discussed earlier, you know the mechanism, you can easily formulate So, now, this primary hydroxyl group we are putting in a different way, we will be accessing this primary hydroxyl group to a Cyano group Some of the reactions we are not discussing, but we will discuss it when we talked about the forward pathway, and then, this CN will be discussing from a benzyl cyano through an intramolecular Aldol reaction. So, all are FGI, FGI based on a couple of exciting transformation So, now let us go back to the forward pathway So, the forward-path starts with very simple starting material, Benzyl Cyanide. This compound is subjected to the first LDA. The acidic compound, these hydrogen’s are acidic, and then, you react to this compound with this Aldehyde. So, Aldol reaction will take place, and we definitely get these things. It is apparent means now, go back to the retro, you will find the cyanide now, needs to convert it to the corresponding Aldehyde; you can do two different kinds of formations. You probably know Stephen’s reaction Stephen’s reaction is a very simple reaction in which you can convert a CN to an aldehyde RCN to RCHO by SnCl2. Otherwise, if you don’t like the Stephen reaction, you can simply be using a DIBAL-H, di isobutyl aluminum hydride, which will also selectively convert a cyano to the corresponding Aldehyde. The beauty is the reaction will definitely stop in the aldehyde step; usually, if you use one equivalent of DIBAL-H, it ends at the aldehyde steps; otherwise, you can use excess DIBAL-H to get the primary alcohol. Because in our synthetic experiences, synthetic exercises, we need the primary alcohols Never the less, DIBAL is very expensive. So, what you do, you put a DIBAL 1 equivalent to get the Aldehyde. Then we use a cheap reagent sodium borohydride to access this allylic alcohol. Then this allylic alcohol needs to be protected. The protecting group, you usually can use any protecting group, but I am giving you a protecting group whose name is TBDPS-Cl The structure of TBDPS-Cl is Tertiary Butyl Diphenyl Silyl Chloride. So, basically, the oxygen will be replaced by this silyl ether,

and you will be having this OTBDPS. So, this is your compound You can do a mCPBA mediated epoxidation here, to get the corresponding epoxide, which will be next subjected to Meinwald rearrangement So, now, you are having this epoxide, and this O, let’s say Pg, OPg. Meinwald rearrangement, this is normally you treat with a Lewis Acid It is Lewis acid So, the Lewis acid you add, I know obviously, make sure which way the carbons, the carbon-oxygen bond, will be broken down. The most stable Carbonium iron will definitely be generated, and I assume that this way, you will have this OLA thing; because it is the Benzylic thing Now, then out of this, there is hydrogen There is isopropyl; the isopropyl group is secondary. It will basically migrate, isopropyl group will migrate here, and then, once the isopropyl group migrates, let the isopropyl group migrate And then, you will get the all-carbon quaternary center. This isopropyl group will migrate, and you are having this CHO after this rearrangement takes place, which is nothing but the desired compound. We said to put the isopropyl group in the top this OPg and your Aldehyde Now, make this aldehyde oxime, Aldoxime by hydroxylamine treatment, a very standard FGI So what will you get? You get to this OPg, O Pg remains the same; your isopropyl group remains similar, and then, you get the corresponding oxime. Put a dehydrating agent may be P2O5, phosphorus pentoxide, and you will get this OPg, CN here, and your isopropyl So, now we are almost close only thing is you need to remove the Pg. Now, this Pg removal is an oxygen silicon bond. We will try to give you some more information. Now, this oxygen silicon bond is very labile under fluoride condition; because you are going to form a new silicon fluorine bond. So, this will come here, you put a R- O minus, and it will give you the silicon fluorine bond, silicon has a strong affinity towards fluorine The silicon fluorine bond energy is very high; that is why normally, if you have an oxygen silicon bond or carbon-silicon bond, the base is there to cleave is the fluoride source; basically, you can access the target molecules which is required. You will get an OH here; you get a cyano, the target molecule Now, coming to the fluoride source, what kind of fluoride source you can think of using for silicon deprotection? Fluoride source The best fluoride source, what we will be using is named as TBAF, Tetra Butyl Ammonium Fluoride, whose structure is nBu4N+F-. Normally all silicon-containing protecting group has

been cleaved in this way, say R – O – TBS stands for Tertiary Butyl dimethyl Silyl, which is equivalent to Silicon methyl this group TBDPS, which we just now talked about, which are commonly used silicon reagent; silicon protecting group R – O – TIPS, TIPS stands for Silicon Try Isopropyl Silyl. There are other silicon-containing protecting groups like R – O – TES, TES is Try Ethyl Silyl When Silicon Ethyl Ethyl Ethyl. So, all the silicon-containing protecting group can be cleaved with tetra butyl ammonium fluoride These tetra butyl ammonium fluoride basically was commercially available, TBAF solution So, you try to buy from commercial suppliers You will find that TBAF in THF solution, Tetra hydro furan solution. So, normally one molar or two molar solution is commercially available, and you can just use them in some cases, you can use HF. HF was very strongly acidic, and to minimize its acidic nature; sometimes HF was combined with Pyridine, HF Pyridine is a good reagent HF-triethylamine is a good reagent to remove the silicon-containing protecting group Simple ammonium fluoride NH4HF, ammonium bifluoride was used. Potassium fluoride sometimes was used, but potassium fluoride is very much hygroscopic, is very difficult to handle The potassium fluoride normally is not used, but you can use all these compounds. TBAF was the most widely used compound to cleave any silicon-containing oxygen silicon bonds or carbon-silicon bonds. HF Pyridine also was used. HF triethylamine, ammonium fluoride, ammonium hydrogen fluoride all are used. So, what are these set of reagents, we will be using when you talk about protecting groups in detail So, we will just continue our discussion in the next week, till then, goodbye. Have a good time

Lecture 17 : Concept of Enzyme Inhibition (Contd.)

After the completion of the reversible inhibition cases, now we will go to the irreversible inhibition Remember the basic difference between reversible and irreversible inhibition is the formation of a covalent bond in case of irreversible inhibition And, there is no covalent bond formation in case of reversible, for irreversible there is a covalent bond formation Now, I have already told you that there are two types of irreversible inhibition one what is called Suicide Inhibition And the other what is called active site directed inhibition Let me see before we go on to the suicide, I think we will talk about the Active Site Directed Irreversible Inhibition; it is abbreviated as ASDII, ok Now, what happens here the name suggest something active site directed; that means, you have a molecule which is having a directional property, which is having a property and that property is directly utilized to inhibit the enzyme Basically I can give an analogy that it is like a that if in, if somebody wants to kill another person So, he has a gun and he shoots the person straight away that is what is the What is the active site? The active site in a person is mostly the heart, if the heart stops then everything stops So, heart is the active site if you consider then this active site directed irreversible inhibition means you now should straight at the active site Schematically how it is shown? It is shown that E plus S that is the normal goes to the ES complex Then in actual actually it goes to enzyme product complex, but and then that goes to E plus P. Usually for Michaelis Menten equation, we generally do not consider this fact because we assume that is a very fast dissociation In active site directed inhibition what happens, you have a molecule which is represented as IX; this X is the one which is attached to the inhibitor that is extremely reactive And I is the part or the whole assemble is complementary to the active site of the enzyme although it looks IX, but the whole the complete inhibitor is IX not only I This is the inhibitor, but the inhibitor already has a very reactive functionality, but it has got again electronic and geometric complementarity with the active site of the enzyme So, now what happens this IX will go because it has got this complementarity So, it goes and binds to the enzyme at the active site, but at that point after binding the enzyme realizes the mistake It has got lot of reactive functionalities say like lysine NH2 or thiol cysteine So, or OH which comes from threonine or serine So, lot of reactive functionalities you can think of or acid functionality as carboxylic So, this is now, it is a very reactive X functional group So, that reacts with any with one of the amino acid residues that are present in the enzyme active site So, this is and then there is a covalent bond formation between E and X because you are doing a reaction now and, but this So, even if I goes tries to go out, but it is now bound to the enzyme via this X-E bond So, that is what is active site directed inhibition; that means, here the molecule goes binds and it already has a very reactive functionality and then while it binds, the enzyme amino acids residue which are extremely say reactive functionality So, that immediately reacts with X and in the process E gets tied up covalently with

this IX molecule So, even if this portion is broken now, but your enzyme is, now covalently attached to this IX What are some of the examples? See some of the examples are like this that if it is a continuing a carbon with a leaving group attached to another a carbonyl like COCH2X Usually these molecules from organic chemistry we know that any leaving group attached to a carbon which is adjacent to a carbonyl, SN2 displacement is very high, rate of SN2 displacement because this is a very reactive system So, based on this part COCH2X you can have different Xs these are all different X s that are given here So, you can have different reactive functionalities attached to this inhibitor and the inhibition can take place But remember the enzyme has not done any normal reaction that it was doing to the substrate, that reaction has not taken place; it is just the like a magic bullet it went in and then it forms a cross link with any of these amino acid residues What is the a better example like, if you have ice I told you that most of these inhibitors are based on systems like this And this is R; they will be all inhibitors because this is very reactive Now, if you want to design a particular inhibitor for a particular enzyme, then you have to think of what could be my R, ok Now, suppose if we have chymotrypsin in mind We know chymotrypsin hydrolyses amide bond where from the carboxy site, where the carboxyl belongs to an aromatic amino acid like phenylalanine, tyrosine or tryptophan Now, see if you have it was also found by people that chymotrypsin can hydrolyze also esters It not only hydrolyses amides the peptides, but it can hydrolyze esters like the ethyl esters of this, but you have to maintain that that factor that it only recognizes aromatic amino acids So, in general what happens, you have a system like this what is required for hydrolysis of by chymotrypsin You have a system like this and this is also important that that should be in the L configuration then phenyl this chymotrypsin as I told you know the mechanism now of chymotrypsin that it is a serine based enzyme; serine, histidine and aspartate that triad should be there But, apart from that it must have some pocket which is the hydrophobic pocket where phenyl or aromatic groups can be stabilized by π by stacking interactions or what are called this hydrophobic interactions And because of the presence of this pocket which only recognizes aromatic groups, chymotrypsin is specific for aromatic amino acids For lysine which hydrolyses only basic amino acids like when sorry for trypsin which hydrolyses only the basic amino acids like lysine or arginine; why it is so, specific then this pocket is no longer hydrophobic Because trypsin recognizes groups like say NH3 plus a lysine amino acid or an arginine here so, I can just represent by BH plus because they will be all protonated So, they go there they first fit to the enzyme So, the enzyme must have a trypsin enzyme must be having a site where lot of carboxylates are there so, that you can make salt bridges that NH3 plus and CO2 minus So, there will be lot of salt bridges So, that is why trypsin recognizes basic amino acids because of the presence of this salt, because of the presence of a pocket which ensures salt bridge formation or electrostatic

interactions and chymotrypsin has a hydrophobic pocket, but which recognizes only aromatic amino acids Now, I want to design an a active site directed inhibitor of chymotrypsin How do I do it? This is the mechanism of that charged that relay process; carboxylate that aspartate takes up the hydrogen from the imidazole and that activates this nitrogen as a base that takes up this hydrogen and this is supposed to go and attack the carbonyl But if you do not take the amide here, if you take a CH2Cl instead of taking an ester or an amide then what happens two things that are important One is now this serine if it attacks the carbonyl you cannot break a carbon carbon bond that is difficult to break; earlier there was carbon nitrogen bond that is one point, but the more important point is now this imidazole is very close to this CH2Cl this carbon which is extremely susceptible to nucleophilic attack, it is very close to that So, now the charge relay will be like this, this O minus takes the hydrogen this goes here and the nitrogen is activated So, instead of taking the proton from serine because that is now useless even if it takes the proton there is no productivity, because the serine cannot attack this carbonyl Because there is no meaningful reaction here, so the nitrogen instead of taking the hydrogen it goes and attacks this carbon and breaks the carbon chlorine bond So, what will happen or what is the result of this? The result of this is that you are forming a carbon nitrogen covalent bond with this molecule, ok So, this is and a very good example of active site directed irreversible inhibition Why active site directed? Because your molecule has a system which is recognized by the enzyme, so which is recognized by the enzyme, so the inhibitor goes and goes binds to the active site Then the normal cycle wants to take place, but that cannot happen here what is then, then because it has got a reactive functionality COCH2Cl, now the imidazole goes directly acts as a nucleophile and attacks this carbon and forming a carbon nitrogen bond So, this is the first example is the compound is called Tosyl Phenyl Chloro Ketone TPCK abbreviated as TPCK This is a very text book chemistry, this chemistry now has appeared in many textbooks And if you want to now you can, because you have this knowledge now if I ask that how to now make a irreversible inhibitor active site directed of course, of trypsin So, what you do, you now replace this phenyl alanine group and put instead of taking this TPCK; that means, tosyl phenyl chloro ketone, you take tosyl lysyl chloro ketone so; that means, that will be called TLCK; TLCK is tosyl this l stands for lysyl and then chloro ketone; TLCK This is an inhibitor for trypsin and the other one, this one is an inhibitor of chymotrypsin; both are active site directed, because both the molecules have reactive functionality number one number two they also have the structural feature that is necessary which is recognized by the pocket that is present in the active site So, this is active site The next one is Suicide Inhibition; this is another interesting very interesting topic Here what happens is that the inhibitor looks like very similar to the substrate And enzyme what the enzyme can do, because it is very similar to the substrate So, the inhibitor also goes and binds to the enzyme like the substrate After binding what happens usually the enzymes wants to do the reaction that is supposed to, it is supposed to catalyze So, it tries to do the reaction on the inhibitor and it does that reaction what is it is doing with the substrate original substrate It does the same reaction and, but in the process ok, now it is no longer I; like it

is no longer S; it is now it is now designated as product So, here the inhibitor is converted into another molecule, but ironically this molecule what the enzyme is doing, it is doing the same reaction like what it is doing on substrate, but in the process it makes a molecule which is highly reactive Before reaction it was not that reactive, after reaction it became very reactive And then as it is so, reactive it immediately forms actually this should be I star EI star So, covalent bond is super reactive covalent bond is formed So, basically it, I can take an analogy if you have read the story of Frankenstein, what happens a scientist wanted to bring life to a dead person So, he created the life into that dead person and the dead person wanted ultimately killed the scientists ok So, it is a very similar, the enzyme initially thinks that I is my friend like the substrate So, the inhibitor goes and enzyme embraces it with both arms and then what happens and then for friends we generally exchange words here, the enzymes that does the normal reactions, thinking that it is a very friendly molecule But, unfortunately after doing the reaction this molecule becomes an enemy and finally, kills the enzyme by forming a covalent bond So, that is why it says, that the enzyme is as if committing suicide and that is why this is called suicide inhibition It is also called mechanism based enzyme inhibition another name is given there, because the whole thing is depending on a particular mechanism that how I is converted to I star So, this is also called mechanism based inhibition, irreversible inhibition and, but the more common name is suicide inhibition Now, what is an example Before we go to this, I told you that enzyme inhibitors are very important from drug design concept many of our drugs 60 percent of the drugs are actually inhibitors of some kind of enzyme or receptor Now in case of cholesterol, when we have the disease high cholesterol, I want to modulate the activity of the enzyme, lower the activity of the enzymes which are involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol But I do not want to shut off totally that cholesterol should not be produced in my body Because cholesterol has other roles to play, from cholesterol we get the steroid hormones in our body, ok Cholesterol also constitutes the that membrane that surrounds our that keeps the cell contents intact So, you cannot completely shut off cholesterol Like sugar, if somebody suffering from higher diabetes, but you have to maintain the level of the glucose at a certain value If it goes down, that is also a problem from the normal value, but in some cases So, in those cases a reversible inhibition is better because you take the drug it modulates the activity of the enzymes So, that your cholesterol level or sugar level is maintained at the optimum condition, optimum what is expected and then when the drug is metabolized you take the next day another pill to keep the concentration of the drug in your body But, the important thing is that you need reversible inhibition You do not want to completely shut off the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway or your sugar glucose metabolic pathway; you do not want to completely shut down But in some cases you need this irreversible inhibition Remember reversible inhibition can be reversed, the inhibition can be overcome by adding excess of the substrate But for irreversible inhibition you are destroying the enzyme, whatever molecule is attached covalently to the inhibitor, that enzyme you cannot recover it is activity, it is already gone It has formed a covalent bond, active site residue is gone So, but where it is required, it is required when we want to really kill the enzyme totally, like when we have a bacterial infection And suppose there is a particular enzyme in the bacteria which is very essential for the bacteria to grow

So, then we target that enzyme in the bacteria and it will be much better if you have this type of irreversible inhibition, because you want to kill the bacteria; that means, you want to kill the enzyme You want to completely shut off the pathway that the enzyme follows So, I will quickly go to the example; again a text book example, this is not a drug molecule, this is a text book example that whether how to design a suicide inhibitor This was this is a molecule you know again chymotrypsin was the model because chymotrypsin structure is well known it is mechanism is well known it is available in plenty at a cheap rate, so, all these studies initially were done with chymotrypsin We know chymotrypsin recognizes aromatic amino acids So, all these examples are based on phenylalanine that is the easier one to work So, phenylalanine with a this is nitrogen that is the carbonyl side of the phenylalanine You have the carbonyl as protected with isopropyl and here instead of the amine CONH what you have is that this nitrogen is also having another benzyl This is actually benzyl We call it phenylalanine because we think it is phenyl derivative of alanine, but you can also think of that this is a benzyl derivative of glycine So, that also you can think that this is called benzyl glycine, but unfortunately from the very beginning it was called phenylalanine, ok So, you have now 2 CH2Phs this is, this has a configuration, L configuration and this nitrogen is attached to a nitrosyl group NO So, what you have is N-nitroso N-benzyl phenylalanine derivative and show it to the enzyme What was the idea of the scientist who was doing this? The idea is that that we know that the enzyme because it is phenylalanine, the enzyme is having this same catalytic triad and it will come and attack this, and this bond will be broken, not this bond sorry I am sorry this is attacking the just one second I will erase that, ok So, again just take the pen from here, ok So, what was it supposed to do the OH is supposed to do an attack on the carbonyl and break the carbon nitrogen bond that what was the earlier the peptide bond, here it is N-nitroso N-benzyl Because you have this benzyl group in the correct configuration there was no problem So, it goes and it binds to the active site and then this via this catalytic triad mechanism this hydrolyzes this carbon nitrogen bond Now, what happens to this species? The species will be initially like this PhCH2N minus initially and So, this is basically nitroso benzyl amine anion So, that will now take the proton so, to make it NH So, what you get now N-nitroso benzyl amine Now this type of functionality in organic chemistry from organic if, you have read organic chemistry so, because this subject is all about organic chemistry and biology So, you see now the reactivity of molecules come in to play This NH-NO; that means, N nitroso amines are very unstable What happens they go to the, this other tautomeric form that is called the diazo compound and this diazo compound is also not very stable Now, this goes to the it releases the hydro this OH, the OH comes out as H water and this forms this, there are some mistakes here I think better is you write this way P hCH2N triple bond N and these nitrogen is plus Earlier structure did not this is one resonating structure, but this is not very stable one, because this is not having the octet fulfilled This is the better structure, where all the octets are present all the atoms are fulfilling the octet, but this is also not stable Now, these triple N triple bond N can come out as nitrogen, a stable very stable molecule So, in the process what you are making a PhCH2 plus which is nothing, but a very reactive electrophile Any alkyl group with plus will be a very reactive electrophile

So, whatever nucleophilic amino acids are there in the active site; now they can react with this enzyme active site and forms this is the covalent bond that is formed So, this is first of all irreversible inhibition because you are forming a covalent bond with the substrate, but this is with the molecule that it is bind; it is binding that is the inhibitor molecule Number 2 is that this is not active site directed, because there is a particular reaction that the enzyme has done what is that reaction the normal reaction The enzyme hydrolyzes this carbon nitrogen bond carbonyl carbon nitrogen bond So, that normal reaction has happened and ultimately what is created is a monster This is a monster that ultimately creates a very electrophilic benzylic cation And if the enzyme wherever whatever nucleophilic amino acids it has, it will now capture this electrophile and in the process the enzyme should be inhibited Now, the scientist who made this molecule he had this in mind, ok In research we have many things in mind, but that does not work Here apparently it was very well thought out proposal So, he made this molecule show it to the enzyme that is chymotrypsin; unfortunately he did not observe any inhibition Why is that? That was the question that why there was no inhibition whether there is this reaction failed No he found that, this reaction was going on; that means, this part was released and this part was forming the acyl enzyme complex and finally, this was converted to the CO2H But it failed to inhibit the enzyme What happened here? The interesting point because he was a brilliant scientist, so he realized what is happening here See here the part which is attached to the enzyme is the phenylalanine that benzyl part the phenylalanine L phenylalanine that Ph that is bound to the enzyme And the reactive species that was generated CH2 and then you have NH sorry NH and NO that is generated, that has no connection with the enzyme So, by the time all these reactions take place it just has come out of the enzyme pocket So, it has gone out of the enzyme because there was no connection of these with the enzyme The part which was attached to the enzyme hydrophobic pocket was this phenyl that was attached So, the other part was free to be released and by the time all these rearrangement reactions take place that reactive part is outside the enzyme If it is outside the enzyme, so, it cannot destroy the enzyme So, this did not work But as I said he was a brilliant scientist So, what he did? He did a slight change what is this slight change? This is the one I was telling that because this phenyl was being attached to the enzyme hydrophobic pocket; this part is free to escape from the enzyme active site So, then what he did, he changed the configuration of this carbon He made it a D alanine a D phenylalanine derivative This was L remember amino acids, proteins are all made of L amino acids and So, it is natural that the enzyme will also recognize only L amino acids containing molecules It will not recognize, or it will not recognize the D so; that means this phenyl now cannot bind to this hydrophobic pocket, why because the configuration is D. Earlier this hydrogen was alpha (below the plane) and you can think of this phenyl as above the plane, if you think that and the active site is somewhere here So, now when the phenyl is above the plane hydrogen is below it can the phenyl can go and fit in to the active site But when you take the other configuration now the hydrogen is up and the phenyl is down So, it cannot go and bind to this active site, but what happened here we are all the Now this benzyl was sitting by the side of this alpha carbon, when it was L because there

was perfect match in stereo chemistry So, it goes and binds and this is free to escape When you made it D then this molecule binds to this enzyme, but via the phenyl group of the N-nitroso part now And you know nitrogen what is the stereo chemistry, nitrogen can actually flip back and forth Nitrogen configuration is not a particular one whatever is required it will do that So, if it requires a up phenyl So, the nitrogen lone pair will be down and the phenyl will be up So, this phenyl now serves as the it replaces the other phenyl or phenylalanine So, that N-nitroso linked benzyl group the aromatic ring now is interacting Now what is the effect of that, now this is not free to escape from the active site because it is the phenyl is bound to this point So, if it is bound So, exact what will happen now this phenyl this is the phenyl of the N-nitroso part So, that is remaining so, ultimately this species So, whatever time it takes it will take, but this is already attached by weak interactions So, it cannot escape from the enzyme active site So, this goes out you make the electrophilic carbon here And now if there is a nucleophile in surrounding amino acid then that is going to react with the this benzylic carbon So, this is the mechanism of this reaction Now, this is an example of suicide inhibition Because as I said in suicide inhibition the substrate goes and the inhibitor goes and binds, then the enzyme does the normal reaction Normal reaction means chymotrypsin is supposed to hydrolyze an amide bound and that what has happened But after the hydrolysis, the species that is generated, that is extremely reactive And because of this switch over L to D this benzyl is now is bound to the hydrophobic pocket; that means, this reactive species is now bound So, whatever chemistry that takes place after this, even if it takes some time, that is that does not matter because the reactive species is still bound to the enzyme And then the enzyme nucleophile will attack this benzylic carbon and forms the carbon X bond So, this is the story of reversible and irreversible inhibition I think now, we have completed this inhibition part So, next day we will see more designed part because this forms the basis of our drug design the next module that is related to whatever we are talking now So, we have to clarify all doubts about enzyme inhibitions and then we will go to the nucleic acids once this is over Thank you very much

Deadpool (Masacre) – Parte 5

ahora y bueno la colegas estamos de vuelta en el pool con la siguiente parte que ya no sé si voy a decir que la parte 5 porque como lo voy a dividir pero puede ser que sea la parte 5 así que bueno nos vemos que despediría ya estoy de vuelta presentando el nuevo vídeo y erraron música imagínense si empiezo una parte diciendo hola nos vemos si te da las gracias hola la prefiero el ataque de guardia por ciento más los brazos no duermen o con tu hermano con tu hermano bennie académica no no bueno o de [ __ ] dónde está el maldito del arma com y poblet es más acordado por el estor moderación voy a empezar dentro de poco el bull stone como se lo tengo ahí para instalar está entre los quiero empezar audio no lo hice [ __ ] no lo creas tu [ __ ] me mato dijo ouch y aquí estamos de vuelta la toma y ahora lo vamos a ser conseguido ahora solito doria ahora sí a vos somos rojos y me confundí pero si vamos al combate yo quiero cosas vengan por mí dijo que soy muy rápido y estiró la manada hijo de [ __ ] tito de [ __ ] fue gordo i no guardar sobre 1 polito quien estaba tirando la granada tu hijo de [ __ ] como plumas de [ __ ] vamos vengan por mí caminada pero nada ahora sintió lindo vamos tengo para todos los quieren venir a joderme para molestarme

dónde estás del otro lado no hijo de [ __ ] vino un rayo me cago en todo aquí maldito me canjura te no veo esto listo [ __ ] hora de mirar hasta el del rayo o subir o estás y muy lejos 3 esta madre buena que maldito no te metas del puente de esto fuck you reach bueno me cago el agua no que viene pero [ __ ] respiro por favor me cago en tus buenos he venido a romperme la sola vos también un lago ni [ __ ] chat uno para ti no no no no no no no cambia no no no no no corre corre corre curetti hijo de [ __ ] toma ahora jamás ah hay demás fijado no paran de salir qué [ __ ] hago ahora sirius de borja y encima el otro como es el de wolverine está inconsciente todavía donde lo dejamos no existe ni siquiera puede levantarla y me sigue a mí el hijo de wood vamos tarde sígueme arriba dt dónde hay más por qué por qué por qué tenían que salir esos hijos de [ __ ] me cago en todo yo qué [ __ ] se acata mío pero aquí

para muy lejos maldito ya sea sommer que está haciendo ahí abajo acércate más cabrón hola de lo que está haciendo 20 meses buenísimo en el flor de kilo yo me veo que me den o cada vendrá secretos de los pises fuiste tú ajá viviré por mí pero eso atacarles no me voy a poner si me dan hijo de [ __ ] me va a dar me va a matar me va a matar él es hijo de [ __ ] eléctrico para todos ahora vas a ver el maldito eléctrico mariaca dónde estás de [ __ ] estás no lo veo qué onda pero picasso y por otro maldito todas ah pero de apear acá porque no podemos acabar y el futuro acabar el río que existe en el futuro porque no trabajan que comience o sea que el presente qué es puse parecía la rueda a ver qué me sacó podríamos parar millón de dólares no sabe que salen magnéticas apocalipsis o [ __ ] sea [ __ ] debo soltar el [ __ ] de esas de veras y no no vaca entonces este mundo

desde donde ver aquí el león blasco bueno no por la [ __ ] mano está vivo y ahora esto su suspensión está matando y muy contento de ser bien escribe y va arriba y para arriba donde estoy debajo de todos yo sé con esta madre porque ahora no llega baja vamos no y son doble salto justo pero me cago en todo ay qué [ __ ] donde estoy cuando corté para tener transportar mi me caí y me mate todo a la [ __ ] de vuelta o sea es como voy avanzando lentamente hacia arriba y después ha sido y golpe hacia abajo me voy en vez de subir bajo bajo bajo por un mecano [ __ ] todo otra vez estamos cuando de mandar a la [ __ ] rafa tenemos que llegar arriba esto más complicado soy quiero su veredicto wow cuando quiera dios electro justas y confusas al despertar papá fuera hola volviste le mandó una bola de regalo y después o de donde queremos salir escrita por de tul ese no era siniestro era un clon una [ __ ] wei wei si no pudiera volver a probar los tacos de manzanas me hable ante acá está el siniestro piensa matarás almansa cultura todos sus

tacos luego todos los habitantes del planeta espalda contra espalda luego de estas batallas en el futuro todas dependen de lo que tú hagas aquí y ahora en la antigua ciudad de magneto el otro extremo de la isla por lo menos un día a pie así que me acuerdo bien prepárate para blanco nudos dos piezas la primera está por ahí buscó una pieza para cable el vocal abre una pieza del centinela para cable bueno entonces hasta acá llegó con la parte esta creo que fue más corta que las demás pero lo voy a ir dividiendo así por parte de tapas porque acá fue una gran pelea o sea estuve el rato largo luchando aquí así que bueno lo voy a acabar acá en esta parte después vamos a seguir a buscar las piezas y hacer volar esta cosa si queríamos así que bueno nos vemos la próxima pero que les haya gustado texto y adiós los otros monos

Recetas y respuesta a tus dudas, Con sazón a la mexicana

bueno yo soy maruja cordero y te saludamos con el cariño de todos los días hoy estamos festejando a los que llevan el nombre de mario está con nosotros como siempre y charo yes y toñito y césar y en este el micrófono maruja cordero y no se encuentra son los puedes sintonizar a través del 1040 de amplitud modulada en nuestros teléfonos son 31 22 190 36 47 18 83 tenemos para ustedes un lada sin costo 01 800 700 27 54 20 si nos quiere sintonizar desde austin texas lo puedes hacer o texas lo puedes hacer a través de él 1530 de e-mail por el 95.1 df nuestros teléfonos en austin son 512 215 49 09 saludos a mazatlán y saludos a cualquier parte del mundo donde te encuentres y estés escuchando el programa de con sazón a la mexicana recuerden yo les estoy diciendo desde la semana pasada les estoy haciendo partícipes y darle las gracias a ustedes porque después de 21 años 7 septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre y enero casi casi año y medio como quien dice bueno agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre y enero son seis meses según como los puentes se 21 años y medio tengo de sale en el programa de con sazón y es hora de retirarnos quiero darle las gracias como siempre a todos a todos a todos los que estuvieron conmigo durante tanto tiempo colaborando los que estuvieron conmigo escuchándolos y como les comentaba antes de despedirme de los demás quise hacerlos de todo nuestro hermosísimo público de nuestros amigos que nos escuchan muchos de ellos desde hace mucho tiempo muchos acaban de entrar pero de eso se trata y para despedirnos ahora invitamos a la asociación gourmet de jalisco están con nosotros lupita que buscamos al invitar muy bien marujita muy contenta este pues escuchándote con con mucha admiración con mucho cariño porque de verdad cuando se conoce una mujer como tú y se ve toda tu trayectoria y el que tú haz y con tan entera y todo digas me retiro porque ahora sigue otra cosa me encanta me encanta ver tu entusiasmo que sepas y nos compartas y nos enseñes a vivir la vida de una manera feliz y contenta y con tu ejemplo y pues bueno eres como una mamá para mi en las aves y este y es un halago tenerte aquí ya esté en esta vida en mi camino lo cual agradezco y pues bueno ya seguir compartiendo lo que venga a marujita de donde tú tip y pisas siempre hay éxitos y muchas cosas que aprender gracias y vamos a continuar con muchas cosas sobre todo como asociación gourmet así es chef más run under cómo estás más luna marujita muy bien muy contenta de estar aquí gracias por tomarnos en cuenta y muy orgullosa de formar parte de la asociación gourmet de jalisco y de tu agenda de amigas me da mucho gusto muchas gracias por haberme tomado en cuenta y para por haberme invitado a la asociación gourmet y por haberme invitado tantas veces a tu programa vengo de la vida y como dice lupita eres un ejemplo a seguir y has dejado huella aquí hay un circuito por el que no sé quién más vaya a poder caminar pero pero va a ser muy difícil muchas gracias bueno pero nosotros vamos a continuar y estamos platicando con ustedes y vamos a hablar de recuerdos vamos a hablar de recetas vamos a hablar de anécdotas que tuvimos y vamos a comenzar diciendo cuántos años tiene la asociación gourmet desde el 2003 marujita pero un par de años antes ya se habían hecho varias reuniones ya se había platicado mucho de hacer algo por jalisco y bueno pues yo recuerdo mucho a los primeros integrantes a ti a michelle a irma vaca a sofía alejandro álvarez que fueron los primeros en iniciar todo esto y bueno ya para el 2003 se forman la primera acta constitutiva y ya quedas tú como presidente de la asociación desde entonces y les quiero comentar que no me dejan que me vaya yo le dejaremos me voy pero no bueno nosotros continuamos porque tenemos muchos años de pertenecer a la asociación la asociación de que trata ver lupita bueno la asociación fomenta el gusto por la cultura y nuestra gastronomía y fomentamos también el buen comer el buen vivir y con la experiencia de chefs que participan en la asociación porque no todos somos efe habemos empresarios sabemos mercado luego sabemos de otras carreras pero con la sapiencia de nuestra chef como marrón

como sophie como este los que están gerardo montoya pues bueno eso nos ha permitido poder hacer programas poder hacer exposiciones y poder fomentar más este gusto por la gastronomía y pues bueno marrón ahí tú como como chef tu experiencia dentro de la asociación pues ha sido también muy importante porque de repente en los eventos te toca a ti estar en la cocina la parte más rica más linda yo creo que la asociación gourmet ahora sí que sin querer queriendo se ha ido formando con elementos que todos todos formamos como como una mazorca de un elote todos tenemos un lugarcito todos hacemos algo por la asociación y por supuesto por la finalidad que tiene está que es como dices tú rescatar la gastronomía y la cultura desde jalisco entonces yo creo que todos hemos formado parte muy importante en cada quien en lo que hace y dando un poquito más en algo que no haces pero también cooperando y siempre con él con el fin común igual no claro que es muy importante y otra de las cosas que les quería comentar es que somos varios pero no todos podemos venir porque cada quien tiene sus obligaciones por ejemplo dentro de la asociación tenemos a maestros tú eres maestra la más clarita en este día precisamente tienes un lapso de tiempo si tengo mi disponibilidad marca que el lunes no voy en la mañana entonces eso es bueno porque pudo venir pero otros integrantes de la asociación pues no pueden están dando clase otros están atendiendo sus negocios y otros pues están ahora sí que un poquito retirados pero siempre pendientes de lo que pasa así es marujita pues empresarios importa importantes de éste de uniformes de pasteles de comida pero pero si éste esto hace más rica la experiencia de vivir cada día en la asociación gourmet de jalisco y poderles compartir un poquito de todo esto que estamos haciendo por jalisco y por méxico bueno y hablando de eso a nosotros este comenzamos este asistiendo a muchísimos eventos me acuerdo que estuvimos en eventos como acompañando a toda la asociación de cómo se llama los de los peces los pescados como se llama esta asociación grande nadie guardó filia pues no me acuerdo cómo se llama pero ahí estuvimos me acuerdo que fue una de las primeras veces que estuvimos como y sí sí la de las ranas estuvimos también hemos estado como jurados en muchísimos eventos fuera y dentro de jalisco entonces hemos estado fuera de aquí de nuestra ciudad representando a la asociación quien puede ir en ese momento va hemos estado compartiendo con chefs de muchas partes porque no nada más de aquí de jalisco y eso la verdad es una cosa que nos llena mucho de orgullo pero también queremos que nos digan dentro de todo esto dentro de todo lo que tenemos nosotros yo les comentaba la vez pasada que este que fue lo que no pudiste es hacer el año pasado que tú te quedaste con ganas hablando de gastronomía aunque yo me puse a dieta pero la rompí tan fácilmente que barbara como ver exactamente lo mismo que piensas tú en casa es lo mismo que piensan los chefs que tienen que estar ahí cocinando que tienen que estar dando clases tienen que estar haciendo tantas cosas bueno pues es exactamente lo mismo estamos el radio mujer te invitamos a que te comunicas con nosotros a través de nuestros teléfonos 31 22 11 90 36 47 18 83 y también queremos que si quieres entrar a nuestra página web personal www punto radio mujer punto com.mx un chiquitito corte y volvemos con ustedes continuamos estamos en el 1040 amplitud modulada y ya tenemos varios este varias preguntas aquí fíjate este punto eres muy buena para esto lo vas a saber una receta de un cheesecake que no se hornea de un cheesecake que no se hornea yo le pondría queso crema o leche condensada media crema o crema para batir crema lincoln y le pondría grenetina los que no se hornean se refrigeran sí y le pondría yo grenetina sobre una costra de galleta maría con mantequilla o mantequilla y ahí lo que

es lo más fácil si ahí está ya hecha y nosotros continuamos entonces este a ver vamos a ver me están preguntando mucho por libros de recetarios mejor dicho pero les quiero comentar el el libro que hicimos nosotros de la asociación discúlpame andaluz acaba de llegar la licenciada a la luz de las correctas buenos días y bienvenida muy buenos días un poquito apenada por por llegar un poquito tarde pero ya ves el tráfico ahorita está un poquito pesado muy contenta de estar aquí contigo no cansarme de darle gracias a dios en la vida por haberte puesto en mi camino es una gran una gran mujer una gran empresaria eres una gran líder y sobre todo eres una gran mamá que hemos visto como adoras a tus hijos ya nosotros ya nosotros porque hasta los cuidas mucho y no nos suelta agradecerte este crecimiento personal y profesional que nos has dado en estos años que hemos compartido contigo en la radio y eres un ejemplo a seguir de una persona y de una mujer que a tu corta edad sigue trabajando sigue escuchando sigue emprendiendo porque como la ven no crean que se va a descansar totalmente lo traían algunos otros proyectos que de que se van a hacer en beneficio de la sociedad que eso es lo que más seguro está que siempre es en beneficio de todos gracias marujita por invitarme no al contrario muchas gracias si ya te dice ahorita les que estaba preguntando esto el recetario que hicimos nosotros como asociación gourmet uno fue para ayudar a estos niños a este hecho a los chicos con cáncer pero el otro exactamente pero el otro porque me dicen de soya pero no hay metíamos hoy en ese recetario perdón metimos hoy a algunas recetas de soya en el recetario de 15 días cómo se llama que es saludable entonces guillermina déjame buscar el citó ya lo tenemos y luego ya te comento por qué no lo recordaba aquí lo voy a notar para tenerlo ahí y este que no se va se cierran a luz nada es el mismo libro el mismo libro sobre el mismo libro que si teníamos una o dos recientes este gran orador que sin nada más no manejamos muchas o ya no no pero si hay un nuevo dice porque el pan de requesón me queda arenoso a lo mejor necesita un poco de batir pongo más debatido yo pienso que eso es lluvioso que 6 yo creo que sí o depende también el requesón que esté usando pero más bien creo que necesita un poco más de batir más bien fíjate que el requesón se tiene que el igual si el olivo en es razón a la licuadora sigue yo lo licue entonces ya me queda bien entonces otra cosa que dice receta de milanesa de res que no sea empanizada bueno una vez yo te quiero decir yo en pan hizo con amaranto y con almendras fileteadas y en lugar de pan y te absorbe mucho menos grasa y es más saludable y delicioso así que te invito a que compre esto amaranto natural no con miel y a los niños a toda la familia les encanta es un sabor diferente muy rico incluso le puedes poner a esta pepita verde la pepita de calabaza si éste con la almendra o cacahuate molido y el amaranto hace alguna semilla y el amaranto y te ayuda a un buen empanizado saludable perfectísimo y luego maría elena dice que si le podemos dar la receta de un pastel de queso pues se llama social que dije el tav al decir ahorita tú nada más que le vamos a quitar la grenetina si entonces ponemos huevos y horneamos exactamente o sea sería cuestión de mandar al programa la receta exacta porque no la tengo en la memoria pero mandar la receta exacta y que ellas lo lo revise muy bien bueno recuérdense que el peluche que nuestra llames una memoria que son cuatro huevos que es una lechera una clavel un queso filadelfia todo se bate para un pastel con harina veronica dice que si podríamos me dice me podría decir que el libro se puede servir para el principiante no tenemos ningún libro el principiante no tengo yo ningún libro de principiantes todos los libros que tengo pero cliente que me estás dando este muy buena idea porque lo vamos a hacer un libro para principiantes sería muy bueno que a ver más si éste yo tengo mucha información porque en donde tengo el honor de trabajar doy esa materia de se llama tecnología y arte culinario y que son

las bases del arte culinario yo tengo dos libros de apoyo e increíble este hecho fue mi maestra quien los hizo sí entonces pues yo se los podría recomendar no sé si se llama arte culinario bases y procedimientos de la señora graciela m de flores ella fue mi maestra y ella falleció hace algún tiempo pero dejó muchos libros y para mí es el abc del arte culinario esos libros me gusta mucho uno de mi amiga chepina peralta que tiene uno para principiantes y este y otro que hizo una compañía pero no recuerdo yo te voy a decir después que compañía hizo creo que es una compañía de productos alimenticios que es buenísima también es el libro verdes tiene uno muy bueno de principiantes porque mezclar y va a sacar un poco de profesionales y luego verdes sacó uno de principiantes es herrero es con muchos productos no no lo haremos diferente es diferente porque es más promoción o no es la luz la luz tiene también uno muy bueno de principiantes de cocina al principio pues no sé pero bueno en fin darle puedo encontrar sus recetarios a tierra de mujer aquí en promedio radio y yo pienso que se van a seguir viviendo aquí viviendo así pues van a vivir aquí pero también de vez en cuando cuando hay algún evento de radio mujer créanme que por ahí vamos a andar cualquiera la sucesión vendiendo algunos de los libros así es que vamos a continuar así sé que está contesta la pregunta y tenemos otro que dice un recetario de verduras y ensaladas cual me recomiendas ándale uy pulsar un mundo yendo de recetarios luz y la verdad aquí sí es cosa de que te eches un día nadar en una librería que llegues y empieces a buscar el recetario hay grandotes hay chiquitos hay de todos los colores y de todos los sabores yo tengo a mi sonia cruz me regaló uno grandote yo tengo uno de ensaladas ahorita que lo recuerdo yo hice uno aquí de ensaladas y tengo y luego también hay otro que hizo la en otro lugar éste elisabeth también ella te hizo uno de verduras y ensaladas es pero creo que es así ya no lo tiene pero también tengo uno lo que pasa es que no recuerdo si lo tenemos o no pero entonces nos deja que cheque y yo te digo y vamos a continuar nosotros estamos en radio mujer el sexto sentido de la radio ganarlos estamos hablando de como entraron a la asociación gourmet cuánto tiempo tienen de estar en la asociación y por qué entraste a la asociación gourmet 7 que fue realmente una experiencia muy bonita porque por conducto de una prima hermana mía te conocí que teníamos un restaurant en tlaquepaque exactamente y posteriormente se abrió el restaurante en el centro sí y que esto estamos hablando del 86 87 aproximadamente y siempre seguimos tu trayectoria y en una ocasión que nos hiciste el favor de invitar a tu programa me comentaste sobre la asociación gourmet y que iban a empezar ya a consolidarse que si queríamos de alguna forma participar nos dabas solamente nos pedía que tuviéramos para poder entrar un proyecto y que ese proyecto fuera aceptado porque no es tan fácil y torás fuera aceptado por todos los miembros fundadores y afortunadamente este pues fuimos aceptados y estamos hablando que más o menos como del 2004-2005 sí que participamos con la asociación gourmet de jalisco y para mí ha sido más que una asociación es como una hermandad que hemos trabajado mucho para el beneficio de mucha gente sí sí eso nos ha ayudado a enriquecernos a nosotros como profesionales como personas como amigos como seres humanos bueno nos vamos a ir a un chiquito corte y regresamos continuamos con ustedes son las once de la mañana con 35 minutos y continuamos en tu programa de con sazón a la mexicana yo quiero darle las gracias a marie vos mari de verdad muchísimas gracias por escucharme les mandan muchos saludos a las tres la señora mano es toda una institución en la gastronomía aquí en guadalajara muchísimas gracias mar y yo les quiero decir con mucho orgullo que fue mi maestra de cocina una temporada aquí en guadalajara la ciudad mar y vos así es que mar y de verdad muchísimas gracias ella continúa con su dando clases es una persona que sabe muchísimo

de maestra y maestra yo les estoy hablando que fue mi maestra tengo 21 años aquí serían como 23 24 años cuando fue mi maestra aquí en guadalajara mar y vos así es que marc y no sabes muchos saludos y ven son amarillas gracias muchísimas gracias bueno nosotros como continuamos dice marcela dice receta de caldo de pollo con chile chipotle y sopa de arroz es un caldo de misawa es un caldo tlalpeño con todas las verduras que te encuentres una buena mire para la mirada cebolla zanahoria apio le pone por o perejil todas las hierbas finas y por supuesto el pollo y ya que ya que está cocido el pollo lo pones a hervir con un chipotle con estos ricos en tanto se antoja claro es un caldo tlalpeño puede ser un chipotle lo dejas el tiempo que tú creas que puede tener el picor que tú quieres y otra cosa que se sirve el final con aguacate aguacate rabanito o un pico de gallo igual a que enriquece es muy del df ya nos hace un claro pero es muy rico bueno nosotros continuamos muchas gracias por comunicarse con nosotros muchas gracias por todas sus llamadas no saben lo que les lo que les agradecemos y si algunas veces no podemos contestar las preguntas es porque el tiempo nos come pero estábamos hablando a la luz de que la primera vez que nos conocimos nosotros fue cuando inauguraron usted su restaurante entra que para que sí podemos decir todo se llamaba la fonda de la medina sí se llamaba honda la medina y ahí estuvimos en tlaquepaque un concepto muy bonito y que tuvimos la gran oportunidad de la dicha de conocer temas y muchas gracias y ahí trabajaba precisamente ahí estaba como relaciones públicas tu prima es mi prima gabriel gabi es de que gabi la conocí cuando estaba yo en el hotel que está llena minerva g-shot elote que estaba ahí ahí estaba yo como maestra de cocina y pertenecía para el club de damas del hotel fiesta americana pues ahí estaba yo y entonces esté ella fue se casa y se sale de trabajar pero regresa con ustedes por como parientes no así es y yo creo que fue una de las experiencias más bonitas y de las amistades más hermosas que que por conducto de ella nos dejó sí sí y que de ahí empezamos a trabajar con proyectos muy bonitos en turismo de fuerzas o un evento que tuvimos que a mí me encantó que fue la noche temática de la cena del porfiriato te acuerdas marujita que se hizo ahí en el restaurante y que de alguna forma la asociación gourmet participó tanto en la elaboración como ser un par de un poco cronista de esa época qué hermoso yo les recuerdo hasta las invitaciones que mandaste a hacer todo en esa época quedamos muy bien en ese entonces era el director de turismo luís felipe nuño que de alguna forma nos dio toda su confianza y de ahí seguimos trabajando con ellos exactamente bueno vamos a ver gabino me das tu apellido y vas a ver gabi y si puedes compartir más recetas no entiendo si dices puedes compartir más recetas y hablar menos de ti o platicamos más de ti no eso no lo entiendo la que más ha que platiquemos más de más de mí y muchas veces recetas cuál es tu receta favorita marrón oye marujita tienes 21 años dando recetas y el día que no damos recetas protesta a la gente qué barbaridad mi receta favorita pues quién será mis recetas favoritas y tantas soy tan comelona me encanta me encanta la comida este bueno yo soy fan de la comida mexicana ajá la verdad creo que somos privilegiados por tener esta mezcla de sabores y de condimentos en la cocina mexicana pero bueno y hablar de los chiles en nogada pasamos a puede ser mi receta favorita y además es un recuerdo de la familia es un recuerdo de familia es una receta que ha venido transmitiéndose de generación en generación este y bueno creo que es lo más apegada a lo que puede ser y además orgullosamente apegada a la tuya marujita que eso ya dice mucho pero la receta de chiles en nogada es la favorita y la tuya la luz que recibirás yo soy también muy comelón ahí a mí me encanta pero soy sencillita en ese sentido me gusta mucho el filete de res a las 3

pimientas está muy bien a las 3 pimientas bueno a las 3 pimientas hay que moler muy bien las tres pimientos y decir esther muy nuevos dice le mando abrazos y bendiciones y gracias por sus conocimientos hay muchísimas gracias y ser no sabes cómo te lo agradezco y este capital pues fíjate que a mí me encanta el huitlacoche y es algo que siempre que veo en el mercado porque siempre mis compras las hago en el mercado me encanta ir recorrer el mercado lo que hay de estación o está más fresco es lo que hago el huitlacoche lo preparo con mucho ajo picado cebolla morada aceite de oliva y muchísimo y paso te entonces bueno pues ya lo dejo que se ponga chinito todo el huitlacoche hasta le pone reviento unos este he tomatitos previamente cocidos y sales y está demás y punto y eso en tostadas de maíz deshidratadas con un guacamole hito con chilito verde hay ese es mi manjar esas son recetas de del distrito federal sigue de la mitad de la república mexicana para abajo porque aquí no consumen mucho sin embargo se lo pierden en el estado de michoacán hay un guiso muy importante que también pertenece a la obra parte de jalisco el mango el metiche el famoso me han dicho que pertenece a a cómo se llama a micro acá ni parte de jalisco el derecho creo que hay hay un pleito por la denominación de origen que si es de jalisco y que si es de michoacán sí sí sí ese es muy y ese se hace precisamente con el huitlacoche y sabes también que otra [ __ ] que casi no la gente no la comemos es la flor de kalahari son deliciosas deliciosas la crema flor de calabaza simple y sencillamente así como un guisado para unos taquitos para unas quesadillas y es muy económico también salsita de jitomate rellena de panela no no no riquísimas también bueno yo les quiero convencer a uno de los platillos que aprendí a ser de la familia de mi esposo es en la época en que se hacen los chiles que hay muchos chiles en san cristóbal de las casas presentan un platillo que lleva chile relleno cebolla rellena y flor de calabaza rellena y esos 33 rellenos se sirven en un call dicho es el mismo relleno darse cuenta que es el relleno a los chiles pero sin dulce aquí lleva bueno lleva para citas lleva almendra pero lleva verdura picada lleva zanahoria calabacita en lugar de fruta y con eso rellenas la el chile el chile y lo rellenas lo capeas y lo fríes y luego la cebolla la cebolla rellena quien la no la ha comido que es realmente deliciosa entonces también se rellena de lo mismo también se capea y también se pone y la flor de calabaza prueben la capea da es una maravilla la flor de calabaza y ese platillo ese yo lo aprendí a hacer en san cristóbal por medio de la familia de mi esposo y créeme que nosotros lo disfrutamos muchísimo es una cosa en la que se usa mucho la flor de la calabaza y yo creo que no hay cosa más sencilla que unas buenas quesadillas el único verdad de lo que sea que se de la flor del huitlacoche de la carne de lo que sea de jamaica frita el vino tinto y se añade esa y es más moderna esta es muy sencilla si no les queda delicioso pero sabes que también es muy sencillo que yo me quede cuando gerardo montoya hizo una presentación de unos tacos de jícama con con este la jamaica qué cosa tan más deliciosa aquí lo único difícil es imaginar la rebanada alhaja milimétrica a la jlca pero final de que viejo se hacen cuando hemos hecho los con gerardo que usamos la jamaica sí para tacos o para los niños está en las rebanadas de jamón en la cremería llevas tus jícamas y le dices que te hagan las tortillas y ya y te la llevas y las refrigera si te aguantan perfecto de dos a tres días bueno y en lugar de tortillas les das a tus hijos eso nos vamos a un corte y volvemos con ustedes continuamos son las once de la mañana con 50 minutos y estamos en tu programa de con sazón a la mexicana estamos hablando de con la asociación gourmet de jalisco estamos pasando recetas pero también estamos hablando de todo lo que se ha hecho durante la asociación porque también llegó a ser y sigue siendo una parte muy importante en mi vida así es

que es es muy bonito pertenecer a una cosa así ayudar hemos ayudado a tanta gente crece dios hemos tenido oportunidad de ayudar a muchas asociaciones de ayudar a muchas cosas no crean que nada más nos dedicamos porque mucha gente dice bueno es crecer más lo único que se dedican es a comer y nos dedicamos a hacer muchas cosas por ejemplo hemos ayudado a muchas instituciones y eso nos llena de orgullo porque éste está ahí presente siempre los nombres de la asociación no a los que vienen de lo que viene primero dios así es que pero otra de las cosas que les quería comentar es que nosotros tenemos un blog de la mujer que es doble punto de la mujer puntocom y que nuestro facebook es mujer el sexto sentido y nuestro twitter liza con sazón 1040 y también invitamos a que visiten nuestro canal de youtube que es radio mujer que dl financia que ahora estaba escuchando este bueno no me acuerdo en donde venden el 80 en la televisión no no sé que según muchas estadísticas este día el día de más simplemente del del año que porque estamos a esta fecha y que todavía no hemos podido organizar el año que todavía tenemos deudas del año pasado que todavía traemos muchas cosas entonces no sé si sea cierto no sea cierta pero a lo mejor ustedes se sienten deprimidas yo no y qué bueno que no lo sabía la verdad porque luego te sugestiones con esas cosas no es cierto claro que no no sé ustedes comentarios de una oportunidad hoy para vivir y hacer las cosas diferentes y estar mejor yo la verdad hoy amanecí más optimista que nunca darle gracias a dios por qué la oportunidad de abrir mis ojitos y de echarle la carne al asador no cual depresión al contrario debemos de ser más optimistas y ladrones a la mejor dicen porque el lunes luego da más flojera levantarse después de estar el fin de semana con los lunes ni las gallinas ponen a ana maría dávila dice gracias por la receta del sushi receta leches de piedra mira es que lo son lonches de piedras y tantos tantos lonchas de pierna pero uno rápido tiene que ser con carne de cerdo la vas a poner a que se cueza sí sola con hierbas de olor la pones a que esté bien rica y la cocina y puedes ponerle una puedes ponerle en tu sartén porque no hay plancha entonces y agregarle un adobo que el adobo puede ser un adobo base de chile guajillo ajo cebolla y especia y eso se le agrega sal a la carne y lo dejas que se fría para que se impregne porque la leche pierna va sola la pierna y nada más se le agrega el hoyo tengo idea de eso no sé tú marrón que dices es cuestión de ponerle al pan lo que guste no como aguacate como se estuvo en algunas ocasiones cremas frijoles no sé pero pero la receta de lonche de piernas pues es noche pierna doblada si no ahora también hay un lonche pierna un horneada ya que él no es abogado pero nada más está horneada la pierna y cocida hay unos los éxitos que le voy a buscar la receta porque yo eso se los di a mis alumnos en las primeras clases de de queda bueno no las primeras eran de prehispánica nos íbamos por etapas no pero ya entrando en los demás años de los muchachos les di clase de cocina de aquí de jalisco y entonces una de las cosas que vi fueron los lonches baños puestos se hacen con frijol y cuatro son muy ricos no licuado en la salsa el frijol por eso digo que voy a buscar la receta porque no no la tengo ahorita no me acuerdo de memoria por eso no te la doy pero es el frijol que se licúa con todo y la salsa y con eso se bañan los noches y son riquísimos lonches y tos y son los éxitos chilonché en frijol and pues yo creo que no es típico de jalisco no es típico de jalisco no lo que pasa es que este me lo dio una chica de jalisco por eso me lo dio una amiga de mi hija una muchacha joven porque dentro de la gastronomía hay desde muy jóvenes que les gusta el cocinar y ella me la dio y me encantó yo se los pase a los muchachos pero creo que el aporte de la cocina a jalisco algo así a ver si alguna persona del auditorio supiera la receta también estaría bueno saber no qué variante poder tener como el lonche de chilaquiles no que también es muy esté inventado aquí hay bueno es que aquí se vende muchísimo loncha chile y es delicioso muchísimo ahí y otra de las cosas la dieta otra de las cosas que les quiero comentar es que por ejemplo las

famosas tortas de tamal que se hacen en méxico muchos lo hacen el tamal no más así pero muchos el tamal lo doran un poquito como que lo fríen mientras más cambia pero da un sabor muy bueno a la entonces el otro día está diciendo bueno critican a los del df porque comen los lonches de tamal pues oye los noches de chilaquiles como que no nos quedamos muy atrás quiero decirles que nos pueden seguir maru hits en facebook en la asociación gourmet de jalisco y ahí bueno diario diario tenemos algo diferente tenemos recetas también puedes estar en contacto con nosotros y pues bueno nos va a dar mucho gusto que nos sigan por ahí y poderles dar información de todos los eventos que estamos haciendo a lo largo del año que el más importante para la asociación es tu creación donde la fundadora que es expo tercera edad el presente de algunos el futuro de todos y bueno y viene otro concurso por nuestras raíces también y pues bueno estamos estamos en contacto amigas por medio de facebook en asociación gourmet de jalisco muy bien ahí pueden entrar y ahí pueden saber todo lo que quieran bueno pues yo quiero darle las gracias a las tres ya todos los que pertenecen a la asociación por haberme acompañado durante tanto tiempo por haber meses por haber sido apoyo para muchísimas cosas por haberme ahora sí que ha ayudado cuando me tenía yo que ir de viaje que salí de vacaciones que ustedes nacían el favor de quedarse muy bien representadas por el por con él con el programa y que me apoyaron siempre cada vez que necesitaba muchas gracias de verdad gracias y es que pues me estoy despidiendo de ustedes pero también me estoy despidiendo de mis colaboradores que durante mucho tiempo han estado conmigo unos más tiempo otros menos tiempo pero que a través de todos estos años me ayudaron tanto porque como digo siempre sabe todo todos los días aprendemos algo todos los días aprendemos algo y es muy importante saber reconocer cuando aprendemos algo de otra persona eso es importantísimo y sobre todo también yo insisto y le sigo diciendo esto papá a las señoras y señores no se me enoje no digamos ustedes no se queden sin hacer nada ustedes hagan algo traten de hacer algo en el trabajo de la casa es hermosísimo pero es un trabajo que casi nadie lo tome en cuenta y entonces muchas veces nos sentimos como que un poquito defraudadas no porque dicen chico yo me pasé toda la mañana cocinando y llega el esposo y come papá papá y los chicos tú tú tú tú y se van a nadie dijo oye qué rica comida no no no no no ustedes busquen siempre algo algo que les llene la vida algo que les llene y sobre todo como les comentaba que puedan ser felices dentro y fuera en su casa es lo más importante muy bonito consejo manuel boniato marujita muchas gracias por invitarnos al contra reímos contigo muchas gracias bueno pues yo me tengo que despedir las dejo como siempre con la doctora alicia soltero ya saben que ya les da 500.000 consejos de lo que deben de hacer ustedes para llevar una vida plena y recordarles que aquí en radio mujer siempre hay un espacio para cualquiera de ustedes para sus problemas para sus inquietudes para todo lo que tengan red de mujer siempre siempre tiene algo para ustedes yo me siento muy contenta de haber pertenecido de pertenecer todavía radio mujer porque es la verdad un proyecto como éste fue el primero en méxico así es que es una cosa muy bonita y me tengo que despedir los dejamos como les digo con la doctora lisa soltero recuerden que mañana y hasta el fin de este mes voy a estar todavía aquí en el programa de con sazón a las 11 de la mañana y vamos a continuar y como siempre ya saben les deseamos que tengan un día bien pero bien bonito y como siempre les mandamos un beso gracias señoras gracias un clima de invitado gracias a todo el país bye bye

Pasteles salados -De la canasta a tu mesa

11 4 de la mañana muy buenos días cómo están queridas amigas amigos un placer saludarlos les mando un abrazo te si están haciendo su quehacer si van y vienen a los colegios escuelas de sus hijos o están regresando a lo mejor del mercado bueno pues a ponerse las pilas a hacer las cosas con mucha energía yo sé que a veces nos da muchísima flojera pero bueno vamos a sacudirnos la flojera y hacer las cosas que tenemos si estás un poquito desorganizada siéntate respira fíjate que es en lo que tenemos que trabajar y bueno respirando y vamos viendo a ver voy a hacer primero esto luego esto luego esto no está lo en un papelito que es lo más importante que es lo que urge definitivamente que hagas en este instante alguna llamada por teléfono algún pendiente bancario y bueno manos a la obra soile tío rosco de huerta te doy la bienvenida muchísimas gracias a todos nuestros amigos en guadalajara y toda la zona conurbada a nuestras amigas y amigos que nos escuchan a través de nuestra página web www punto radio mujer punto com.mx a todos los que a través de la cadena cable radio network en los estados unidos también están sintonizando no sí por supuesto en esta su primera estación y la única el 1040 de amplitud modulada mil mil gracias que ya son casi 23 años de estar al pie del cañón en esta lucha por cada día crecer crecer como mujeres crecer como familia crecer como personas hoy les tenemos un programa súper rico porque vamos a cocinar con vegetales pero en forma de tartas de kits de pan y está esta maravilla es que los niños se comen todo o que si tenemos una cena podemos servir por ejemplo un tipo cubilete se los puse como cubilete pero viene siendo como un paisito individual y poderlo presentar muy lindo con un filete con un atún sellado con lo que ustedes quieran y si no bueno pues hacer desde la riquísima torta de elote o pastel de elote salado hasta por supuesto una forma muy moderna que se está usando y se está viendo mucho ahorita en las redes sociales así es que están listas con su con su recetario y su pluma porque juanito que hoy nos acompaña en los controles como estos bonitos buenos días jesse en las en los números telefónicos y por supuesto césar vamos a empezar juanito vamos y esta sección de la receta de mamá para más tranquilas aquí está la receta de mamá bueno pues esta receta que vamos a preparar ustedes y yo el día de hoy es una espiral de queso y vegetales los vegetales que les estoy proponiendo es porque han preguntado mucho cómo se cocinan las berenjenas pero igual si no quieren utilizar berenjenas y quieren utilizar otro tipo de vegetales nada más que les voy a hacer una anotación en este caso vamos a utilizar vegetales largos que podamos cortar blanquear y utilizar que sean flexibles si ustedes quieren utilizar vegetales como tipo brócoli coliflor coles citas de bruselas entonces que todos sean similares para que sea más o menos uniforme la presentación para este espiral de queso y vegetales necesitamos un molde de tarta si tienen ustedes de small desmontable mucho mejor no es este que tiene los para hacer pasteles que es muy alto no el que tiene el borde acanalado para utilizarlo simplemente como tarta ok en un molde de tarta una masa quebrada que necesitamos una receta en un segundo se las doy 200 gramos de jamón serrano si mi presupuesto no alcanza para jamón serrano puedo comprar otro jamón el que a mí me guste 200 gramos de queso manchego en rebanadas una calabacita italiana grande una pieza grande de calabacita bien lavada seca le cortó los extremos trató de cuadrar la cortando la parte más gordita para que me quede lo más parejita posible y cortar lonjas a lo largo lo más también iguales que sea posible una berenjena grande rebanada del mismo tamaño que las calabacitas la berenjena es mucho más grande tal vez de una sola rebanada me salgan dos tiras iguales al de la a la de las calabacitas una taza de leche tres piezas de huevo sal y pimienta para sazonar y muy importante una cucharada de hierbas frescas que le van a dar todo el sabor necesitamos y ustedes tienen en su jardín albahaca orégano tomillo y un poquito de romero tomamos un poquito de estas hierbas la que te guste más que sea la más abundante por ejemplo a mí me gusta mucho la albahaca entonces tomó

más albahaca pico todo me puedo pasar un poquito si quiero si nada más le quiero poner una o dos hierbas adelante ustedes son las que mandan lo pican y lo tienen ahí si no tienen hierbas frescas porque ahorita que está apenas pasando ya estamos en primavera pero todavía está el tiempo muy seco y las plantas todavía no están tan verdes y dan tanta hoja ok pueden usar hierbas deshidratadas pero nos vamos entonces a una cucharita en vez de una cucharada bien repito ingredientes un tanto de masa quebrada 200 gramos de jamón serrano 200 gramos de queso manchego en rebanadas o el queso que ustedes se encuentren que puedan rebanar puede ser que su vida puede ser queso manchego queso amarillo queso cheddar una calabaza italiana grande y si no bueno 2 una berenjena grande 250 mililitros de leche hoy lo mismo una taza 3 piezas de huevo sal y pimienta y una cucharada de hierbas frescas o en su defecto una cucharadita de hierbas deshidratadas o secas lo que vamos a hacer primero una vez que ya tengamos nuestras calabacitas primero bueno hacemos nuestra masa quebrada vamos a forzar nuestro molde y vamos a picar el molde perfectamente y podemos cocinar a blanco 10 minutos o igual dejarlo cruda la pasta y vamos a meter todo pueden usarlas los dos métodos el fonsal consar o acomodar la masa en su molde que es lo mismo y vamos a hornear la 10 minutos en blanco que esto quiere decir sin ningún relleno picando bien el fondo un poquito los laterales para que no se baje por lo regular esto lo hacemos con papel aluminio encima de la pasta y ponemos canicas o ponemos las pelotitas de cerámica que ya ven en el proceso para esto frijol harina garbanzos etcétera y no los tiramos ya no se pueden consumir pero no los tiramos este botecito en un botecito ponemos estos granos o esto que utilizamos que ya está deshidratado y lo seguimos usando cada que tengamos que cocinar u hornear a blanco 10 minutos a 180 grados y entonces con esto nuestra masa queda pre cocida la sacamos la dejamos enfriar y nosotros seguimos con nuestro procedimiento bien vamos a tener entonces la berenjena cortamos los extremos la calabacita cortamos los extremos pero si ustedes se fijan la calabacita y la berenjena empiezan gorditas y terminan más plaquitas entonces vamos a igualar más o menos del mismo tamaño toda la pieza y vamos a cortar rebanadas y tienen la cortadora de verduras o la mandolina como le digo yo perfecto porque podemos cortar piezas delgaditas si cortamos piezas delgaditas y que ustedes vean que las pueden doblar sin que se rompan no hay necesidad de blanquear pero si no tienen y la tenemos que cortar a cuchillo entonces si vamos a tener una olla con agua hirviendo le ponemos un puñito de sal y vamos a sumergir primero las calabacitas un minutito la retiramos las ponemos escurrir sobre papel absorbente luego las berenjenas así en tiras en láminas un minutito la retiramos y con esto le da mucha flexibilidad a nuestros vegetales porque vamos a empezar haciendo un círculo vamos a empezar haciendo una florecita y nos vamos a ir creciendo todo alrededor de nuestra masa para llenarlo todo entonces empezamos con la calabacita y le ponemos jamón hacemos un rollito y de ahí nos vamos con la rebanada de berenjena luego vamos cubriendo con queso y otra vez calabacita alrededor que es jamón berenjena queso y así nos vamos todo todo todo sobre nuestra masa de tarta se ha pre cocida osea cruda lo vamos acomodando acomodando acomodando es muy importante porque la berenjena es alta que no sobresalga del tanto del por ejemplo si son 2 centímetros de altura o 3 centímetros de altura las paredes de su molde entonces que no sobresalga por ejemplo la berenjena tiene cinco centímetros corten la en la mitad para que no sobresalga porque se va a ver muy feo que la berenjena sobresalga y la calabaza sea más chaparrita y el molde mucho más bajito que todo sea del mismo tamaño parejito y entonces vamos acomodando todo alrededor una vez que tenemos todo alrededor cubierto no importa no tiene que estar tan apretado pero sí que esté todo cubierto hacemos nuestro aparato kiss que esto es en un bowl vamos a poner los huevos los vamos a batir añadimos la leche batimos salpimentamos y vamos a poner las hierbas ya que tenemos está mezcla la vamos a vaciar con mucho cuidado sobre todo lo que pusimos sobre toda la flor que hicimos tratando de que penetre hasta el fondo lo sentamos sobre

una charola y va al horno a 180 grados centígrados precalentado 15-20 minutos durante 40 45 minutos nos va a quedar doradita el queso se va a derretir nos ayudará a pegar todo vegetales y muy rico si quieres encima puedes ponerle queso parmesano y mucho más rico todavía vamos a un corte regresamos con mucho más de postres de pre perdón pasteles salados para el día de hoy 11 20 estamos de regreso muchísimas gracias por quedarse con nosotros estamos hablando de preparaciones con vegetales y que tengan otra forma muy diferente en este caso de pasteles o de tartas o de kish en el caso del tipo kiss que le estoy dando tarta hay alguna como confusión no vamos a hacer rollitos de berenjena con queso ni rollitos de calabacita y vamos a acomodar todo en toda la tarta llena de rollitos no hacemos un primer rollito creo que no me explique bien les pido una disculpa vamos a hacer un primer rollito con la calabacita y la riva una rebanadita de calabacita y una rebanada de jamón lo enrollamos para que sea nuestro centro el centro de la tarta que son de 20 centímetros y entonces ponemos esta rebanadita de calabacita y de que de jamón perdón y alrededor de esta de este como pequeño vamos a decir centro vamos a poner la rebanada de berenjena que obviamente pues lo va a envolver dos o tres veces porque es más grande y luego ponemos alrededor queso luego otra vez calabacita y a lo mejor vamos a ir poniendo y vamos que va a quedar como con cápitas ustedes cuando vean su tarta terminada no va estar llena como de roy y de rol de rol de rulos como dicen los argentinos no va a estar en cápitas como si fueran pétalos entre puestos como una flor tal cual entonces va a quedar muy lindo y así es como también a la hora de poner el aparato kiss que es todo esta mezcla de leche huevos sal pimienta y las hierbas porque el queso ya lo tenemos dentro de los ingredientes de la tarta vamos a acomodar los y esto va a ayudar a que el huevo cuaja los ingredientes el queso también se derrite o se derrite un poco más y nos queda muy muy rica a la hora de partirlo podemos repartir partirlo y nos queda perfectamente cuajado no se desbarata ni se tira la leche ni nada no tengan ustedes pendiente de eso y ya como acompañada con una ensaladita a lo mejor una salsita por ejemplo de chile morrón que al ratito les voy a dar una con eso tenemos para que nos quede una comida ligera o una cena ligera muy muy rica es nuestra primera receta vamos con una base con una masa quebrada un molde de 20 centímetros para la masa necesitamos 80 gramos de mantequilla fría en cubos en cubos pequeños que podamos trabajar fácil el doble de harina que son 160 gramos de harina todo uso cernida media cucharadita de sal nosotros la vamos enriquecer un poco más para que tenga más sabor con una yema de huevo 25 mililitros o 25 gramos es lo mismo de agua helada o muy fría media cucharadita de azúcar y es todo no necesitamos polvo de hornear porque no quiero que crezca nada repito ingredientes para ustedes 80 gramos de mantequilla 160 gramos de harina cernida media cucharadita de sal media cucharadita de azúcar una yema de huevo 25 gramos de agua helada o 25 mililitros que aproximadamente viene siendo una cucharada y un poquito más en la mesa de trabajo o en su procesador si tiene procesador es facilísimo y si no lo pueden hacer en la batidora también pero si no en la mesa de trabajo ponemos la harina cernida con la sal y el azúcar y luego vamos a poner el medio la mantequilla cortada en cubitos sin tocarla con las manos si tienen ustedes es crepas de estas de plástico que le regalan a veces en las tiendas de materias primas o con las paletas que hayan comprado en alguna tienda o tenedores o cuchillo lo que tengan empezamos a trabajar tratando de mezclar harina y mantequilla y cortando al mismo tiempo la mantequilla para que queden trocitos mucho más finos cuando ya esté todo como si fuera arenitas hacemos otro hueco y ahí ponemos la yema de huevo y el agua y tratamos de desbaratarlo también con el dedo o con un tenedor y volvemos a integrar sin tocar con la mano una vez que estamos integrando todo nos damos cuenta cómo está la humedad entonces ahí sí ya vamos a amasar un poquito juntando con nuestras manos y vamos a fresar fresar quiere decir que vamos a tomar el talón de nuestra mano y

contra la mesa vamos a como aplastar la masa para que sea ahí quedó algún chicharito de mantequilla que no está desbaratado se desbarate pero que no se ablande y no se funda entonces voy a estarlo robando por decirlo de alguna manera en contra de la mesa pero no me estoy tres minutos o cuatro minutos sobre la misma parte no está como mi masa y la voy pasando pero voy moviendo mi mano una vez que esté toda mi masa pasada por el talón de mi mano la vuelvo a apachurrar con mis manos la amasó nada más rápidamente y en un poquito de plástico la envuelvo la meto al refrigerador 20 minutos y luego ya tengo mi molde engrasado y enharinado si ustedes quieren para mayor tranquilidad o si tienen de silicón de silicón lo que tengan lo vamos a sacar lo tenemos listo vamos a en la mesa ponemos un de harina estiramos nuestra masa nuestra masa quebrada la vamos a forzar o la vamos a acomodar en nuestro molde cuidando mucho que todo el fondo no tenga bomba de aire que todo el fondo esté perfectamente planito y con nuestro dedo ayudamos a que el borde el borde de las paredes haga perfectamente ángulo recto y si es un un molde acanalado pues también con nuestros dedos presionamos un poquito para que se pegue bien a este adorno acanalado que se ve muy lindo y luego ya simplemente podemos pasar el rodillo por arriba ruth y solita se queda se cae se corta el exceso de masa que esté por ahí quitamos y nos queda ya nuestro molde perfectamente listo en este punto lo podemos usar a utilizar así haciendo ya el relleno poniendo los vegetales como les comenté y el aparato quizá sea toda la mezcla de leche huevo y hierbas ya sazonada y va al horno que está precalentado a 180 grados centígrados o hasta 200 grados centígrados nos alcanza perfectamente durante 40 45 minutos cuando se cuando ya está todo doradito y cuando yo lo muevo un poquito y no os y no se mueven los vegetales cuando está firme si acaso un poquito vemos que está como huevo babette o sea que está como una torta de huevo finita muy tierna lo dejamos un poquito más o con el mismo calor de horno apagamos y con eso se va a acabar de cocinar porque porque se va cuajando ya lo sacamos lo dejamos enfriar y lo servimos hay que dejarlo entibiar para servirlo tibio para que nos quede bien denso y no se desbarate y está listo ahora sí quiero cocinar o pre cocinar mi masa de tarta lo que hago es ya está forzada o acomodada en mi molde pongo papel aluminio también cuidando bien o también papel vita film porque no le pasa nada no se quema no tengan pendiente cubro un un lienzo grande de papel vita film le pongo harina o le pongo garbanzos o frijol o lo que sea y lo cierro para que para que quede bien extendido sobre todo las paredes que queden bien cubiertas para que no se me baje porque si no se baja y que me sostiene a la hora de la hora todo el relleno y esto es lo que quiero evitar por eso muchas veces las personas prefieren cocinar y hornear todo junto porque el mismo relleno en la misma fuerza del relleno no deja que se bajen y las paredes y entonces tengo la pared de medio centímetro y todo lo que es el relleno pegado en el molde en las paredes del molde y así no pasa nada pero si no lo sé hornear si no enfría mi masa si no tengo en mí mi costra bien picadita del fondo o si no le puse este papel aluminio con los garbanzos solari no los frijoles repito lo que ustedes tengan en casa o las canicas de sus hijos que ya no utilicen bien lavadas y por supuesto que vienen vueltas pues entonces se me van a bajar las paredes y voy a tener como si fuera un disco pero no tengo un molde de masa que me contenga el relleno que es lo que le va a dar vista también y me permite presentarlo como si fuera un y una tarta si me explico entonces esas son las únicas pues tips o detalles que tenemos que cuidar para hacer esta tarta y que nos quede perfecta qué haríamos si no quiero berenjenas y no quiero calabacita lo pueden hacer por ejemplo calabacita y zanahoria lo pueden hacer con brócoli coliflor y poner tocino por ejemplo y entonces precoz o aquí no un minuto aquí lo voy a prepo ser por ejemplo 45 minutos el brócoli y el coliflor los escurra muy bien puedo hacer una bechamel pero con yema de huevo o con huevos para que me quede más densa y lo que hago es exactamente escurrir los muy bien sazonar los poner mucho tocino picado ya medio cocinado no como chicharrón pero ya no crudo y entonces acomodo blogs brócoli coliflor brócoli coliflor a que se vea blanco verde blanco verde salpicó

perfectamente de tocino el fondo y entre entre los arbolitos y otra vez pongo la crema bechamel por ejemplo con yema de huevo con huevo completo para que me quede y se pueda a coagular porque si no no quedar bien hecha y lo meto al horno y les va a quedar super rico con mucho queso para que esté también bien consistente vamos a un corte regresamos con muchas más recetas de estas que podemos lucirlos y hacerlas en un tris atrás muy llenadoras y que nuestros hijos sobre todo coman muchas verduras y vegetales ve que tienes en tu refrigerador chayotes los chayotes también sirven volvemos 11 34 estamos de regreso ya se están acabando las vacaciones es miércoles pongan a sus chiquitos a adelantar las tareas que no les quede todo para el domingo mamá me pidieron un mapa y no tengo el muy bueno ya esos eran mis tiempos verdad ahora ya no te piden nada ahora todo es por internet pero de verdad revisen los cuadernos de sus hijos a ver si les dejaron tareas que no tengan tareas pendientes que el uniforme este lavado también nosotros a veces dejamos las cosas para último momento hay al cabo el sábado lavo los uniformes quizás el sábado te invitan a una reunión y ya no tienes tiempo de lavar los uniformes entonces el domingo andamos corre corre lava los uniformes de una vez que los zapatos estén ya boleados entretenga a tus hijos a que limpien los cuadernos por ejemplo que a veces rayo nada rayo ni amos o le mandamos el recadito a la compañera entonces todo eso que lo vayan quitando que vayan dejando sus cuadernos limpios porque es cómo empezar otra etapa regresamos al colegio y vamos a empezar de nuevo una etapa esta segunda etapa del colegio en donde ya las vacaciones se terminaron y tenemos que volver con nuestros hábitos de higiene puntualidad todo no entonces responsabilidad respeto es muy importante el respeto vuelvan ustedes a fincar en sus hijos estos valores de no bullying de que no muy bien y tampoco se han burlado si usted es muy al pendiente con sus maestros y maestras mucha comunicación ahora yo quiero decirles a ustedes un tip maravilloso si queremos comprar cualquier cosa que necesitemos en nuestra despensa sobre todo de chiles secos de materiales para nuestra cocina incluso hasta para estos mucha gente se utilice por ahí estoy adelantado perdonen ustedes pero mucha gente acostumbra a curarse con hierbas y de estas hierbas medicinales mamá coneja se la sabe de todas todas y en santa teresita el manuel acuña 1484 letra be tienen un número inimaginable de ellas ustedes pueden darse una vuelta o pedir lo que necesiten por whatsapp al 33 17 65 11 29 repito el teléfono 33 17 65 11 29 o sino a los teléfonos en donde siempre te contestan todas las chicas que están ahí que son súper amables 8 26 30 16 38 26 30 16 y 38 26 48 94 38 26 48 94 recuerden que abren de lunes a sábado de 8 de la mañana a 8 de la noche pueden ustedes ir nada más recogen su pedido y no se entretienen nada ahora es mucho más ágil todo lo del estacionamiento en santa teresita bendito sea dios como que ya nos acostumbramos aceptan tarjetas de crédito pero también te pueden llevar tu pedido a domicilio si es mayor a 250 pesos así es que no te esperes tienen hasta comida para mascotas de muchas marcas tu pregunta consomé este es y demás así es que mamá con esa santa teresita basta con que digas que escuchaste este anuncio en de la canasta tu mesa en radio mujer y vas a ver cómo te van a tratar como reina o como rey y bueno vamos con otra receta súper rica me encanta ustedes conocen a la chef dolli irigoyen bueno cuando tuve la oportunidad de que unos parientes fueran a la tierra de dolly argentina lo primero que les encargué por favor por favor tan necesarios de dolli irigoyen y de chef osvaldo gross y bueno me trajeron lo que pudieron porque obviamente la maleta el avión ya saben ustedes el sobrecupo pues no se puede entonces me trajeron dos dedos y nada más y con eso soy feliz y quiero compartirles una receta que yo ya he preparado en casa y sabe delicioso hemos escuchado también muchas veces la palabra omita y pensamos que es la humita nosotros en mexico utilizamos el elote o el maíz pero aún mitad es una combinación que viene de origen peruano también en ecuador lo utilizan mucho y todo el continente sudamericano también por supuesto en argentina que es la mezcla de elote ellos le dicen choclo de maíz rallado no es desgranado es maíz rallado con cebolla chile o ají que le llaman ellos molido y un poco de leche y con esto hacen pasteles tipo país país hitos y muchas

preparaciones les voy a dar una receta que les digo queda deliciosa y la he presentado yo en cubilete es como si fueran paisitos individuales de verdad es una cosa maravillosa también bueno vamos a necesitar una cebolla blanca picada finito de tamaño mediano dos cucharadas de aceite de oliva 8 elotes amarillos que eso si los podemos comprar en las tiendas en los supermercados en el departamento de refrigeradores una cucharadita de chile en polvo dos cucharadas de harina y pueden ustedes reforzar el sabor con harina de maíz y medio litro de leche pueden utilizar leche evaporada y queda muy bueno 2 cebollitas cambray completitas ralla picadas de tallo y la cebollita 2 piezas de huevo grandes y en este caso un tanto de masa quebrada pero aquí como vamos a hacer los jubiletas depende el tamaño podemos utilizar los el molde para hacer cupcakes y no vamos a utilizar los k pasillos vamos a engrasar perfectamente y enharinar nuestra tablita de molde para cupcakes y ahí vamos a acomodar nuestra masa quebrada la receta que ya les di nos salen aproximadamente entre 6 y 8 y luego vamos a poner el relleno ok repito ingredientes una cebolla blanca picada 2 cucharadas de aceite 8 elotes de preferencia amarillos son chicos en los elotes y son muy grandes cómprese unos 6 una cucharadita de chile en polvo 2 cucharadas de harina que puede ser harina de maíz medio litro de leche o con una lata de leche evaporada estamos bien yo a veces cuando utilizo la leche evaporada para no dejar otro tantito le pongo solamente la lata de leche evaporada y con eso estoy bien 22 cebollitas cambrai picadas 200 gramos de queso gruyere igual le soy sincera cuando el queso gruyère pues es un poco más clarito entonces igual si puedo lo compro y si no le pongo cualquier queso qué gratine también dos huevos y un tanto de masa quebrada los elotes los rayo para obtener una masita y en una sartén con aceite voy a saltear la cebolla picada cuando esté lista vamos a añadir ustedes y yo el elote rallado el chile en polvo y vamos a cocinar una vez que la cebolla esté transparente añado el elote lo dejo cocinar unos minutos luego el chilito en polvo y luego ya cocino todo otros 34 minutos cuando esté esto listo agregó la harina hagan de cuenta que vamos a formar un ruck agregó la harina y voy a mover y cocinar hasta que se cueza la harina dos minutos tres minutos ustedes calculan y mientras obviamente esto se está cocinando mientras en una cazuelita voy a poner a calentar la leche caliento perfectamente la leche sea evaporada o sea la de vaca y cuando esté hirviendo voy a vaciar a esta preparación de elote con chilito y todo y voy a mover como si estuviera haciendo una salsa bechamel tal cual y muevo y muevo y sigo meneando hasta que quede una crema una crema si pongo la lata de leche evaporada solamente me va a quedar más espesa si pongo el medio litro de leche me quedo un poquito más flojita pero está bien solamente a que seque para que cocine y que esté espesito la apa apagó y dejo entibiar si ustedes tienen por ahí cerquita su un molde con agua fría y hielos sienten lo sobre un baño maría inverso para que se enfríe más rápido una vez que está tibio voy a añadir el queso las cebollitas el queso desmenuzado o rallado las cebollitas cambrai picadas con todo y tallo las yemas de huevo y voy a revolver perfectamente las claras no las voy a utilizar más que las las claras las puedo batir a punto de turrón y las voy a incorporar a punto de turrón para que me quede como un tipo soufflé citó o sea no va a ser un soufflé pero me queda con muy bonita consistencia sino nada más quiero poner solamente las yemas puedo utilizar solamente las yemas en este caso les aconsejo que pongamos yema y clara batida a punto de turrón para no desperdiciar nada porque luego nos vamos llenando de moldecitos voy a guardar las claras y luego les voy a utilizar y no utilizamos nada y es puro tirar y tirar y tira ok una vez que tenemos esta preparación ya tenemos nuestros moldecitos con la masa quebrada vamos a sazonar probamos sazonamos si le falta un poquito de sal o un poquito de pimienta porque acuérdense que tiene chile y acuérdense que tiene cebollita entonces ya ponemos

el queso también ponemos el sazón que nos haga falta y vamos a vaciar a los moldes hitos aquí viene algo muy importante nos va a sobrar relleno casi estoy segura que les va a sobrar relleno en los moldes engrasado si enharinados ustedes pueden vaciar el relleno para hacer tipo flan éxitos ya sin pasta quebrada y también les van a quedar bien cuajado hitos y muy ricos y entonces vamos a meter al horno precalentado a 180 grados centígrados y nos van a quedar durante 30 minutos más o menos y nos quedan deliciosos cómo lo vamos a acompañar en un plato ponemos un poquito de ensalada ponemos el cubilete de humita y por supuesto una salsita de chile morrón que en un momentito más se las voy a compartir vamos a un corte y regresamos con mucho más 11 49 estamos de regreso muchísimas gracias por sus llamadas por el whatsapp estoy tratando de contestar todas las preguntas a nuestras amigas muchísimas gracias juan y campaña te mando un abrazo te y bueno a todas nuestras amigas también a blanca pedrosa muchas gracias espero que te queden de lujo tus chilaquiles qué rico me encanta por lo regular cuando vamos a desayunar aquí en guadalajara es muy típico el desayuno de los chilaquiles con frijolitos divorciados verde y rojo o los rojos o los verdes ahora se utiliza muchísimo también los chilaquiles con chipotle y luego por supuesto las personas que quieren con pollito o sino con un huevo estrellado y te quedan deliciosos a los frijolitos un poquito de queso de queso de panela y unos toto pitos y bueno ya estamos del otro lado no se necesita gastar mucho en este caso les voy a dar una receta rapidísima cuando queremos invitar a alguien hasta para nuestra propia familia ahí les va un juguito que alguna vez se los he compartido un litro de jugo de arándanos si quieren con azúcar o sin azúcar en el mercado hay con y sin un litro de jugo de granada y le vamos a poner el jugo de cuatro naranjas ojalá que estén dulce citas porque estos jugos no son dulces entonces son más bien ácidos y ustedes prueban si estamos así a gusto de dulzor porque yo de preferencia prefiero el jugo de arándanos light entonces combino y ya pruebo si no necesito azúcar entonces así lo dejo si lo siento que le hace falta un toquecito de acidez le pongo el jugo de un limón revuelvo y voy a picar fresa puedes picar un poquito de guayaba piña la fruta que tengas manzana roja o verde y entonces sirves en dos vasos que son como si estuvieras tomando té una escamosa no sé pero sin tanta cosa entonces es jugo de arándanos que te sirve hasta para las infecciones de vías urinarias que las hijas las señoritas en las chamaquitas bueno pues agradeceríamos agradecer muchísimo y nosotras las mujeres menopáusicas pues mucho más entonces sabes que es una muy buena idea y si tienes un desayuno en la mañana con tus amigas es muy rendidor puedes también hacer un jugo en dónde jugo de naranja un poquito de jugo de limón plátano guayaba manzanas papaya piña licuas todo añades un poquito de agua ajustas el dulzor mucho hielo y tienes un jugo muy rendidor y nuestras ahí exprime y exprime miles de naranjas entonces ahí está varias ideas para que salgan rápido de esos apuros entre que hoy tengo que comprar como 50.000 naranjas a veces está muy barata pero cuando está muy cara que hacemos bueno ahí está varios tips vamos con la crema de pimiento morrón necesitamos y ahorita miden que está a 85 pesos el kilo en los mercados yo me imagino que está mucho más barato pero si no bueno pues ahí están los de los de lata que creo que no salen ahorita más baratos 2 pimientos rojos asados 2 cucharaditas de aceite de oliva extra virgen de preferencia sal y pimienta y si tienes caldito de pollo caldito de verduras un poquito y si no lo dejamos con agua si lo quieres de otro color más tipo si fuera unas fresas con crema que a mí me gusta más natural le pone le puedes añadir crema o leche yo prefiero que sea con caldo de verduras o caldito de pollo vamos a procesar puede ser en la licuadora o en un procesador los pimientos en este caso sí que sean pimientos grandes pimientos bien limpios y son por ejemplo con la salmuera de la que compraste de lata ya no le agregues el aceite porque ya vienen un poquito en aceite entonces pone los pimientos muebles los pimientos picaditos ayúdale a tu licuadora le vas a poner un poquito de caldo de verduras o de caldo de pollo ya que te quede una salsita simplemente una salsita si ves que le falta algo de liga entonces y añade un chorrito de aceite de oliva extra virgen y pruebas el sabor si le falta un poquito de sal un poquito de pimienta puedes ponerle

incluso un poquito de pimentón y ya la tenemos lista y entonces en tu plato de preferencia si tienes un plato blanco pones una cucharada la barra es una cucharada de salsa la barra es así jala tu cubilete de humita y unas verduritas o una ensaladita fresca y tienes una entrada o tienes un plato fuerte en caso de que sea algo muy ligero lo que quieras cenar o lo que quieras dar para un baby shower una despedida de soltera algo así porque ya estuvieron votando y porque vas a dar postre entonces con eso quedas del otro lado e incluso para nuestras amigas y amigos por ejemplo amigas más que todo que quieran hacer una despedida de soltera pueden tener una botella de vino tinto de tres cuartos de litro en una jarra grande ponerle un refresco de estos de lima-limón pedacitos de fresa pedacitos de manzana ahora que está la ciruela un poquito más económica trocitos de ciruela y entonces les queda muy sabroso déjenlo con tiempo no pongan hielo el hielo lo vamos a poner al momento de servir o ya cuando lleguen todas nuestras amigas y vayamos a ofrecer esta bebida en copas en vasitos con un poquito con una no sé de fresita en el vaso nos queda muy lindo y podemos dar esto precisamente esto lo podemos dar y es diferente el sabor que le le es tan nuestro que nos encanta pero aquí nos vamos un poquito a viajar hacia el cono sur les parece rico verdad ya se me está acabando el tiempo y les quiero decir que las recetas de flanes y gelatinas están en mi página de nelly alcocer si ustedes quieren entrar y echarse un clavado y si no mañana van a estar en la página de radio mujer porque no sé si ya estén sin él y tuvimos un pequeño problema con el dato del correo pero mañana de seguro ya están en la página de radio mujer a la que tenga alguna duda puede echarse un clavado ya sea en las redes de nelly o en las de su servidora y estas recetas están también ya en la página de su servidora y de iu de radio mujer les compartía también las recetas que traigo a diario unos bollos de papas que se pueden hacer individuales y los podemos hacer en un molde de rosca en un molde cuadrado y en vez de ponerlos por separado irlos poniendo no tan juntos porque tienen que crecer y nos queda se acuerdan como los bollos bimbo estos bimbo bimbo pues hagan de cuenta que nos quedan así como bollos muy linda la presentación muy padre con los niños porque ellos solitos van tomando su porción y tú los puedes rellenar antes de ponerlos en el molde por ejemplo estos no van rellenos pero ahí te doy la idea de chorizo de tocino de un poquito incluso de alguna mezcla que tengas por ahí de algún éxito de la semana un poquito de picadillo que te sobró o algo o simplemente de queso el queso crema en trocitos de queso parmesano algo que ya no te sirve como para ser otro plato y que dices no lo quiero desperdiciar puedes ponerlo ahí y entonces ya tienes tus bollos y están deliciosos los puedes congelar antes de hornear los o los puedes congelar ya horneados y rápido en el microondas o rápido en el horno eléctrico y los tienes como recién hechos estas son las ideas del día de hoy muchísimas gracias déjenme ver nos estaban escribiendo buen día let y son estamos en argentina estoy cansado del zapallo para la dieta alguna receta para salir de la rutina te saludo con gusto daniela muchísimas gracias nos estás viendo desde argentina te mando un abrazo te con muchísimo gusto vamos a preparar muchas recetas para usted es algo más mexicano que yo creo que te va a encantar danny gracias por vernos yo estudié con maestros argentinos así es que bueno pues los quiero muchísimo gracias gracias porque me parece que son fabulosos y muy simpáticos además vas a ver que si tú estate al pendiente de nuestro programa y te vamos a sorprender y bueno en qué horario es para recoger los regalos acuérdense que es de 12 a 1 y de 5 a 6 de la tarde siempre con una copia de su identificación porque a veces ustedes me creen que aquí tenemos copiadora y sí sí tenemos pero es para uso interno no nos permiten sacar copias esté así al público entonces por favor traigan su copia para que no tenga que andar viendo a las papelerías de por aquí y bueno si lo sacaste el premio el lunes si todavía tienes tiempo de venir porque hubo unos días por semana santa que nos estuvieron entregando regalitos entonces no te preocupes y si tienes dudas llámanos por teléfono le llamas a jesse y ella te confirma que tu regalo todavía esté aquí mañana vienen los del hotel hilton la comida fría cómo podemos empezar este verano con comida fría luego les voy a compartir una receta de una ensalada que hago mucho en casa pero le pongo lo que voy encontrando en el refrigerador para nuestra amiga danny de argentina una pasta una pasta corta cocida al dente que ustedes son expertos también en eso y le vamos a poner aguacate en cubos la línea mos con ralladura de limón limón aceite de oliva un poquito de sal pimienta hierbas

frescas y le vamos a poner lo que tengamos jitomate pepino zanahoria en crudo todo en crudo y luego betabel rallado si quieres aunque feedback se te va a manchar y trocitos de aguacate que esto es lo último que citó parmesano o del queso que quieran y es una sopita o una ensalada que podemos servir y es fabuloso lo puedes servir así solo o si quieres para que se vea más vistosa en el plato sobre una hoja de lechuga si tienes por ejemplo chance de cocer chayote chayote o la verdura que tú quieras se nos acabó el tiempo muchísimas gracias quédense con la doctora alicia soltero en su programa dentro de ti muchas muchas gracias a todos que dios los bendiga espero que nos escuchen mañana tenemos un programa y tenemos regalito acuérdense gracias a todo nuestro equipo soy leticia orozco de huerta un besito bye

Curs de limba Engleza incepatori (tema+vocabular) – Lectia 4

you Lexia Patrick they sent you by Manchester let’s see cuca de Vaca Vinton oil a rabbit a silly she’s prodigy basilic rounds as good my correct our chess minute me not father data chair scone today I see six o’clock or rush I say the second I’ll dial our square Piazza start here start doing exercise knowing the Covington proposition it’s six o’clock in the morning yes the orders acidemia answer there’s a statue in the square in Piazza yes toaster to you there are some chairs in the room in camera some kvass gonna I wait for the past five minutes every day I stepped out also change minute Fe ecology the second car is read adore Amash mr. Rocha we seldom go to town for one hour Mirjam Rara Mirage control hora strategies are calm proposition and in mind Glaser Shiva difficult reservoir I’ll duel out of booze imagine Piazza thus the second bus go to the square y el arroz con el bathroom he has a glue chair wash the pie Maria and toda order she changed I always wait for Mary one hour and five minutes yes daughter shotty Sarah it’s six o’clock in the evening star twisting Piazza is the statue in square da Cunha Mahalalel de la una de section 102 doy three three Pedro by change six chasse 7 chapter 8 opt 9 no tell nature I squatted appetizer Matar Le Chiffre uno due tre 1 2 3 Petrosian chasse 4 5 6 shut up no zj 7 8 9 10 in certain circumstances our motherland children limba engleza Doyle Patricia SOT 2 4 6 8 unit rage in Chapter 1 3 5 7 oh no door no zj 1 2 9 10 tre una casa no 3 1 6 9 such a of Tricia’s 10 8 3 6 exercise extreme are a team pulling proposition it’s ten past six you thought has a shot see she said to me no time I usually go to school at seven o’clock in the morning go BJ – koala Lord I shopped enemy NASA she thinks it’s nine o’clock yeah critical Easter on OA my train is

at half past two Trenor mail yesterday doll she’s my data it’s nothing yes terranova completed model proposes he follows in formula Klesko started in Agoura Jana brass hammer goblin bara she want to go for a walk she doesn’t want to go for a walk no no black machine we like cars we don’t like cars no Santa nourish I Intel I am NOT Intel no browser except I want to wait I don’t want to wait I just am external now it might rain it isn’t my train newly apply to summer ganache koala they like to go to school they don’t like to go to school yeah mr. Mallory she his mother she isn’t his mother no splatter I don’t know you like my father you don’t like my father crowd which is your mother a proposition in my glaza non Plata Tolui I don’t like his father innocent incasa they aren’t in the house yeah no he’s tensed Radha she isn’t in the street y’know Brahma Sheena he doesn’t want the car I just I miss the castle or it isn’t the house Tampa mama a vehicle is e we tell visit her mother every day youngster by a bracket he isn’t a nice boy hoon exactly – ramat are complete opposites Allah conformal corresponds a quarter are a very other I’m a restaurant you a restaurant have you a restaurant no I’m a scheana Marie I a big car I haven’t a big car in our data they a father they haven’t a father I teamed you time have you time yanahuara be chickaletta she a bicycle she hasn’t a bicycle boy I thought I’d own choice the boy o’clock has the boy o’clock the tattered Madonna proposition shop survives and if you Katya Clinton or know this car is red machine adjust mr O’Shay that girl is nice Fatah chested Ragusa these people are in the building wah mania Church doesn’t include IRA those boys like to go by train Archana by its Laplace America train on a comb introducing or metallic rapacity pranamaya demonstrative corresponds occurred a chest a stern chase Ramos is a nice clock this is a nice clock massage is the album is table white is

that table white a chastised Imam Ali is his mother this is his mother – Conda sister betrayed Jamal a Chester when do you usually open windows when do you usually open these windows qui pluck fidelity Allah who likes girls who likes those girls good at Keystone proposal actually I think it’s bus I think is that bus America s an artist hotel they often go to hotel they often go to this hotel scum a natural essence words are chairs green are those chairs green the black a sister Asha do they like towns do they like these tales when I just elective Ambassador Trevor benign a squatter she repeated she thankful I’m not Nippon to children to write to a screa quiver to take Allah up Rinda Tredici to metallic proposition in bangla Sam it’s month amazement Rochester Messina thank you for this car yah is created s marry a she often writes to marry Dobie tree you see our car Salinas Koala they usually take their books to school traditional Matala proposal cinema Ramona it takes an hour to go home draw upon our Cazadores ahora I usually take a bus to work Dobie Chima du colloque walter was one it takes some time I just adore Azzam it for a driver yet the traditional fare they are drapes offer Kermit our legs a cheat you put a terrific on the cotton sushi tonight the curve in tashera chromatic allah trudeau JS proposition and in mind lesson yes Magento de una cuerda now tacos he always takes the second bus we are at Ross on camera has she o’clock in her room chemistry Delta Teresa when does he write his father email on Luke ruler on Eliminator they go to work at 9:00 in the morning she never a summer gaga so who wants to go home una merda chaste woman watches photo booth where did these people go by this bus fitted archila I slept until Delano Jaster machinae those girls always wait for this car if stuck I said are not usual my daughter are you at home at half-past nine do Reznor upon ice-cream Rea it takes an hour to write to marry innocently where are they straddle a innocent lunch are these streets long mama she taught our Lewis and Clark routine Darcy his mother and father art work for a day it’s much too masculine Rochester V

chickaletta thank you for this bicycle yell yonder down now Thomas ranchera he always takes that bus you’ll apply to summer when I dress the Piazza they don’t like to go to this square either awesome I love Lambada today I want to go for a walk you know just the camera some kvass gonna there are some chairs in this room you know our themes of our basket mama Louie he hasn’t time to speak to his mother Alexia part reported on an adjuster part Alexei vomer a capitulation ambassador kanakam rabbit eyes omotola proposition where is the driver he’s there behind that bus do you see I think it isn’t the driver he’s behind this big building have you time for a walk no I haven’t I want to take these green chairs and clocks to the school are the boys in the shop no they aren’t this shop is for girls where is she in the shopping street she usually waits for her mother in the shopping street I think she’s at home do you want to write to your father no it isn’t a good time to write where is her father where do you think he is he’s at school at 3:00 every day he isn’t there today he’s in the restaurant he has a table near at the window it’s good to be at home do you often work at home no I don’t I usually work in the office it’s half past 5:00 do you want to speak to their father he’s usually at home at 6:00 in the evening have you big white car yes I have it’s behind the house I think it isn’t your car is near the white entrance who wants to speak to my father they’re two girls in the big blue car when I look through the window I always see those boys in the street have they a blue car yes they have then they are Tom and Peter do you often see her mother we visit her mother every day our mother and father are also there we usually take a through train to Bucharest and ultimately 32 and let’s see Sarah capitulum leaned on to learn without a tradition in mind less the propositional can Malabo courage visitors and other not just a piazza similar justice that we hear when I go to Bucharest I always visit this square and look at this statue it’s gone I know you think I’m a rod or my chair is in the second room in America Cossack Auto Boozer I always go home by bus convoy prefer Astro vada China magazine the best radical mercy Allah when I look through the window I see those shops in the shopping street yes a tray of minuta it’s eight minutes past 3:00 yell presence creates momentum he wants to write his mother today the obj /subtype editor Laura Casas they usually

wait for their father at home they smash in natural vastra do you see those blue cars in the merger Sarah where does he go in the evening meshlab limbering theocracy do you go for a walk every day Maria the ski the magazine was so Laura opted in manatsu Mary opens her shop at 8:00 in the morning drama pinaka sudras aura it takes an hour to go home una ley trainers and trainer director some chains are three chains are chastised race and culture karate transfer Santa these streets are for through traffic Grace Kelly star : do you think he’s there no young mr. : no he isn’t no other him surviving patina we haven’t time to speak to you Gina credit card specula dear Esther for Martha who thinks this building is nice swim to Dorchester to Manchester camera there are two clocks in this room I just rent rent todo administration does this train always go into the station in the morning Louise can spot a lateral block property’ Mendte I live behind the apartment building who knows Angela stress commercial do you know those shopping streets greatly abrasive is it a such as Turin I think he wants to visit this tower and demolish that could fight him I always wait for him for some time no blackberry idea I don’t like those boys indicator or math and I said she – the premise here oh you blue to a chair Square where there II live minute visit sir three thank through think you