Frameworks for Design Thinking – Stanford Innovation Masters Series

and now I would like to introduce you to charissa little who is the director of professional education at the Stanford center for professional development Carissa oversees the center’s portfolio of professional education offerings and has worked with Stanford University for over nine years Thank You Sandra today I have two esteemed colleagues with me first is Professor bill Burnett he’s a consulting faculty member in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the design group here at Stanford University he’s also the executive director of the Stanford design program after years of drawing cars and airplanes under his grandmother’s sewing machine bill went off to the University and discovered much to his surprise that there were people in the world who did this kind of thing every day without the sewing machine and they were called designers 30 years five companies and a couple of thousand students later bill is still drawing and building things teaching others how to do the same and quietly enjoying the fact that no one has discovered that it’s he’s having too much fun at Stanford bill manages the undergraduate and graduate programs in design at Stanford both joint programs between mechanical engineering and art in addition to his duties at Stanford he serves as a board member of DCM the product design consultancy dalton energy and alternative energy company focused on developing biomass gasification energy systems for small-scale municipalities and advises several internet startup companies on design strategy we also have with us today and Eve energy he’s an associate professor in mechanical engineering and the design group and it’s director of the Stanford design / officially trained is an architect and he holds graduate degrees in architecture mechanical engineering and design in his early career in India he worked in the fields of architecture structural engineering and built Adobe housing for the rural poor after coming to the u.s. his interest in the confluence between digital and physical experiences took him to Xerox PARC where he worked on ambient media and physical computing he also worked for I do as a designer and a design strategist creating novel experiences and crafting futures for high technology he’s the founder for the design for change lab where he addresses the issues of sustainability technology features and the dynamics of rapid change currently he’s working with faculty from behavioral sciences social economics systems analysis management science and engineering and art to generate new platforms for design thinking in addition to his research and technology and design theory he was a technology artist for the new San Jose International Airport he is happiest in the presence of sharp minds sharp cutting tools wood dust cutting oil and the smell of smolder and with that I would like to turn the floor over to Professor Phil Burnett good morning thanks for joining us something looks like we have quite a few people in attendance again if you have any questions please join ask the questions over the web chat and one of us will get an answer back to you so Jeff Immelt the CEO of General Electric made a pretty important statement a couple years ago in his annual meeting he said the global economic crisis is fundamentally reset the way companies do business and even capitalism itself at Stanford we work with lots and lots of industrial affiliates we call them companies to come on campus to work with us in the design group to learn about our thinking on innovation our research and how you create you know new strategies for companies but I think the emphasis on innovation as a strategic tool and design as the way of creating innovation has really sharpened in the last few years primarily because of the increasing competition and the fact that the big global downturn 2009 2008 really forced organizations to look for new ways to create organic growth through design and so what we’ve we find ourselves in the situation we find ourselves okay coming up with asking these questions excuse me we were just fiddling with slides here if you find you find yourself with fewer resources now than ever before I certainly I certainly know I do even at the University here we’re constantly downsizing and re resourcing the projects that we’re already doing but at the same time are you being challenged to implement more projects in spite of the fact that you have fewer resources almost all the companies that we talked to our in this situation and then globally are your markets under attack from competitors who have either lower cost structures or you know or even give you a product away for free some of this

comes from the globalization of the economies around the world the world becoming flatter and flatter and some of this comes from you know new and innovative companies here in Silicon Valley that change business models by giving problem look at look at Google giving away spreadsheets and word processing and everything else for free simply for the right to pop an ad into your browser so you know these are these are huge shifts in marketplaces which are creating real dilemmas for management teams and then overall if you’re addressing these kinds of problems through some sort of a strategy of innovation in your organization are you happy with the process are you getting what you think you should get out of innovation and the investment you’re making there are companies that we work with in telecommunications in the pharmaceutical industries that are spending billions and billions of dollars in their R&D labs but are they really getting the bang for the buck that they’re looking for we really think of the answers to these questions are critical and if you’re like most of the senior managers surveyed half of you are going to say you’re really dissatisfied with your return on innovation the Boston Consulting Group does this survey every year of senior managers in the Fortune 1000 companies and year after year 54 55 56 percent of the senior managers say I’m making a significant investment in innovation practices in my company and I really do not understand what the return on that investment is if you’re a manager in an organization and you are trying to manage a process you can neither measure the output from nor understand the process you’re in real trouble I think that’s why in a lot of cases when the economics of a market get difficult the first thing management teams cut is R&D or innovation or new product development they can’t they don’t understand that they don’t understand how to make it more predictable predictable and they can’t figure out how to measure it so the first thing that goes is the thing you can’t measure and we really understand you know this um this dilemma because on the one hand you have to have innovation you have to have new product development or new services that you that your company brings to the market you have to respond to competitive threats when your competitors innovate and at the same time just throwing money into the black hole of R&D seems like a poor management strategy so these problems trying to innovate with uncertain boundary conditions trying to come up with new ideas when you don’t know what the competitive landscape is really going to be essentially the problem was trying to predict the future then these problems are classified as wicked problems problems that are poorly bounded and some are suggesting that this thing we call design thinking is as a potential answer to using innovation as a strategic weapon Harvard Business Review is written about it Roger Martin is the Dean at the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto wrote a great book called the design of business where he talked specifically about using design design thinking as a methodology of business management tim brown the CEO of IDEO one of the top product development products strategy companies in the world wrote a book called change by design which talks you know because lots and lots of case studies of using design as a strategic weapon in organizations and they panic the president of jump associates a sort of a design research firm but a book called wired to care on the same subject Roger Tim have all spoken here at Stanford we’re very very much aligned with the research that they’re doing and the epideictic is one of our one of our senior lecturers so these are you know these are folks that are proposing this methodology as a business strategy rather than simply as a design strategy and Bruce Nussbaum the writer used to be of BusinessWeek’s now a professor at the new school of crap has talked about this extensively in the press this notion of a creative economy so there are there’s a lot of there’s a lot of movement in the direction of design thinking what we’re going to try to do today is talk a little bit about what the frameworks of design thinking are and why they might be useful in a strategic role rather than a tactical or just design role I’m David Kelley who’s one of our senior professors also the founder of our new design Institute the d.school which is our Graduate Institute where we’re teaching design thinking to people from the School of Business School of Medicine the School of Education lots and lots of different touchpoints around the university he’s also the founder of

I do you know it says the next generation of innovators and leaders really need to be great design thinkers and we probably argued great design strategists and one of the frameworks for use is quite simple and it’s this this diagram just below the quote you know it’s it lots of people have toget processes you do concept first and then you do development and then you have you know big tollgate meeting and you have another meeting another meeting this this process that we’ve outlined here empathize define id8 prototype test really if we were to draw that correctly that would be a circle of these pentagrams and the test would lead back to empathize it’s not a tollgate process it’s simply as Tim Brown describes in his article in the Harvard Business Review it’s a series of spaces you occupy or a series of mindsets that you’re mindful of empathize is the process of using ethnography and need finding to understand the latent needs that your users have define is creating a point of view around those NEADS ID 8 is creating generating through brainstorming and other ideation and creativity techniques many many many solutions before you zoom into several that you prototype and test with users then go back from the knowledge you gained from that to the empathy stage so I mean that’s one very simple process diagram again not a tollgate diagram but more a series of spaces that the team occupies we use multidisciplinary teams a radical collaboration in the design thinking process where almost everyone in the organization is involved so I mean you know what I’d like to do is turn it over to my colleague Danny Banerjee for him to talk a lot a little more in depth about a number of these of these steps and the frameworks that we applied to each one but what I want to leave you with is the notion that when you’re dealing with a classical business problem a problem that you can reduce to alternatives because you have the data to do so you can decide whether a is more efficient than B or a is a larger market share than B and you can make a decision you can decide your way forward I’ll so I’m in a band and I live in the engineering school when you use and we have an engineering problem a problem where you can isolate the variables reduce the dependent and independent variables to a series of equations and solve for the correct answer then you can you know engineer your way forward or you can you know calculate your way forward and the kinds of problems that we’re talking about that are best addressed by design thinking you don’t have enough data to decide an a B decision and you can’t reduce the problem to a well bounded set of equations it’s a classic wicked problem so we say you can’t think your way forward or decide your way forward you have to build your way forward you build through design I’ll now turn it over to my colleague banging advantage and you can talk a little bit about the frameworks we use to decide what do you build thank you very much bill what has happened at Stanford over the last 15 or 20 years is in our quarter of Stanford we paid a tremendous amount of attention to this whole thing of how do you create transformation through design and I’m just going to advance the slide ok and and what we have is what we’ve come upon is an entire rubric that we call the Stanford design methodology and it allows us to do a few things it first of all allows us to look at problem solving in a very very different way in a very creative way and an leverages the creativity that everybody has but in extremely structured ways but before we go on to problem solving because we have you know we in in the past so many different fields have come up with very efficient problem-solving methods the bigger problem is to figure out what the problem is in the first place the bigger task at hand and we’ve beat our rubric and our methodology really lends itself to a very creative framing of the problem because that is actually the larger part of of really making a transformation that is meaningful and and because a lot of our business systems have relied so heavily on capturing value it immediately puts us in in this domain where it’s called the red ocean where all the sharks are are going after the same food the waters red with blood and everybody’s trying to

capture the same value our processes in contrast is very much about value creation what is how can one as an organization and as individuals within a team the red want creativity in very very subsets in a structured ways so as to create value that is very incisive that is very tightly coupled with an eye and understanding of what the need spaces so I’m going to advance the slide and and go on to this if you if you seen the slide you see a Venn diagram and and this explains a very high-level view of where we play this is what this shows is that innovation as we define it is these very much of the Nexus of business sources and and business viability our technological feasibility but what is what it is really driven by is a genuine identification of need of human needs so a lot of our processes especially in the framework that bill outlined you saw that the first stage was actually empathize and that is something that we time and again in working with industry we found that that going in back into the field and really unpacking what the new answers of the needs are is is actually gives you the ceding functions for extremely radical innovations but it’s not just individual needs what is extremely important is to cast itself cause this innovation in the framework of very large forces the sociological forces the cultural forces and the economic and environmental issues that this issue is costing so one looks beyond the boundary conditions of one’s own domain and and gets around the risk of in that you see a lot which is organization seeing the world in terms of its own offerings and then all your locked him to do is making incremental changes rather than radical radical ways of creating new values so in you know if you were to look you know fast oven and say okay so what does design thinking give you at the end of the deal it gives you it gives you very very innovative solution then innovation is one way of defining innovation is a marked deviation from the norm in terms of in terms of the value uncreate if we were to use the normal processes you get something on the normative curve and if you’re using innovation you’re using creativity to deviate away from the norm in creating something with this proportionate value but what you can get at is you can get at completely new experiences that that the world has not yet seem but which will the culture will wrap itself around one can create few visions of the future for one’s own organization one can create extremely incisive and and clever strategies and the roadmap step still out of that and create an entire strategy for once an innovation one can creat use this is to change the organization and the way the organization’s functions and and take the organization motor the part of being innovative and and those spoke to the sudden need that we have the the even greater need that we have in today’s world about organizations being much more agile and and innovative and that brings us to the need for cognitive shifts very often one can be very very innovative within the framework of what we are doing but often it what it takes is a shifting of the framework itself one in terms of the offerings that one is going after one cannot just look it of an offering as a solution but as a platform that will create a whole that will serve the larger brand or the it will serve the entire innovation strategy so so what is it that is engendering at the largest scale that’s those are questions that can be that can be addressed through design thinking what’s fun is also after in is completely new behaviors in one’s market and among one’s uses if you can come up with with offerings that change change behavior are not only have you created value in terms of in terms of a new behavior that that people are are having in order for that is better for themselves you’ve also made created market conditions where the behavior the supporting your offerings this whole thing of incidents making incremental changes leapfrogging beyond the current realm and anticipating the future and and getting getting way past and creating blue ocean strategies where one lands in an area where one has created value such a novel way that for them for the

moment there are no competitors there is another issue that that is beginning to surface and in our minds is is is going to become a very relevant issue for all organization and that is one a sustainability so we are paying a lot of attention to how you build the sustainability into the equation no matter what you do um the other thing that we are very cognizant of and being Stanford we are you know at a very high level we’re about creating leaders we’re about about training people to go out there and make very massive impact and to repay a lot of attention to lead to to what constitutes leadership and and creating the new rules as as the landscape changes and what we find is that there is a new form of leadership that is emerging and that form of leadership actually has is very different in mark ly different from from what leadership used to be in the SDS this is very much about forming forming visions that are very creative and influencing one’s organizations to be very innovative and creating value and creating new markets that’s what leadership is about and and that map’s very very well to to the processes that we are speaking about and and and we speak to a lot of leaders and and we get this is not just our point of view but we are triangulating with with having been been in conversation with some of the top leaders in the world so so how does one go about doing this it’s you know and dimension different classes of challenges and he mentioned a wicked problem here is a truth table which is essentially four quadrants and and it asks a very simple question do you know what the outcome you want to have is and do you know what the process for that is so there are two questions and just it’s a truth table and depending on whether you know what you outcome is and you Auto processes you land in four different quadrants now if you happen to be in a sector where you know exactly what the outcome is and you also have a process for it then it falls in the category for paint-by-numbers kind of a kind of problem and that refers to the paint-by-numbers refers to the children’s books where you join the number dots and you just you just join it to the next dot and in a picture of a clown or a picture of a lion emerges and that is in if you happen to have the privilege of being in an organization which feels safe in operating in last way every dollar spent on innovation is a waste of that dollar you do not need innovation in this one but typically most organizations even in extremely stable environments are can outperform the market and up from the competition by using innovative techniques and then if you’re no longer in that data realm so you could be in in the quest realm where you know what the outcome is but you have absolutely no idea what the process is now that is one where if you don’t know what the processes are you could be looking for a long time before you find the outcome the the the process could could be very elusive and and that is that’s a process we call that’s a realm of challenges with that we call the quest now most problems of the type that are emerging especially at the strategic level are it happened to fall in the fog region where the outcome is unknown and the prop and and the process is also not very clear it’s all you know is that there is a large challenge that one needs to get to a solution which is very different from what one is doing there must be a really clever approach or an idea or a clever framing out there but it isn’t quite clear as to how to get the entire organization of the team or just as an individual how do you get there and that’s called a project and what we do is we don’t start office with the notion that we know what the outcome is what we do is to turn the fog into a movie kind of a project a movie project refers to and then the way the reason why it’s called a movie project is because the movie industry has a process down to as to how to make a movie and sometimes there are as many as 500 and 600 people that get engaged in creating a two-hour experience and and there’s a lot of money involved and

a lot of choreography involved but the movies could be very different from each other a movie could be a an action movie or a romance or or a thriller or what-have-you and and but the process is very very well well understood and that’s how we approach fog problems that are that are wicked problems that are ill-defined problems and what we do is we rely on a process that we rely on to that that uh that unpacks the issues and simultaneously frames the problem side as we work on the solution side and as you’re working on the solution side it feeds back into under for redefining the problem side such that the most optimal outcomes and the most robust outcomes the merge outfit you know very very robust but also very economical way a lot of these processes have come out of the need to manage resources very tightly while trying to again get at very disproportionate outcomes so a lot of our processes speak to that I think I skipped two slides now this is another view of the sequence that that bill mentioned and it’s it’s a framework it’s on on the x-axis you have time and your attendant I’m you have a challenge and you’re going to move in time and you want a certain kind of outcome and but the the y-axis out here see is to REMS one of them is the concrete realm and the very very tactile and an understandable realm and the the other extent is an abstract realm and our processes we find that you have in in navigating the process well it is really important not just to stay in the concrete realm in march in time and go from defining a problem and coming up with innovative concepts in in the future what we find is that it’s extremely useful to generate the kind of insights that lie in people’s lives and in reality and in understanding what’s happening out there but go off slowly by these processes of synthesis and frame working into an abstract realm and there are all these processes that are linked to it and what you arrive at is a very defined crystallized mile high view of what’s happening and it allows for the use of very different cognitive processes than are typically at play in in say engineering we use very heavy use we make very heavy users of synthesis which is a little different from analysis analysis is the act of breaking down a problem into smaller and smaller bits and gaining a lot of confidence from having broken it down and gaining a lot of confidence from how defensible that little piece of information is and synthesis is a little different where you’re piecing together different different components each of those components might be extremely innocuous and and and simple but the way you piece it together might might result in a very magical configuration and so that’s a very different kind of cognitive style and we have processes that that that drive that till you get it a very crystallized and very insightful view of what the landscape is and what the framework is and that allows you to do some abstract operations and make some strategic cause a – what what is it that you’re going to do what is the space in which you can operate what are the high level objectives that you want to achieve and then there you embark on on a set of processes that get you to a very wide selection of concepts in a very rapid time scale and what we believe in at Stanford is that the the act of building is not just an active of expressing what you’ve already thought of but it it’s actually a cognitive mode in itself as you prototype your solution you come to a much deeper understanding of the integrated space in which one is playing and it gets to much more much much more integrated solutions and then so then as you come up with concepts you come back down into the concrete realm and essentially what one is done is a very tight knitting of the opportunity space and what can be done in reality so so again like what the you know just as a strategic tool Design Thinking allows er

allows for a very very unique set of outcomes first of all it it allows for a very strategic framing of the problem space a lot of time or rather a lot of effort and intensity in inertia in a short time frame is dedicated towards framing the problem side really well it is these processes are very useful when the problems are a huge overlap of very many different domains and functions and you’re trying to satisfy many conditions simultaneously and also where the nature of the problem is not clear and there are many feedback loops and and these design thinking processes are very useful in creating guiding visions and and in the in visions that are very very easily communicated through the organization and serve as as as the the guiding star that that all the other actions polarize along and more most importantly these processes are very easily learnt this is this it’s not rocket science every all of us have a lot of latent creativity and these processes are very easily learnt and practiced and so it’s easy to embark on a part whether there’s a culture of innovation that that is brought into an organization and these processes when used in combination with other proven techniques that are already in place just leverages the organization’s positioning of a whole lot with that I will pass it on back to Karissa and let her explain the rest thank you so much Vani I just want to remind everyone that at the end of my section and we’ll be answering some questions for the presenters live so just feel free to be submitting those while I speak at the Stanford center for professional development we’re part of the School of Engineering and we’ve been delivering education to industry for over 40 years and so we have reasonable experience in creating educational programs to address the career-long learning needs of professionals managers and executives and Industry we at the Stanford center for professional development are pleased to be offering the Innovation Master Series in partnership with faculty like Bill and banning for three days senior faculty will lead you through hands-on workshops where you will experience the problem-solving tools and problem finding frameworks that lead to innovation and strategic leadership pioneered by the Design Group and the d.school at Stanford so here you can see sort of a listing of who we think can benefit from the program we designed the program for managers business leaders and decision-makers faced with the daunting task of retooling and revitalizing their enterprises so I encourage you to kind of take a look at this and see if you are one of these folks and and working through some of the challenges that bill and vani mentioned earlier we created this program because we’ve been hearing for quite some time how organizations struggle to make innovation a routine within their within their organizations and today’s business environment companies continue to be challenged to implement more projects with fewer resources you heard that from Bill earlier today here you can see some of the key takeaways that can help you navigate tomorrow’s business challenges to impact the long-term success of your company and to create that return on innovation you heard about from Bill truly one of the most unique aspects of the program is that you will get the opportunity opportunity to engage with the who’s who line up a faculty from the Stanford design group and the D school who really pioneered design thinking to solve today’s wicked problems and I you know one of the things we heard about last year was that the faculty are so engaged in this in this program and and are there throughout and that’s quite quite a unique aspect you don’t typically get that many you know famous faculty all in one place at the same time so now we’d like to take a moment to conduct a poll that we truly appreciate your feedback on if you could let us know what your level of interest in the innovation master’s series is design thinking in the art of innovation we really appreciate your feedback and we’ll leave this open for just a few moments okay thank you so much for your feedback and so now I’d like to move on to the question and answer portion of our presentation number of great questions

came in while I was speaking and so the first question how does one measure the return on innovation well I mean this is Bill Burnett let me see if I can take a crack at that you’re obviously going to measure in the same way you measure other things although you have to be careful that in you know in measuring the phenomenon you don’t kill it you know ideas need some time new ideas innovative ideas often are look kind of different to the organization they should they seem threatening in some cases to the existing business maybe cannibalizing products or services that you already offer and so the natural tendency of organizations is to shut down things that are unusual so there has to be a part of the process which protects you know the early forms of innovation but our our methodology doesn’t rely on having like one big idea and then you know and then it works or it doesn’t our methodology relies on the tight coupling of a prototyping processes which really is a process of asking questions it’s not a process of building things that you think will work it’s a process of X asking questions with users and engaging in you know commerce a co-creation process so one you have to have a part of the process which is protected from measurement because you’ll you’ll you’ll not be able to get enough information to make good choices and you’re most likely will damage or kill the most innovative ideas that have the highest potential they’ll be threatening to other parts of the organization but once you’ve got you know things kind of out of that incubation stage you want to measure innovation the same way you measure all other processes you’re looking for a return on investment highly innovative solutions that have no markets are really if not much interests highly innovative solutions that address a very niche or narrow market function typically not useful as at all and so you know the standard measures of market size return on invested dollar and overall kind of looking at the long-term prospects of an innovation all of which are standard business processes but again what we’re talking about here isn’t just hey I came up with a new copy tub to replace our old coffee cup we’re talking about coming up with new platforms for innovation I would I’ll give you an example I was seven years at Apple Computer not during this period I was there prior to the invention of the iPod but I think it’s it’s an overused example but it’s also often misunderstood when the iPod first came out when I was first introduced by Steve Jobs Apple stock dropped for three successive quarters and the world thought it was a joke you don’t remember this time but there was a period of time where people said you’re kidding me a 300 dollar mp3 player 300th entry to the market of the other mp3 players or sub 100 bucks most of them are you know some $50 an apple in its arrogance introduces a $300 hard drive based mp3 player nobody understood it as because as a standalone product it would in fact have been a massive failure what they didn’t see was that it was a platform and they didn’t see it until three quarters later Apple introduced you know the iTunes Store and deals with all the five major record companies that’s what created the innovation not the device not the individual object it was stepping back and understanding that you had to create a new platform and you had to create a new behavior as Manning spoke about in the past you have an mp3 player could only hold maybe 50 songs so you had to pick which 50 songs you wanted to go jogging with or which 50 songs you wanted to take on the airplane you know ride to Grandma’s house Apple changed the paradigm you could now have thousands and thousands of song you could have all of your songs on on your eye on your mp3 player and moreover you had an ecosystem for refreshing those songs easily comfortably legally it just opened up a whole new possibility that you never had to edit your library so in the early days I’m sure there were people who said gee sure we should be developing you know a $300 hard drive based mp3 player this has got nothing to do with what everyone else is doing luckily inside Apple I dislike that are protected they’re protected particularly because that strong design leadership from the top but you but once you had launched the iTunes Store and the whole ecosystem and platform had been revealed you would measure the strategic advantage of that by looking at how it shifted the conversation from where an operating system company to where a media company you would also look at the basic return on an investment the profitability of selling that piece of hardware given the number of downloads

per device was extraordinary and you know buy any other business metric he’s considered a homerun so you can use traditional metrics at the tail end of the process was the product and the platform were launched but when you’re talking about creating innovations with new platforms you have to incubate you have to protect the babies while they’re still kind of growing up you don’t judge them yet until probably they hit you know their teenage years that takes a lot of management focus it takes a lot of management commitment and that’s typically led from the top rather than from the bottom great Thank You Belle so I think that’s that next question is for Banny does the Design Thinking Nexus suggests that the thinker’s must come from or be a member in the social cultural or economic environment from which the problem arises the answer’s no the processes actually allow you to enter a universe where which might on day one be completely unknown to you and unfamiliar to you but but there’s a way in which with fairly economic means and we use we make very heavy use of of techniques that we have stolen from the world of of cultural anthropology of going in quiring in these areas that might be variant very unfamiliar but coming back with the kind of insights that that those drives will drive the strategies are there’s a way in which you you go and inquire in a very open-ended manner rather than stepping through through questionnaires if this is you’re looking for the driving forces and the underlying forces that are that are causing the causing the the behavior then latent needs that people are not able to express but once they see the solution they’ll they’ll think that meaning they had wanted that all along but they don’t know how to express it and the process is in Los Angeles in that so no you do not need some molarity often an innovator and a design thinker is put in a position where they have to go to a country they know nothing about and in very little time figure out what is meant what is a really good offering so that that particular context great thank you it will take two more questions live and then the rest of the questions will answer at the end of the session so the next question is how do you actually teach this to engineers at the skill level and not just at the theoretical level oh boy that’s um that’s a ton of fun actually that’s what we spend most of our time doing you know the undergraduate program that I’m responsible for is an engineering program people come in and thinking they want to be a mechanical engineer or a lectric ‘el engineer and then and then they get very excited about design but as you might imagine my very very smart very very bright undergraduates here at Stanford didn’t get 800s on their creativity SAT because there isn’t one they didn’t get eight hundreds on there you know innovation SAT because there isn’t one but they did probably get eight hundreds on their math so they’re pretty linear thinkers when we start it’s a process first of engaging what we call visual thinking because your brain is a massive visual processor and you are aware of you can verbalize only a very small amount of the information you synthesize but you can you can synthesize information visually you do it very rapidly so part of the process is just teaching them to reconnect with their visual thinking we do this through a great class called introduction to visual thinking any 101 or there’s lots of drawing and building and prototyping and visualizing ideas once you’ve got a good path of sort of visualizing ideas we connect it with this notion of need finding the empathy side of the project you can generate lots of ideas but they’re not connected to human need they aren’t very useful so then that’s an interesting other challenge to teach engineers typically less empathic less social IQ sort of folks how to truly go out and interview in an unbiased way as Danny was talking about using the techniques of ethnography cultural anthropology to observe with a beginner’s mind to really emphasize with people who are struggling to solve a problem either a physical problem a technical problem a social problem whatever so we have a deep dive class on ethnography and empathy and we and we teach them lots and lots of tools you know and engineers or anyone likes to have you know when I’m trying to when I’m trying to turn a screw and you screw to everyone I’m trying to crank a bolt I need a wrench if I pick up the wrong tool I’m going to get a you know I’m going to get the I’m going to get a bad result so we have a series of tools we

have a series of processes and techniques wrap it all in the design thinking methodology it’s actually pretty fun and even with the graduate students just sort of watch the transformation to take an MBA who is very you know very structured kind of thinking very powerful kind of business thinker which is wonderful stuff and we’re not in any way saying that Design Thinking replaces business thinking or engineering processes not at all it’s just another another powerful tool in your belt particularly for non non well bounded nonlinear wicked problems but it’s fun to watch an MBA suddenly become creatively confident again I mean really in some ways I think maybe I’m not teaching people anything they don’t know you were all while we creative when you were in then kindergarten and first grade and somewhere along the process our educational system you know over educated your left brain and under educated your right brain if you want to put it in simple terms and all we’re doing is rewriting the connection between the two and beefing up that muscle in the right brain of visual nonlinear intuitive and creative thinking and it’s fun to watch people transform as they go through this these classes great thank you so our last question that will that will do live I know there’s a number of additional questions but we’ll handle those online once we’ve completed the webinar today so does the concept of moving from fog to movie challenge mean that there is a universal process that applies to all innovation challenges at a high level going from a fog where where the problem of the challenge is unclear to a point where it does become clear and one can make some strategic calls there are there might be very many different processes out there in the world but but we do have a very very strong process to it and it lends itself to an enormous diversity of challenges you can use that process to to look at something very technical it could be how do you deposit a micron or a microliter or a Pico liter volume of ink to go through a certain space and and and it’s in in a print technology or you can use the same kind of process with with you know in the hands of someone who understands the process you also mold the process to the nature of the problem the press not a it’s not a paint-by-numbers kind of a process but the same general process would lend itself to a very different kind of challenge for example if you were a mining company and you wanted to to not cause civil wars that’s a very different kind of a problem but the same approach would apply so the the process is extremely extremely awful and it’s also very versatile great thank you so much light I really want to thank our presenters today for facilitating a fantastic webinar I like to make you aware that this is a part of a three-part series and we have another webinar happening on February 22nd and a third on March 30th related to the innovation master series so we encourage you to visit our website SCPD dot stanford.edu to check those out in addition we have a February 16th webinar occurring on a slightly different topic on global product design similar and related but not not exactly a part of this series so thank you so much and with that I’m going to turn it over to Sonja who has a few closing announcements thank you for participating in today’s webinar there are still a number of questions in the gray and we will continue to answer them via I am we plan to make this presentation available and we will distribute the PDF of the slides along with on-demand version in a follow-up email thank you again for joining us