Using HashiCorp Vault with Kubernetes (Cloud Next '18)

[MUSIC PLAYING] SETH VARGO: Hello, and everyone [CHEERING] Welcome to the final session of the day in this room, Using HashiCorp Vault with Kubernetes My name is Seth Vargo I’m a developer advocate for Google Cloud You might recognize me from the “DevOps versus SRE” series, where we say, “class SRE implements DevOps.” I’m excited to be here today Prior to Google Cloud, I actually worked at HashiCorp I worked for our other speaker, Armon Dadgar, who is the CTO and cofounder of HashiCorp And I will bring him onstage in a minute to talk about Vault Just a quick overview of today’s agenda– we have four distinct sections You’ll recognize them by the colors that they’re associated with here We’re going to start with a quick overview that Armon is going to give us I know some of you might be familiar with Vault, but we want to make sure that we have a common baseline Next, I’ll tell you how to run Vault in Kubernetes as a service We’re going to get really technical, so I hope everyone’s ready There will be a live demo Then, I’ll show you how to connect to that same Vault cluster using Kubernetes applications from different pods and different services, again, accompanied by a live demo And then finally, Armon will talk about some of the new and exciting things that are coming on the Vault roadmap in the future So with that, I’d like to welcome Armon onstage [APPLAUSE] ARMON DADGAR: Thanks so much, Seth I’m hopeful we will get through this session without running out of disk space, but fingers crossed So like Seth said, what I was hoping to do was, for folks who are less familiar with Vault, start off with a bit of a high-level introduction What is the problem motivation? I think we’re probably all a little tool-overwhelmed So hopefully, there’s a good enough reason for us to consider adding yet another So before we really start talking about Vault, I think it’s useful to talk about the larger problem, right– secret management as a whole, which is really what Vault attempts to solve And so when we talk about secret management, I think the first question, kind of the most natural question is, what exactly are we managing? What is a secret? And so one of the things we talk about is, what is a secret, and how is it different from sensitive information? So when we talked about a piece of secret information, it’s something that allows us to either authenticate or authorize against a service So an example might be a username or password We can provide that to, let’s say, a database to authenticate a session against that database, prove our identity, and then the database is allowing us to request data from it Similarly, something like an API token, we can present that when we make a call up to, let’s say, Google Cloud to read and write from Blobstore, it’s authenticating the client It’s authorizing us to actually do that request And finally, something like a TLS certificate– and you might not log into a system exactly with a TLS certificate But you’re presenting it to a client, and that’s authorizing you as, you know, let’s say, www.hashicorp.com, and so it’s allowing us to sort of elevate ourselves into this trusted position So any of these types of materials– username and password, certificates– are sort of secrets, right? And the reason we want to keep them secret is, if they fell into the wrong party’s hands, they could use it as a mechanism to authenticate themselves or authorize themselves to perform actions they shouldn’t, right? They are a mechanism of access, and so those mechanisms need to be tightly kept On the other hand, we have sensitive information, right? This is a little different because it’s things that you’d like to keep confidential, but can’t directly be used to authenticate I can’t use my customer’s social security number to log into the database, but it doesn’t mean I’d like that piece of information on the public internet So it’s important to make this distinction between sensitive things, which Vault can help us manage– and we’ll talk a little bit about how– versus secret things, which Vault intends to put inside of it You use it as a database to hold onto secret information So when we go from saying, this is what a secret is to, then, talking about secret management, the way I like to talk about it is, what are the set of questions we want to be able to answer? So when we talk about secret management, these are the key ones, right? How do our applications get these secrets? My web application boots, it needs to talk to a database, how does it get a database password? On the same hand, how do our human operators get access? If I’m a DBA, and I need to connect to the database to do some maintenance on it or fix some issue with it, how do I get that same database credential? Then, how do we think about updating these things? We don’t want them to be, sort of, static credentials that live forever We want it to be periodically rotating them, whether for compliance or just good hygiene So how do we think about, if I change my database password, how does that impact my applications? How does that impact my operators? How do I actually automate that flow? Then there are the bad things that could happen What if this thing is compromised? How do I think about revocation of access?

How do I do forensics on who’s done what when if I’m trying to figure out, are we in a compromised situation? Where has this key leaked? And so what do we do in the event of a compromise, everything from that forensic understanding, to reacting to it, to rotating it? So these are the hard questions that we’d like answers to So the state of the world, when we generally talk about secret management as a problem is not necessarily great What we often describe it as is secret sprawl This is a scenario in which secret material is sort of sprawled all over our infrastructure It’s hard coded in source code It’s in plain text in our configuration It’s checked into GitHub in plain text It just litters everywhere And the challenge with this is it’s very decentralized, and we have very limited access controls around it Like, who can access GitHub in our organization? Probably anyone with single sign-on, right? Who can see this plain text configuration? Who knows? It’s not something we’re tightly access-controlling And so we have limited access control around it, but also even worse visibility So then, if we actually wanted to do an audit of who all has looked at this particular source file in GitHub, do we actually have an ability to do fine-grain auditing and forensics on that? The state of the world– not necessarily great when it comes to answering some of those secret management questions And so this is really where Vault enters Vault’s original purpose was to try and look at secret management and say, can we provide a good answer to these set of questions? And so our goals at the top line are starting with a single source of truth How do we move away from this decentralized sprawl to a world that is centralized and managed in a single place? And so part of this is really understanding those two different kind of consumers There is our application consumers that want programmatic access The web server is going to boot, it wants to fetch a credential and do it in an automated way We don’t want a point and click interface for that– so API-driven automated access for applications doing automation On the flip side, we still have our human operators, right? They want something nicer than an API They want command lines They want user interfaces And so we want these two access patterns to both be really optimized so that we have the single source of truth, and we want a solution that’s cloud-friendly So what that really means is it should be easy to operate It should be not dependent on specific hardware that we need to deploy in a private data center It should be [? pure ?] software that can easily operate in a cloud environment So then, when we translate that into, OK, these are Vault’s top-line goals– how do we actually achieve that, the sort of table stakes where things start, is just a secure place to put bits We want to put bits in, have it securely stored, get those same bits out, whether that’s, let’s say, database username and password And so in-transit, when clients are talking to Vault, Vault forces end-to-end TLS unless you change it, by default, it asks for the highest level of 1.2 And everything at rest is encrypted and managed with a AES So we have AES 256-bit, both encrypted and authenticated so we can detect tampering of data at rest And this is exposed to the end user as a hierarchical key value store So you can apply some organization around folder structure and grouping things together in a way that makes sense for you So to just make this a little bit less theory, a little more concrete, here’s an example from the command line interface of both writing and reading a secret So what we see here, the first command, is we’re doing a Vault write against a path, secret/foo It’s like I said, it’s a hierarchical file system So in this case, secret is a directory, and foo is the file, the leaf node we’re writing to And then we can write opaque values So we’re writing, bar is equal to bacon But you could imagine that would be username is Armon Password is 1234, as an example And then we can come back around, use the CLI, and do a read against that same path So we’re doing a read again secret/foo, and what we see is we’re getting back bar is equal to bacon So what this is really masking for us is really thinking about, as a client, is this encrypted over the wire? The CLI is talking over an encrypted channel to Vault, hitting its API And then Vault is transparently doing the encrypt as it writes it out to disk, doing the decrypt before it provides it back to us as a client– so doing the right things, making sure we’re doing this with hygiene, but kind of making this easy as an end user Just to illustrate the equivalence of that, here’s the same example as what we just did on the CLI, but hitting Vault’s API instead So like I said, one primary consumer Vault is our applications or automation tools And they want to consume it programmatically with an API So here’s just a simple example of doing cURL, where we’re basically doing a write against the path same path of foo and encoding the data that we want stored, and then doing a readback against the same thing So it’s meant to be a simple RESTful API that’s easy to integrate with And so that’s one level That’s table stakes is putting our secrets somewhere that we know it’s encrypted We have audit logging and access control around it– all of that kind of good stuff But there’s still a bunch of hard questions, right?

There are questions like, what if an operator connects to Vault, and they just find it annoying to have to go to a Vault So they’re going to copy everything out and put it in passwords.txt so they don’t have to bother to log in? Or an application starts– and I’m sure we’ve never seen this– the first thing it does is write all of its configuration out to standard out or its log file So it just reads all of the database username and password, dumps that to disk, and ships that off to our central logging system in plain text And the third sort of a classic case is we had a diagnostic error, right? It’s a 500 error on rendering, or we’re in a debug mode And it says, here’s my database username and password, by the way, if this helps you with debugging So the thing you find is the entities we’re giving these credentials to, whether it’s applications or operators, do a terrible job keeping secrets So this kind of raises an interesting challenge of, how do we still protect these secrets, even though all of these scenarios are very likely? So Vault’s approach to this, the way Vault thinks about this problem is the challenge is we have these long-lived static credentials And the challenge with a long-lived static credentials is if they leak anywhere, ever, either through passwords.txt, or through a log file, or through a diagnostic page, it’s game over We’ve arranged it as a zero-sum game It’s either a perfectly kept secret, or the secret’s out there, and we’re hosed So how do we reduce the stakes? How do we make this less severe than all or nothing? And the way you have to do it is making secrets ephemeral You don’t want to have these long-lived credentials that are valid forever You want these things to be short-lived, time-bounded, things so that, even if they get logged to disk– oops– they’re only valid for so long before we’ve moved on to a different set of credentials So Vault’s approach to this is what we call dynamic secrets, right? And the idea is, as opposed to static secrets, what we want to do is generate a unique set of credentials on demand So when a web server says, I want a database credential, we generate that credential as in point-in-time right there We have a unique audit trail now that ties us back and says, this web server has this unique credential And by the way, that’s valid only for 24 hours So when the web server renders a 500 diagnostic page and leaks out our database password, we’ve time-bounded how long that credential’s valid before moving on to another credential And if there is a breach, and we know that that credential’s exposed, we can revoke it early So what does this actually look like from the perspective of a client? They’re just doing a read against Vault in the same way we just saw before where they just did a read of secret/foo And behind the scenes, Vault is then going out and talking to the endpoint So it’s going and talking to the database and saying, create a new dynamic credential It’s creating an audit trail of that credential, and then it’s providing that credential back to the user In this example, I’m using a database because I think it’s sort of an intuitive one But you can imagine this exact same diagram where you replace the database with any sort of endpoint system that supports credentialing, right? A prime example would be Google Cloud, itself So I want to give my application a credential that lets it read and write from Blobstore, as an example But I don’t necessarily want to give it a credential that lives forever I want to give it a credential that’s valid for 24 hours, and I’m rotating that credential all the time So in that same setting, Vault would connect to Google Cloud, generate a short-lived credential, create the audit trail, and provide it to the application or end user, maybe a developer’s doing some debugging, so this example holds So when we talk about this secret back end approach– so far we talked about Google We talked about using it with a database-type system But it’s really a general idea The general idea is, any system that uses credentialing to manage authentication or authorization has this similar sort of a challenge, which is our consumers need that credential so they can consume the end point system But we don’t want these things to be static And so our goal with Vault is, this is actually a plug-in point It’s an extensibility point where, over time, we’re constantly adding new systems and adding support for them to be consumed in this dynamic way So cloud providers are one great example where they need API tokens to interface with, and maybe are giving those to humans, maybe are giving those to applications, maybe your automation systems are consuming it How do we make sure that we don’t have a forever token in Jenkins? Databases are great a example of systems of a record that have data But then you get into all sorts of other systems– messaging queues, things like RabbitMQ, SSH I think we could probably– maybe I’ll spare everyone from raising hands But I’m sure many of us have seen the master shared PEM file with a few hundred developers having access to the same PEM that secures a huge fleet And so that’s an interesting challenge where we have this shared mechanism, this PEM file, that too many people have access to So the list goes on and on Other stuff that we don’t have time to touch onto in much more detail is classic security bread and butter– the three A’s As you’d expect, Vault has many different mechanisms to authenticate against it So whether it’s an app running in Kubernetes, and we’re tying into the platform, it’s a VM just running in Google Cloud, or it’s a user who’s using LDAP to authenticate– those many different authentication mechanisms– all of that comes into,

then, a central authorization system So there’s a central way in Vault where you authorize who is allowed to do what So one huge goal with Vault is, how do we get to least privilege? You should only be able to access exactly what you need, not everything because you were able to log in So Vault has a very fine grain AuthZ system that lets you scope down who can do what based on their identity And then lastly is rich auditing So we want to have that audit trail of who did what when Cool And with that, I’m going to hand it back off to Seth who’s going to talk to us about how we actually use this and operationalize this within Kubernetes Thank you [APPLAUSE] SETH VARGO: Great Thank you, Armon So the goal of the next section here is to really answer two questions Why would I run this on Kubernetes? Is it a good idea? Should I? And how do I do it? The first answer is yes, so we’ll move onto the second question So what does this actually look like? So the following diagram here is also captured as code on GitHub, github.com/sethvargo/vaultongke But I want to walk through it quickly together And before I do, I want to mention that this follows the HashiCorp best practices guide for production deployments and production hardening This was built in collaboration with some of the Google Security engineers as well as some of the people on the SIC security team on Kubernetes So it represents what we like to think of as the best-practices way to run Vault on GKE or any Kubernetes cluster So at the top level, we have some type of load balancer In this example, we’re using cloud load balancing because we’re making this Vault server publicly accessible In your own environment, you might want to use VPCs or VPN-type networking, where it’s only accessible in certain subnets And then we have a highly available Vault cluster So we might have three, five, seven servers all running behind this load balancer And then below that, we have, obviously, the Kubernetes engine itself And then we’re using Google Cloud Storage as the underlying storage back end We also support Google Cloud Spanner And we are using Google Cloud KMS to do the initial encryption of the initial root token and the initial unsealed keys So let’s walk through some of those in a little bit more detail So first, we’re using a dedicated Kubernetes cluster And there are a few reasons for this But we don’t want Vault running alongside the same Kubernetes cluster where your applications are running In fact, we might even recommend running it in a separate Google project that only the security teams and the networking teams– least privilege access And to the other clusters and other application developers, Vault is just a thing at an IP address We’re leveraging Google Cloud Storage Again, we could leverage Google Cloud Spanner But both of those storage back ends support high availability As a production deployment, we need this to be highly available There’s no reason why we wouldn’t So we’re going to leverage Google Cloud Storage for our high availability and our storage back end Another advantage there is that we can back that data up We can do replication We can do customer-provided encryption keys as well We’re going to leverage Google Cloud KMS Everyone taking a picture– nice We’re going to leverage Google Cloud KMS because our Vault servers are going to be automatically initialized and unsealed So those initial unsealed keys and that initial route token eventually need to get into the hands of an operator or an automation system, but we don’t want them stored in plain text So we’re going to leverage Google Cloud KMS to encrypt those values and put them in the storage back end Additionally, we’re leveraging our own custom certificate authority for TLS So one of the questions I get is, like, oh, why wouldn’t you use Let’s Encrypt? Let’s Encrypt is amazing, but the problem is, I don’t actually want to trust any certificate on the internet Instead, I want to use mutual TLS validation, and I want to use my own certificate authority and only trust certificates signed by that authority, not even my system certificates This helps secure Vault and make sure that only people with the certificates and the proper certificate authority have the ability to communicate with the server Additionally, we’re leveraging L4 load balancing Instead of using something like the Global Load Balancer, the GLB, we’re actually using a regional load balancers And the key reason here is that an L7 load balancer is going to do the TLS termination for us And we don’t actually want that We want Vault to do the TLS termination, primarily, so that Vault can handle mutual TLS authentication But also, we don’t want to decrypt data and then have a different re-encrypted connection on the back end, right? Using an L4 balancer lets us pass that through directly to Vault and lets Vault handle its own TLS And if Vault ever rotates those TLS certificates that it’s using, those automatically happen We don’t have to also rotate them in an upstream load balancer And then lastly– and this is a really key point– we want to think of Vault as a service, right? So in my internal operations team, or my internal security team, yes, I’m running Vault under Kubernetes, and I’m leveraging a lot of the functionality that Kubernetes provides But ultimately, I’m delivering secrets as a service or secrets management as a service So there is Vault and an API and an IP address And users ultimately shouldn’t care whether Vault is running on a VM or a container or bare metal

It doesn’t really matter So we really want to think about this as Kubernetes is providing the building blocks that let us run Vault as a highly-available service And we get some really cool benefits One of them is you might see that we’re going to leverage a StatefulSet here And the first thing you might think of is, wait, this isn’t a database There’s actually no state Vault’s state is stored elsewhere It’s stored in GCS Why would he use a StatefulSet? And there are a few reasons why we might want to use a StatefulSet First, it gives us predictable naming Our actual container names will be like vault-0, vault-1, vault-2 This is really helpful for debugging, audit logging, et cetera The real reason, though, is that the StatefulSets give us exactly-once semantics for free So as our servers are starting up, one will start up, it will unseal itself, it will be ready to go As soon as its health check is passing, the next one will move along So we actually avoid any real-life [? race ?] conditions with initialization or unsealing The same is true for upgrading You don’t want to upgrade all of your Vault clusters at once You generally want to upgrade one, and let the leadership transition to a new server, upgrade that one, et cetera, until the entire cluster is upgraded This is true with any software Using StatefulSets, a single change to the YAML file, or whatever you’re using for the description of this deployment, automatically does a rolling update And if one of them fails, it’ll stop We get a free circuit breaker pattern So there’s a lot of reasons why we might want to use a StatefulSet here Additionally, we’re leveraging anti-affinity rules So anti-affinity rules are a Kubernetes future which let us do things that affect or influence the pod scheduling By default, if we did not have this YAML here, Kubernetes would put all three Vault containers on the first node And that’s not highly available If that one VM dies, we lose all of our Vault servers So what we’re doing is leveraging anti-affinity, basically, suggesting to Kubernetes, or in this example requiring Kubernetes, to spread these out across all of our available nodes or hosts This means, if one VM dies or two VMs die, that our Vault servers– the actual containers themselves– are spread across the node pool So this adds an additional layer of availability for us We’re also leveraging auto unsealing The auto unsealing is also an auto initializer This allows you to spin up a Vault cluster very quickly without operator intervention And the keys will be encrypted with KMS and put in the storage back end We’re also doing some little things that make a big difference For example, we’re giving the container the IPC_LOCK capability By default, Vault supports memory locking This is something the Vault does in its codebase Containers don’t give you that privilege by default, so we explicitly ask Kubernetes to give our containers the ability to do memory locking– again, just an added layer of security And then our readiness check is basically asking Vault for its own health, but we explicitly want to make sure that our standbys are also added to the load balancer Because this readiness check here is going to determine when the container is able to receive requests from the load balancer, and we want to make sure that our standby servers are also able to receive requests so that they can forward them appropriately to the leader Notice that we’re communicating via TLS And then lastly, as we saw in the diagram, we have this load balancer Again, this might be an internal load balancer in your own VPC Or it might be a public-facing load balancer I don’t recommend that, but there’s no reason it can’t be So with that, let’s jump over to demo one– so if we can switch over to the laptop All right Here we go Did everyone pray to the demo gods? Here we go All right So the first demo here, I’m just going to show you what it’s like to run Vault as a service on Kubernetes, basically, using those exact YAML files that I just showed you First, I want to show you, I have a Kubernetes cluster here It’s running on GKE So I’ll go to Kubernetes Engine, and we’ll take a look at the workloads here And there’s nothing, right? We have no workloads here We haven’t deployed Vault yet So what I’m going to do is, over here, I’ll just take a look at my vault.yaml And you can see that this is very, very similar to what I just showed you on the slides There are some additional pieces of information here, like, I’m deploying a replica set of three So I’m going to have three Vault servers Again, there’s that anti-affinity that we saw before And all of this is open source, by the way So don’t feel like you have to capture all of this right now We have our first container, which is our init container that’s going to do the Vault initialization And then we have some configuration for that container And then we have the actual Vault server itself We’re pulling that directly from the Docker hub Again, there’s that IPC_LOCK capability And we’re opening some container ports that will be available for requests– some basic memory and CPU requests, and then, again, some configuration And here, you can see where we’re actually supplying Vault its startup configuration via the magic VAULT_LOCAL_CONFIG environment variable So we don’t have to worry about writing out a file to disk

We do this all in the environment variable So with that, let me go ahead and apply this I’m terrible at typing, so I wrote fancy scripts for you all So what this is going to do is it’s going to just grab that Kubernetes end point, and it’s going to apply kubeclt apply-f that particular StatefulSet So what we should see here in a second– and this is where everyone’s prayers would be helpful– OK, there we go So these pods are actually starting up And you’ll notice that 1 of 3 of them are starting up And that’s because we’re using the StatefulSet, which is doing that one at a time, exactly-once semantics So vault-0 is running It has some warnings, but I think that’s just because it’s booting up And if we go back, we’ll start to see, hopefully– OK, vault-1 is starting as well And then once we get to vault-3, this entire replica set will be happy And at that point, we will have a vault cluster Because what’s actually happening, under the hood, is we’re not just running that Vault container, we’re also running that Vault init container And because this is a fresh, new container, it’s actually connecting to the storage back end, doing the initialization, putting those unsealed keys encrypted via KMS into that storage back end, as well as the initial route token And then the other servers, when they start up, they look, and they say, oh, I’m already initialized They grab those encryption keys and do automatic unsealing for themselves If we were to scale-up or scale-down the cluster, because the initialization has already happened, the initializer will just unseal them It won’t actually do the initialization anymore Let’s go ahead and refresh this and check where our status is I see a green check mark, which is great I’m going to go ahead and jump over to Google Cloud Storage here, just real quick to show you all So this is the storage bucket that I’m using And in here, you’ll see the folders here– core and sys, which are created by Vault But then the root token and the unsealed keys are both encrypted via Google Cloud KMS And then they’re stored in this Google Cloud Storage bucket So when I want to interact with Vault, as an operator, I need to download those via like gsutil or via the Google Cloud API, decrypt them using Google Cloud KMS and the proper IAM permissions, and then I can interact with Vault directly So let me go ahead and switch back to Kubernetes, and I’ll show you what all of that looks like So I’m going to jump over here I have another magical shell script, which I will show everyone So this is my magical shell script where I super can’t type But basically, all of this does is it grabs the CA certificate Again, we’re using a custom CA– so putting the output of that, the address to my Vault cluster And I provisioned this Vault cluster with Terraform, so I’m delegating to Terraform there– and then the token decrypt command, which is just a really long gsutl command with some basic Z4 and some G Cloud KMS So what I’m going to go ahead and do is run this And again, this is all open source Oh, look See, I left myself this note because I knew I was going to mess it up This is when you know you’ve done too many demos So this takes a little bit because it’s actually making about 5 or 10 API calls, but great Now, what I can do is I can actually just run env grep vault. We see that we have our VAULT_TOKEN, our VAULT_ADDR, and our VAULT_CACERT These are magic environment variables the Vault reads I can also supply them via the CLI, but I’m lazy So now what I can do is, hopefully, I can run Vault status And look at that We now have a Vault cluster up and running– five key shares, a threshold of three It’s in high-availability mode, and this particular node I hit is in standby So if we look at that second to last line there, we’ll see that this particular node that we hit is in standby If I run Vault status again, now I hit the active node, coincidentally Because we’re doing round-robin load balancing on that load balancer there Anytime I make a request to a standby, that standby will automatically forward the request to the active leader So I don’t have to know where the leader is I just know the load balancer address So this is how you run Vault as a service on Kubernetes If I kill one of these pods, it will automatically restart It’ll maintain a quorum of three When it comes back online, it will be automatically unsealed And until that point, it won’t be added to the load balancer as well, which is why that health check is so important So with that, can we jump back to the slides? Awesome So that concludes the first demo You can clap [APPLAUSE] So now we have to forget everything Forget everything you just talked about Because the next section is, now that I have Vault running, how do I connect to it from Kubernetes? But I want you to forget that Vault is running in Kubernetes Think, it’s running in some third-party service like Heroku, or it’s running on VM somewhere Forget that Vault is running in Kubernetes Instead, Vault is just a thing available at an IP address Everything we’re about to do can work with any Kubernetes cluster We’re going to use GKE, but it could work with your on-premise Kubernetes cluster, et cetera So again, forget that Vault is running on GKE or Kubernetes It’s just a thing at an IP address Because the next thing we’re going to do is create another Kubernetes cluster All right

Clicky All right So very quickly, we have to talk about Vault authentication methods So Armon mentioned this very briefly in the beginning Authentication in Vault is the process by which users or machines supply information to Vault. Vault verifies that information with, either internal data or some external third party, and then, assuming that it is valid, converts that into a token with policy authorization attached to it Here’s an example of what that looks like in a graphic form We have the Vault server in the middle, which would receive a request from a user or a machine or an application It would then take that information to this third-party system Assuming that’s successful, it would go to its own policy engine and map that to a Vault policy, and then return the token, which is kind of like a session ID or a session token to the user, which would then be used for all future requests It’s like logging into a website You know, sometimes you log in with a username and a password, and your browser sets a session ID But sometimes you can also log in with Twitter or log in with GitHub Vault is conceptually similar to that So what does that look like with Kubernetes? Well, it’s actually very straightforward We just replace that third-party system with a token reviewer API from Kubernetes So a user, or in this case a service account representing a user or a pod, makes a request to the HashiCorp Vault server with their service account token, their JWT token That JWT token is given to the TokenReviewer API The TokenReviewer API verifies that JWT token’s validity, and time stamp, et cetera And assuming that’s successful, it goes back to Vault and says, yeah, this looks great Vault then goes to its own internal policy engine and says, oh, OK Well, the things in this particular namespace get this particular policy attached to them Here’s a Vault token with that policy attached And this is how the Kubernetes auth method works at a very, very high level There are technical details here, which we’re not going to get into But this is, at a very high level, how this functions So to do this, you could write your own little BASH script Or I’ve actually open-sourced the Vault Kubernetes authenticator, which does this whole process for you It will grab your service account from var/run, Kubernetes, secrets, the service account JWT token It will post that up to the Vault server which is configured via an environment variable It will get the token back, and it’ll put it in an in-memory volume mount for you So then, all your applications and services have to do is extract that token from that in-memory volume mount So you don’t have to actually think about Vault authentication in Kubernetes anymore You could just leverage this and know that the token will be there, assuming authentication was successful It runs as an init container, not a sidecar container So it must succeed in order for the other containers to run Then we leverage tools like Consul Template So despite its name, you don’t need Consul to use Consul Template But Consul Template is a tool that is designed to provide a configuration language by which we extract secrets and credentials from Vault and present them on-disk or on a temp disk or an in-memory disk to an application or service without the application or service knowing that it’s communicating with Vault Many of you have brownfield applications or, even, greenfield applications that you likely don’t want to directly integrate with Vault. You might not want to call the Vault API directly using the Golang library or the Ruby library Instead, you might want to just continue to leverage a file system or environment variables for credentials And we like that abstraction because then you’re not tightly coupling your applications to a secret manager Instead, you’re saying, my config is on disk, or my config is from an environment variable What Consul Template allows us to do is to provide that same experience, but under the hood, as a sidecar application, it is actually managing the connection to Vault, the renewal and the acquisition of all of those secrets And as we’ll talk about in a minute, what happens when those secrets are revoked or are rotated? So I know what you’re thinking What happens, though, if my credentials change? So I have this sidecar application that wrote this file out And my application is reading those credentials from that file But how does this Consul Template thing actually inform my application that my credentials have changed? So let’s think of a real-world scenario I have a database credential Vault tells me that database credential is valid for 24 hours At the end of 24 hours, Vault is going to revoke that credential, if it’s not revoked earlier by an operator At that point, my application, or Consul Template, has to go back to Vault and say, OK, I’m still authorized I would like another database credential And it will be different It will be a different username and a different password So I’ll write that out to my config file, but my application is probably already loaded its config Most web applications don’t go to disk and read their config every user request They load that into memory, and they kind of cache it until they’re restarted or received some sort of signal So how can Consul Template signal my application to reread its credentials, where, in a Kubernetes world, where all those containers are isolated? Well, an interesting feature, and an alpha feature right now in Kubernetes is this idea of shared process namespaces

So shared process namespaces are the solution to this challenge And again, this is an alpha feature So it’s available in GKE alpha And if you’re running your own Kubernetes clusters, you’ll have to enable it with Kubeadm or a similar tool But this shared process namespace allows our containers to communicate with one another So instead of having every container be PID 0 or PID 1, they’re actually a root container and then these subcontainers with the ability to communicate with one another So if we give our Consul Template process the SYS_PTRACE sys call, the security context capability, we can actually leverage the standard Unix tools like pidof and kill to signal applications And then, all we have to do is provide a command to Consul Template And it says, hey, when this file changes, or when this environment is updated, or this secret is revoked, just send, in this example HUP to the pid of my app And we can leverage the built-in pidof tool for that Or perhaps it’s something more complex We might have some 50-line bash script that we have to run because of some arcane Java-based application that is very finicky We capture that as code, and Consul Template executes that for us So this can either be as simple as a signal, or it can be as complex as a very systematic and procedural restart So with that, let’s go ahead and jump over to the laptop, and we’ll take a look at what demo two is So what I’m going to do here is, in the Google Project Switcher, I’m actually going to switch to a different project So I have another project here called My App So I’m in a completely different project now Remember, one of our best practices we recommended earlier was that we have a dedicated project and a dedicated Kubernetes cluster for Vault And then, we’re only thinking about Vault as a service right now It’s just a thing at an IP address So I have this other Kubernetes cluster where I run all my applications and services for production All my web apps, all my stateless services, all my stateful services, they’re all in this My Apps Kubernetes cluster Right now, I don’t have any apps, but we’re going to create a few in a second All right So I have a few scripts here The first is we’re going to set up the Kubernetes auth method What the Kubernetes auth method is going to let us do is, like we described in that diagram, it’s going to configure Vault to talk to the Kubernetes cluster with the right certificate authority, so that we can verify via the Token Reviewer API, the JWT tokens So let’s go ahead and run that So it creates a CRB and a few other things And then we actually configure the Kubernetes auth method, and we create a new role for authenticating to that configuration So now, at a very high level, what this means is, when I have a pod in my cluster, and it goes to Vault with its service account, that service account will be authenticated to get a Vault token back with a predefined policy that I’ve configured So this is configuration that you could capture as code, or you could run it manually via the API But then next, what we want to do is we want to configure our GCP secrets So the use case here is that– Armon’s example was database credentials You might be Postgres or MySQL, et cetera One of the other secrets engines that we have for GCP is the IAM GCP secrets engine This lets you programmatically generate both service accounts and service account keys for GCP So instead of going into the web UI, and clicking, or using the API directly, you can programmatically generate on-the-fly tokens that are very short lived for interacting with the GCP API, the same way that you might generate like an AWS access key But we can do that with the GCP API So what I’ve done here is I’ve just configured Vault, very briefly, to interact with those systems So the last thing we need to do then is actually apply our application So let me show you what our application looks like So I’m doing a bunch of stuff here, mostly is just because I’m really bad at typing But I’m grabbing the credentials from our cluster, and then I’m setting the context, and then I’m applying this Kubernetes YAML file So I’ll take a look at that YAML file here So there are a few things that I want to point out here The first is that we’re running a pod now We’re now no longer running a StatefulSet This is just like a straight-up pod It could be replicas, but there’s only one at this point We’re leveraging that shared process namespace again This is important so that we can signal our applications so Consul Template can talk to our other process We have a few volume mounts We have our secrets This is where Consul Template’s actually going to write its configurations because there are going to be secrets there We have our own TLS configuration This is how our pod talks to Vault because, again, we need that certificate authority, and client-side TLS cert, and then the Vault token, which is an in-memory volume mount where the token will be written

So that never gets persisted to disk We have our init container here, which is, again, just pulling from the Docker Hub And we have a few volume mounts there We set some environment variables, like where is the Vault server, where is its CA certificate And that’s going to run at boot And assuming that’s successful, it’ll put our Vault token at a well-known path on disk/home Vault. And at that point, all of our other containers– in this example, Consul Template– can then pull that token from the in-memory file system and interact with it So here we have Consul Template We’ve given it the SYS_PTRACE capability so that it can signal our other application And if we scroll down here a little bit, again, same volume mount, same configuration And then here’s our Consul Template configuration And at the very end here, you’ll notice that we have our arbitrary command Our arbitrary command is just to send kill-HUP to the pit of our Vault demo app And then, as you might suspect, the last thing in our configuration here is our Vault demo app itself, which is just getting pulled directly from the Docker Hub And actually, all it does is log its own file, so it’s not very exciting But it’s really good for demonstration purposes So let me go ahead and apply this now So now, if we go back here, we should see this workload start to provision And you’ll see that the pod is initializing And if I’m fast enough– I wasn’t fast enough If you’re fast enough, you can see that it’s waiting for the init container to run But if we take a look at this init container– and I’m using Stackdriver Logging here, so you’ll actually see the logs directly in the Google Console UI here We see that, a few seconds ago, that the init container successfully stored the Vault token So it did that whole walkthrough of going to the Vault server, presenting its JWT token, interacting with the Vault cluster And then what we presented to Consul Template was just a Vault token at a well-known path Consul Template then grabbed that Vault token and used that token to interact with the Vault API to grab our service account key So now, when I go back to my pod and refresh this here, we can see that both Consul Template and My App are running And if we take a look at the logs for all of these, you’ll notice that Consul Template sent a signal to My App causing it to reload So at boot, Consul Template detected a change in configuration There was no config, and then it went to some config So it sent the HUP signal to the Vault demo app The Vault demo app, or My App in this log, got that signal and printed out a log line that it reloaded What you see here is a soon-to-be-revoked access credential for interacting with this particular GCP project This is an actual IAM access token for interacting with GCP I’m aware of this I will revoke it, but it’s cool So I’m showing it to all of you And what’s happening is, at some interval, this token just gets printed out, basically, every 30 seconds However, at the end of about five minutes, what will happen is Vault will revoke that token So by default– like GCP IAM credentials live forever until a human comes in and deletes them Vault actually enforces a lifetime, and it makes the necessary API calls to Google Cloud to revoke those credentials when time permits So, unfortunately, we’re running short on time, so I can’t actually wait and show you that But if we can switch back to the slides very quickly So the last section now I’d like to invite Armon back on stage to share a little bit more about the Vault roadmap and the future So, Armon? [APPLAUSE] ARMON DADGAR: Thank you Awesome We are definitely running short on time OK, we’re going to make this light speed So thank you, Seth, for walking us through a little bit more hands-on than I had a chance to go to in terms of how we actually work with it Some of the stuff I wanted to talk about– so for folks that are maybe familiar with Vault, or have already used it, I wanted to give a little bit of a sneak peek in terms of where Vault’s going and a little bit of our thinking in terms of directionality I think one of the things that’s become clear to us is that, when we talk about this space, secret management, tools like Vault, integrating it with these platforms is, it’s complicated And I think you kind of saw a snapshot of that is, it’s not exactly simple and obvious how all of these things kind of come together because it’s a hard problem we’re trying to solve We’re trying to solve the problems of application identity, brokering between many different systems that don’t necessarily understand each other– like Postgres has really no idea what Google Cloud’s IAM model is and vise versa So what we’re trying to do is solve this challenge of each of these systems, implement different mechanisms of access control, and we’re sort of brokering between them So it’s a complex problem And so how do we start making that a little bit simpler? So one of the things we’re starting to work on within Vault itself is– I jokingly refer to as sort of Clippy for Vault. As you can see a little pop-in wizard in the corner here, which says, “It

looks like you’re trying to configure Vault. Can I help you with that?” But in more seriousness, how do we help guide users through, hey, these are the different kind of core workflows in terms of how do you configure Vault to understand Kubernetes as an authentication back end? How do you configure Vault to integrate it with Postgres? How does the role-mapping work between this And so it’s meant to be an unobtrusive wizard-like capability for different workflows that you can enable as you hit them to say, hey, please walk me through how this is supposed to work and have it be a little bit more interactive as you’re getting started with the system Another common challenge we see with Vault is, how do I go from– I think Seth did a great job laying out, what’s a best practice deployment guide look like in terms of isolating it with a separate cluster and treating it as just opaquely living behind a load balancer and building HA And so an interesting pattern is, how do we go from providing that service, Vault as a service, for a single application owner or a single group to, all of a sudden, in many application owners, many groups? We want Vault as a service to be highly multitenant between many different potential groups or lines of business And so one approach to this, and the kind of historical approach, is you lean on Vault’s very fine-grained capability and an authorization system So you can segment out different parts of the system Maybe you say, [? eng ?] star is managed by one set of people and [? marketing ?] star is managed by a different set of people And we sort of segment using Vault’s hierarchical folder structure Another capability, a different way of thinking about it, is full namespacing And this is what’s coming on our roadmap is the ability to carve out entire namespaces within Vault and say, you know what? I don’t want to think about managing permissions of these folders I want to carve out a whole namespace and say, this belongs to engineering, this belongs to marketing, this belongs to another team And those teams can then sub administer these namespaces independently So looking at, as we go and think about Vault as a service, how do we scale up the number of consumers, the different folks who can be onbaorded onto this service? Lastly is some of the challenge around integrating with Vault, as Seth highlighted is there is this tension between what we’d like to be able to do is maintain operational flexibility and not tightly couple our applications We don’t want all of our applications to embed vault SDK and directly talk to the API and have to be sort of highly Vault-aware That sort of limits our operational flexibility So instead, we’d like to decouple that and use tools like Consul Template and scripts like Seth’s auto initializater to thread through the right credentials so that our app boots, reads its secrets, and it’s blissfully unaware A really common challenge, though, is how do we do that authentication before we can actually read secrets? And so one of the things we’re starting to work on– and it actually just shipped this morning in beta– is the Vault Agent And so this is an optional agent you can choose to run alongside Vault Server, which you have to run And what it does is manage some of that flow for you, the flow of fetching the JWT, authenticating against Vault, periodically reauthenticating, integrating with tools like Consul Template to be able to generate and put configuration on disk in a more application-friendly format So these are some of the goals of the Agent is making it easier to authenticate, easier to manage token renewal, easier to cache some of this data locally, and making those integrations a little more out-of-the-box So this is something that just shipped today So if this is something that you find useful, please feel free to play with it So with that, thank you, guys so much for sitting through with us and joining us And thank you to Seth as well for helping with this [MUSIC PLAYING]