Sustainable Oceans Summit: Public-Private Partnerships and The Ocean Economy

(bell ringing) – Welcome back, hope everybody’s well fed and happy It’s my pleasure today to introduce Paul Thacker, and invite you to preview some of the insights from his masterful journalism work, in the film Merchants of Doubt Throughout US history, pseudoscience and even falsehoods passed off as science have been used to maintain a truly harmful status quo As we heard from Mrs. Dalminacki earlier, you can’t even speak about climate change in the US, and down the street we have senators bringing snowballs into Congress, to try to say that this isn’t happening And the influence of money and money in politics has grown hugely in the past few years, which has drastically reduced the public’s ability to access quality, unbiased information Few have done more to expose this state of affairs than Mr. Paul Thacker So we thank him for the important work that he has done Today the stakes couldn’t be higher As temperatures keep rising, the oceans are becoming more acidic, and as we heard, fisheries are depleted all around the world So thank you again, Mr Thacker, and I invite you to preview his work in Merchants of Doubt (woodblock music) – Communication is about sales Keep it simple, people will fill in the blank with their own, I hate to say biases, but with their own perspective in many cases – [Voiceover] The tobacco companies knew nicotine was an addictive drug, yet the told Congress – I believe nicotine is not addictive (rock music) – [Voiceover] You see the same small group of people that the tobacco industry used working on all kinds of other issues – Dioxins, pesticides, chemicals in general, there’s no evidence that these are harming us – [Voiceover] Scientists would explain the science, against the science they will have a so-called expert – Seven-week old baby was in a crib – I literally heard a gasp when he told the story about this baby – Were either one of you paid to testify for your time here in office? – [Voiceover] Citizens for Fire Safety, the three largest of makers of flame retardants in the world (rock music) – [Voiceover] Some of the so-called experts turn out to be very very good at it – I’m not a scientist, although I do play one on TV occasionally Okay hell, more than occasionally – [Voiceover] It creates a whole new cast of characters, these people who become well known for casting doubt on global warming – [Voiceover] Catastrophic global warming is a hoax – There is no scientific consensus – If you go up against a scientist, most of them are very hard to understand, and very boring – It’s all about preventing you from looking where the action really is, which is in the science – The Earth is getting warmer, no question about it – That is a bold-faced lie! (rock music) – [Voiceover] It’s kind of an amazing accomplishment, such a small group of people have had an enormous impact on public opinion – We’re the negative force, we’re just trying to stop stuff ♫ You don’t fool me anymore ♫ And the change is gonna come ♫ And we will see the light (audience applauding) – Please join me in welcoming Mr. Paul Thacker (audience applauding) – Thanks so much for having me here today So if you want to know how I got into this, I actually was just a regular science journalist I love doing new research that has found kind of stories Latest study that came out that shows X, Y, or Z and how great that is for science I just liked that I liked doing science, but in science in many ways it’s boring and repetitive I really liked talking to scientists and reporting on the new stuff that came out And in the mid 2000s, what I kept running across were repetitive studies coming out showing that something was possibly bad or maybe dangerous, and there was no regulatory follow up on that And I couldn’t understand what was going on in that area, and I began to uncover that there were these concerted campaigns to actually undermine science The individual you saw up there by the fireplace talking about dioxins and such, he was actually the first person who helped me understand all this That’s Steven J. Malloy, who runs And I ran across Steve Malloy because he was criticizing science all the time And I wrote an article for the New Republic where I stumbled across the fact that the whole time he was, at the time, the science writer for, this was back when like dot coms were just becoming a big deal, online news in 2005, and was also a fellow at the Cato Institute He was a paid consultant for the tobacco industry And that’s why today he’s no longer at Fox News, no longer at Cato And for this documentary, he refused

at the last minute to be interviewed, and that was because he had just taken a job Finally, you know, what he really has been doing for many years, which is PR for the coal industry The problem with the issue of, with The Merchants of Doubt, is explaining to you is how when you think that what matters is your science and your science studies and your experts and your PhDs, it doesn’t really matter And this is an issue that the science community has yet to really grapple with, is understanding that no matter how great your facts are, your facts don’t matter once you’re actually interfacing with policy Because what matters then is who takes over, are the lawyers and the lobbyists And so it’s great that you’ve got a PhD, but your PhD does not help you to actually change policy And what needs to change, I think, is people beginning to understand exactly these attempts to undermine science And what this documentary is talking about is how most of this came out of tobacco Tobacco had so much money, and it’s not that tobacco people were evil, or tobacco people were incredibly ingenious, it was just that their backs were up against the wall, and they couldn’t go anywhere else, but they had to fight back And so they created the whole strategy, which is how do we use PR firms to create front groups? How do we buy off scientists so that we’ve got a guy who’s chairman of a department at an important university who’s saying that our product is fine? All of those strategies are now being implemented and employed by a lot of other industries Climate change is the one that’s the most important right now You can also see some of it in GMOs, although the GMO issue is a little complicated because they’re not necessarily as bad as some people want to say they are You can see it in issues like dioxin, in pesticides, same thing is happening Tobacco created the playbook And if you don’t understand that playbook, then you’re not willing to step onto the stage and act as a serious individual who’s trying to change policy in this country So I would definitely hope that everyone would go out and watch this film or buy Naomi’s book I think it’s really good The latest one that came up, you guys may have seen, was Willie Soon of the Harvard Smithsonian Institute who was found and exposed had been taking money from energy interests to actually say that climate change is not real That came about because Greenpeace had a bunch of information, and had it and brought me in, and I helped them to sort of explain to them what all of this meant, how you know, we need to go after the journals right now The journals are publishing garbage You know, and then the garbage in the journals is then being used to advocate on the Hill, advocate in the IPCC, I think So take a really good look at that, understand how this game book works Because if you understand that, it’ll help make you a lot better advocate, and it’ll help you really deploy the information you have in a much more effective manner Thank you so much (audience applauding) – Thank you, Mr. Thacker, for sharing with us what I’m sure will be a great and inspiring film, Merchants of Doubt My name is Cale Clingenpeel, and I am excited to introduce our next moderator of the next panel, Public Private Partnership, The Ocean Economy I come from Alaska, the only state in the country to border two oceans There, the Arctic Ocean sits to our north, and the Pacific to our south, meaning that our people, culture, livelihood, and economic well being are intertwined with the strength of our oceans I am happy that a very distinguished Alaskan will be joining us on this next panel As we take stock of our economy’s dependence on the health of our oceans, the importance and need for public-private partnership as a solution is more clear than ever Moderating our panel this afternoon is Professor Steven Glickman, co-founder and Executive Director of the Economic Innovation Group, and a professor here at Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service He previously has served on the National Security Council, the National Economic Council, and as Deputy Associate Council for the Executive Office of the President Please join me in welcoming to the stage our moderator, Steven Glickman, who will introduce our panelists (audience applauding) – Thanks, thanks for that very nice introduction I’m excited to be here with all of you today I am a lawyer, a sometimes lobbyist I was gonna talk about denying global warming, but after that last film, I’ve decided to change the topic of introduction, just focus on the ocean’s economy I spent most of my time thinking about economic challenges, lack of jobs, economic growth, and then other issues like food shortages and energy resources And if you think about these issues long enough, you realize we need to keep all of our options on the table, and we need to think more about the impact of our oceans and the ocean economy, on the US and on the world

And at the same time, as I’m sure you’ve been hearing, oceans are under stress from over-exploitation, from pollution, from declining bio-diversity, and from climate change According to the OECD, shipping traffic is growing rapidly, it’s predicted to triple by 2030, and at the same time, about a third of our global fish stocks are en route to becoming totally depleted So we’re facing these growing problems at the same time we’re putting increased pressure on our oceans And yet, you have a silver lining because you see ocean-based industries that are developing new and more important technologies that they can apply to harvesting and harnessing our ocean resources, and also ensuring oceans are cleaner and safer So our panel today will discuss those challenges They’ll address some of the ways to realize the full potential of our ocean, and they’ll touch on sustainable approaches to economic development And I’m really honored and excited to introduce them to you today And first we have Alex Markham, you can come up Alex, he’s an Associate at EKO Asset Management Partners, where he focuses on sustainable seafood investing Then we have Professor Jim Moore, professor at Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business, and Executive Director of the Business and Public Policy Initiative Over here we have Beth Kerttula, who pronounces her name in a very interesting, is it Finnish accent, you said? But I don’t know how to do that, so I’m just gonna call her Beth Kerttula She is Director of the White House National Oceans Council, and she was the former house minority leader in Alaska And then last, but certainly not least, we have Sue Skemp She’s the Executive Director of the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center at Florida Atlantic University, and she focuses among other things on harnessing power from ocean currents So please welcome all of our panelists, and then we’ll get started (audience applauding) So everyone can hear me on the microphone? Great So let’s start by connecting some of the dots on some of the conversations that we’ve been having around ocean sustainability with broader questions of what’s happening in the economy So maybe we could go around real quickly, and everyone can provide their impressions on the oceans Are they deteriorating, as we hear a lot about, in your opinions? And what do you think that impact is to the larger economy? So maybe we can start down on the end there with Sue, and work our way around – Okay, can everybody hear me? Okay good, thank you, thanks Steve As far as the oceans themselves, I’m not a scientist, I’m an engineer But we are looking at SNMREC, is what we call it belovedly, at opportunities for mitigation of the effects of sea level rise, of ocean acidification and et cetera So we’re looking at how to get off the reliance on fossil fuels And so in that context, we’ve been developing technology infrastructure, looking at the environmental assessments of the ocean in the place that we will be doing testing and evaluation of the ocean currents to make sure that this is just one avenue for mitigating the effects and reducing that reliance on fossil fuels Just a couple of statistics If you look at just ocean currents, an ocean current is just one area of ocean energy, there’s wave, tidal energy If you just look at ocean currents, which are prevalent along the southeast United States, a study that was just completed in 2012 showed that there was about 163 terawatt hours per year of available energy potential And that equates to about four percent of the US energy consumption, and about 27 percent of the consumption in the southeast United States That equates to about 15 million homes in the southeast United States, and is about a 15 billion projected economic development, just from that sector alone So those are aspects that we’re looking at, but that’s not just what we’re doing in the United States, this is a global movement, if you will, in a very nascent industry, a very young, developing industry, including the areas of environmental initiatives, regulatory reform,

policy, international policy standards, et cetera So there’s a definite connection around the world in looking at renewable resources as one means, and actually not just sustaining the oceans as they are today, but how about considering going back a little bit and retrieving and going back to an equilibrium that might have been in existence about a decade, century ago, just in that perspective – [Steven] Beth, if we can turn to you, maybe you can address the same issue, but address it from the frame of being an Alaskan, and someone who cared about the economy and still cares about the economy in Alaska, and what you saw about the impact of what was happening in the oceans to a state like Alaska – Thank, so I’m Beth Kerttula, and I’m the Director of the National Ocean Council, which is in the White House, and it works with both the Office of Science and Technology policy, and with the Council on Environmental Quality And the reason, I think, we’re under both of those agencies is one side is heavily science, the other side is heavily policy And they combine, I think, the best of both under National Ocean Policy So I grew up in Alaska, I’m a third generation Alaskan, which is unusual for white Alaskans, not unusual at all for the indigenous people who have been there for many centuries But during that short period of time from when my grandfather Oscar was caught in the Nome ice pack in 1918 to when I left on this adventure two years, the change has been dramatic The Arctic is warming fast, we are losing literally some of our native Alaskan communities are literally falling into the sea Google Shish Maref, Google Kivalena, to see the impacts of global warming and sea level rise and erosion on our people I used to ski, you really shouldn’t do this, but in my hometown of Juneau there’s a glacier, the Mendenhall, and my husband and I used to ski up to it and ski right into it, into the crevasses, and you can no longer do that That glacier has moved way back up onto the rocks So for Alaskans, it’s a very personal thing that’s happening to the oceans, and to the climate And unless we want to maintain our culture and maintain our way of life, and frankly, maintain our way we eat and our fish, we’ve got to do something, and that’s one of the main reasons why I wanted to come here is to see about how can we connect with the entrepreneurs, with the scientists, and with the policymakers to see a change One of the great people I work with, Dr. John Holdren at OSTP says we have three choices: mitigate, adapt, or suffer And I wanna mitigate and adapt Thank you – Thank you. Jim, you’re a globalist and you can talk about your very extensive background, worrying about problems all over the world, and serving different capacities across the public, private, and non-profit sectors Maybe you can give us a little bit of a global take on how you see the impact of oceans on what’s happening in the global economy, and talk a little bit about sort of how you got to where you are now – Well, first of all, this is not a new problem It’s simply, I think, the acceptability that things are moving much more quickly than a lot of people thought But I must put this in a personal context It was in 1975 that I graduated from college, a time that I affectionately refer to now as the Dark Ages But I was trying to anticipate where I was going to go to graduate school And so I had been accepted to some of the finest graduate schools here in the United States, but out of respect to my father, who had graduated from the University of Pittsburgh, in both undergraduate as well as medical school during World War Two, I had applied, and that was the first school that had accepted me And my father said please, go down to the University of Pittsburgh, and just walk around I’m not going to force you to go to the University of Pittsburgh, but just walk around the graduate school of public and international affairs And so I did that, and I came across a Professor whose name was Daniel Cheaver, who I found out just before I was gonna walk in the door that he had been the mentor and the faculty advisor to Henry Kissinger at Harvard Well that piqued my interest, and I was all ears And so he sat with me, and he said you know, I’m involved in a project, I’ve looked over your background, and he said I think you would be perfect to be involved with me if you would come to this university And we would go back and forth to New York together This project is called the United Nations Law of the Sea conference

And I didn’t know what a UN Law of the Sea conference was at all He handed me literature, he said don’t answer me right now, but he said look this over and call me in the next couple of days And so I read it over, and of course it involved absolutely every aspect that you could possibly imagine about the oceans, even more than what we’re talking about here today And so I was hooked, and so I went back to the University of Pittsburgh, and I said Dr. Cheaver, I would love to come here, I would love to work with you, I would love to go back and forth to New York City Well roll in advance by a few years, and I ended up holding several senate confirmed positions in the Reagan administration, the most important of them all being Assistant Secretary of Commerce, where I was responsible for overseeing all of US industry, both at home and overseas And although I was not directly involved in the UN Law of the Sea conference, I was definitely watching very closely as to what was happening And the Reagan administration had all sorts of problems with signing that treaty, and at the end of the day, that treaty was never signed The administration had put up something like 253 amendments to what was perceived as the final document, but there were a lot of other things that dealt with national security and deep seabed mining, et cetera et cetera But then rev up to the present day, and today I’m heading up an initiative, it’s a pretty dramatic initiative right here at the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown And that is the Business Society and Public Policy initiative And it is engaged in trying to address the intersection of these three critical sectors to the existence of this planet And so dealing with the oceans and what that means, I think it is so critically important that there be a fundamental understanding on the part of everybody as to what makes all of us tick, and what is in our best interests, each of us, business, government, and society, as to what the future of the oceans are and how it’s important for us to be able to ultimately work together – Thanks so much, Jim Alex, you’re a relatively recent transplant to the East Coast, living in New York, focused on sustainable food and fishing, and I think a couple of years ago you were at Stanford completing your MBA out there So you have a very specific perspective, I presume, on the ocean’s economy Talk a little bit about what you’re focusing on now in New York, and you see it from an investment private sector perspective – Yeah so I work at a firm called Encourage Capital, which was recently formed by a merger of Echo Asset Management and Wolf and Son Fund Management, and what we’re fundamentally trying to do is put together solutions-based strategies with diverse partners from the non-profit sector, you know, sort of best in class companies, foundations, and family offices to design strategies and solve some of the most complex issues of our time And one of those issues is sustainable fisheries and the depletion of the ocean And so about two years ago now, we were part of a 53 million dollar grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Rockefeller Foundation to try and design investment vehicles by which you could catalyze a movement of private capital into sustainable fisheries, to try to improve management, and to basically try and bring more high quality sustainable seafood products to market in a way that’s equitable for fisherman And so that’s what I focus primarily Our three focus areas within the fisheries practice are in public-private partnerships, so when we look around the world we see a lot of deteriorating port infrastructure, and we also see issues with, especially developing countries not having sufficient budgets to collect adequate data on the landings in their country, where the fish is being caught, how many people are catching it And as a result of that, they’re unable to design sound management practices And so we think okay, we can actually invest in rehabilitating their port infrastructure, but also using that as a center to collect better data on the fisheries nationally, and use that to drive national policy change in developing countries The second area we’re really focusing on is what we’re calling our route to market vehicle, which came about, you know, when you look around the world, 50 percent of seafood volume that’s landed is from artisanal fishers, meaning small scale fishers They constitute 90 percent of total fishers, and yet very few of you have probably ever eaten a seafood product that came from an artisanal fisherman And certainly, if you did eat it, you paid a premium for it, and none of that premium went back to the actual fisherman that caught it So he’s probably still living in poverty So there’s some serious supply chain issues associated with these small scale fisheries, and so what we’re trying to do is identify best in class, SME enterprises, mission aligned enterprises

that can go and disintermediate those supply chains, and really help to bring those small scale fishing products to market in a way that channels more profit back to the small scale fishers, and also simultaneously invest in fishery improvement projects on the water that will help recover the stock over time, and then help stabilize the income of those fishers And then the final area we focus on is in industrial fisheries, trying to put together buyer consortia that are willing to agree to long term supply agreements with large fishing companies, the big industrial fishing companies, and can basically guarantee that they will buy that product at a premium if it’s made available to them for a certain period of time And so that relieves a lot of the risk on these big private companies to start adopting more sustainable practices The buyers benefit, because most of them, the Wal-Marts of the world and others, Wegmans, that made these sustainability commitments, but they’re only able to meet 25 percent of their total volume needs And so it’s kind of, it’s helping to alleviate an issue for them and also for the industrial fishers So that’s an example of the kind of strategy that we work at Encourage Capital, really trying to attack a problem with complementary deals, all of which you could invest private returns, sinking capital into, and from which you could also have a lot of social and environmental benefit And I would just mention that we’re working with a lot of non-profit partners, that’s part of the solutions-based framework, and so you saw Brett Jenks earlier, he’s the CEO of Rare We also work with Andy Sharpless and Oceania, and so it’s this idea of working with best in class non-profits, existing companies, foundations, high net worth individuals to design these strategies – So there are really two strands to our conversation There’s this sustainability strand, and there’s this impact on the economy strand And we’ll spend, I think most of the time, talking about the impact on the economy strand, but I don’t want to leave sustainability just yet One of the, I think, great things about this panel is everyone’s got some pretty unique private sector experience So Sue, I know you were involved in Pride and Whitney, for I can’t believe this is true, but 30 years – 32 years – 30 years, and I think involved heavily in the research and development side of what they were doing And Beth, I know you were involved heavily in the natural resources space when you were in Alaska, in the private sector and in the public sector And Jim, you’ve been involved in business in a number of ways, but right now you’re focused on that intersection, and obviously Alex from the investing space So let’s focus it specifically on the sustainability question And normally we talk about the role of government in international institutions and the role they have What’s the role of the private sector in that space, where do you see a thread from your background, where there’s room for the private sector to step up and play a bigger role in terms of ocean sustainability? So maybe I’ll start in the middle here with you, Beth, and then we’ll go around – One of the great things about getting to work in this administration is seeing the kind of creative thinking that’s happening between how do you have a government structure that’s flexible, nimble enough to work with private partners and be able to step into that space to see good things happen for the ocean And one of the things I’m seeing developing is in the area of getting plastics out of the ocean, and stopping them from going in, possibly more important even And it’s really just a beginning, but I have to thank EPA and NOAA, both have programs that have been working on this But I see a lot of room there for working with entrepreneurs who are able to figure out how to first, take the plastic out, and then make it into just a million different things I mean, we’re seeing skateboards and surfboards and clothing and, you know, fuel, it’s just a remarkable thing So one of the challenges, but one of the things that I think we’re starting to see is that ability of government to say what would you need to be able to do these kinds of things And another tremendous area, and again NOAA a big lead on this, I got to talk to Dr. Spinranda, Chief Scientist there last week, is looking at how does the government put its data out, and make it available so that, and in particularly this has a lot of resonance in the fisheries area, so that private entrepreneurs or Google anybody can pick that information up and make it usable And so that’s the kind of thing that I see that partnership developing in And it’s very exciting, and we’re going to have to have it to be able to deal with the issues, the tremendous complex issues that we have facing the ocean, we’re going to need that kind of partnership

So it’s a new era for that It’s not, you know, certainly all developed at this point, but I see that role of the government being able to supply the information, being able to be flexible, and being able to give the private entrepreneurs and businesses the things that they need so that they can go ahead and develop to do good things – Thanks. Jim, this is a lot of what you focus on, what do you think is the most compelling thing you’ve heard, or you’re seeing terms of the role of the private sector in this part of the sustainability space – There’s no question that the single greatest problem on the part of business in regard to this whole business of sustainability is ignorance And I think that we sit here, and we, you know, I think a summit of this kind is critical, not just in terms of bringing us all together, we’re all cheerleaders in the same direction, but we can’t just be an echo chamber When we walk out the door, we have to figure out how we can engage others, businesses, government leaders, NGO leaders, to be able to address this issue And I’m afraid, I will admit to you that I’ve got friends who are on the far right, and I’ve got friends who are on the far left, and if they were to be here, they might even get into fisticuffs over this issue Those saying there absolutely is not this kind of problem, they’re of course the climate change deniers, and the other side, they demonize the other end I think it is critically important that there be an ability between the private and public sector to be able to truly come to grips with what this situation is And for those of us who would like to be able to engage those who are nonbelievers, you cannot right out of the block demonize them, and simply say you’re no good, I’m not going to listen to another thing you have to say You’ve got to figure out what’s motivating them in terms of their personal interests in what the future holds And once you can try to figure that out, then you have a better understanding as to how to engage them Businesses have got to be involved with this And there are really three very quick steps One is you’ve gotta figure out how to grab their attention so that at least they will listen to you If they’re not gonna listen to you, everything else is for naught After they’ve listened to you, you need to educate them, you need to be able to explain exactly how it is that we’ve gotten to this point, and what the future portends But you’ve already grabbed them, their attention, you’ve been able to educate them, and then finally, and the biggest nut to crack, is to ultimately inspire them, that they need to sit down at the table, we need to talk about this as a group Again, I’m showing my age, but it’s not that long ago that some of us were watching the first photos that were coming from space showing planet Earth, that 70 percent of water, that incredible blackness, that darkness, and all that blue that was showing in this orb that we all we seeing And for the first time, we didn’t know as much as we do today because of the Hubble telescope, but we were all sitting there and thinking my God, we’re on this planet, all of us, and how important it is that we preserve what it is that we have in front of us, and how we have to be able to proceed into the future – So I think it was the use of fisticuffs that actually gave away your age So hashtag fisticuffs for anyone tweeting, that should be the theme for the rest of the conference Alex, let’s go to the entrepreneurial side of the house I’m sure you work with entrepreneurial smaller enterprises that are doing neat things in the fisheries space Maybe you can talk about an example of things you’re seeing there, where you feel that you can see where the private sector’s emerging in a very cool space – Yeah, I think Networks is a good example of this group that’s taking what are called ghost nets, so nets released by ships that can end up catching fish for five to 10 years as they float around in the ocean, they’re going around and collecting that ocean garbage, and turning it into really cool consumer appliances like skateboards and other things So I think that’s an example of something that all of you, I guess, could get excited about And then, you know, for me personally, I work with a lot of these small data capture companies, so groups like Pelagic Data Systems that started in Silicon Valley, but they have a huge role to play in generally, I think, privatizing many of the services that governments have traditionally been able or been forced to provide So Pelagic has a device about that big that costs about 150 dollars that you can plant on every single vessel, artisanal vessels,

industrial vessels, it tells you, you know, where they’re catching their fish, how much they’re catching, what type of gear they’re using, and then you can use an RFID tag from that particular device, and then have that travel with the product so that you don’t get mixing of sustainable, legal product with IUU fish And so, and that’s a company that desperately needs capital to scale You know, we’re a private equity firm, not a venture capital firm, so it’s harder to make those pre-revenue investments, but I think there are a growing number of those kinds of companies that could make a huge impact on fisheries management overall, because you have countries like the Philippines that have a five million dollar budget to manage 700 islands, and you know, 150 different species, and thousands of municipalities And there’s just no way they can do that with such a small budget So if you outsource some of those activities to groups like Pelagic Data Systems, you can have the government focus its scarce resources in the area that only it can intervene, such as policing the seas and making sure people comply with the regulations So I think there are a lot of really promising young tech companies that I think would make a huge amount of difference in the next five or 10 years – So look for that on Kickstarter, we may do a crowd funding campaign after this panel, so watch out for that. Sue, energy space We’re gonna talk about this a little bit more detail, but maybe you could talk about a couple of cool innovations you’re seeing the ocean energy space that make you excited for changes we could see in the overall sustainability question – Well, one of the areas, because there is an intersection between the devices that are gonna be testing, and eventually deployed commercially, and the environment, the resource, is the whole area of diagnostics, monitoring, gathering of data Because the ocean is vast, but really most of the information about the ocean is really along the shores And so when you get into the deeper ocean, there’s a lot of technology that needs to be developed to be able to explore the ocean depths at a cost effective means So we’ve got one technology that actually is developing off of some early research with the office of naval research, and it’s a technology that we’re taking to the next level that is about imaging or detecting the differences between the different pelagic species And keeping in mind that the technology, as it is created, has to also be mindful of, for example, it’s a laser technology, so what are the colors of the laser that might be appropriate for the pelagic species, and what may actually be harmful to the species So that technology is now being investigated and moving forward, but we also have a commercial partner, a company that is looking at how they take and transition that technology into the commercial space So that’s just one example of some technology that is being developed to take and be able to understand the intersection of the different systems And there are a lot of companies that are developing their own devices And if you think even about the aerospace industry, when it started out with the Wright brothers, and some of those early designs, a lot of those designs didn’t make it I mean, they had wings that as the plane tried to take off, the wings collapsed I mean you can see some of that early video But this is an industry that’s in the same, it’s a very nascent industry, it’s moving forward, lots of different designs, whether it’s the ocean currents, or wave or tidal, but there’s so selection, if you will, of what’s gonna move forward So there are a lot of different designs that are being explored out there And that’s technology in and of itself – So let’s see if we can, this is obviously a broad subject, that we have five minutes left to discuss, before we have some questions So I want to take off a couple themes quickly, so we’re gonna go to plan B, as we discussed First one, I wanna go global, then I wanna talk a little bit about the national US picture, then I wanna talk a little bit more about energy and fisheries So on the global picture, when I think technology and I think the global economy, I think competition immediately How should we be thinking about this in terms of the competitive nature of countries fighting over these growingly more scare ocean resources? – Well you know, I think we have to recognize that an awful lot of debate and the dialogue, and the interests of the oceans are not confined to environmental awareness You couldn’t help but pick up today’s New York Times and see the grab that Vladimir Putin’s Russia

is taking to be able to take over the Arctic, and effectively control the waters of the entire, for all intents and purposes, the entire northern part of our globe And trying, at the end of the day, to be able to have some kind of order out of what can, at times, be a chaotic situation because of a lack of real global control is critical One of the things too, of course, is that there is this tremendous technology that’s being developed, but the technology that’s being developed largely needs to be able to have a profit motive if businesses around going to be taking it on Businesses are not engaged in trying to clean up the oceans through sheer, unadulterated altruism There has got to be some motivation to be able to have them go out and do that, because quite frankly, whether they’re individual shareholders, or we’re talking about a public company, there is a need to be able to come up with a bottom line profit And so you know, we have to keep that in mind in this process At the same time, one of the things we have to do on a global basis is to truly determine that when we do have these wonderful breakthroughs in technology, that regrettably, the hard sciences are way out in front of the social sciences in being able to figure out how to utilize them, how to control them, how to be able to manage them And so, we have to keep all these things together This is a moving parts problem, and we’ve got to be able to address it from a variety of levels And how important it is for us here today to recognize these problems, and to be also sensitive to all the parties that are engaged in this who must become part of the answer, not a continuing part of the problem when we walk out the door – So just to add onto that, one thing to watch as a microcosm of this is China and the South China Sea and its competition right now with much of Southeast Asia, worth noting for down the road Beth, I want to turn to the domestic picture I mean, it’s an honor to have the head of the White House Ocean Council here So maybe you can talk about this issue holistically, how is the administration looking at the ocean’s economy, ocean sustainability, what should we see out of the administration in the months ahead? – There’s so many wonderful thoughts that I’m having right now just listening to all of you, and so it’s wonderful to be here But you know, something that you said earlier James, about that we all have to work together and we have to be part of how we form these solutions really rings through to me, and has been really part of what President Obama and the administration has been trying to do under national ocean policy Because it’s a comprehensive framework to try to see how the government works better internally, so federal agency to federal agency, on issues that affect the ocean But also how the government works hand in glove with the nine regions around the country that were formed under the national ocean policy And I was on the phone yesterday with the Great Lakes region, and the federal co-lead there talked about how when you’re working with local communities, and you’re working in a cooperative way, you actually see more reasonable decisions made concerning the ocean, that it’s even maybe more important than some of the technological advances And I saw that in Alaska, I see that when you’re actually working and listening to people, and you’re letting the questions and the needs come from them, rather than from the government down, that that’s when you really start to see solutions happen It doesn’t mean that we don’t have to have the innovators and the technology and the people out there working day to day on sustainability It means that part of the answer for the ocean economy is governance And in a way, ocean policy under this administration has been so forward thinking, that I think it’s at times been frightening to people to go that far But in reality, it’s just about how do you plan ahead? How do you work with the coastal communities? And how do you work on the ocean issues in a holistic way? So for me, that’s where I think the energy is well spent and is prove out in the end – Sue, one last question for you, and then I’ll ask for a rapid fire response She held up a sign but I don’t read that well (laughing) Sue, quickly, if you look at one issue that ties together a lot of these issues, competition, sustainability, the domestic economy, technology, renewable energy is right there There’s a bit competition now among companies all over the world, particularly among European companies to harness the ocean’s energy Give us a real quick snapshot of what that looks like – As far as the? – Yeah, what you’re seeing in the company space

– Well first of all, like I said, it’s a very young industry, and there’s only a little bit of commercialization that’s happening, which is really in the UK, in Europe We aren’t here yet in the States There’s some work that’s gonna be happening, testing and deployment in Alaska, and that’s the early adopter of wave energy here in the United States With the fact that the regulatory framework really didn’t exist in the United States for moving industry forward and testing, that just happened, and actually, that took seven years to get to that point But that was bringing the agencies, it was responding to a notice of interest from the Department of the Interior, and we hold actually the first lease in the United States for marine renewable energy on the outer continental shelf Seven years to get there But it now has moved forward, so those are the guidance documents that will help industry start establishing testing and evaluation here in the United States But we’re seeing companies already coming from Europe, coming to the US to do testing, and looking at our resources in the area of eventually commercialization – Okay one word, one word to the students If you had advice to give them on how they can engage more in this space, what they should be thinking about in one word We’ll start with Alex here, but I’ll make this question really long so you have a chance to think about it What would you tell them in terms of how they ought to be engaging? One word, what should be their, what’s the one word focus from you, Alex? – Hyphenated, responsible-consumerism (laughing) – Hold on here, trying to write that down No, that’s cheating, alright Jim? – Empathy – Empathy – Beth? – Communicate – Sue? – Engage – Perfect, and on that engagement front, I think it’s time for Q and A, so microphones are somewhere I can’t see anything, so Up there? Alright folks, we need some Q and A – [Tom] My name’s Tom Dudgin, I come from the Great Lakes region, outside the city of Chicago, where we have some problems, including an infestation of Asian carp that we’re trying to keep out of the Great Lakes, but that’s a different issue I’m more concerned about some Mr. Moore said, three steps And given the polarization that often accompanies this subject matter, how do you get their attention in a constructive way to begin a healthy dialogue? – First of all, I think it’s important to realize that at this moment, we are here, and where we need to be is there And there is all this space in between where we are and where we should be And one of the great problems is trying to educate people as to what all of this is about And it can be instant computer overload when all of a sudden you are trying to push people so fast and so hard to get where we ultimately need to be I’ll go back to what I was saying earlier that it is critically important for those of us who are concerned about the future of the oceans, that we’re not moving fast enough, to be able to figure out for those who are having problems and being able to be a part of this movement, to be able to understand exactly what motivates them, where is their incentive to be able to move forward, and by our being able to understand their position, our ability to try to convert them as to ours, or at least meet halfway is much more assured than it is if we’re just throwing mud back and forth – [Hannah] Hi, my name is Hannah Gertis I’m a junior here at Georgetown University And I’m curious more about what you were saying, Mr. Markham, about responsible consumerism In terms of buying seafood, especially as a student, what is the best approach? Is it better to not buy any seafood at all, or to like, is there an easy way to figure out what is responsible in terms of our consumption? – So I’m a big fan of conservation through sustainable extraction, I don’t think it’s reasonable to say you shouldn’t eat any seafood, or else all of the 90 percent of the fishermen in the world who depend on that as their primary source of income are basically out of a job, or they’re stuck in this subsistence cycle So it’s really important that you do eat seafood You can eat certain types of seafood in great abundance, and other ones you shouldn’t eat a lot of So things like your large pelagics,

like tuna or mahi mahi or something, that should be a once a month kind of fish And you should also look at how it was caught, right? So I work with a company in the Philippines that only buys hand line caught tuna from artisanal fishers So an artisanal fisher goes out, he’ll catch one of these large yellowfin tuna every two to three days, and for him that’s enough income to do actually quite well on, especially if it’s handled correctly and sold into the right market But then you also have Taiwanese trawlers who catch as many fish in a single outing as 10,000 artisanal fishers So you want to avoid that kind fish And it also comes with by-catch issues and discards, and all of that. So I would say the easiest guideline, and it’s not a perfect one, but look for an MSC certification, Marine Stewardship Council certification There’s soon to be, I think there is actually now officially a fair trade certification as well I don’t think either of those, neither of them are perfect, and if you say that to most conservation NGOs they’ll be upset, but I think those are two pretty good guides But really, it’s all about who caught the fish, where they caught it, and how they caught it And then I would say that there’s a great app that you can use, this Monterey Bay Aquarium app, Seafood Watch app It’s on your phone, you can type in the Japanese sushi name and it’ll tell you whether it’s like green, orange, red, and which direction the fishery is trending So there are lots of good options And I wouldn’t say, don’t stop eating fish, it’s a lot better than eating steak – Large pelagic tartar is what you’re saying – Keep that one off the menu – Beth real quick – Could I add – Just one thing to that, I just want everyone to know that there’s a wonderful effort underway on illegal unreported, unregulated, we call it IUU fishing And there was a task force that now is under the National Ocean Council committee, and you’re gonna hear from Undersecretary Novelli later today, and she’s one of the co-chairs of it that’s dealing precisely with stopping it worldwide, but also getting better information for consumers So it’s a really exciting thing, you can Google it, you can take a look at their work There’s a federal register notice out for comment right now So anyway, one great thing that’s happening – So Danielle is gonna, I think, kill me because I got a time over sign at least three minutes ago But I’m gonna take one more really quick question, just because you’ve been waiting up there a long time So very quickly ask your question, very quickly we’ll get an answer, and then I apologize to everyone else – [Meredith] Alright, thanks so much My name is Meredith Denning, I study international environmental history here at Georgetown And as a doctoral student, I think a lot about how to go from the really specific, nuanced research I do up to telling relatives at the Thanksgiving dinner table about why they should care And for those of you who are in policy and investment, how can, what’s the most useful thing a specialist can do to present themselves in those contexts, policy and investment? How an we make ourselves heard? – Anyone can answer, but the answer’s gotta be like 20 seconds, so who’d like to jump in? – Speak from your heart, and give a pitch and make it Watch those committees, go online and look at what the government’s doing, look at the federal register and give us your ideas You know, take that energy and do something with – I would also say just even on the investment side, I work at a private equity firm, but we’re always looking to the scientists to tell us about uncertainties around biological recovery, which technologies to invest in, what regions, what types of species So like, the kind of work you do is so critical to the work that we do, and we couldn’t do it without you – And I’ll make one last comment When I was talking about ocean energy, that’s not just about devices and putting them in the water, it’s really being stewards of the environment, so we need to understand what are the intersections of the environment, the resource, and the public policy, community, et cetera So Google, look online, put your information out there, communicate, engage – Thank you everyone, and clap if you think it’s the best panel of the day (audience applauding)