Kenedougou Visions: Music of Neba Solo by Ingrid Monson || Radcliffe Institute

i’m trudy Vishniac i’m the associate dean of the fellowship program at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and we are very glad that you’re joined us today it promises to be a wonderful event but first to Professor Monson who is the Quincy Jones professor of african-american music here at Harvard University she is one of the most exciting ethnomusicologist specializing in jazz african-american music and the music of the African diaspora she came to this interest in jazz because she was a trumpet player and when she was a teenager she realized that jazz used the trumpet in a much more exciting way than classical music actually she pursued her musical training after she had a BA from the University of Wisconsin at the New England Conservatory of Music but then decided to go the academic route and received a an MA and a PhD in musicology / ethnomusicology to NYU for further the months and is the author of two books saying something jazz improvisation and interaction and the second is called freedom sounds civil rights call out to jazz and Africa and she also edited a collection the African Diaspora a musical perspective in a first book saying something jazz improvisation and interaction professor months and focuses on the rhythm section piano bass & Drums of small group jazz improvisation these musicians are just as important as the soloist in the success of an ensemble often gets most of the attention this ethnographic study on improvisation focuses on the musicians themselves the book allows also for quote and I’m quoting quoting for from professor Munson Rita for a rethinking of the interaction between musical analysis and cultural interpretation from an interactive point of view with particular attention to race and culture in the book she tries to capture the magic created by improvisation among musicians as it experienced in real time and she argues that jazz is an artform can only be understood within the contents of Eurocentrism and white supremacy one critic wrote quote saying something is a mind opener a stimulating and determined mapping out of new intellectual territory this book won the sonic society’s lowens prize for the best book published in american music in 1998 in her second book freedom sounds civil rights call out to jazz and Africa professor Munson explores the role of jazz musicians during the civil rights struggle in the u.s. from 1950 until 1975 she argues that jazz music and the discourses around this form of music cannot be separated from the racial politics of the time she traces the changing musical political and social environment in which music musicians performed as they interacted with members of the music industry and political activism black and white musicians contributed to the debate about race in American society when they performed at certain locales and engaged about the subject of rates explicitly in their music professor Munson argues that music was the quote sphere in which radical redefinitions of the self could take place redefinitions that helped many musicians and their devoted audiences to break out of the socially imposed niche the u.s. society had defined for black America this was an era in which music tell political affect political change and quoting her again thus in the sense that a great deal was at stake led to an intense musical practice that to this day forms the core of what is to be what it is to be a jazz musician end of quote professor Munson will speak about this year’s project our neighbor solo in a minute she has taught at the University of Chicago Washington University before coming Harvard professor Munson received fellowships from the ACLS the Stanford Humanities Center and the Guggenheim fellowships let us welcome professor Watson well thank you so much Judy for such a generous introduction I’m overwhelmed I’d like to begin today by welcoming my research partners and Friends neba solo

and Chaka priori Oh Don say LBC Mila Radcliffe la welcome to Radcliffe I’d like to thank the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies profusely for making it possible for them to be here Dean Liz Cohen Becky Wasserman director of academic ventures and Phyllis strimling director of academic events and her staff have been truly amazing yet a special thanks must go out to Caroline Elkins for her eleventh hour help last week in making sure NABBA solo and his brother were granted their visas to leave Bamako after my lecture nebe solo will be presenting an hour-long concert of his music dedicated to peace in Mali which will be much better than anything I have to say here today of course that won’t stop me but so I’d like to start out by showing you a map of Mali and this is a map before the coup d’etat and it shows you neighbor solos hometown and neighbor dugu and the city of Sakai so the second largest city in Mali here it is after this spring which shows that the northern two-thirds of the country has been captured by a coalition of Islamist organizations and Tuareg rebels advocating independence the longing for peace in Mali could not be more poignant than now because a military campaign to retake the north is in the process of being planned as we speak there is also a forthcoming national dialogue to hopefully avoid having to implement this plan that is supposed to take wait take place two weeks from now my job today is to help you understand where Mitton neighbor saloons music comes from most notably how a quintessentially rural musical tradition was modernized and professionalized by naba Solo and his group to become a vibrant part of in popular music I’d also like to give a window into the complex cultural and musical aesthetics of his music I’ll begin by reading from one of my chapters in the new book which sets the landscape of the journey between the city of ceccato and the village of Naboo Dougal in other words of the Sanu fo agricultural Millia in which neighbor silla’s music was nurtured I’ll finish the first section with a condensed video performance of one of his compositions Ching berroco naman guru the ode to the champion cultivator the second part will take you through the lyrics of several of his other songs which serves to illustrate the ethical and social preoccupations of his musical messages which like everything in Mali refers to cultural themes and values from the Islamic and manday worlds as well as on as his own sinful cultural milieu social critique health education environmental awareness and advocacy for women are all part of these messages the songs I have chosen to present today are about history corruption gender relations and the need to follow your passion these excerpts will hopefully familiarize your ears with the sound of his contrapuntal a rich and exciting music and prepare the stage for the more truly musically nerdy section of the talk which will be part 3 and that I will attempt to show you some of the architecture of his musical language which I sometimes like to call naba solos senufo counterpoint although music and words illustrate the social relations most visibly it is actually in the sounds where the deepest cultural feeling lies part 1 to get to the village of nimah dugu from Sakai so you turn northeast at a large statue of a Bala player in the centre of a traffic circle although it is not a likeness of Naima solo rather a monument to all about Bala players if you ask a taxi driver to go to that never saw a roundabout this is where you will be placed when people think of the Bala in the kennedy gu region of Mali the first person who comes to mind is knit a solo a few hundred yards past the statue you take a left entering a road that after a few feet turns to dirt it is a reasonably flat graded road at the beginning but after the rice fields are crossed and a small village traversed the road develops unyielding bumps obstacles and trenches in the dry season muddy holes and water hazards in the rainy season the road transforms itself in response to the human animal and vehicular traffic traversing it when a halt or bump appears in one part of the road traffic veers around it gradually expanding its width Frank wouldn’t travelers know just when to drive on the left hand or the right hand side of the road horn honks warn pedestrians herding cattle bicyclists carrying bales of tree leaves and motorcyclists wearing dust masks that

another vehicle is near in the dry season eventual success in navigating the road is assured even if progress is slow during the rays rainy season the ravines turn to mud creating a slip sliding driving experience requiring techniques unlike those I learned to use on the snowy roads of Minnesota motorcyclists in particular developed skills for rough terrain resembling those of motocross contestants carefully engaging and disengaging the gears as they make their way through threatening obstacles something especially hazardous in the mud after passing a security post at the end trance 210 dead I saw a large town 34 kilometers from psycho so the visitor arrives in an open square and sees it it’s far and some buildings owned by neba solo in 2005 the walls advertised a telephone business run by neighbors solos sister wasa try ot for small fee patrons of the cabin telephone a niba solo could place a receive calls if they were thirsty wasa also had a cooler of cold beverages for sale mostly Fanta coca-cola and sparkling apple juice to get to neba dugu requires an additional 7 miles of travel through hilly terrain in a deteriorating Road in the rainy season from June to October the fields are lush with Agri cultural fertility in the dry season especially March in April they are hard and dry and then you get to neighbor dubu Suleiman try re the future neighbor Salah was born here in June of 1969 – Jean owned and Kumaon to try our day one of eleven children in the dryer a family three of his brothers Guzman Yacouba and Kareem were sent to school in the neighboring village of baan Mugu but Navis ala remained in a module learning to farm and herd cattle he would leave the village with his older brother Osman at miso bottle a around 9:00 a.m. following the cattle into uncultivated areas as they searched for food on these long treks through the countryside with forty to fifty cattle Suleiman began to learn Baumann on Khan as they encountered people who did not speak sinew fo sometimes they tilled fields with holes called dhaba or to goo as they waited for cattle to eat they always returned to neighbor dubu in the evening because Zanon son entre re insisted that his sons return to the village every evening as if to reinforce the message that they were not nomadic fula but first and foremost sinew fo farmers like most villages in the kennedy gu region agriculture is both the foundation of the economy and the symbolic centerpiece of sinew folk cultural life nowhere is this more evident than in a bacillus composition Ching berroco Noma guru a song celebrating the sinew fo hero cultivator for there’s nothing more respected than in Sanofi culture than being a skilled and strong farmer because the survival of the community has historically been dependent on the production of food despite the recent availability of tractors the vast majority of agricultural labor in mali is still done by hand with large back-breaking hoes since cultivating by hand requires intense physical strength and endurance it is viewed as the task of young men whose efforts are greatly admired and celebrated to speed the work along the young cultivators in Hoenn contest to identify the champion cultivator who will be awarded that champion cultivators staff or in more recent times Molly’s flag the staffer flag is placed at the end of the field and several men began hoeing often accompanied by music Bala funds shakers song and drums in fact there is a whole genre of Bala rhythms and songs for cultivators called fob muniya featuring the quick triple field that can be heard at the opening of the piece you’ll hear in a moment the Sunoco lyrics of the song are deceptively simple divided into four key themes the first advising people not to tell the secrets of the family the second encouraging people to ignore the idle gossip of jealous enemy’s lines 2 2 3 the third counseling families to live within their means lines 4 to 7 and the fourth celebrating the hero cultivator the lyrics are highly condensed expressing in a few words some deeply held some new folk cultural values in explaining the song to me nabis ola described the organization in psychology of Sanu foe hoeing contests imagine four or five cultivators each taking one row of a field each one tries to become a leader by overtaking the others the person who finishes first

will have the honor of carrying the cultivators staff and gain the approbation of the entire community the term for champion cultivator insa novo is fun game and Gani which means the one who augments the fatigue of the lazy that’s great the proverb condenses into a single term Asuna foe shared under team standing of the importance of the hero cultivator once he is hit I had the hero cultivator rather than continuing to increase his lead will slow down a little in order to encourage the others to do more work than they think they can by remaining close to the stragglers the champion cultivator challenges them to push harder and they consequently fatigue themselves trying to keep up he might earn some unkind comments from the straggle stragglers behind his back for his strength is literally creating more work for them if the others fall behind the fastest cultivator has the right to leave a part of his work for the others so it is in the interest of the slower to keep up the hero cultivator conserves his strength while forging ahead but has augmented the fatigue of the lazy a deeper interpretation of this term praises the champion cultivator for inspiring the lazy to become courageous thanks to him people will eat thanks to him everyone will do their best memories of youthful hoeing contests invoke nostalgia as I discovered one blistering hot day in Togo town just saw a small village near Seco so as the band sat drinking tea and chatting while they awaited the evening concert one of the band members found some hoes Dabo or Tugu leaning against a shed all of a sudden a mock hoeing contest was underway as neighbor solo la mesa try Ori and Umar Coulibaly dashed into the field and grouped themselves in adjacent rows the dust flew as the parched soil of early May responded to the blows of the hoes I’d now like to show you a condensed video performance of Cinque / Okinawa guru which in performance is usually about a 10-minute piece and so you can get some idea of what it looks like in performance I’ve put together three short clips from the beginning and middle and end of the performance at the opening you’ll hear the rhythm of the cultivators the farm onea the middle section shows naba solo delivering the penultimate you know the most important line about what do you call the champion cultivator I’m the champion cultivator who can pass everyone else in the field if you try to pass him you just might die of fatigue the final segment shows you an up-tempo dance coda featuring the amazing dancing of his two dancers Bo curry and Ibrahim Dembele here you get some idea of the athleticism and decision associated with the champion cultivator they’re really incredible so those of you familiar with West African cultural forms well know that the sanu fo are hardly the only Eggert ethnic group to have agricultural contests and performance forms connected to agriculture the Baughman on their close neighbors have historically had Chihuahua societies which also sponsor agricultural contests the Baughman on like the sinew fo have elaborate rites rituals and performances dedicated to assuring the fertility and spiritual integrity of the soil indeed one of the major cultural themes in my book on napa solo will be the history of the overlap

and mutual influence among the sinful bommana muslim fula and jhula cultural practices and histories foremost in my mind these days is the history of the war in ken a doodle and adjacent recent regions a hundred and twenty years ago when summary tories islamic wasallam empire and the and chiba try or is Ken a Dougal Empire were at war across the southern region of Mali caught in between were tens of thousands of sin new foe and bommana farmers many of whom were taken captive and turned into soldiers for one side or the other creating in the aftermath much cultural fluidity and change tradition it should be rembered has never been something timeless and stable but rather always responsive to called historical contingencies such as these so I’m moving on to part two I’ve established the importance of agriculture now we’re going to look at the way the lyrics bring together music and the cultural themes in Mali so I’m gonna look at his song called Tata and this for example refers to this history of summer Ettore and the kennedy GU Kingdom the Tata is a wall that was built by the kennedy to go Empire to protect sea castle against the military attacks of summer 8 Orion later the French in a song called Tata NABBA solo asked people to reflect on the wall and how they are treating it in the present day he criticizes those who take its stones and mud to build houses of their own with no respect for the history the wall represents people of Sakai so reflect the tata wall is crying no one takes care of it you who are its caretakers you take its mud and dig out its stones so the easiest way to see the way in which music intersects with social and cultural issues in neighbor solos music is through his words note that here the music is not simply something that reflects social issues but rather calls people to take action in their behavior towards the Tata the exhorting quality of the lyrics is something that pervades musics in this part of the world not only in Sanu fo song but the broader multi-ethnic am and a tradition at large singers ask people to do the right thing to live up to the deeds of their ancestors in in this case to treat the Tata with respect for the brave defence of psycho so they mounted in the military assaults by samuri and the French if our ancestors could do this he seems to say the least you can do is not take mud and bricks for the wall for your own purposes in a similar vein nebe solo song john feh criticizes betrayal and corruption the lyrics exhort people to be tolerant of one another NABBA solo talks about wearing traditional cloth with pride and then indirectly criticizes police and customs agents for being corrupt let’s not betray each other the subtext is don’t demand tribute from people when they go through the control posts along the road just because you have knowledge of culture tradition and ethics doesn’t mean that you won’t forget it meant originally is something of a moral message directed against certain self-serving government officials the song post coup now takes on a larger sense of betrayal by the government I’ve got another example this one is

more about gender relations it’s called Juvia tamati yeah I’m gonna marry you it mocks the kind of guy cabin in urban Mali in New York and Boston who pretends he’s got money is a businessman in a big shot in order to seduce young women I’ll play two passages from the piece in the first nib Isola observes the young man looks nice but he’s a bluffer mentioning that he’s using some of the well-known strategies of the poor in more than just Mali the pants and shoes are borrowed he’s a bluffer he’s carrying a cellphone but he doesn’t have enough money to buy credit for it he’s a bluffer so here’s the first part in the second passage he warns young women about guys like these this time in French beware of these men who will betray you they’ll say they’ve just arrived from France through the US they say they’ll wire some money in the all in the end all it is is deception I would hate to give the impression that all he does is talk about social ills too so I’m going to turn my attention to a piece called John yaeko which means your passion that that that that which you love NABBA solo opens the song by telling people that your passion or what you love is always stronger than you are the text goes on to encourage people to follow their passion and introduces each band member for having the passion to play their particular instrument the passage I want to listen today today however comes at the end of the song when he says that even if people talk behind your back it is only God that can hinder your passion your hopes and dreams words can’t kill you I selected this passage because it is from what might be called if we were talking about jazz the shout chorus section if we were talking about popular music the hook with very exciting music I’d like you to listen here to the power of the music the up-tempo dance an improvisation section for which neighbor solo and his group are so renowned the intensity of the music augments the passion of the text which speaks to neighbor solos first having been criticized for the changes he made to traditional so new folk balafon music Hey I

which brings me to part three the music fanatics section you have may have noticed the interlocking balafon parts at the end of our last excerpt the development of this style of Bala plane has been named a solo signature contribution to the balafon style and aesthetics in the Canada dugu region while it may sound like traditional music to you what it represents is a thorough modernization of jazzing up if you will of traditional sinew faux balafon style captivated by the bass lines of alpha blonde days reggae recording of Jerusalem the 18 year old Navis solo had an epiphany as he walked through the streets of Bamako what if he were to build a bigger bala with more bass notes and develop a new style featuring more prominent bass lines what if he were to change the traditional tuning of the pentatonic vallah so that it would be compatible with the tunings of other Malian instruments such as the six string camel in goney bisonuu foot tradition undertaking this experiment required asking for his father’s permission sozin own try Ori granted Suleiman a period of time in which to develop his ideas that will would culminate in a recorded example of the new style Suleiman aided three bass notes to the ballas traditional 17 keys and also experimented with various tunings national observers credit him with revolutionizing the place of the Bala in Mali younger Bala players in Canada who all emulate him now please know he makes all these Bala funds himself he considers himself to be both an artisan as an artist the new style reconfigured the musical ensemble instead of three Boas one for bass one for treble and one for accompaniment so Lew used to Bhalla the accompaniment parts are distributed between the two instruments as follow his brother Chaka on the treble Bala generally improvises melodies with his right hand while accompanying with the left for neyba solo he improvises more with the left and plays the accompaniment parts with the right although he does much more than that the interplay between the two brothers creates a rich contrapuntal texture among interlocking parts what is remarkable in performance is their many ways of modulating from one configuration of parts to another often with changes in tempo the new contemporary sound for the Bala modernized an instrument that had been dismissed by urban dwellers as a primarily village instrument that was not suitable for professional music indeed to understand the respect in which neighbor solo is now held one needs to know that when he first came to see su casa many teased him as as playing the ribs of a donkey NABBA solo has become a figure of particular pride than for the people of Kennedy who especially those in the dozens of small villages surrounding the city so I want to illustrate how this works a bit in his piece called check Issei and check Issei is a love song and a dance the lyrics speak of a woman who excuses herself to take a walk after dinner what she really hopes for is to hear the sound of her beloved’s voice as he waits for her as in all neighbor solo songs there are other messages too in this case coupled to this nice love song is the idea that people need to work if they want to be part of the community they can’t just lay about and drink tea all day the musical texture accompanying the song is what I’m calling some new folk owner point I use the western term with all its possible misinterpretation to draw attention to the importance of the combination of parts in this music and the aural awareness of the Bala players of the independent melodic melodic parts of each of their hands as well as in combination so I’m going to show you some of the parts that go into this piece so here is nebe Solo demonstrating the treble Bal apart to this piece here’s the bass part now the bass the bass is considered the mother of the Bala there is a proverb indeed that says whatever you hear in the child’s mouth it is a mother who said it drawing attention to the importance of the bass so now listen to it you might think oh

yeah this sounds really cool and familiar I’d like you to hear the next example of him playing this and listen to where he taps his foot it’s the beat where the dancers dance and it might be in a place that isn’t quite what you expect okay so now we’ve seen that there are two patterns that form a kind of core that interlock with one another but we’re not done yet they don’t just repeat the same pattern all the time they vary the patterns so here’s an example of him varying this simple pattern okay but we’re not done with that either because it’s not simply about varying the patterns it’s about moving from one to another so often as he’s playing one and you’ll hear this as you listen to the musical texture it’ll move from one pattern to another and so listen to this one so try to remember that last phrase of the pattern because we’re gonna hear it in a minute in a longer performance of the full band doing this piece where it becomes the accompaniment to his brothers improvised solo so try to remember that one now I know I have a number of composers here and true music fanatics so of course I had to put the notation down okay so I’m just showing you the alignment of these parts the arrows down are where the the beat where the dancers are and this shows you the relationship at the bass part to it you notice they’re not quite there they’re in complete dialogue with one another and so now I’d like to play you a little bit of what it sounds like in performance and see if you can see the outline of each of those patterns in the performance okay so a little bit in performance now we’re gonna see some video footage what we’ll see is the end of him completing the lyric to this song then going on in transferring to Chaka taking an extended balafon solo and notice how he moves from idea to idea then sort of pauses and heats things up by changing into another accompaniment pattern and then you’ll see a moment when he pauses for a minute and then he takes up a very intense interactive part with his brother NABBA solo and his neighbor solo comes in he’ll play that rhythm we just heard as an accompaniment part to this solo okay so you see there and this is one

section of a larger performance where the dancers sort of are dancing and that becomes the and they’re improvising in the background in switching between parts behind one another so now I’ve made a more condensed version of the end part of this we’ve seen just the medium tempo section of this piece I’m going to show you the more up-tempo dance section of this piece and please listen for the improvisation taking place between the two Bala funds as the dancers perform sometimes Chaka accompanies and solo solos and sometimes the other way around and I’ve included video footage of each dancer improvising a solo dance as well they one thing that distinguishes these dancers as they do both synchronized dancing and improvised solo work as you can see the music of naba solo is a musician’s dream on multiple levels a rich music of virtuosity interlocking parts poignant lyrics dance virtuosity city and interactions with audiences that serve to create a feeling of community comfort moral aspiration and fun my book explores the cultural life of Kennedy Ghul against the backdrop of history and contemporary historical events with a commitment to portraying the brilliance of art and performance in condensing sustaining cultural meaning especially in difficult times such as now when I began this project I’ve imagined a case study of naba Solo and his band which contextualized the music social and cultural messages and the intricacies of its musical sound typical ethnomusicology I imagined a stable Mali in which modernizing and democratizing

components of Mali’s history increasingly placed this music and its musicians in dialogues with regional and international musical flows constrained by the huge economic differential between Mali in the United States but increasingly mediated by the Internet I imagine talking about the Pan Savannah cultural system of which Kenny dugu is a part and a rich cultural mixture that would be continuously evolving with Bamako becoming an ever internationalizing Centre for recording and collaborations between Malians and outsiders I never imagined that if the state itself would collapse and that war would be facing Mali again that the history of samurai Toure in bobbum betray or a could become a seemingly immediate context for the fear and uncertainty facing Mali right now I didn’t think that nabis Allah’s next song would need to caution people not to kill children in war I’d like to close with some of the lyrics to his most recent piece djenka fall which he will sing during the answer he sings in four languages sinew faux bummin and con French and English hoping to reach not only those at home but all of us I’ve clipped it to emphasize the bombing on Khan you’ll note that it has an eerie ominous sound a bit different from the exuberance of most of his work well at the same time being simple almost childlike in some ways it’s very unsettling so I’ll stop there and I tried to present both they give you an introduction to his music which shows its rootedness in the agricultural tradition the way in which social messages link up broader swath of Mali and society through the kinds of messages they put in their song and the richness of this tremendous musical language which I hope you’ve enjoyed thank you open for questions yes skip hairdos they go into this one house race and racism playing themselves out in the dispute between north and south because of the genetic diversity between the Tuareg in the darker people in the south yeah if you Trey said well in case you silly okay last season on Mali or should we actually look awfully on telly to re-regulate those but on Mali he doesn’t feel they could be repeated for them in the back okay first case in application there she is I’m compression see no see such a large is moe Lautrec par me ladies ng PE media deck permitted urgent appeal don’t pour masala pancakes on dialysis so the question that Villa P for him it’s not a question of racism but that the Tuareg haven’t been in the leadership of the leadership of the country and that if you talk to other people people will say that there is a complexion difference between the the Tuareg and the people in the south and

that if you look historically at the Mali Federation part of the reason for independence is people did not want to be ruled by darker skin people from the South but many people dispute this many people say that it’s the white West that is imposing that interpret in interpretation on it so this is a this is a topic of considerable debate my question is I really like the way you trace the influence of one individual on the arts of Mali and so I find that when people discuss African aesthetic forms they talk more about culture groups rather than individuals now is this something new do you think that individuals have transformed aesthetic within Africa or has this been going on for a long time and scholars have failed to recognize the influence of the individual well one huge critique of the literature on African music is that it reduced people to groups to anonymous cultural groupings that some kind of genius of the community was simply generating the music and failing to recognize that individual innovations are in fact something that are recognized and admired and celebrated so part of my reason about wanting to focus on NABBA solo as an individual is he really has had that effect in his own work it’s just how we might talk about Charlie Parker or Miles Davis having an enormous influence on the community of musicians around them he is that kind of leader in what he does so he both comes from a tradition but he’s challenged the borders of the tradition but in fact traditions are flexible and dynamic things and there are always the dialogue between the individual and the community it’s it’s never you know never simply been the collective it is a collection of individuals interacting and coming to a thing so he’s been this dynamic force another reason to focus on him is a great deal has been done on Mandi musicians in Mali very little on this Anu foe and this part of the cultural world in Mali that connects with Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire and it’s and also you know I’m I’m driven by music I just love this music I think it’s such a beautiful and warm sound to say believe you mentioned that in addition to being a musician he’s also craftsman of the instruments I wondered on the one hand how that’s evolved over time and secondly when the instrument is made will he keep them all sell them trade what happens the instruments after they’re completed qu’est-ce que tu fais avec la bella thorne sq2 bond label for libel ah phone gents and special poorly balafon fabric a aprender algae a prendre fabric a chef Angela balafon you see the essence of special poor soul poor fella balafon Japan skin foreign pollutant poor fabric La Bella for the conscious discard my sad upon la callate Dubois on fabricated balafon Pasque satin our bruh Isabel Guinea in Arcadia fini avec la vie that reveals Khadija ba the Enna’s hadiza don’t own stock up on ax men a la maison te apparently me does em for foolish fa pocus a swabbie a sec yeah prayer not know la fabricación laser co2 to society voila lavalla for he feels he has a special feeling for the balafon he sometimes describes it as his first wife but part of him learning to play is learning to make and take care of the balafon and they use wood they they cut it they they the sunnah for are proud of being conservative with conservation

about the trees of only using ones that are have already died they he he brings the the wood in and the calabashes the wood goes into the oven this is the role of the the blacksmith in helping to create the balafon and this man this man is always like you know always making the balafon and it’s a it’s fascinating to watch him he Tunes the the calabash is to the actual keys of the instrument and is an extremely careful craftsman people from all over Mali commissioned him to make Bala funds not only pentatonic ones from his tradition but increasingly hepta tonic one seven note Bala funds for the man de jelly’s he’s and he considers himself an artisan as well as an artist and yes he sells Bala funds Ingrid thank you very much for a wonderful talk and thank you for the music you mentioned toward the end of your talk the role of the internet and certainly there are a number of YouTube videos that are available so I’m curious to us if you could talk a little bit about this musical innovation from Mali in terms of its influence and impact in the rest of the world on other musicians in other parts and as you know I’m interested in questions about the reverse direction of globalization or culture of globalization the way it’s usually understood so I’m interested in hearing here about how these you know cultural practice and musical style emerging from Ali then travels well music in Mali has had an enormous force on the international stage the people the most internationally known artists are salif keita and Sangha ray Alif architour a they increasingly those those records have had a broad popularity and led to tours of musicians in France in the United States Navy solo has heard in France he’s been here in the United States he’s performed in China he’s performed in South Korea these are all places that his music has been heard and you’re right that people are trying to use the internet to their advantage it’s difficult there because the internet connection is slower but people have wanted to get their videos on YouTube he’s very he has it he has when he was here in 2005 he bought a computer and he learned how to use it and he taught himself GarageBand he has been like remix in some of his stuff so the fact that that people play with with acoustic instruments should not lead you to think that they aren’t let you know that they are trying to figure out ways to have technology work for them and bamako became a tremendous International Centre for recording a number of jazz musicians in particular recorded with Molly and artists in Bamako people like Dee Dee Bridgewater Roswell Rudd bela Fleck and others and you know I thought that be expanding but now people are afraid to go to Bamako right now thank you so much for all this it’s just really fascinating and I’m particularly interested in what you said about I’ll try to say this in French when I’m done but I’m particularly interested in what you said about the lyrics being not just reflecting social issues but a call for action yes and I guess maybe I should ask mr. solo about this particular last song we looked at do you think that this will have an impact and that the call will be heard and and people will listen to what you’re saying is there room for music to impact what happens in in the public sphere in Mali so okay poor mr. solo like Lucas Jones say don’t section Sony see on on Tom Knapp l una pel poor polish on a ska possibly Lashon O’Malley Vaughan was equity as SK possibly okay la musique Jean giono shows this year that double jicama say para javis intentions on Shirley vaccinations design firm insane mama drama and disability poor Kelly parent Sam phone except day vaccinations a prakash jha visa problem iran-contra Demi’s asian medicine key mess lik a cal importance

de vaccinations LaFontaine oppa vaccine a telltale melodic Parikh Alperin country depressive o comprar – Sanjay composition son SPL dejan vaccine Ella’s alpha fox news alpha pass key lesson from son de l’avenir GP editor presence on Sabu Cuccinelli shows beaucoup de Jong American dream appealable de grasa vu on accompli Lampert owns the vaccination Don Kavala pour quoi le balafon rest to you ma surgery parce que Alvin Alvin LaMacchia peddiraju jeopardy le le message important Anjali Bala phone and a publication on arrest level aa phone fell on CMS’s da música module MOSFET continuously message – supposedly problem Rajesh las Felician explication percolation please confirm voila – sample report do que la music patient jelly shoes Islamic faith party the movie has a new scenario come new on a base on dignity so he said that yes music music doesn’t have a call to action and he talked about his piece called vaccination which he wrote specifically to encourage people to get their children vaccinated even when if they were suspicious about this Western medicine the vaccination and that the song had an impact on people taking their children to be vaccinated he said that the balafon has always been a messenger has been about sending messages of various kinds so he hopes today that this message about reuniting us djenka full for Mali was was something that can have an effect – he also said that music nourishes us it feeds us and is something very important booyah see I’m sayin only music yes your to see Sean so second team of people see you on Sunday Youssou N’Dour kids Appel second settle acuity up really late problem until a mojito Tonya le Senegal a key come sir ela and with little son Tantra is requested quickly the important second effect my kiss Jessica Sam please come on ESCO would Hawaii awake Lesotho Madision poorly repetition passcode loss tombola supremo eternal Jew Buddhist our own telling me this yeah I will see until a musician Ladouceur so my question is about practicing and how the amazing ensemble that we saw is achieved how the group works together okay may see some the program press tree presses avec des magician to later on now some anime concern animation the village donk back to see any party the party lib on organ is repetition yeah especially repetition avec la magician awfully repetition shock muscle on organ is la calligraphy are shocked more so yeah the choreography in akima possum or so dog shock muscle decay – e la composition the muscle the organ is the repetition of acquisition a prayer avec la medicina direction majora control silver dancer on organ is the choreography vilasa comes out away so he said that they they rehearse a lot he has a specific place in Seco so he calls it his Atelier for rehearsing the band

and they reversed rehearse things very very precisely one of the things he’s known for are these very precise arrangements that you hear in some of these pieces that you know have precise cues for changing the tempos and then in the steps of the dance and he wants you to know that each of the songs has a choreography of dis steps that are specific to the piece they have a kind of narrative idea with him that he did he he he says he’s not a dancer himself but he has suggested kinds of gestures and things that the dancers employ in their steps and has a sense of what’s appropriate for one text or another yes alone question como escalate dancer travailler avec ala group Donley repetition escalate dancer so on to the Tom plays on the dancer is on to Latakia group Baskin umezawa and group Katie create the P Catherine said a prayer Quran said Quran o Giovanelli dancer oppressor made not shocked more so shocked Nova more so the dancer at the copy the same also mum see a padded musician is your account organ is a repetition same also oppress a group of or sickies of a rescue signal BSS Fabian lime acknowledged Afifi seeded the courage a certain shoes just a pad on someone she’s badass a massive security camera well well a circumcised an cetera by Shack Moscow prime copy could travel a year Basquiat yeah de mama lemme this campus iran-contra repeated may loom on a pub disponible poorly dancer yeah the boomer OC k possibly pull a dancer met in Napa possibly problem musician Shiva Monsieur Alcott tool a musician Eddie dancer siobhan the magician cinema Siobhan the dancer cinema succumbs so he said that they that the dancers are always with the group but there many times when they’re preparing a piece which he’ll make them he’ll he’ll record his rehearsals and he’ll make the recording of the music available to the dancers and they practice by themselves and work out some steps and then they come back to the group and they’ll do it with the band and nimbus Allah will see whether he likes it or not and he sails he’ll often make some corrections in their dance steps he says he doesn’t know how to dance himself but he knows how to correct and that’s how they work together music the wrist will be entirely Anglais what is the territorial range of the balafon by country in or by people and what is the range of this new influence throughout the continent in that combien de purpler utilize a label affirm kalila combien de que es una yarda balafon baba i can answer a little bit in english this area where his its it crosses the borders with Mali Cote d’Ivoire in Burkina Faso there’s a huge and you know that international boundary there may makes no sense it’s a big cultural area with the balafon and the these kinds of xylophones are found they’re found throughout the continent uganda is one place where there has been a lot of Bala funds there are many others as well Latinos in Guinea c’est beaucoup de be reasonably for Jenna Palin on the disappear amatetti system je pense que beaucoup de Pasco festival a triangle balafon no name it

la cote ivoire lukina like Tanzania beaucoup de P another form Salim ala Fossum digitized I saw a different para por la Lanka so he mentioned several countries Guinea Rwanda Tanzania among the others he mentioned the festival too young to develop on which is a balafon contest that they started of course the first year he won and they asked him not to compete again and where is that and also this model in this modern style how far-reaching is this Canada extent Tony influence Silla fussing de jouer LaBella for moi give you key to Lomond copy we set Salafist on de travail par school Catherine to set Jim ECG ill focus a fascicle cashews poor Kelly John Paul Lujan demonology Lavinia pass casita J Kottayam also 10 artists given the lack of Arc’s Appel Alpha Blondy little demo so say Jerusalem can take you tomorrow yep touch it Jamie City refocus a fatzke cashews population Pelosi demo GTA SA decree mom prop creation la fasten defer brocation la fasten de la fasten de cría quelque chose Nouveau con javis a creation legend comas Adair solo que en sólo se llaman today’s lemon legend Kumasi de sólo que viene ba da de volalle a balafon agenda create the show’s done solo en de never never do go see a movie later sellin on the mauvilla’s natal larger silly don’t solo en de neighbor voila Afeni barceló don’t a party de Cielo a party Summa to label a phonies TV drama avante g MF our drama on a bizarre DiPaola phone come to our dong – fabricate the balafon dimensions come to our no touch its legend Kumasi Fair coma don’t actually ma sear our diwali balafon kinky kini pase de faire comma au fromage MSE logistic Odysseus a final Mazzilli so he talked about in 1987 for me in his own group and he very much wanted to find a voice okay so that people would remember his name this isn’t so much different than the the path of any artist we know of wanting to find their own voice and he did it partly through making this new kind of balafon making a new kind of configuration of the parts that had people starting to talk about him he talked about the origin of his name nervous all of his given name is Suleiman try RA and a a common nickname for that his solo they call him solo and so everyone started saying have you heard that solo who comes from neighbor he’s really something special so that’s kind of how he got his moniker and the real spread of his style he says was partly facilitated by the fact that when they heard nimma solos fabulous Bala fans of this new different tuning they all wanted Bala funds like it so they came and they ordered Bala fons like he has and so pretty much now everybody’s got one sort of in his style in this in this particular region in that a try country area so I it’s been my experience whenever I’ve seen young baloff on display there that they’re trying to do it they’re trying to have the synchronized dancing but very few people have the compositions he has in in in modern music here in the states there’s been a tradition of where by visual artists painters and sculptors are

impacted by the music is there any evidence that he can cite that there’s an impact on visual artistry as a result of this new sound influenced tone music our lay plays out busy well yes gilja hoon impacted tom music la lays artists busy wet because you had money doesn’t quite understand the question and I haven’t seen any he’s never talked about visual artists being impacted they’re not that many visual artists partly many of the traditional masking things are not done because of Islam can you tell us something about the transmission of musical expertise is it basically family centered is it gendered should we assume that it’s purely oral and if it’s purely oral how does that affect the recognition of improvisation etc you mentioned the importance of your father’s permission to experiment can you tell us more about that dynamic thank you sadhana for me SK sadhana class s kiss say Salam a the ultra-fast okay poor apparently Bala phone in food about Israel Pascal Bala forum on the court Parvez you a donkey food Israel since if improperly balafon da da la classe Mishima en a a bellyful avec les LoCascio una Prandelli balafon sevilla dia de certain Evo a certain Evo zuzka cotton Evo S&OP avec le courrier Akutan voir les wearin scale a person a una pronto comes a petite uppity avec la fastened explication the technique de salir commas Oh Georgie le pas comme cela que DiGiacomo say my demo car can become a CEO Geordi avec la intelligence LP revoir lemon compression commenced le cadeau da fermo seconds a– Pasco Mazda prefer a de prendre Lisa double aa Mozilla Prix as kcroone Arriba Eclair Le Palais phone Genesee dear SK Suvari circum community lacunae deja s cassava Reza – Zhu Li Bala phone s kassapa transform a LaBella phone otros shows done for me commercially p de prendre Legion havoc remember et us if he talked about you learn it by ear um you need to learn it by ear I will testify that he’s a fabulous teacher he shows people the technique of it he shows people how to listen to it there are four different levels people go through but he is a very organised pedagogy and he has many apprentices and people who have studied with him I’ll tell you I showed him the notation I made one time and he looked at it and went it’s done it’s in my head placas met CSUN Kishan defamation application day for me – lemon little de prendre balafon pass que vamos antroz caso lasagna and pepper too Etta’s unis near up Ozzy and a thick don’t tell them on a liberal date that Prandtl have falsification defy me right

you don’t it’s not a hereditary instrument that anybody can learn it women can learn it there are women who play at the Triangle festival dibala fun in psycho so it’s not gender specific either although it’s more usual for men to play it Ingrid one of the marvelous things about your work is that you do explicate technique is first and foremost thing and context is secondary to your textual analysis where did the ridiculous idea all African art was our African music was collective and functional to which you alluded impassive where did that come from I mean the whole idea that it would you know reduce the individuality of a genius to the collective and functional you know it’s racist where did it come from do you have any it is it is there’s racism there there’s the history of colonialism there where everybody was talking about African ethnic groups as tribes with these inscrutable practices that made no sense to the Western mind now anthropology in its early days I have good intentions wanting to go and document these things then show that these are not senseless sort of things but did the same thing sort of make it make everybody into an exemplar of the group and you know if we’d if we’d apply the own that same thing into ourselves I think we would have understood right away that this cannot possibly be because even in the most determined culture that wants its children to be exactly how the parents are just just what kind of luck are you gonna have with that so this the children rebelled children resist and that the the process of making is always one that is partly a contestation partly communal and that’s why I think music isn’t an ideal way to that you can show this you can the embeddedness and tradition and the you know keep many of the Sonova songs are like jazz standards they’re like traditional songs that people know but the way he does it and developed it are different in that kind of celebration of the individuality people you know people admire that it’s not just simply a the imposition of Western individuality yet is you know a living breathing thing part I think of you know any cultural grouping