China: The Rebirth of an Empire (full feature) – True Story Documentary Channel

– [Man] I think you should never be scared (cheering) (shouting and chanting) Even if China stronger, China will give you only good – You can talk here, not like China A dictatorship A fascist dictatorship – This is my book This is called in Chinese (speaks in Chinese) English, American Economy – We fail to appreciate history We fail to think, and it’s cost us fiercely, in that today the United States is in deep decline – The problem with GM is not caused by Toyota or Hyundai either The problem with General Motors has been caused by what? General Motors and the UAW – We’re not very competitive We’ve been spending too much money on making, ultimately, worthless stuff – You are making weapons, you are making tanks to kill people, okay? China is actually making cups, utensils, cloths – We gave a lot of people in a lot of labs and factories and things good jobs to make plutonium weapons, uranium weapons, things of this sort, for all of these years, and it didn’t contribute one iota to either consumption or investment in America It was technical waste And we’re now paying the costs for it (speaks in Chinese) Our economics has been revealed for some time as being ideological, as ideological as Marxism/Leninism ever ever thought it would be We take a book and say it’s in here, and this is the revealed truth whether it works or not (speaks in Chinese) – (laughs) Different China is a very promising country I’m sure, in 20 years, we’ll catch up with USA – The world hegemon has historically always been the world’s most powerful economic nation The United States hasn’t been the most powerful economic nation for a long time now And it doesn’t look like it’s gonna come back – [Narrator] The decline of the United States as the world hegemon is a necessary condition in order for China to take over that role But does hegemon necessarily mean empire? – Hegemon simply refers to an overarching power By empire, then, I think it’s a little bit like pornography, you’ll know it when you see it As China unleashes its tremendous talents, as well as the power of its size and productivity, it certainly is assuming a hegemonic position But, I don’t think China quite qualifies as an empire right now – [Narrator] But, historically, when countries have become hegemons, they eventually become empires Rome (shouting and clashing of swords) Britain (woman sobs and child cries)

Germany (cheering) Japan (guns fire) Russia And, let’s not forget, the United States (shouting and clanging of steel) (explosions boom) – The Americans don’t realize, we have probably a good thousand overseas military bases – [Narrator] China doesn’t yet have this military capability But, what happens when it becomes the world’s number one economy? Will hegemony lead it to become the world’s next empire? Or, does it provide a much needed balance to American militarism? (shouting) Should we be afraid? – Seeing is believing So, come to China and have a look – [Narrator] Seeing is believing So, let’s go But, not only to China Lets go to the countries that surround China and see how they’re being treated Is China being a friendly neighbor? Or, is it sowing the seeds of empire China already uses its neighbors to play big country politics Busan, South Korea One of the word’s major shipping ports and evidence of the successful industrialization of South Korea, who’s living standards now rival those of the United States The US considers South Korea a key ally in East Asia, and it hopes that China will help to resolve the growing nuclear threat posed by neighboring North Korea Like much US policy, it misunderstands Chinese interests (folk music) Korea used to be a tributary, or satellite state, of the historical Chinese empire At one point even referring to itself as Sojunghwa, or Little China It was split in two during the 1950-1953 Korean Civil War, with the reclusive communist North allying itself with Russia and China Meanwhile, the South chose developmental capitalism, and relied heavily on the vast consumer markets of the United States to propel its rabid industrialization through export driven growth Seoul, the nation’s capital, has a little more than a quarter of the county’s population of 48 million It sits precariously at 50 kilometers from the demilitarized zone separating the two sides, in range of the North’s artillery Threat of Seoul’s all out destruction in the event of further conflict has helped maintain this status quo for five decades Just how serious a threat is North Korea’s development of nuclear weapons? (thunderous explosion) – In order for a country to become a full-fledged nuclear weapons state, the country should satisfy four conditions The first condition is production of nuclear warhead Yes, North Korea has acquired nuclear warhead Second, they should have delivery capability

North Korea has delivery capability It has intermediate range ballistic missile, Northern One and Northern Two It has short range missiles such as SCUD B and C Third, nuclear testing But, there’s a debate on whether it was successful or not And, finally, in order to mount the warhead on the short and medium range missiles, North Korea should possess miniaturization technology But, we believe North Korea is short of acquiring the miniaturization technology In view of that, we can argue that North Korea is a very dangerous country with potential nuclear weapons capability, but we cannot regard North Korea as defacto, a full-fledged nuclear weapons state – I don’t find the Korean situation unstable I’ve never felt that there was a threat from North Korea I’ve never thought for a minute there was a single North Korean that was even slightly suicidal (chanting) – [Narrator] Suicidal or not, a nuclear North shifts the balance of power in Asia Why doesn’t China use its growing strength to help US backed efforts to disarm North Korea? – One of the odd things about the post war world is the Chinese are absolutely delighted to have Korea divided in two They used to try and maintain this even back in the Tang Dynasty Korea was often structurally divided into different kingdoms with different support from the Chinese, because it led to structural weakness, inability to stand up to Chinese domination Their policy is to prevent war and prevent the unification of Korea (speaks in foreign language) – Initially, when, let’s say, go back to January and February 2003, what the Bush administration wanted was press China in such a way that China would impose sanctions on North Korea China didn’t want it – If you’re gonna work on Korean nuclear issues, you have to understand the Chinese context and the fact that South Korea is rich is fine, but if Korea were unified and this rich, it would be the size of former West Germany That’s getting to be a little too big for Chinese comfort – [Narrator] If Korea is a traditional tributary state that China manages through division, then how will it deal with Korea’s bigger and wealthier neighbor Japan, who’s rivalries with China have spanned centuries? The answer depends, not only on the intentions of the Chinese government, but, also, on the attitudes of the Chinese people Like Korea, Japan has traditionally been a part of the Chinese cultural area But, it has also been fiercely rebellious After Japan became the first Asian nation to industrialize, it used its newfound strength to create a modern empire and subjugate its Asian neighbors Committing heinous war crimes and killing approximately 30 million Chinese throughout Asia, understandably, there exists a strong current of anti-Japanese sentiment among many Chinese today Although Japan was defeated in World War Two, it went on to become the world’s second largest economy China, however, is now on the verge of surpassing its old rival To many, both inside China and out, the 2008 Beijing Olympics were a symbol of China’s rebirth as Asia’s preeminent power As part of the Beijing Olympic torch relay, the Chinese decided to bring the torch to Nagano, Japan, home of the 1998 Japanese Olympics, perhaps as a message to the world that the Middle Kingdom

was about to eclipse the land of the rising sun Along with this message came a tremendous display of nationalism in the form of thousands of young Chinese Many received encouragement and even financial support for their travels to Nagano from various Chinese consulates throughout Japan (rock music) (cheering and chanting) The Chinese government requested that the relay began at Zhenguo Ji Temple, the same starting point as that of Japan’s 1998 Olympics – Actually, the Olympics games is a very good opportunity for China Most of the students in China view it as a great opportunity for us to present ourselves – [Narrator] However, days before the torch run, the temple announced concerns about the treatment of fellow Buddhists in Tibet at the hands of the Chinese and refused to host the Chinese torch (shouting in Japanese) The event attracted a large number of loosely associated protestors, who took the torch relay as an opportunity to voice grievances against China – Generally, we don’t like the protestors, because they try to insert political implications to this non-political event – [Interviewer] What do you think about the new railroad that goes to Wason? – Railroad is good However, most importantly, how to use So So, that should be used for Tibet people, not for Chinese (shouting) – [Interviewer] They are supporting you – Maybe? (speaks in foreign language) They don’t know who is right (shouting) – I understand that the protestors, they need to get attention of the world But, I don’t think Olympics is a good timing, because Olympic is a proud of everyone of Chinese peoples, so, if you protest it, you are opposing the Chinese people (shouting and cheering) – [Narrator] Beyond being a window on Chinese nationalism, the Nagano torch relay provided a glimpse into the situation of some of China’s various ethnic minorities, and begged the question, is China really the unified multi-ethnic nation that it portrays? – In China’s idea, from ancient to until now, we stress harmonious

(laughs) Harmonious You know, Confucius Confucius Yeah, from his period 2,000 years ago, he teach us be friendly No matter where you come from, all corner of the world, we are one family We are friends – [Narrator] The Olympics provided an opportunity to see if the harmonious society was a reality or simply propaganda We headed to Xinjiang, meaning new territory, to watch the Olympic torch replay in Kashkar Inside Kashkar City, preparations for the torch relay were underway In a show of ethnic solidarity for the Olympics, the authorities were preparing a large group of minority children, mostly Uyghurs, to come out and show support for the torch on the day of the run The event itself, however, was sealed off from the public (ethnic music) (sings in foreign language) We were struck by just how different Xinjiang was from Eastern China, and we wanted to know more Specifically, just who were the Uyghurs Well, to become with, they’re Central Asians of Turkic origin, and they’re Muslim Like other Muslim cultures, the Uyghurs treat guests with the utmost hospitality, and we were invited by a man off the street to share tea with his family Like many of the minorities we met, he asked that we obscure his face and voice (speaks in foreign language) – [Interviewer] Can we ask him what he thinks about Iraq war? (speaks in foreign language) – [Narrator] Afterwards, we spoke to another Uyghur farmer and his family (speaks in foreign language) – [Interviewer] What was that? What did he say? – [Guide] He’s saying about the little situations, about that cement factory, Kashkar Cement Factory, about a little bad for the farming – [Interviewer] Yeah, cement factories – [Narrator] We knew we hadn’t gotten the whole story, but our guide wouldn’t give us any more details on what had been said Although Uyghurs are, by far, the largest ethnic group in Xinjiang, there are a number of smaller ones We spoke to a Uyghur speaking ethnic Tajik at his home (speaks in foreign language) – He’s happy about the Communistic party of China – Oh, really? – Yeah

(speaks in foreign language) In the past, they make a fire in the oven in the house All of the inside of the house is smoke Very bad environment But now, not like that – Because he has a new house? – Yes – So what is the relationship to the Communist Party? (speaks in foreign language) – Oh, they are very, very satisfied with the party He said never be able to find another party like this – [Narrator] It wasn’t until we caught up with exiled Uyghur spokeswoman Rebiya Kadeer at the Uyghur American Association in Washington, DC, that we felt like we got the other side of the story (speaks in foreign language) – Do many Tajiks here go to Tajikistan? (speaks in foreign language) – No, they don’t They don’t have the permission to go to Tajikistan, because Tajikistan is another country That this is the small country, so, they have no permission to go abroad Some relatives of him in Tajikistan, they’ll be able to visit him, but he doesn’t (speaks in foreign language) – A harmonious society should be a society that balance the interest of different groups of people, for example, the wealthy and the poor, the majority and minority people, the urban and rural residents, and, also, it should be balanced between people and the environment – [Narrator] We asked the Uyghur American Assassination to provide a re-translation of the Kashkar Cement Factory clip – This old Uyghur farmer is complaining about the cement factory right across his farmland, because the cement factory, which is rebuilt, it’s modernized, and it’s polluting the air, the water especially, the farmland As farmers, they can no longer grow anything He used to grow melons and some other fruits in the farmland here, but now he cannot grow anything And he is really not happy about it, and he can do absolutely nothing about it And he’s complaining, basically, if the Chinese were living in this neighborhood, then the city government and the environmental protection agency would have taken some measures to prevent the pollution But, now, the factory and the city government are doing absolutely nothing, because he says the local government officials are corrupt and were probably bought by the cement factory So, they can do absolutely nothing about it, and it’s really sad for them as farmers Yeah (speaks in foreign language) (speaks in foreign language)

(speaks in foreign language) (ethnic music) – [Narrator] But couldn’t the Uyghurs reach out for help from their close Muslim neighbors, the Pakistanis? (speaks in foreign language) (tires screech) (resounding crash) Wait a minute, Pakistan gets favors from China? We were confused We thought Pakistan was supposed to be a key US ally, not China’s It’s also a predominantly Muslim country So, at the very least, wouldn’t its people sympathize with the situation of the Uyghurs in China? Just what type of a relationship does China have with Pakistan? We decided a visit to Pakistan was in order – There are two nations which are fighting in the world One is America, one is China So, America is using brutal way, which is war, and there is a lot of losses, and China is using a peaceful way, and civilized way where there is no loss – [Man] Pakistan! (chanting) Pakistan! (chanting) – [Crowd] Pakistan! (shouts in foreign language) – They don’t interfere, okay, in other country That is not like American That is not like America who interfere in the entire world (ethnic music) (sings in foreign language) – [Narrator] The United States is one of the largest donors of foreign aid to Pakistan But, most of this money is spent on American made arms and weapon systems The Pakistani military justifies such spending as being necessary to defend against the imagined threat of its archenemy, India American aid, therefore, does little to help actual Pakistanis Fortunately, for the Pakistanis, there are other nations that have undertaken development projects that have contributed greatly to the infrastructure and quality of life in Pakistan – China has been our friend for the last 50 years If Pakistan had any problem in the past, China came and solved the problem of Pakistan – [Narrator] The Karakoram Highway is the highest international roadway in the world It runs over 800 miles from Kashkar, in Western China, to Islamabad, Pakistan The KKH is a joint venture between China and Pakistan

that provides a vital link between the two countries A quiet graveyard just off the highway commemorates the 82 Chinese workers who lost their lives in Pakistan during the 20 years it took to complete the construction of the KKH The Karakorum Highway would not exist today were it not for the funding, hard work, and sacrifice of the Chinese – Before the construction of KKH, the people of Kardinya led very bored life After the construction of KKH, we experienced different sort of changes Culturally, economically, socially, and politically one – In in our area there is no industry, only jobs, little jobs, and small homemade things The Chinese are only one of the country who provide the which is stuff for our people We are six hours our border to China, so easily we are going to – China is so near to us, so, you want to business with China – [Narrator] In addition to inexpensive consumer goods, Chinese technology is also brought to Pakistan through the Karakorum – The Chinese technology is very cheap, so the local authorities and Pakistani government accept the abuse, and they allow them to establish their projects There is an agreement between Chinese government and Pakistani government for widening the KKH (mumbles) As well as gas pipeline So, the local population is very happy They will benefit it – [Narrator] The Chinese have also begun other mega projects in Pakistan, such as investing $200 million in the construction of Gwadar Port on the southern coast of the country – Gwadar is considered by the Chinese as their avenue to a warm water port, a port which is strategically close to where oil supplies go through, a port which gives them access to the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea, a port that they can use as a trade corridor, so there’s the whole idea of linking Gwadar through Belutschistan, onwards up through northern Pakistan, through the Karakorum Highway, going on through Xinjiang and onwards into Central Asia – [Narrator] While most of these plans have yet to become reality, they reflect the ongoing and serious interest of the Chinese in maintaining close ties with Pakistan One region of Pakistan that remains in great need of developmental aid is the northwest frontier province in the federally administrated tribal areas bordering Afghanistan (speaks in foreign language) This region is infamous as a center of the Pakistani Taliban (speaks in foreign language) The American backed effort to expel the Soviets from Afghanistan in the 1980s provided weapons and training to the Afghan Mujahedin But, the needs of the impoverished Afghan refugees who fled to neighboring Pakistan went unnoticed in Washington (speaking in foreign language) – They start their work at five o’clock in the morning (speaks in foreign language) They work for eight hours a day Do you go to school, does he? He doesn’t go to school (speaks in foreign language) He say that they don’t have money to afford going to school, like, their father is very poor All these guys look they should go to school, but they are working with their parents And now it’s almost one o’clock in the afternoon time, and the temperature is over 40 degrees, and they’re working for their family because they have to buy food, or buy clothes, or other requirements of life – [Narrator] Those who cannot afford to attend public schools find that their only opportunity for an education lies in the Islamic madrassas The madrassas provide a free education and books, room, and board to the students (sings in foreign language)

Students begin by memorizing the Koran Once they have done this, they study other subjects, like history, logic, philosophy, and the hadiths, or sayings and deeds of the prophet Mohammed (speaks in foreign language) – The government doesn’t help us The government doesn’t support us The government doesn’t fund us If the government provide us fund, then we will start engineering subjects, or science medical subjects, or other subjects, or computer subjects But, I’m helpless, so I have to take the hand of someone, okay? So that he can help me and fight for me And if you have one side China and one side America, we will be in the favor of China We will support China We will work for China (speaks in foreign language) – There was a party among the Pakistani generals, when they were chasing glasses of wine, and they said to each other, they hoped very soon they would send American naked ass from Afghanistan – [Narrator] China’s reputation as a friendly neighbor does not stop at Pakistan’s border It has successfully been out-competing the US for the favor of Afghanistan itself After nearly 30 years of war, abandoned artillery litter the landscape of Afghanistan like tombstones marking the graveyard of empires – We have enough experience with the war We fought the Soviets At the end, that superpower was broken – [Narrator] Despite billions being spent on so-called aid and development, the country has become increasingly dependent on opium production, with many blaming corruption, and even NATO forces, for the country’s inability to move forward – America wants to solve everything by the gun Gun does not bring solution, gun increases the problems – [Narrator] Like in Pakistan, the Chinese have stepped in to fill the developmental void left by the Untied States – Right now, this reconstruction period in Afghanistan, Chinese, they are holding some construction company They have built, they are busy in some road construction – They are not even telling our government who should be a minister, who’d be a governor All they are saying that they want to see a developed and prosperous Afghanistan – [Narrator] However, like its Western peers, China’s interest in Afghanistan is not purely humanitarian Rich in mineral resources, Afghanistan remains an undeveloped source of raw materials in a world in which they are increasingly scarce It is Afghanistan’s copper that interest’s China The metal is used in all aspects of modern life, including coinage, jewelry, housing, transportation, electronics, and medicine Afghanistan’s untapped Aynak copper deposit in Logar Province is said to be one of the world’s largest, valued at almost $90 billion (speaks in foreign language) The China Metallurgical Group

has bought a 30 year lease for three billion dollars, the largest foreign investment in Afghanistan’s history The royalties alone will cover almost half of the Afghan government’s annual budget (speaks in foreign language) (thunderous explosion) (tense music) (sirens wail) On July seventh, 2008, the Indian embassy in Kabul fell victim to a suicide bomber Many, including the government of the United States, believed the attack was carried out in concert with the ISI, or Pakistani Intelligence Service, as an act of terror against India – When I came out from the shop, I see a lot of people was running outside the shop A person was injured in his head He was full of blood Lots of people was running in front of the hospital, so the ambulances came, the police and security surrounded the embassy and they was not allowing any people (shouting in foreign language) – [Narrator] Most of the wounded were treated at the nearby Jamhuriat Hospital, built by China as a gift to the Afghan people Fortunately for Pakistan, the US decided to look the other way, and American help was nowhere to be seen Will China show the same level of tacit approval, or will it chide its Pakistani friends for sponsoring an unprovoked attack against Afghanistan and India? India, home of 1.2 billion people In 20 years, it will have a bigger population than China It’s economy continues to grow year after year, and it’s the world’s largest democracy Could India provide a cultural and strategic counterbalance to China? – One of the main balancing forces in the emerging world of Asia, South and East Asia, is going to be India and China, that neither is going to feel comfortable with one achieving a position of superiority, least of all any claims to hegemony – I would assume Asia is a target for the Chinese They would like to put Asia under its control, in economic terms, in political terms, in strategic and military terms This is where China has been active – India is very conscious of China and rise of China, and, also very much conscious of the difficulties India has had with Pakistan It is interesting to see that China and Pakistan have shared a very important relationship over the last four decades,

and, in some ways, there is a suspicion attached in much of Indian mind as to what is the modus operandi, what are the motivations, compulsions of such a strong and close relationship, and often insinuation that it is, perhaps, anti-India – [Narrator] And perhaps that is the real reason why China is so friendly to Pakistan Beijing’s influence also reaches into Delhi’s internal politics Dharamshala, the home of the Tibetan government in exile After the Chinese took control of Tibet in 1959, the Dhalai Lama and his government fled – In 1959, when China invaded Tibet, we have very poor military If we had a very strong military in Tibet at that time, I think that Tibet wouldn’t have been occupied – [Narrator] Although the US and the UN were actively trying to prevent the spread of communism, they did not help the Tibetans India did, and an enraged China made them pay a bloody price, culminating in the 1962 Sino-Indian War – After the Dhalai Lama walked into India, the overall China-Indian relations deteriorated completely – [Narrator] The Chinese claim that they are bringing economic development and modernization to Tibet and its feudal society – China criticizes us, because China says that Tibet was feudal country, feudal society, there was no, people were exploited And, of course, everyone, you know, for us, you know, we agree that Tibet was not a perfect society – [Narrator] But, each year, scores of Tibetans risk disfiguring frostbite to cross the Himalayas into India Today, refugees from Tibet, continue to find new home’s in Dharamsala So, why do so many of them come here? – My name is Lisa Young, I am from New Zealand, and I’ve been volunteering with Lha for almost two months Lha is sort of a community college for adult Tibetan refugees and Tibetans who have just newly arrived in India who are not eligible for the school system here because they are too old So, it’s for refugees from 18 to 40, mainly, and they teach free English and Tibetan classes, French also, and computing classes, and job vocational training And they hear about the education system that’s been set up for Tibetans in India, which is separate from the Indian school system, and that’s quite often impetus for them to make the exile trek over the Himalayas to India That, and the two main reasons are better education and seeing the Dhalai Lama Because the education in Tibet is mainly in Mandarin, and they don’t get much of a chance to speak Tibetan, and they basically have to learn the Chinese curriculum, and a lot of them choose not to, they don’t want to, they want to learn about Tibet and its culture And it’s definitely a lot more preserved here, especially in Dharamsala (ethnic music) – [Narrator] Many Tibetans feel that their ancient culture is being systematically erased by the Han Chinese – So these are the teachings of Buddha, and it has 108 volumes, and these are the commentaries written by the Indian masters It has 225 volumes So, some texts, they carry it from Tibet

It was damaged by the water, you know – [Interviewer] How many of these types of texts did the Chinese destroy, do you know? – I can’t say the exact number 60% is destroyed by the Chinese So, they just destroyed They just burned and they just threw into the water – [Narrator] India’s ability to operate independently from Beijing is eroding – If you were to look around Asia, China has replaced the US as the largest trading partner for almost every country in the region – [Narrator] India-China trade has been growing rapidly, and a trade route has even been opened that directly connects India and China through Tibet – Indeed, India-China trade has crossed in the US trade in terms of sheer numbers – There’s a growing relation, trade relation, bilateral relation, between these two country – I think that gives Chinese certain power which people look over their shoulder twice before they do or say something that gets Beijing upset – Chinese have done, committed a lot of atrocities, and they’ve been allowed to get away with it because they’ve been isolated for so long There was a period in which no one knows what went on in China, and that they’ve opened up, they’re still sort of acting with impunity And, because of the economic incentive, countries aren’t willing to speak up – Trade has literally become very China driven – India is always very careful about the Tibet issue, and also with its relation with China – I think it’s a tightrope that New Delhi has to walk between its increasingly closer relations with Beijing, and also keeping Tibetan refugees population satisfied as much as we can – [Narrator] In March of 2008, there were protests across Tibet before the Chinese hosted the Olympics (shouting) Many Tibetans in India decided to show their support by marching towards Tibet (shouting) – When we led this march, you know, we walked for nearly four months (shouts in foreign language) Even the Kannada government, they have sent us orders saying that you can’t move out of this district, Kannada district – India will not allow Indian territory to be used by any Tibetan protestors to undertake any political activities – [Narrator] At Beijing’s request, Delhi had its own police enforce the wishes of the Chinese government by cracking down on the protestors – Yeah, you know, China’s already, China is very clever, and it can use any country for their own benefit at any point of time (shouting) – So, when we were reaching the district border, the Indian police stopped us So, from our side, because we were trained what we did, we sat down the road in the middle of the, you know, middle of the road, and we started praying And some people were crying We all got locked ourselves, we started praying And that made impossible for them to get angry And they have their own responsibility, they have their duty to perform They have to arrest us (shouting in foreign language) – I think perhaps I feel a bit of affinity to the Tibetan people, ’cause my parents, at least my mother, I don’t know about my father, went through the cultural revolution (shouts in foreign language) It’s just weighing on me a little bit, because everyone things I’m Tibetan when I’m here, which is lovely, ’cause I’ve really grown to love the Tibetan people, but, before I came her, I was warned by a lot of local Indian people, and also tourists that have been here, when I told them that I was Chinese, they were really surprised

Some people were actually saying quite extreme things, that people might think I was a spy from China, and that people would react negatively here They would get angry with me Not angry, then they would be staring at me, and they would make my stay here very uncomfortable (shouts in foreign language) I had to decide whether I was gonna tell people here that I was Chinese, and, unfortunately I decided not to (shouts in foreign language) And I think that was a mistake, because I think they would’ve accepted me fine They’ve got friends in Tibet that are Chinese, and they are very open and welcoming of Chinese people because that’s what the Dhalai Lama teaches them, to show compassion to everyone, your enemies and your friends – [Narrator] India’s not the only country where China tries to control Tibetans outside of its national borders (ethnic music) Nepal is home to 28 million people It is sandwiched between two giants, India and China India has always had a significant influence on the culture of Nepal, it’s economics, and trade But China has become increasingly active in the politics of Nepal, with much Chinese attention placed on the 20,000 Tibetan refugees who reside there – The key word is predominant, vis-a-vis China’s relations with Nepal I think what the Tibetans are doing here, what the Americans are doing here vis-a-vis Tibet is of utmost concern to the Chinese – [Narrator] Tibetan refugees began coming to Nepal after the Chinese occupation of Tibet The Jawalakhel camp in Kathmandu is home to 1,000 refugees And about 500 are employed there, manufacturing woven carpets The government of Nepal is wary of being seen as helping the Tibetan refugees too much – To counterbalance our overwhelming political and economic dependence on India, we try to lean over backwards to be nice to China It’s pretty clear that the Tibetan protests, the Chinese don’t like it They are extremely sensitive to this, and that sensitivity is very easily brought to bear on the Nepal government So, if the Chinese are going to be angry about Tibetan’s running around in Nepal, we are willing to give that a sympathetic ear and crack down on Tibetans here, as long as China is happy – [Narrator] The Nepali government’s treatment of Tibetan protestors is clearly different than its treatment of Nepali protestors Police ignore burning effigies and tires and blocking roads, as long as it’s done by Nepalis Although the treatment of Tibetan refugees in Nepal may seem similar on the surface to their treatment in India, the mechanism behind it is far different (guns fire) For 10 years, a bloody civil war raged across Nepal as Maoist rebels took up arms against the king and the Maoists gained popular support After the king was forced out of power in 2008, the Maoists were elected to run the new government The party’s name is a clear tribute to China’s Chairman Mao (speaks in foreign language) (guns fire) During the civil war, sherpas camping in the remote snowy passes of the Himalaya reported seeing caravans of ponies loaded with guns crossing from China into Nepal during the dead of night – Our party’s policy, the international policy,

is equal distance relation Not more close to the India, not more close to China – [Narrator] India has historically been the major influence on life in Nepal, so, in practice, a policy of equal distance will require Nepal to realign its interests more closely to China’s While the Maoists claim to have brought democracy to Nepal, in reality, their behavior is consistent with that of their namesake (tense music) Maoists stormed the offices of the Nepali Times and physically assaulted Kunda Dixit and his staff in an attempt to silence the press China was able to benefit from the Maoist’s willingness to destroy the freedoms of expression in Nepal In response to pressure from China, Nepal agreed to ban all anti-China activity on its soil China is bringing Nepal within its orbit, but what happens now? Once China controls a territory, what’s in store for its future? Let’s take a look at Hong Kong (orchestral music) Hong Kong is one of the world’s most developed cities An icon of Asia The pearl of the East Hong Kong has also long been at the center of imperial disputes It was taken by the British Empire from the Qing Dynasty after the First Opium War (speaks in Chinese) After reunification, the Chinese promised to preserve Hong Kong’s highly successful laissez faire economy and its political autonomy, rule of law, and western style civil liberties under a paradigm that would be dubbed one country, two systems This is why Hong Kong is so crucial It is a litmus test for Chinese intentions When China gains control over an economy or political system, what happens? Can China be trusted to respect that system’s autonomy? Or will China try to dominate it? And, unlike other parts of China, perhaps the best test is not how ethnic minorities are treated, but, rather, religious minorities, like the Falun Gong – If you bump into one Hong Kongese on the street, or ask some kind of human rights activities in Hong Kong, what is the most sensitive task of one country, two systems is Falun Gong issue – [Narrator] The Falun Gong is a modern Chinese spiritual practice that was founded in China in 1992 – This is a spiritual practice that has deep roots in school of Taoism or the Buddhism Our main principles are three words Truthfulness, compassion, tolerance And we believe that’s the principle that the entire universe operates under – [Narrator] It’s explosive popularity

scared the Chinese communist party On the 20th of July, 1999, it was banned, and the brutal campaign of persecution began in the mainland Falun Gong practitioners sought refuge all over the world, including Taiwan, Japan, the US, and even Hong Kong Compared to China, Hong Kong remained an island of tolerance for the Falun Gong Even today, as busloads of tourists from the mainland come to visit Hong Kong and take in the view from Victoria Peak, Folun Gong practitioners are free, under Hong Kong’s constitution, to peacefully demonstrate in support of their beliefs, including displays about human rights violations by the Chinese government On the surface it would appear that one country, two systems is working Or is it? – One of the issues raised when you introduce Hong Kong is whether or not the Chinese idea of one country, two systems is stable I don’t think so – [Narrator] Under Beijing’s pressure, the Hong Kong government routinely violated its own constitution by refusing entry to Falun Gong practitioners who try to visit the territory – Every country have immigration control They are entitled to refuse someone, no problem But, racial and religious discrimination cannot be a reason of refusing people’s enter So, when we talk about one country, two systems, it’s like, you know, gradually really disappearing – [Narrator] Is one country, two systems starting to become one country, one system? (speaks in Chinese) – [Narrator] Theresa Chu herself was deported when she attempted to visit – Chinese leader Wu Jing Hao was visiting there We had 1,000 Taiwan Falun Gong practitioner, from six year old kid to 80-something aged old lady, were violently repatriated from Hong Kong to Taiwan They used some kind of blanket, wrap me from here until up around my knees In detain room, we have no water, no refreshment, no place to rest So, you can see, how hostile they are It’s not like a free society It’s not like a pearl of the East Why? Because of black hand, the invisible hand behind Hong Kong sovereign government the Chinese reaching (speaks in Chinese) (rock music) – [Narrator] After being defeated by the Chinese communists,

the KMT, or Chinese Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek fled to the island of Taiwan and designated Taipei as the capital of the Republic of China in 1949 The KMT ruled the island under an oppressive authoritarian regime, but it was successful in creating rapid economic growth that has made Taiwan one of the most industrialized countries in the world Eventually, the KMT’s iron grip gave way to a democratic system in Taiwan, creating the first true ethnic Chinese democracy in world history (rock music) (sings in foreign language) – Most important thing for each citizen is to be independent I mean, yourself So, you have to independent and the country be independent So, I think that’s the most important thing, and I’m not that kind of nationalist independent guy, but I want an independent country with all the independent citizens Think independently, and do independently, and vote independently Try to think everything independently, don’t believe in media So, I think the citizens should be smarter and should try to control the politicians, try to use the politicians as the tools to achieve your ideals – [Narrator] An authoritarian regime and rapid economic growth leading to Chinese democracy Could Taiwan be a model for the future of mainland China? – If democracy exists, and is established, more strengthened in the region, I believe it’s not just, it would not just benefit the people in Taiwan, but also benefit surrounding countries, especially China – The youngsters on the mainland, they are gradually changing their worldview, you know, they are not that inward looking anymore, but they can see by themselves what’s going on in Taiwan, especially in Taiwan’s democratic developments (speaks in Chinese) In the long run, we can change the very nature of the Chinese communism And hoping that someday that mainland China can be converted into a free and democratic society – We believe that China is moving to a right direction that develops the economy and improve the quality of life of everyone, and, at the same time promote democracy and equality – [Narrator] As the Chinese economy has grown, a process of normalization between Taiwan and the mainland has begun (speaking in Chinese) (cheering) – I hope that the mainland and Taiwan could come together to work out a better system, and, also, be more connected – [Narrator] Investment, trade, and political exchange have grown at a rapid pace – This a very critical moment for us to develop a healthy and better relations with Chinese mainland – [Narrator] But, is this ultimately good for Taiwan? Or, does economic integration with China pose a threat to Taiwanese democracy? (speaks in Chinese) – They try to create this image that, at least symbolically,

that they are a peaceful country, they are rising peacefully, and they wish to deliver this sense of sincere to the world that we are rising economically and politically, but, in a way that world stability will be maintained – We need to accept that China become really big power in the world, but the problem is what kind of China we want in the future, in the 21st century Some people are talking about that China may replace the United States in the future But, if this China is also current China, I don’t think it’s really a very good thing for the world, for the humanity – Being a big country, being a big, strong country, the United States of America should mount pressure on the Chinese government – If the West really wanted to speak up, it would, but it chooses not to because our products come from China, we rely on China’s economy – We never ask ourselves what to we do, however, if they get really so rich that they’re richer than we are And that we are making ourselves utterly dependent on them – The world is relying on China a lot at the moment, and it’s too afraid to really speak up for Tibet or for any of the other issues – I believe that the international community should continue to talk about the human rights problems, the democracy in China If not, I believe we are just helping to create a new empire, and I believe it’s not good, really for the 21st century (rock music) (sings in foreign language)